Childhood Maltreatment Is Associated with Larger Left Thalamic Gray Matter Volume in Adolescents with Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Department of Psychiatry, the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 08/2013; 8(8):e71898. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071898
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common anxiety disorder that usually begins in adolescence. Childhood maltreatment is highly prevalent and increases the possibility for developing a variety of mental disorders including anxiety disorders. An earlier age at onset of GAD is significantly related to maltreatment in childhood. Exploring the underpinnings of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adolescent onset GAD would be helpful in identifying the potential risk markers of this condition.
Twenty-six adolescents with GAD and 25 healthy controls participated in this study. A childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) was introduced to assess childhood maltreatment. All subjects underwent high-resolution structural magnetic resonance scans. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate gray matter alterations.
Significantly larger gray matter volumes of the right putamen were observed in GAD patients compared to healthy controls. In addition, a significant diagnosis-by-maltreatment interaction effect for the left thalamic gray matter volume was revealed, as shown by larger volumes of the left thalamic gray matter in GAD patients with childhood maltreatment compared with GAD patients without childhood maltreatment as well as with healthy controls with/without childhood maltreatment. A significant positive association between childhood maltreatment and left thalamic gray matter volume was only seen in GAD patients.
These findings revealed an increased volume in the subcortical regions in adolescent GAD, and the alterations in the left thalamus might be involved in the association between childhood maltreatment and the occurrence of GAD.

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    • "Still, future studies might benefit from adding measures that are tailored to specific aspects of GAD symptomatology. Additionally, the main finding of structural alterations in basal-ganglia regions has been shown before in another GAD sample without comorbid depression (Liao et al., 2013). Also, while there was higher GM volume in the putamen and caudate nucleus in this study, the literature reports consistently lower volumes in these structures for major depression (Kempton et al., 2011; Bora et al., 2012a, 2012b). "
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