Article

Early non-parental care and toddler behaviour problems: Links with temperamental negative affectivity and inhibitory control

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Snack Delay [31,32]. To measure delay of gratification, Snack Delay was used. ...
... Whisper [31,32]. To measure verbal inhibition, Whisper was used. ...
... Gift Wrap [31,32]. To measure motoric inhibition, Gift Wrap was used. ...
Article
Full-text available
Inhibitory control is the ability to control impulsive behavior. It is associated with a range of mental and physical health outcomes, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance dependence. Breastfeeding and healthy dietary patterns have been associated with better executive functions, of which inhibitory control is part. Additionally, breastfeeding has been associated with healthy dietary patterns. Following our preregistration in the Open Science Framework, we investigated the associations between breastfeeding history and inhibitory control at preschool age, with habitual diet quality as a potential mediating factor. A total of 72 families from a longitudinal study participated at child age 3. Breastfeeding questionnaires were administered at 2, 6, and 12 weeks, and at 12 and 36 months. Six inhibitory control tasks were performed during a home visit, and questionnaires were filled in by both parents. Diet quality at age 3 was assessed via three unannounced 24-h recalls. Structural equation modelling was performed in R. This study did not provide evidence that breastfeeding history is associated with inhibitory control in 3-year-old children. Furthermore, diet quality at age 3 did not mediate the link between breastfeeding history and inhibitory control. Previous studies have investigated broader aspects of inhibitory control, such as executive functions, and used different methods to assess nutritional intake, which might explain our differential findings. Our findings contribute to the growing literature on associations between nutrition and behavior. Future replications with larger and more diverse preschool samples are recommended.
... Studies exploring the link between IC and social adjustment in toddlers have reported inconsistent findings. Some researchers have found that better IC was linked to fewer behavior problems and higher social competence during toddlerhood (Beijers et al. 2013;Spinrad et al. 2007), whereas others failed to find such links (Utendale and Hastings 2011). However, these studies have focused on the global construct of IC, but not tested different components of IC separately. ...
... Cool IC serves as a protective factor that attenuates the detrimental effect of maternal life stress on child behavior problems, but not on social competence. This is possibly because IC involves being able to suppress prepotent responses and then carry out appropriate behaviors in line with social expectations and context (Diamond 2013), which is critical for regulating behaviors (Beijers et al. 2013;Rhoades et al. 2009). Gagne et al. (2011) revealed that there were common genetic influences between IC and behavior problems in 2-year-old toddlers, in other words, genetic factors associated with low IC were also associated with behavior symptoms. ...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examined the links between maternal life stress and subsequent toddler behavior problems and social competence, as well as the potential moderating effects of cool and hot inhibitory control (IC) in mainland China. Participants included 89 mothers and their infants (42 boys, 47 girls). Mothers completed self-report measure of maternal life stress when their children were 1 year of age (M = 1.18, SD = .07 at Time 1), and reported on their children’s social adjustment using the Chinese version of Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (CITSEA) at Time 1 and again a year later (M = 2.06, SD = .09 at Time 2). Toddler IC was assessed with laboratory tasks at Time 2. Structural equation modeling with a bootstrap resample of 1000 indicated that cool IC significantly moderated the longitudinal association between maternal life stress (T1) and latent construct of toddler behavior problems (T2), controlling for behavior problems at Time 1, child age and maternal age. Specifically, maternal life stress was associated with subsequent behavior problems only for toddlers who were low in cool IC. In comparison to the results of behavior problems, high levels of maternal life stress predicted subsequent low levels of social competence. Neither cool IC nor hot IC served as the moderator in the association between maternal life stress (T1) and toddler social competence (T2). These findings indicated that toddler cool IC may promote resilient adaptation and modify the links between maternal life stress and toddler behavior problems but not social competence.
... In addition, children's inhibitory control was measured at 30 months. Analyses of the study's data failed to demonstrate a correlation between non-parental care and mother-or caregiver-reported behavior problems (Beijers et al., 2013). ...
... In comparison, more hours in center-based care was related to more respiratory issues and general illnesses, whereas there was no relationship between amount of time in family child care or FFN settings and infants' health Majority of sample mothers were welleducated and considered to be of high socioeconomic status; No data provided on group sizes or ratios and no measures of quality were used. Beijers et al. (2013) Association between children's behavior at 30 months, whether they were enrolled in center-based child care, and the average number of hours of child care in which they were enrolled on a weekly basis Study's data failed to demonstrate a correlation between non-parental care and mother-or caregiverreported behavior problems, but higher levels of inhibitory control were inversely related to caregiverreported levels of behavioral issues Subsidy parents more likely to choose center-based rather than family child care, but all ratings were merely adequate rather than good or excellent. ...
... In many Western countries, infants attend center care from an early age onwards. Attending center care implies separation from the parents and exposure to a novel environment and professional caregivers (Beijers et al., 2013;Datler et al., 2012). These experiences may be stressful for infants, especially when they are young and have limited capacities to cope (Beijers et al., 2013). ...
... Attending center care implies separation from the parents and exposure to a novel environment and professional caregivers (Beijers et al., 2013;Datler et al., 2012). These experiences may be stressful for infants, especially when they are young and have limited capacities to cope (Beijers et al., 2013). As a physiological response to stress, cortisol is produced. ...
Article
Cortisol concentrations of older children in childcare centers have been found to be higher than at home. This study focuses on infant cortisol in childcare centers throughout the first year of life, and aims to investigate whether inter-individual differences can be explained by temperament, the quality of maternal behavior, and the quality of center care. Sixty-four infants were followed for 9 months after entering care at 3 months of age. Salivary samples were taken at 10.00 h and 16.00 h in center care (in post-entry weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, and 36) and at home (in post-entry weeks 1, 24, and 36). Prior to entry, mothers completed a temperament questionnaire and the quality of maternal behavior (sensitivity and cooperation) was observed during routine bathing sessions. Subsequently, the infants were visited three times at center care to observe the quality of infant's interactive experiences with their professional caregiver. Longitudinal regression models showed that both morning and afternoon cortisol were higher in center care compared to home. Longitudinal regression models showed that infants receiving higher quality of maternal behavior displayed higher morning cortisol in center care, compared to infants receiving lower quality of maternal behavior. Higher quality of maternal behavior was also related to higher afternoon cortisol in center care, but only in infants high in negative emotionality. Center care quality was not related to cortisol. In sum, young infants show higher cortisol concentrations in center care that are related to infant temperament and quality of maternal behavior at home.
... According to the hierarchical model of executive function development, children are able to deal with simple conflict between dominant and subdominant responses by the end of the first year, and to inhibit a prepotent response using a rule held in mind by the end of the second year (Garon, Bryson, & Smith, 2008). Previous studies have shown that child IC deficits are associated with more behavior problems (Beijers, Riksen-Walraven, Putnam, de Jong, & de Weerth, 2013;Utendale & Hastings, 2011). ...
... Maternal negative expressiveness was positively associated with infant externalizing and internalizing problems, but these links were not significantly moderated by infant IC. IC capacity in 14-month-old infants is just emerging and relatively immature (Beijers et al., 2013;Cuevas et al., 2012). There is evidence that IC may not be sufficiently developed to regulate externalizing problems before preschool ages (Utendale & Hastings, 2011). ...
Article
The current study examined the mediating effect of maternal negative expressiveness as well as the moderating effects of infant inhibitory control (IC) in the association between maternal childhood emotional abuse (CEA) and infant behavior problems. Drawing from 207 families from mainland China, 2-wave data were reported in this study when the infants were 6 months (T1) and 14 (T2) months. Mothers (Mean age=32.85 years, SD = 4.04) reported their CEA on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) at T1, and their negative expressiveness on the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ) at T2. The Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA) and a reverse categorization task were used to measure infant behavior problems and IC at T2, respectively. The results showed that T1 maternal CEA, rather than physical and sexual abuse, uniquely predicted T2 negative expressiveness. Maternal negative expressiveness significantly mediated the positive relations of maternal CEA and infant externalizing, internalizing and dysregulation problems. In addition, the moderated mediation model showed that the association between maternal negative expressiveness and infant dysregulation problems was moderated by infant IC. Specifically, the mediating pathway from maternal CEA to dysregulation problems through maternal negative expressiveness was significant, only for infants with poor IC. The results were robust even after controlling for family socioeconomic status (SES), maternal childhood physical and sexual abuse. The importance of mediating and moderating processes in understanding the effect of maternal emotional abuse during childhood on infant behavior problems is discussed.
... Most child care studies investigating the moderating role of child temperament have focused on child reactivity. For structural child care characteristics (e.g., type and amount of care), it is found that infants with a reactive temperament exhibited more externalizing and internalizing problems as toddlers if they attended center-based child care in the first year of life (Beijers, Riksen-Walraven, Putnam, de Jong, & de Weerth, 2013) or spent long hours in center-based child care (Crockenberg & Leerkes, 2005). In addition, attending several parallel child care arrangements was related to more internalizing, but not externalizing behavior problems in toddlers rated as highly reactive as infants (De Schipper, Tavecchio, Van IJzendoorn, & Van Zeijl, 2004). ...
Article
The current study investigated whether the relation between child care quality and children's socio-emotional behavior depended on children's affective self-regulation skills and gender. Participants were 545 children (Mage=27 months) from 60 center-based child care centers in the Netherlands. Multi-level analyses showed that children with low affective self-regulation skills or who were male demonstrated less teacher-rated social competence when exposed to relatively low quality child care. In addition, children with low affective self-regulation skills also showed more social competence in the case of relatively high quality child care, suggesting mechanisms of differential susceptibility. No main effects of child care quality or interactions were found for teacher- and parent-rated externalizing behavior. These findings emphasize the importance of considering children's affective self-regulation skills and gender in understanding the effects of child care quality. High quality child care can be a means to strengthen children's social development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Child engagement could be considered an operationalisation of the theoretical construct of proximal processes. Proximal processes are developmentally instigating and reciprocal interaction in parent-child, teacher-child and child-child activities, group or solitary play, reading, learning new skills, and performing complex tasks relative to the child and the child's age (Bronfenbrenner & Ceci, 1994) Thus, engagement occurs in a dynamic interaction among the characteristics of the child, e.g., behaviour, age and ethnicity, and the environment (Beijers et al., 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Preschool staffs' responsiveness affects children’s behaviour, their difficulties, and engagement in the preschool context, but children’s behaviour and characteristics also affect staff responsiveness. Early second language learners (L2-learners) have been shown to have more problems with behaviour and emotions and lower engagement in preschool. Being engaged in preschool activities predicts future academic performance, attitude towards school and well-being in the short and long term, and can be promoted by the preschool staff. Knowledge of which factors support engagement in preschool for L2-learners can help prevent, in the early years, negative pathways based on low engagement and problems with behaviour and emotions. This cross-sectional study used data from a longitudinal study to investigate the relationship between child engagement and staff responsiveness as well as how child age, child problems with behaviour and emotions, child group size, and the child:staff ratio impact child engagement and staff responsiveness. The study also investigated whether these relations differ between L2-learners and children learning Swedish as their first language (L1-learners). Preschool staff ( N = 611) reported through questionnaires on engagement, age, problems with behaviour and emotions and emotional symptoms of 832 children aged 13–71 months, as well as on staffing and staff responsiveness. With a path analysis extended by multi-group analysis, we found two models suggesting that age, problems with behaviour and emotions and preschool staff responsiveness influence child engagement, irrespective of background. The study also found that child engagement significantly influenced staff responsiveness. The multi-group analysis only weakly supported the hypothesis that the child’s age affects staff responsiveness more strongly for L2-learners. The results indicate that individual children and child groups themselves can affect the responsiveness of their staff, and that children with low engagement risk being neglected. L2-learners are at increased risk since they tend to display lower engagement and more behaviour problems in preschool in general. If not attended to early, the lower engagement already apparent among L2-learners in preschool can create stable patterns of low engagement and problems with behaviour and emotions that extend beyond the preschool years and having negative effects on the children’s later well-being and school performance.
... IC, also referred to as effortful control, is considered a subcomponent of executive functioning, and refers to children's ability to control their impulses and inhibit dominant responses to accomplish goals or regulate their behavior (Gueron-Sela et al. 2018;Miyake and Friedman 2012). Maternal depressive symptoms have been longitudinally linked with lower levels of child IC (Hopkins et al. 2013), and an extensive body of research has supported longitudinal associations between low levels of child IC and higher levels of child internalizing symptoms, including during the early childhood (Beijers et al. 2013;Bufferd et al. 2014;Vuontela et al. 2013). ...
Article
The present study tested the moderating role of interparental relationship quality and child inhibitory control on the stability of paternal depression over time and associations between paternal depression and child internalizing problems in early childhood. Participants were a subsample (n = 166) of families from the Early Steps Multisite study, a longitudinal study of low-income parents and children. Interparental relationship quality (age 2) attenuated the association between paternal depressive symptoms at age 2 and paternal depressive symptoms at age 3. Both interparental relationship quality (age 3) and child inhibitory control (age 3) attenuated the association between paternal depressive symptoms (age 3) and age 4 child internalizing problems. Results suggest that high interparental relationship quality may be a protective factor in terms of lessening the stability of paternal depressive symptoms over time, as well as the association between paternal depression and later child internalizing problems. Similarly, high levels of inhibitory control may buffer children from the negative effects of paternal depression on the development of internalizing problems.
... The project and the current cross-sectional data collection were approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee, which follows the Helsinki Declaration (ECG 300107 and ECG 22111/130112, respectively). Participants in the total project were 220 healthy born children and their mothers of whom 193 were still in the project 3 months postpartum (for details, see Beijers, Jansen, Riksen-Walraven, & de Weerth, 2011;Beijers, Riksen-Walraven, Putnam, de Jong, & de Weerth, 2013). Of this group, the 188 dyads who were still in the study around the child's 6th birthday were invited to participate in the current data collection. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated whether cortisol stress responses of 6-year-olds were associated with their behavioral functioning at school. Additionally, the moderating role of stress in the family environment was examined. To this end, 149 healthy children (Mage = 6.09 years; 70 girls) participated in an age-appropriate innovative social evaluative stress test. Saliva cortisol samples were collected six times during the stress test to calculate two indices of the cortisol stress response: cortisol stress reactivity and total stress cortisol. Teachers assessed children's internalizing, externalizing, and prosocial behaviors. Stress in the family environment was operationalized as maternally reported parenting stress. Results indicated a significant increase in cortisol concentrations in response to the stressor. No significant associations were found between cortisol stress responses and behavioral functioning at school and there was no evidence for moderation by maternal parenting stress. Potential theoretical and methodological explanations for these results are discussed.
... Some temperamental traits, such as withdrawal and negative emotionality, can make the child more vulnerable to stress in the child care context (Dettling, Parker, Lane, Sebanc, & Gunnar, 2000;Watamura et al., 2003). They also mediate the effects of certain structural aspects of child care, such as early enrolment during the first year of life or full-time attendance, variables that correlate with the presence of internalizing and externalizing problems, mostly in toddlers with difficult temperament (Beijers, Riksen-Walraven, Putnam, de Jong, & de Weerth, 2013;Crockenberg & Leerkes, 2005), even if data are not always consistent (NICHD, 2002). ...
Article
Research on the effects of nursery school attendance still presents divergent results: a possible explanation is that the effects of child care on development outcomes can be modulated by individual characteristics, such as gender or temperament. In the present study, gender differences in nursery adaptation (evaluated by social skills and behavioural problems) have been explored: participants are 525 toddlers, attending 32 nursery schools with similar levels of quality in a large city in northern Italy. Associations with age of enrolment, hours of attendance and child temperament have also been analyzed. Results indicate that males are more vulnerable than females: spending more time in the nursery increases the risk of behavioural problems in males but not in female, and an early enrolment (under one year of age) results in greater relational skills only for females. Difficult temperamental traits are also associated with behavioural problems with gender-specific aspects. Educational implications are discussed.
... Young children learn about the world through play by observing, listening and by active involvement. Engagement is typically considered a multidimensional generalized characteristic that depends on both context and child (Yoder & Symons, 2010), thus depicting the dynamic interactions occurring in natural settings between the characteristics of the individual child (e.g., temperament, gender, cognitive level) (Beijers, Riksen-Walraven, Putnam, de Jong, & de Weerth, 2013) and the social environment (Choe, Olson, & Sameroff, 2013). Positive engagement in activities is characterized by children's enthusiastic, self-directed, and active involvement (Downer, Booren, Lima, Luckner, & Pianta, 2010), occurring often and over an extended period of time (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 2007). ...
Article
In this study, we examine associations between the quality of teacher-child interactions and infant outcomes during their first months in Portuguese childcare centers. Participants were 90 infants, their mothers and their teachers. A set of multiple regression models were conducted to determine whether classroom quality related to active engagement and non-engagement and to adaptive behavior six months later, controlling for important covariates, namely developmental age, child temperament, mothers’ education, and home quality. Results showed that, in higher quality classrooms, infants spent more time actively engaged, less time non-engaged and six months later were rated as having higher levels of adaptive behaviors. Findings provide further evidence for the need to better support teachers in fostering infant active engagement and unfolding capacities as part of high-quality daily experiences in childcare.
... With one exception [13], all of these studies used regressionbased analyses with covariate adjustment. Some studies have suggested that the effects of nonparental care may take some time to manifest [23] as findings from studies on the relation between the amount of external childcare and externalizing or prosocial behavior at ages 1.5 to 3 years has been conflicting, with some finding no relation [24][25][26] and others that have [5,27,28]. While some of these studies have used standard regression designs, others [5,26,28] have gone beyond these and used more robust methods. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined early external childcare in relation to development from age 7 to 20. A Swiss sample was used ( N = 1,225; 52% male). Development included multi-informant-reported externalizing behavior, internalizing problems, prosocial behavior, delinquency, and substance use. Growth curve models revealed that, dependent on the informant, time in a daycare center was related to increased externalizing and internalizing problems until at least age 11. It was not related to delinquency. Roughly three days per week at a daycare mother or playgroup was related to increased externalizing behavior. External family care was associated with increased prosocial behavior. Finally, time in a daycare center was associated with fewer externalizing but more internalizing problems and substance use for children from vulnerable backgrounds. This relation with substance use lasted to age 20.
... Dit onderzoek moet laten zien of de pedagogische kwaliteit echt verbeterd kan worden en, zo ja, of een verbetering van de pedagogische kwaliteit ook hand in hand gaat met een gunstige(re) ontwikkeling van het kind en/of een hoger welbevinden.Bijlage 1: Citaten uit primaire studies m.b.t. effecten van kinderopvang op het welzijn en de ontwikkeling van kinderenOnderzoek naar de effecten van kinderopvang op de sociaal-emotionele ontwikkeling van kinderenBeijers, R., Riksen-Walraven, M ., Putnam, S., de Jong, M ., & de Weerth, C. (2013). Early non-parental care and toddler behaviour problems: Links with temperamental negative affectivity and inhibitory control. ...
... The preschool setting, as one example of a child's microsystem, has a direct influence on children's engagement (Bronfenbrenner & Evans, 2000). Children's engagement must be seen in the light of the dynamic interaction between the characteristics of the individual childthat is, behaviour, temperament, gender, biological age, mother tongue, and cognitive level (Beijers, Riksen-Walraven, Putnam, de Jong, & de Weerth, 2013) and social interactions with peers and teachers (Birch & Ladd, 1998;Choe, Olson, & Sameroff, 2013). For effective child development to take place, positive interactions need to occur fairly often over an extended period of time (Bronfenbrenner & Evans, 2000). ...
Article
This study examined social interaction as a mediator between externalized behaviour difficulties and children's engagement in preschool. Data from 663 children (340 boys), aged 18-71 months, were collected at 81 Swedish preschool units in six municipalities to test a path model that included child, teacher, and child groups. The results indicated that behaviour difficulties and engagement may occur simultaneously. Hyperactivity had a direct negative influence on engagement, which was not the case with conduct problems. Teachers responsiveness as well as positive interactions with peers had an indirect influence on the relationship between hyperactivity and engagement. Responsive staff and positive interactions within the child group seem to contribute to children's engagement despite hyperactivity. Children's engagement, as well as special support to stimulate engagement in preschool, is discussed.
Article
Infants attend daycare at an early age, which raises questions about children's sensitivity to the childcare environment and the role of different temperamental traits in their development in the early years. In a two‐year longitudinal study with parent‐ and caregiver‐reported data for Dutch children at the age of 1 and 2 years (120 children from 92 groups), we explored fine‐grained dimensions of negative affect and their relationship with socio‐emotional functioning. Especially shyness, frustration and soothability proved robust predictors of socio‐emotional development across parent‐ and caregiver‐reported data with both concurrent (Year‐1) and predictive associations (Year‐2). Also, the quality of caregiver–child interactions moderated caregiver‐reported child wellbeing and competence. Infants that are open to social contacts, are easy to comfort and have low levels of frustration, and have higher levels of wellbeing and less problem behaviour in early daycare than peers with higher levels of shyness and frustration and relatively low levels of soothability.
Article
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning is characterized by the baseline production of cortisol following a circadian rhythm, as well as by the superimposed production of cortisol in response to a stressor. However, it is relatively unknown whether the basal cortisol circadian rhythm is associated with the cortisol stress response in children. Since alterations in cortisol stress responses have been associated with mental and physical health, this study investigated whether the cortisol circadian rhythm is associated with cortisol stress responses in 6-year-old children. To this end 149 normally developing children (Mage = 6.09 years; 70 girls) participated in an innovative social evaluative stress test that effectively provoked increases in cortisol. To determine the cortisol stress response, 6 cortisol saliva samples were collected and 2 cortisol stress response indices were calculated: total stress cortisol and cortisol stress reactivity. To determine children's cortisol circadian rhythm 8 cortisol circadian samples were collected during 2 days. Total diurnal cortisol and diurnal cortisol decline scores were calculated as indices of the cortisol circadian rhythm. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that higher total diurnal cortisol, as well as a smaller diurnal cortisol decline, were both uniquely associated with higher total stress cortisol. No associations were found between the cortisol circadian rhythm indices and cortisol stress reactivity. Possible explanations for the patterns found are links with children's self-regulatory capacities and parenting quality.
Thesis
Full-text available
Die Bedeutung der frühen Kindheit für die weitere Entwicklung findet in der Forschung zunehmend Beachtung. In dieser Hinsicht gelten die mütterliche Interaktionsqualität und das Temperament des Kindes für sich genommen beide als wichtige Prädiktoren. Verstärkt werden könnte ihr Effekt durch ihre Wechselwirkung, über die seit Jahrzehnten diskutiert wird. Die Befundlage gestaltet sich uneindeutig, jedoch gibt es Hinweise, dass die psychosozialen Ressourcen der Mutter eine Rolle dafür spielen könnten, wie sie insbesondere mit einem schwierigen Temperament ihres Kindes umgeht. Des Weiteren wurde bisher versäumt, das längsschnittliche Zusammenspiel der Variablen zu untersuchen, obwohl der Forschungsstand eine transaktionale wechselseitige Beeinflussung vermuten lässt. Zur Untersuchung dieser Thesen wurden zwei Studien durchgeführt, die um eine dritte Studie ergänzt wurden, die der Untersuchung grundlegender Fragen rund um die Erfassung und das Verständnis frühkindlichen Temperaments diente. Die vorgelegte Synopse fasst die relevanten Theorien und Befunde zusammen, zeigt aktuelle Forschungsdesiderata auf, stellt Design und Ergebnisse der drei Studien vor und diskutiert schließlich deren Implikationen für tangierte Forschungs- und Praxisfelder. Die Studien greifen im Wesentlichen auf Daten des Nationalen Bildungspanels zurück, das an einer für das untersuchte Alter außergewöhnlich großen Stichprobe Befragungs- und Beobachtungsdaten erhoben hat, die eine Analyse der untersuchten Fragestellung ermöglichen. Studie 1 stützt die Validität der verwendeten Einschätzungen der Mutter zum Temperament ihres Kindes und liefert Ansatzpunkte für eine Neubewertung des Forschungsstandes zu dieser Frage. Studie 2 und 3 zeigen, dass eine geringere Interaktionsqualität auf komplexe Weise mit einem schwierigeren Temperament assoziiert ist. Für Mütter, deren psychosoziale Ressourcen nicht eingeschränkt sind, fällt die Höhe dieses negativen Zusammenhangs im ersten Lebensjahr minimal aus, nimmt jedoch bis zum dritten Lebensjahr kontinuierlich zu. Lagen hingegen mehrere Risikofaktoren vor, für die von einer belastenden Wirkung auf die psychosozialen Ressourcen der Mutter ausgegangen wird, war nicht nur eine deutlich geringere Interaktionsqualität, sondern auch ein wesentlich stärkerer Effekt des Temperaments zu beobachten. Im ersten Lebensjahr zeigten belastete Mütter eine besonders niedrige Interaktionsqualität, wenn ihr Kind ein schwieriges Temperament aufwies, wohingegen ein einfaches Temperament die negative Wirkung der Belastungsfaktoren auf die Interaktionsqualität sogar zu einem großen Teil kompensieren konnte. Im zweiten und zu Beginn des dritten Lebensjahres zeigte sich kein solcher Interaktionseffekt und auch kein Zusammenhang eines schwierigen Temperaments mit der Interaktionsqualität belasteter Mütter. Somit konnten die Studien die besondere Rolle des frühkindlichen Temperaments bestätigen, da sie zeigen, dass der negative Effekt eines schwierigen Temperaments im ersten Lebensjahr nicht nur konditional an das Vorliegen kumulierter Belastungen geknüpft ist, sondern umgekehrt auch deren negative Wirkung auf die Interaktionsqualität konditional davon abhängt, ob die Mutter vom Temperament ihres Kindes herausgefordert ist. Dass ab dem zweiten Lebensjahr kein querschnittlicher Zusammenhang mehr zu beobachten ist, zeigt in Verbindung mit der hohen festgestellten Prädiktivität der Interaktionsqualität im ersten Lebensjahr, wie wichtig es ist, betroffene Mutter-Kind-Dyaden bereits im ersten Lebensjahr zu identifizieren und zu unterstützen, um weiteren ungünstigen Entwicklungen vorzubeugen. Daher sollten sowohl die Forschung zu frühen Interaktionen als auch die Kinder- und Jugendhilfe dem Temperament im ersten Lebensjahr künftig mehr Beachtung schenken.
Article
Background: Identifying low-cost and easy to implement measures of infant markers of later psychopathology may improve targeting of early intervention for prevention. Because of their early manifestation, relative stability and overlap with constructs central to affect-based dimensions of child and adolescent psychopathology, negative emotionality and self-regulation have been the focus of this research. We conducted a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies examining the prospective association between infant temperament measured with parent ratings and child/adolescent psychopathology. Methods: A systematic literature search for prospective longitudinal studies, which included measures of questionnaire-assessed infant temperament (negative emotionality, self-regulation, behavioural inhibition, surgency/extraversion, activity level) and symptoms of child or adolescent mental health (externalising, internalising) and neurodevelopmental problems (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], autism spectrum disorder [ASD]), was conducted. Standardised estimates of association were calculated and pooled in meta-analyses. Results: Twenty-five studies (n = 28,425) met inclusion criteria. Small associations were seen between psychopathology aggregated across all domains and infant negative emotionality (r = .15; p < .001) and self-regulation (r = -.19; p = .007). Effects were also significant but weaker for behavioural inhibition (r = .10; p = .027) and activity level (r = .08; p = .016). Surgency/extraversion was not significantly associated with psychopathology in general (r = -.04; p = .094); however, it was negatively associated with ASD (r = -.10, p = .015). Significant correlations were observed with some outcomes isomorphic with predictors, internalising problems and behavioural inhibition (r = .10; p = .013), ADHD symptoms and activity level (r = .19; p = .009). Conclusion: Questionnaire-based assessments of infant negative emotionality may have transdiagnostic potential to contribute to a risk index of later childhood psychopathology. Behavioural inhibition, surgency/extraversion and activity ratings may provide more specific predictive power. More data from prospective studies are required before the potential of self-regulation and surgency/extraversion can be properly gauged.
Article
Full-text available
Entry to center-based childcare (CC) at three months of life can be an important challenge for infants as it includes major stressors such as long maternal separations and frequently changing caregivers. Stress and the new environment may in turn alter the composition of the gut microbiota with possible implications for future health outcomes. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated whether CC, as compared to being cared for by the parents at home, alters the composition of the gut microbiota, while accounting for known covariates of the infant gut microbiota. Stool samples of infants who entered CC (n = 49) and control infants (n = 49) were obtained before and four weeks after CC entrance. Using Redundancy analysis, Random Forests and Bayesian linear models we found that infant gut microbiota was not affected in a uniform way by entry to CC. In line with the literature, breastfeeding, birth mode, age, and the presence of siblings were shown to significantly impact the microbial composition.
Article
Background Different configurations of family adversity affect children’s socio-emotional development differently; however, we lack knowledge of moderators amenable to policy intervention. This study explored whether early childhood centre-based childcare moderated the impact of family adversity configurations on socio-emotional development. Methods Data were from the Growing Up in Scotland first birth cohort, born 2004–05. Latent class analysis of 19 early childhood family adversity indicators identified four classes: ‘Low Risk’ (68%), ‘Poor Maternal Health’ (16.5%), ‘Economic Hardship’ (10.0%) and ‘Multiple Adversities’ (5.5%). Latent growth models of externalizing and internalizing symptom trajectories (age 46–152 months, n = 3561) by family adversity controlled for confounding. Moderation by centre-based childcare use was examined through stratification. Results Compared to ‘Low Risk’, high-risk classes had more externalizing and internalizing symptoms and internalizing symptoms increased at a faster rate, with ‘Multiple Adversities’ faring worst. The effects of ‘Economic Hardship’ on change in externalizing symptoms over time varied by childcare (P = 0.035): relative to the Low Risk group, symptoms increased (+0.04 points/year) among those not using childcare, and decreased (–0.09 points/year) among those who did. The effect of ‘Multiple Adversities’ on internalizing symptoms also varied (P = 0.034): +0.12 without centre-based childcare; +0.33 with centre-based childcare (patterns were similar for externalizing symptoms but with wide confidence intervals). No moderation was found by ‘Poor Maternal Health’. Conclusions Centre-based childcare may alleviate disadvantages in socio-emotional wellbeing for children experiencing mainly economic hardship, but may exacerbate them for those experiencing multiple adversities. A better understanding of how early years’ services can support families with complex needs is required.
Article
Full-text available
International study results point to potential negative associations of time spent in early childhood education and care (ECEC) centres in the first 3 years of a child’s life and socio-emotional outcomes. However, the transferability of international results to the German ECEC system and the impact of characteristics of the home learning environment and the child on these effects remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated (a) whether the duration of ECEC is associated with child’s socio-emotional outcomes and (b) whether results differ according to child’s temperament and parental sensitivity by using data of the German National Educational Panel Study. Contrary to international study results, we find that, irrespective of parental sensitivity, more years spent in early childcare under the age of 3 significantly relates to lower rates of peer problems. Particularly children with a moderately difficult temperament seem to profit from attending more years in ECEC with regard to their prosocial behaviour.
Article
Full-text available
Effects of early child care on children's functioning at the age of 41/2 years wee a examined in the NICHD (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) Study of Early Child Care, a prospective longitudinal study of more than 1,000 children. Even after controlling for multiple child and family characteristics, children's development was predicted by early child-care experience. Higher-quality child care, improvements in the quality of child care, and experience in center-type arrangements predicted better pre-academic skills and language performance at 41/2 years. More hours of care predicted higher levels of behavior problems according to caregivers. Effect sizes associated with early child-care experiences were evaluated in relation to effect sizes obtained for two other well-recognized influences on early development: parenting and poverty. The findings indicated the importance (and relative independence) of quantity, quality, and type of child care for children's development just prior to the time that children initiate formal schooling.
Article
Full-text available
Parents gave histories of 589 children just before kindergarten. Children were later assessed with teacher, peer, and observer measures of social adjustment in school. Children with higher day-care amounts in each of 3 eras (0–4, and 4–5 yrs) scored higher on the composite negative adjustment and lower on positive adjustment (however, they also scored lower on teacher-rated internalizing problems). Day care predicted even after statistical control for measures representing alternative explanations, such as family stress and socioeconomic status, accounting for 2.7% of variance in negative adjustment and 2.9% of positive adjustment. Interactions between day care and other variables did not add to predictions of the molar adjustment composites. Extensive infancy care did not in itself predict adjustment, according to planned contrasts that controlled for total amount of day care received across the 3 eras of the child's life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Three replicable personality types were identified in a sample of 300 adolescent boys and shown to generalize across African Americans and Caucasians. The types had conceptually coherent relations with the Big Five dimensions, ego resiliency, and ego control, and converged with 3 of the types identified by J. Block (1971). Behavioral implications of the types were explored using several independent data sources. Resilients were intelligent, successful in school, unlikely to be delinquents, and relatively free of psychopathology; Overcontrollers shared some of these characteristics but were also prone to internalizing problems; and Undercontrollers showed a general pattern of academic, behavioral, and emotional problems. This research demonstrates that replicable and generalizable personality types can be identified empirically, and that the unique constellation of traits defining an individual has important consequences for a wide range of outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To compare depressiveness scores, both during and after pregnancy, with the delivery mode (DM). Methods: In a longitudinal, prospective study, standardized questionnaires for the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were presented to 1,100 women and used to assess the presence and severity of depressiveness at three time points: prenatal, from the 30th gestational week (Q1); 48-72 h postnatal (Q2); and 6-8 months postnatal (Q3). The patients were divided into four groups relative to DM: spontaneous delivery, primary cesarean section (CS), secondary CS, and assisted vaginal delivery. The final number of participating women with both delivery mode and depression information for all three time points was 753. Results: There was a significant difference of the mean EPDS values between the spontaneous delivery and primary CS groups (P=0.04) at Q1 (5.1 vs. 6.3). None of the other comparisons was significant. Significant differences relative to DM were seen at Q2 (P<0.0001), but there were no significant differences between the patient groups at Q3 (P=0.54). Conclusions: DM only showed coherence with the extent of depression briefly during the peripartal period. A relationship was found between depressiveness during pregnancy and DM, with higher depressiveness scores in the group of patients undergoing primary CS. This should be taken into account when patients requesting an elective cesarean section are being counseled.
Article
Full-text available
Social–emotional competence is a key developmental task during early childhood. This study examined concurrent relationships between maternal education and employment status, children's sex, ethnicity, age, receptive vocabulary, emotional knowledge, attention skills, inhibitory control and social–emotional competence in a sample of 146 preschool, low-income, ethnically diverse children from Head Start classrooms. Multilevel models demonstrated that inhibitory control played a significant role in the concurrent prediction of teacher ratings of social–emotional competence above and beyond other variables associated with social–emotional competence. Children who demonstrated better inhibitory control were more likely to be rated higher on social skills and lower in internalizing behaviors. Findings suggest that early identification of inhibitory control difficulties may be beneficial for targeting children at risk for maladaptive outcomes. The contribution of environmental experience to the development of inhibitory control skills suggests there are many opportunities to intervene during early childhood.
Article
Full-text available
Research on differential susceptibility to rearing suggests that infants with difficult temperaments are disproportionately affected by parenting and child care quality, but a major U.S. child care study raises questions as to whether quality of care influences social adjustment. One thousand three hundred sixty-four American children from reasonably diverse backgrounds were followed from 1 month to 11 years with repeated observational assessments of parenting and child care quality, as well as teacher report and standardized assessments of children's cognitive-academic and social functioning, to determine whether those with histories of difficult temperament proved more susceptible to early rearing effects at ages 10 and 11. Evidence for such differential susceptibility emerges in the case of both parenting and child care quality and with respect to both cognitive-academic and social functioning. Differential susceptibility to parenting and child care quality extends to late middle childhood. J. Belsky, D. L. Vandell, et al.'s (2007) failure to consider such temperament-moderated rearing effects in their evaluation of long-term child care effects misestimates effects of child care quality on social adjustment.
Article
Full-text available
Evolutionary-biological reasoning suggests that individuals should be differentially susceptible to environmental influences, with some people being not just more vulnerable than others to the negative effects of adversity, as the prevailing diathesis-stress view of psychopathology (and of many environmental influences) maintains, but also disproportionately susceptible to the beneficial effects of supportive and enriching experiences (or just the absence of adversity). Evidence consistent with the proposition that individuals differ in plasticity is reviewed. The authors document multiple instances in which (a) phenotypic temperamental characteristics, (b) endophenotypic attributes, and (c) specific genes function less like "vulnerability factors" and more like "plasticity factors," thereby rendering some individuals more malleable or susceptible than others to both negative and positive environmental influences. Discussion focuses upon limits of the evidence, statistical criteria for distinguishing differential susceptibility from diathesis stress, potential mechanisms of influence, and unknowns in the differential-susceptibility equation.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract In this study, the concept of ‘goodness-of-fit’ between the child’s temperament and the environment, introduced by Thomas and Chess [Temperament and Development, Brunner/Mazel, New York, 1977], is applied within the setting of center day care. Mothers and primary professional caregivers of 186 children, aged 6–30 months, participated in this study. The child’s problem behaviors were assessed with the CBCL Teacher Report Form [Achenbach, T.M., Guide for the Caregiver–Teacher Report Form for Ages 2–5, Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, 1997]. The child’s socio-emotional well-being in day care was measured with the Leiden Inventory for the Child’sWell-Being in Day Care. The Infant Characteristics Questionnaire measured the child’s temperament. Children with an easier temperament showed less internalizing and total problem behavior and more well-being. The results suggest that for children with a more difficult temperament, several parallel care arrangements interfere with the process of adapting to the day care setting. Also, our results indicate that in the group of children with greater availability of trusted caregivers, a more easy-going temperament was associated with more well-being. The association between temperament and well-being was not found in the group of children with less access to trusted caregivers. © 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Center day care; Temperament; Child’s adjustment; Stability in care
Article
Full-text available
Researchers often hypothesize moderated effects, in which the effect of an independent variable on an outcome variable depends on the value of a moderator variable. Such an effect reveals itself statistically as an interaction between the independent and moderator variables in a model of the outcome variable. When an interaction is found, it is important to probe the interaction, for theories and hypotheses often predict not just interaction but a specific pattern of effects of the focal independent variable as a function of the moderator. This article describes the familiar pick-a-point approach and the much less familiar Johnson-Neyman technique for probing interactions in linear models and introduces macros for SPSS and SAS to simplify the computations and facilitate the probing of interactions in ordinary least squares and logistic regression. A script version of the SPSS macro is also available for users who prefer a point-and-click user interface rather than command syntax.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the study was to examine the relations of effortful control (EC), impulsivity, and negative emotionality to at least borderline clinical levels of symptoms and change in maladjustment over four years. Children's (N = 214; 77% European American; M age = 73 months) externalizing and internalizing symptoms were rated by parents and teachers at 3 times, 2 years apart (T1, T2, and T3) and were related to children's adult-rated EC, impulsivity, and emotion. In addition, the authors found patterns of change in maladjustment were related to these variables at T3 while controlling for the T1 predictor. Externalizing problems (pure or co-occurring with internalizing problems) were associated with low EC, high impulsivity, and negative emotionality, especially anger, and patterns of change also related to these variables. Internalizing problems were associated with low impulsivity and sadness and somewhat with high anger. Low attentional EC was related to internalizing problems only in regard to change in maladjustment. Change in impulsivity was associated with change in internalizing primarily when controlling for change in externalizing problems.
Article
Full-text available
Studies of temperament from early childhood to adulthood have demonstrated inverse relationships between negative affectivity and effortful control. Effortful control is also positively related to the development of conscience and appears as a protective factor in the development of behavior disorders. In this study, the development of attentional mechanisms underlying effortful control was investigated in 2- to 3-year-old children, as indexed by their performance in a) making anticipatory eye movements to ambiguous locations and b) resolving conflict between location and identity in a spatial conflict task. The ability to make anticipatory eye movements to ambiguous locations within a sequence was clearly present at 24 months. By 30 months, children could also successfully perform a spatial conflict task that introduced conflict between identity and location, and at that age, children's success on ambiguous anticipatory eye movements was related to lower interference from conflict in the spatial conflict task. Children's performance on the eye-movement task was correlated with performance and reaction time on spatial tasks, and both were related to aspects of effortful control and negative affect as measured in children's parent-reported temperament.
Article
Full-text available
Seventy 15-month-old infants were studied at home before starting child care, during adaptation (mothers present) and separation (first 9 days without mothers) phases, and 5 months later. Security of infant-mother attachment was assessed before and 3 months after child care began. In the separation phase, salivary cortisol rose over the first 60 min following the mothers' departures to levels that were 75% to 100% higher than at home. Compared with insecure infants, secure infants had markedly lower cortisol levels during the adaptation phase and higher fuss and cry levels during the separation phase, and their fuss and cry levels were significantly correlated with their cortisol levels. Attachments remained secure or became secure if mothers spent more days adapting their children to child care.
Article
Full-text available
The relations of children's internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors to their concurrent regulation, impulsivity (reactive undercontrol), anger, sadness, and fearfulness and these aspects of functioning 2 years prior were examined. Parents and teachers completed measures of children's (N = 185; ages 6 through 9 years) adjustment, negative emotionality, regulation, and behavior control; behavioral measures of regulation also were obtained. In general, both internalizing and externalizing problems were associated with negative emotionality. Externalizers were low in effortful regulation and high in impulsivity, whereas internalizers, compared with nondisordered children, were low in impulsivity but not effortful control. Moreover, indices of negative emotionality, regulation, and impulsivity with the level of the same variables 2 years before controlled predicted stability versus change in problem behavior status.
Article
Full-text available
In 2001, the authors assessed the quality of care provided to children in 51 care groups from 39 child-care centers in The Netherlands using the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale (T. Harms, D. Cryer, & R. M. Clifford, 1990) and compared the results with the quality of child care assessed in 1995 (M. H. van IJzendoorn, L. W. C. Tavecchio, G. J. Stams, M. J. E. Verhoeven, & E. J. Reiling, 1998). The overall quality and scale scores for language and learning activities were significantly lower in 2001 than in 1995. Child-care centers founded within the past 6 years (all nonsubsidized centers) scored considerably lower than did older, mostly subsidized, centers. The results are discussed from the perspective of changes in the socioeconomic and political context of child care.
Article
Full-text available
Biological reactivity to psychological stressors comprises a complex, integrated, and highly conserved repertoire of central neural and peripheral neuroendocrine responses designed to prepare the organism for challenge or threat. Developmental experience plays a role, along with heritable, polygenic variation, in calibrating the response dynamics of these systems, with early adversity biasing their combined effects toward a profile of heightened or prolonged reactivity. Conventional views of such high reactivity suggest that it is an atavistic and pathogenic legacy of an evolutionary past in which threats to survival were more prevalent and severe. Recent evidence, however, indicates that (a) stress reactivity is not a unitary process, but rather incorporates counterregulatory circuits serving to modify or temper physiological arousal, and (b) the effects of high reactivity phenotypes on psychiatric and biomedical outcomes are bivalent, rather than univalent, in character, exerting both risk-augmenting and risk-protective effects in a context-dependent manner. These observations suggest that heightened stress reactivity may reflect, not simply exaggerated arousal under challenge, but rather an increased biological sensitivity to context, with potential for negative health effects under conditions of adversity and positive effects under conditions of support and protection. From an evolutionary perspective, the developmental plasticity of the stress response systems, along with their structured, context-dependent effects, suggests that these systems may constitute conditional adaptations: evolved psychobiological mechanisms that monitor specific features of childhood environments as a basis for calibrating the development of stress response systems to adaptively match those environments. Taken together, these theoretical perspectives generate a novel hypothesis: that there is a curvilinear, U-shaped relation between early exposures to adversity and the development of stress-reactive profiles, with high reactivity phenotypes disproportionately emerging within both highly stressful and highly protected early social environments.
Article
Full-text available
To evaluate studies of child care with specific attention to the impact of age at entry and amount, quality, and type of care on children's adaptive functioning. MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and the SAGE Full-Text Collection. The review considers correlational and experimental research conducted throughout the world that includes an adequate description of the type of care provided. Main Exposures Amount, quality, and type of child care. Language, cognitive and social competence, achievement, behavioral problems, relationships with parents, communicable illnesses, and asthma. Children who began care early in life and were in care 30 or more hours a week were at increased risk for stress-related behavioral problems. Elevated risk was more likely if they had difficulties interacting with peers or had insensitive parents. Children in day care centers had higher language scores and early school achievement, especially if they came from disadvantaged backgrounds and the centers offered high-quality care. Attending arrangements with 6 or more children increased the likelihood of communicable illnesses and ear infections, albeit those illnesses had no long-term adverse consequences. Child care is a multidimensional phenomenon. Guidance on when to place a child in nonparental care and what kind of care to use is complicated because of the multiplicity of sometimes offsetting effects on children. Child care experiences interact with experiences at home and the child's own characteristics, and research indicates that the quality of child care matters.
Objectives: To examine the relationship between experiences in child care and communicable illnesses (gastrointestinal tract illness, upper respiratory tract infection, and ear infections or otitis media) throughout the first 3 years of life and to investigate whether increased frequency of these illnesses is related to language development, school readiness, and behavior problems. Design: Health, child care, family, and child developmental data were obtained from more than 1200 participants in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care, a 10-site prospective study that began at the participants' birth. Longitudinal logistic regression analyses were performed using each type of communicable illness as the outcome variable, with family, child, and child care variables as predictors in the model, and followed by a series of regression analyses with developmental measures as the outcome variables. Results: Rates of illness were higher in children in child care than for children reared exclusively at home during the first 2 years of life, but the differences were nonsignificant by age 3 years. Number of hours in child care per week during the first year and number of other children in the child care arrangement were related to the rates of illness. There was no evidence that increased rates of illness have a negative effect on school readiness or language competence. However, there was some evidence that increased illness was associated with behavior problems as reported by mothers, but not by child care providers. Conclusions: Children in child care experience more bouts of illness in the first 2 years of life, but differences are negligible by age 3 years. The increased rates of illness bear little relation to other aspects of children's development, except, perhaps, for a small increase in behavior problems.
Article
In this study, the concept of ‘goodness-of-fit’ between the child’s temperament and the environment, introduced by Thomas and Chess [Temperament and Development, Brunner/Mazel, New York, 1977], is applied within the setting of center day care. Mothers and primary professional caregivers of 186 children, aged 6–30 months, participated in this study. The child’s problem behaviors were assessed with the CBCL Teacher Report Form [Achenbach, T.M., Guide for the Caregiver–Teacher Report Form for Ages 2–5, Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, 1997]. The child’s socio-emotional well-being in day care was measured with the Leiden Inventory for the Child’s Well-Being in Day Care. The Infant Characteristics Questionnaire measured the child’s temperament. Children with an easier temperament showed less internalizing and total problem behavior and more well-being. The results suggest that for children with a more difficult temperament, several parallel care arrangements interfere with the process of adapting to the day care setting. Also, our results indicate that in the group of children with greater availability of trusted caregivers, a more easy-going temperament was associated with more well-being. The association between temperament and well-being was not found in the group of children with less access to trusted caregivers.
Article
Ethological attachment theory is a landmark of 20th century social and behavioral sciences theory and research. This new paradigm for understanding primary relationships across the lifespan evolved from John Bowlby's critique of psychoanalytic drive theory and his own clinical observations, supplemented by his knowledge of fields as diverse as primate ethology, control systems theory, and cognitive psychology. By the time he had written the first volume of his classic Attachment and Loss trilogy, Mary D. Salter Ainsworth's naturalistic observations in Uganda and Baltimore, and her theoretical and descriptive insights about maternal care and the secure base phenomenon had become integral to attachment theory. Patterns of Attachment reports the methods and key results of Ainsworth's landmark Baltimore Longitudinal Study. Following upon her naturalistic home observations in Uganda, the Baltimore project yielded a wealth of enduring, benchmark results on the nature of the child's tie to its primary caregiver and the importance of early experience. It also addressed a wide range of conceptual and methodological issues common to many developmental and longitudinal projects, especially issues of age appropriate assessment, quantifying behavior, and comprehending individual differences. In addition, Ainsworth and her students broke new ground, clarifying and defining new concepts, demonstrating the value of the ethological methods and insights about behavior. Today, as we enter the fourth generation of attachment study, we have a rich and growing catalogue of behavioral and narrative approaches to measuring attachment from infancy to adulthood. Each of them has roots in the Strange Situation and the secure base concept presented in Patterns of Attachment. It inclusion in the Psychology Press Classic Editions series reflects Patterns of Attachment's continuing significance and insures its availability to new generations of students, researchers, and clinicians.
Article
This report summarizes findings from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development as effect sizes for exclusive maternal care and-for children in child care-type, quality, and quantity of care. Children (n = 1,261) were recruited at birth and assessed at 15, 24, 36, and 54 months. Exclusive maternal care did not predict child outcomes, but multiple features of child-care experience were modestly to moderately predictive. Higher quality child care was related to advanced cognitive, language, and preacademic outcomes at every age and better socio-emotional and peer outcomes at some ages. More child-care hours predicted more behavior problems and conflict, according to care providers. More center-care time was related to higher cognitive and language scores and more problem and fewer prosocial behaviors, according to care providers. Child-care effect sizes are discussed from 3 perspectives: (a) absolute effect sizes, reflecting established guidelines; (b) relative effect sizes, comparing child-care and parenting effects; and (c) possible individual and collective implications for the large numbers of children experiencing child care.
Article
Over the last ten years the basic knowledge of brain structure and function has vastly ex- panded, and its incorporation into the developmental sciences is now allowing for more complex and heuristic models of human infancy. In a continuation of this effort, in this two-part work I integrate current interdisciplinary data from attachment studies on dyadic affective communications, neuroscience on the early developing right brain, psychophysiology on stress systems, and psychiatry on psychopath- ogenesis to provide a deeper understanding of the psychoneurobiological mechanisms that underlie infant mental health. In this article I detail the neurobiology of a secure attachment, an exemplar of adaptive infant mental health, and focus upon the primary caregiver's psychobiological regulation of the infant's maturing limbic system, the brain areas specialized for adapting to a rapidly changing environment. The infant's early developing right hemisphere has deep connections into the limbic and autonomic nervous systems and is dominant for the human stress response, and in this manner the attachment relationship facilitates the expansion of the child's coping capcities. This model suggests that adaptive infant mental health can be fundamentally defined as the earliest expression of flexible strategies for coping with the novelty and stress that is inherent in human interactions. This efficient right brain function is a resilience factor for optimal development over the later stages of the life cycle.
Book
This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Abstract— This article argues that new research on temperament and on stress reactivity offers an exciting opportunity to reopen questions about how individual differences in children affect their responses to child care. It identifies key findings from these two areas of research and their intersection that point to reasons why evidence on child care reveals both adverse and beneficial effects on children’s developing social skills. The authors conclude that integrating research on temperament and stress reactivity in studies of child care will not only help to clarify when child care confers risks or benefits but will also bear on pressing questions regarding how early social experiences shape children’s futures.
Article
Deficits in executive function, and in particular, reduced capacity to inhibit a dominant action, are a risk factor for externalizing problems (EP). Inhibitory control (IC) develops in the later preschool and early childhood periods, such that IC might not regulate EP in toddlers and younger preschoolers. Aggression was observed during peer play for 66 girls and 49 boys, from 2.75 to 6.00 years (M=4.14, S.D.=0.78). Mothers reported on children's IC and EP concurrently and 12 months later, and concurrent teacher reports of EP were also collected. Factor analysis supported aggregation of mother and teacher-reported EP and observed physical aggression into one measure of externalizing difficulties. Mothers reported lower IC for children with more externalizing difficulties, and the inverse relation between IC and externalizing difficulties strengthened over the toddler, preschool and kindergarten periods. Similar relations between IC and EP were observed 12 months later, and increases in IC also predicted reductions in EP over 1 year. These data demonstrate that the preschool years are a dynamic period of developmental change in the relations between IC and EP. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Mothers and primary professional caregivers of 186 children, aged 6–30 months, participated in this study in which a new measure for daily stability in center day care was developed, describing staffing, grouping, and program features. Relative contributions of infants’ daily experiences of care stability, quality of care, and mother's daily stress to the child's adjustment to day care were analyzed with hierarchical regressions. The child's adjustment was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 1997) and with the Leiden Inventory for the Child's Well-being in Day Care. Children enrolled in fewer care arrangements showed less internalizing behavior and more well-being in the day care setting. Children had higher well-being scores when trusted caregivers were more available. Mother's family management stress was related to more internalizing problem behavior. Interactions between mother's daily stress and stability in care were found to affect the child's adjustment to day care.
Article
This study describes a revision of a widely used parent-report measure of infant temperament, the Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ; Rothbart, 1981). A rationally derived instrument was developed that included nine new scales and minor modifications of the seven scales of the IBQ. Parents of 360 infants, equally distributed over three age groups: 3–6 months; 6–9 months; and 9–12 months of age, participated. Conceptual and item analyses provided support for 14 of the 16 proposed scales, demonstrating satisfactory internal consistency. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated, with evidence of moderate agreement between primary and secondary caregivers. Monomethod discriminant validity was demonstrated through an examination of correlations among the Infant Behavior Questionnaire—Revised (IBQ-R) scale scores. Results of the factor analytic procedure were consistent with three broad dimensions of Surgency/Extraversion, Negative Affectivity, and Orienting/Regulation. Developmental and gender differences were also noted for a number of the IBQ-R scales. Specifically, older infants received higher scores on Approach, Vocal Reactivity, High Intensity Pleasure, Activity, Perceptual Sensitivity, Distress to Limitations, and Fear, whereas younger infants’ scores were higher for Low Intensity Pleasure, Cuddliness/Affiliation, and Duration of Orienting. Male infants obtained higher scores on Activity and High Intensity Pleasure, and female infants were rated higher on the Fear scale.
Article
This study tested interactive effects of quantity and type (center-based versus other) of non-parental care, and infant temperament, on children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors at , controlling for childcare quality. Sixty-four mothers and children participated. Mothers rated depressive symptoms prenatally, infant temperament at 5 months, childcare quality and child behavior at years, and reported childcare arrangements. At 6 months, infants were videotaped to obtain a measure of activity in response to novelty. Based on ANCOVA, long hours in non-parental care were associated with: (1) more externalizing for children in center care identified as easily frustrated as infants; and (2) more internalizing for children identified as both highly distressed and highly active in response to novelty as infants. Children in higher quality childcare were less externalizing and internalizing than those in lower quality childcare; this effect remained significant with all other variables controlled.
Article
To investigate links between inhibitory control (IC) and behavior problems in early childhood, as well as genetic and environmental covariances between these two constructs. Parent and laboratory ratings of IC and parent ratings of externalizing and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder behaviors were administered at 24 months of age on a sample of 291 same-sex twin pairs (131 monozygotic, 160 dizygotic). There were significant phenotypic associations between both IC assessments and the two areas of behavioral maladjustment (correlations ranged from -.13 to -.57). Multivariate analyses revealed that phenotypic covariance between IC and behavior problems could be substantially explained by common genetic influences (genetic correlations ranged from -.30 to -.74). Parent ratings of IC showed higher phenotypic and genetic correlations with behavior problems than lab ratings of IC. This study is the first to examine the etiology of the covariance between IC and related behavioral difficulties in toddlerhood. Findings suggest that low levels of IC can be considered a genetic risk factor for the development of early emerging behavior problems.
Article
A total of 81 toddlers (24-27months of age) participated in a biobehavioral investigation of inhibitory control. Maternal report measures of inhibitory control were related to laboratory tasks assessing inhibitory abilities under conditions of conflict, delay, and compliance challenge as well as toddler verbal ability. In addition, unique variance in inhibitory control was explained by task-related changes in brain electrical activity at lateral frontal scalp sites as well as concurrent inhibitory task performance. Implications regarding neural correlates of executive function during early development and a central organizing role of inhibitory processing during toddlerhood are discussed.
Article
In previous studies, a higher quality of care-giving behavior reduced the cortisol response to acute stressors in infants aged 3 months and older. Here, we investigated whether the quality of maternal care-giving behavior affected the cortisol response to being bathed in 5-week-old infants (N = 141). Mothers and infants were observed during a bathing routine. Infant saliva samples were collected before and after bathing to assess cortisol concentrations, and the quality of maternal care-giving behavior was scored from videotapes. Bathing elicited a significant increase in infant salivary cortisol level (reactivity), and cortisol concentrations returned to pre-stressor values 40 min after bathing (recovery). In contrast, with previous findings in older infants, the quality of maternal care giving was not associated with either cortisol reactivity or recovery. This finding suggests that the quality of maternal care-giving behavior is not effective in modulating 5-week-old infants' cortisol responses to a (mild) physical stressor. Although a satisfactory neurophysiological explanation for this inference is still lacking, current knowledge of the behavioral development of very young infants supports this suggestion.
Article
Evidence from both animals and humans suggests that maternal prenatal anxiety and stress can have adverse consequences on the offspring's development. Animal models also show that prenatal stress has programming effects on the physical health of the offspring, such as immune functioning. In human studies, however, physical health outcomes are often restricted to birth complications; studies on the effects of acquiring illnesses are scarce. This study aimed to examine whether maternal prenatal anxiety and stress, measured both by self-report and by cortisol physiology, are related to more infant illnesses and antibiotic use during the first year of life. Participants in the study were 174 mothers with normal pregnancies and term deliveries (71 firstborns; 91 boys). The mothers filled out third-trimester questionnaires on general and pregnancy-specific anxiety and stress and provided saliva samples for circadian cortisol. Information on infant illnesses and antibiotic use was obtained through monthly maternal interviews across the infant's first year of life. Hierarchical multiple regressions showed that, even after controlling for many relevant confounders, prenatal anxiety and stress predicted a considerable amount of variance in infant illnesses and antibiotic use: 9.3% for respiratory, 10.7% for general, 8.9% for skin, and 7.6% for antibiotic use. Digestive illnesses were not related to prenatal anxiety and stress. Although replication is warranted, to our knowledge, this is the first evidence linking maternal prenatal anxiety and stress to infant illnesses and antibiotic use early in life.
Article
Relations between nonrelative child care (birth to 4(1/2) years) and functioning at age 15 were examined (N = 1,364). Both quality and quantity of child care were linked to adolescent functioning. Effects were similar in size as those observed at younger ages. Higher quality care predicted higher cognitive-academic achievement at age 15, with escalating positive effects at higher levels of quality. The association between quality and achievement was mediated, in part, by earlier child-care effects on achievement. High-quality early child care also predicted youth reports of less externalizing behavior. More hours of nonrelative care predicted greater risk taking and impulsivity at age 15, relations that were partially mediated by earlier child-care effects on externalizing behaviors.
Article
Children who spend early portions of their lives in institutions or those maltreated in their families of origin are at risk for developing emotional and behavioral problems reflecting disorders of emotion and attention regulation. Animal models may help explicate the mechanisms producing these effects. Despite the value of the animal models, many questions remain in using the animal data to guide studies of human development. In 1999, the National Institute of Mental Health in the United States funded a research network to address unresolved issues and enhance translation of basic animal early experience research to application in child research. Professor Seymour Levine was both the inspiration for and an active member of this research network until his death in October of 2007. This review pays tribute to his legacy by outlining the conceptual model which is now guiding our research studies.
Article
Nationally, 15% of children younger than 5 years regularly attend more than 1 child-care arrangement. An association between arrangement multiplicity and children's behavior problems has been identified, but previous research may be susceptible to measurement or omitted variable bias. This study used within-child fixed effects models to examine associations between changes in the number of concurrent, nonparental child-care arrangements and changes in mother- and caregiver-reported behavior among 2- and 3-year-old children in the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N= 850). Increases in the number of arrangements were related to increases in children's concurrent behavior problems and decreases in prosocial behaviors, particularly among girls and younger children. Implications for policy and research are discussed.
Article
Inconsistencies regarding developmental effects of non-maternal childcare may be caused by neglecting the possibility that children are differentially susceptible towards such experiences. Interactions between difficult/negative child temperament and childcare type, quantity, and quality on teacher-rated behavior problems and social competence at 54 months and in kindergarten were investigated via multiple regression using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. Childcare quality interacted with infant negativity in predicting behavior problems and social competence, whereas effects of quantity and type were independent of child temperament. Consistent with Belsky's (1997) differential susceptibility hypothesis, children with difficult temperaments as infants exhibited both more behavior problems when faced with low quality care and fewer when experiencing high quality care than children with easy temperaments. Negatively-emotional infants appear to be more affected by the quality of care they experience - both negatively and positively - than other young children.
Article
Hypotheses involving mediation are common in the behavioral sciences. Mediation exists when a predictor affects a dependent variable indirectly through at least one intervening variable, or mediator. Methods to assess mediation involving multiple simultaneous mediators have received little attention in the methodological literature despite a clear need. We provide an overview of simple and multiple mediation and explore three approaches that can be used to investigate indirect processes, as well as methods for contrasting two or more mediators within a single model. We present an illustrative example, assessing and contrasting potential mediators of the relationship between the helpfulness of socialization agents and job satisfaction. We also provide SAS and SPSS macros, as well as Mplus and LISREL syntax, to facilitate the use of these methods in applications.
Article
The development of a 10-item self-report scale (EPDS) to screen for Postnatal Depression in the community is described. After extensive pilot interviews a validation study was carried out on 84 mothers using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for depressive illness obtained from Goldberg's Standardised Psychiatric Interview. The EPDS was found to have satisfactory sensitivity and specificity, and was also sensitive to change in the severity of depression over time. The scale can be completed in about 5 minutes and has a simple method of scoring. The use of the EPDS in the secondary prevention of Postnatal Depression is discussed.
Article
The Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (TBAQ) was constructed by an iterative process of item generation intended to ensure content validity, by repeated item analyses focused on internal consistency and discriminant properties, and by scale revision. During the construction and initial validation processes reported in this article, data from 1,012 records were utilized. Internal consistency reliability estimates typically exceeded .80 for each scale. Evidence for convergent validity with other temperament questionnaires and for longitudinal stability was also obtained. Besides yielding a promising instrument, this assessment research has conceptual ramifications. For instance, components of negative affectivity (anger proneness and fearfulness) were independent, and item analyses suggested that shyness and other fears were independent as well. Consistent with most current views of temperament, the TBAQ temperament scales revealed some relationship and/or contextual specificity, as exemplified by the finding of only moderate parental agreement. The rank ordering on most temperament dimensions was impressively preserved from age 12 months, when the Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ) was used, to age 18 months, when the TBAQ was used (especially when subtle differences between the IBQ and TBAQ were taken into account). Most of the analyses benefit from replication.
Article
We examined inhibitory control as a quality of temperament that contributes to internalization. Children were assessed twice, at 26-41 months (N = 103) and at 43-56 months (N = 99), on repeated occasions, in multiple observational contexts and using parental reports. Comprehensive behavioral batteries incorporating multiple tasks were designed to measure inhibitory control at toddler and preschool age. They had good internal consistencies, corresponded with maternal ratings, and were developmentally sensitive. Individual children's performance was significantly correlated across both assessments, indicating stable individual differences. Girls surpassed boys at both ages. Children's internalization was observed while they were alone with prohibited objects, with a mundane chore, playing games that occasioned cheating, being induced to violate standards of conduct, and assessed using maternal reports. Inhibitory control was significantly associated with internalization, both contemporaneously and as a predictor in the longitudinal sense. The implications for considering children's temperament as a significant, yet often neglected contributor to developing internalization are discussed.
Article
In this multimethod investigation of early emotionality, we observed 112 8- to 10-month-olds' responses to standard procedures consisting of multiple brief episodes that elicited joy, fear, anger, and discomfort to aversive stimulation. We obtained parental reports about the infants' temperament and observed their emotional tone during naturalistic interactions with their mothers. Parameters of emotional response to the standard procedures (latency, discrete behaviors, and average and peak intensity across facial, vocal, and bodily channels) cohered strongly within each episode. To a lesser extent and with the exception of anger, they also cohered across episodes targeting the same emotion. The four emotions appeared orthogonal, except for the peak intensity of response, which cohered modestly across the 3 negative emotions. The emotionality measures converged to some extent: responses to the standard procedures and father-reported temperament related meaningfully to the infant's emotional tone in mother-child interactions. As predicted, infants' capacity for focused or effortful attention was modestly associated with better modulated negative emotionality.
Article
The current study investigated whether patterns of cortisol production in preschool-aged children in group care were influenced by characteristics such as group size, adult:child ratio, separation from family/parents, and quality of attention and stimulation from the childcare provider. Data were obtained from preschoolers attending home-based childcare. Cortisol levels were sampled at home and at childcare. Parents and teachers assessed the child's temperament (CBQ, TBQ). At childcare, the children were observed using the Observational Ratings of the Caregiving Environment (ORCE). Childcare characteristics were independent of family or child characteristics. In home-based childcare, children's cortisol patterns over the day correlated significantly with the amount of attention and stimulation provided by the childcare provider. Using a median split on the quality index measure of focused attention/stimulation, children in settings that were above the median exhibited no change in cortisol from home to childcare, while those in settings below the median exhibited a reversal of the typical pattern of cortisol production from morning to afternoon. At home these children exhibited the expected decrease in cortisol from morning to afternoon. Patterns of cortisol production at childcare were also correlated with child temperament with larger increases from morning to afternoon for more emotionally negative children and those with less self-control. Finally, cortisol production in home-based childcare was compared to data from children in center-based childcare and children not enrolled in full-day childcare.
Article
An unexpected rise in cortisol across the day in full-day, center-based childcare has been recently observed. Most of the children in these studies exhibited the rise across the day at childcare, but the expected drop at home. Possible explanations include more or less napping at childcare than at home. This study measured cortisol during childcare at 10:30 a.m., pre-rest, post-rest, and 3:30 p.m. for 35 children, and at 10:30 a.m. and 3:30 p.m. at home for 8 children. Duration and quality of rest were coded during nap periods. For 91% of children, cortisol rose at childcare and for 75% dropped at home. None of the napping variables were related to the rise at childcare nor were differences found between home and childcare rest. Factors other than daytime rest periods seem likely to account for the rise in cortisol across the childcare day, possibly factors involving the interactional demands of group settings during this developmental period.
Article
One of the more controversial issues related to maternal employment in the United States concerns the timing of entry into the workforce and its effect on children, particularly during the first year of the child's life. Some studies show deleterious effects on children, such as increases in aggression and noncompliance, while others document few negative and even positive effects of early employment. This study examined the long-term effects of maternal employment during the child's first year of life on the social behavior of 171 third- and fourth-grade children in two-parent families. The moderating effects of child gender and social class were investigated. The extent to which stability in alternative care arrangements statistically explained links between early maternal employment and child outcomes was tested. After controlling for child gender, and maternal ethnicity, social class, and current employment status, third- and fourth-grade children whose mothers were employed during their first year of life evinced more acting out and less frustration tolerance and were nominated more often by peers for 'hitting' and 'being mean' than children whose mothers were not employed. There was some evidence that these associations were moderated by child gender and social class: boys, but not girls, whose mothers were employed during the first year were subsequently rated by teachers as acting out more than other children, and were also more likely to be nominated by peers for hitting. Higher nominations for hitting were only found in the working class. Finally, there was partial evidence that the number of alternative child-care arrangements during the first year accounted for the links between early maternal employment and subsequent child outcomes. These results are congruent with extant research that posits a risk of early employment on socioemotional development, but show that this risk is partially attributable to child-care instability.
Article
Children's temperament and gender, combined with type, quality, and amount of care, likely influence differences in development and should not be overlooked in studies of child care effects. Research is consistent with this view, although definitive studies have not been carried out. Most notable, children's stress responses to full-time, center-based child care differ, and these differences are associated with emotional tendencies that may precede their entry into care. Changes in full time, center-based child care are needed to reduce stress experienced by some children and their providers, using information about what is happening at home and in family day care settings, where typically cortisol-linked stress does not increase during the day, to guide efforts.
Article
This study examined salivary cortisol, a stress-sensitive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis hormone in 20 infants (12 females; M age = 10.8 months) and 35 toddlers (20 females; M age = 29.7 months) in full-day, center-based child care. Samples were taken at approximately 10:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. at child care and at home. At child care, 35% of infants and 71% of toddlers showed a rise in cortisol across the day; at home, 71% of infants and 64% of toddlers showed decreases. Toddlers who played more with peers exhibited lower cortisol. Controlling age, teacher-reported social fearfulness predicted higher afternoon cortisol and larger cortisol increases across the day at child care. This phenomenon may indicate context-specific activation of the HPA axis early in life.
Article
This study examined individual differences in children's regulation of emotional expression after receiving desirable and undesirable gifts. Effortful control, the ability to suppress a dominant response in favor of a subdominant one, was measured using a battery of behavioral tasks. Reactions to the gifts were videotaped, and emotional expression was coded. Age predicted effortful control, but not emotional displays. Effortful control predicted similarity of children's displays of positive affect after receiving the two gifts. Specifically, children high in effortful control showed similar amounts of positive affect after receiving the desirable and undesirable gifts, whereas children low in effortful control showed less positive affect after receiving the undesirable gift than after receiving the desirable gift. Results are discussed in terms of temperament and the development of socially appropriate expressive behavior.
Article
The purpose of this paper is two fold. First, to revisit the issue of the definition of stress and to highlight the difficulties with the contemporary definitions and, second, to review the literature on the influence of early experiences on the endocrine stress responses and behavior in rodents, sub-human primates and humans. Early experiences, usually involving some manipulation that results in disruption of the mother-infant relationship, have been shown to have long-term influences on the behavioral and endocrine responses to stress. In the rodent, brief periods of separation result in an attenuated adrenal response to stress (reduced secretion of corticosterone). In contrast, longer periods of separation result in an exaggerated response and several behavioral anomalies i.e. increased alcohol consumption, increased startle response etc. However, the effects of disruptions of the mother-infant relationships in primates reveal a pattern of behavioral disturbance but little influence on the endocrine response. Brief maternal separations result in a blunted cortisol response in juvenile squirrel monkeys. The long-term effects of early experiences in humans are very difficult to interpret. It is not possible to determine the length and severity of the experiences, and when in development the experiences were imposed on the child. Despite these limitations, there is a general consensus that adverse early experiences contribute to adult psychopathology.
Article
Effects of early child care on children's functioning from 4(1/2) years through the end of 6th grade (M age=12.0 years) were examined in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n=1,364). The results indicated that although parenting was a stronger and more consistent predictor of children's development than early child-care experience, higher quality care predicted higher vocabulary scores and more exposure to center care predicted more teacher-reported externalizing problems. Discussion focuses on mechanisms responsible for these effects, the potential collective consequences of small child-care effects, and the importance of the ongoing follow-up at age 15.