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Abstract

The innovation process may be divided into three main parts: the front end (FE), the new product development (NPD) process, and the commercialization. Every NPD process has a FE in which products and projects are defined. However, companies tend to begin the stages of FE without a clear definition or analysis of the process to go from Opportunity Identification to Concept Generation; as a result, the FE process is often aborted or forced to be restarted. Koen’s Model for the FE is composed of five phases. In each of the phases, several tools can be used by designers/managers in order to improve, structure, and organize their work. However, these tools tend to be selected and used in a heuristic manner. Additionally, some tools are more effective during certain phases of the FE than others. Using tools in the FE has a cost to the company, in terms of time, space needed, people involved, etc. Hence, an economic evaluation of the cost of tool usage is critical, and there is furthermore a need to characterize them in terms of their influence on the FE. This paper focuses on decision support for managers/designers in their process of assessing the cost of choosing/using tools in the core front end (CFE) activities identified by Koen, namely Opportunity Identification and Opportunity Analysis. This is achieved by first analyzing the influencing factors (firm context, industry context, macro-environment) along with data collection from managers followed by the automatic construction of fuzzy decision support models (FDSM) of the discovered relationships. The decision support focuses upon the estimated investment needed for the use of tools during the CFE. The generation of FDSMs is carried out automatically using a specialized genetic algorithm, applied to learning data obtained from five experienced managers, working for five different companies. The automatically constructed FDSMs accurately reproduced the managers’ estimations using the learning data sets and were very robust when validated with hidden data sets. The developed models can be easily used for quick financial assessments of tools by the person responsible for the early stage of product development within a design team. The type of assessment proposed in this paper would better suit product development teams in companies that are cost-focused and where the trade-offs between what (material), who (staff), and how long (time) to involve in CFE activities can vary a lot and hence largely influence their financial performances later on in the NPD process.

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... The fuzzy front end (FFE) is an initial component of the product innovation process (Achiche et al. 2013;Carbone and Tippett 2014;Stevens and Burley 2003) and is acknowledged as the most important part (Eling et al. 2014;Evanschitzky et al. 2012). There are two main factors for this: (1) more than 60% of NPD-related parameters are set up in this initial design phase (Chang et al. 2007;Talke et al. 2006;Williams et al. 2007), and thus, a significant proportion of an NPD project's time and cost are committed (Achiche et al. 2013;Bacciotti et al. 2016;Koen et al. 2002;Reid and Brentani 2004;Verworn et al., 2008); (2) the overall attributes and outcomes of the FFE affect the entirety of the product innovation process (Achiche et al. 2013;Bacciotti et al. 2016;Kim and Wilemon 2002a;Thanasopon et al. 2016). ...
... The fuzzy front end (FFE) is an initial component of the product innovation process (Achiche et al. 2013;Carbone and Tippett 2014;Stevens and Burley 2003) and is acknowledged as the most important part (Eling et al. 2014;Evanschitzky et al. 2012). There are two main factors for this: (1) more than 60% of NPD-related parameters are set up in this initial design phase (Chang et al. 2007;Talke et al. 2006;Williams et al. 2007), and thus, a significant proportion of an NPD project's time and cost are committed (Achiche et al. 2013;Bacciotti et al. 2016;Koen et al. 2002;Reid and Brentani 2004;Verworn et al., 2008); (2) the overall attributes and outcomes of the FFE affect the entirety of the product innovation process (Achiche et al. 2013;Bacciotti et al. 2016;Kim and Wilemon 2002a;Thanasopon et al. 2016). Nonetheless, this initial design phase is viewed as a vulnerability in the whole course of the product innovation process due to the high probability of encountering difficulties in dealing with those two factors (Brun and Saetre 2008;Frishammar et al. 2011). ...
... The fuzzy front end (FFE) is an initial component of the product innovation process (Achiche et al. 2013;Carbone and Tippett 2014;Stevens and Burley 2003) and is acknowledged as the most important part (Eling et al. 2014;Evanschitzky et al. 2012). There are two main factors for this: (1) more than 60% of NPD-related parameters are set up in this initial design phase (Chang et al. 2007;Talke et al. 2006;Williams et al. 2007), and thus, a significant proportion of an NPD project's time and cost are committed (Achiche et al. 2013;Bacciotti et al. 2016;Koen et al. 2002;Reid and Brentani 2004;Verworn et al., 2008); (2) the overall attributes and outcomes of the FFE affect the entirety of the product innovation process (Achiche et al. 2013;Bacciotti et al. 2016;Kim and Wilemon 2002a;Thanasopon et al. 2016). Nonetheless, this initial design phase is viewed as a vulnerability in the whole course of the product innovation process due to the high probability of encountering difficulties in dealing with those two factors (Brun and Saetre 2008;Frishammar et al. 2011). ...
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266 fuzzy front-end (FFE) studies in the new product development (NPD) sector were examined. The studies were selected using a bibliometrics method, and chronologically and statistically examined with ten criteria divided into two dimensions. The first dimension is associated with overall attributes of the FFE, consisting of six criteria: the study taxonomy, model type, NPD speed, NPD attributes, model characteristic, and model structure. The second dimension is relevant to the FFE performance structure related to process parameters, comprised of four criteria: the FFE task, activity, performance method, and toolkit. In terms of those two dimensions, the paper looks at previous FFE studies to gain an understanding of features of each FFE study along with related knowledge and theories, as well as identification of evolution trends of FFE studies. Based on the identification, an FFE model development strategy for each criterion is formulated, and this paper proposes possible options for executing those strategies which exert influence on the form of the cluster network. The intention is for the database to be utilised as an overview of all existing FFE studies and allow specific FFE studies to be selected to examine FFE approaches.This paper provides FFE model development guidance on how to deal with the overall attributes and outcomes of the FFE which affect the entirety of the innovation process, and how to manage the performance structure related to process parameters.
... Many professionals and researchers do not judge FFE as a structured process because of its intrinsic ambiguity and uncertainty (Koen et al. 2001;Kim and Wilemon 2002;Alam 2006). This circumstance partially motivates the fact that many companies have neither adopted a structured approach to follow, nor do they entrust formal methodologies (Reid and de Brentani 2004;Achiche et al. 2013). ...
... On the contrary, a great number of organizations focus their attention on Back End activities, for which acknowledged methods are more diffused, by primarily aiming at reducing manufacturing errors. According to Cagan and Vogel (2001), this strategy is however hazardous, because the disregard of the FFE can lead to product failures or anyway to great expenditures for revising decisions, which dramatically increase as the design process progresses (Kim and Wilemon 2002;Cousineau et al. 2004;Achiche et al. 2013). Some scholars (Flint 2002;Alam 2006;Soukhoroukova et al. 2012) suggest that FFE can become much less ''fuzzy'' if customers are involved in the initial stages of NPD. ...
... Computer applications supporting FFE are not considered reliable yet and require additional and more specific empirical research (Hüsig and Kohn 2009;Monteiro et al. 2010). Further on, proposals to manage FFE better include organizing teams in an appropriate way to conduct FFE activities (Kim and Wilemon 2002), managing in different ways the fuzziness related to customers, technology and competitors (Zhang and Doll 2001), focusing on the available resources of company (Achiche et al. 2013). Besides, studies about management of early stages of NPD cycles (Adams et al. 1998;Ramesh and Tiwana 1999;García et al. 2008) and strategic positioning of development projects (Balachandra and Friar 1997;Henard and Szymanski 2001) have already brought to clear evidences. ...
Article
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According to several literature sources, Product Planning is acknowledged as a primary driver of future commercial success for new designed products, and it is schematically constituted by the identification of business opportunities and the selection of most promising alternatives. Despite the recalled relevance of Product Planning, it emerges that a marginal quantity of companies have adopted formal methods to carry out this task. The paper attempts to provide a major understanding about such a limited implementation of Product Planning techniques and other open issues emerging from the analysis of the literature concerning the initial phases of engineering design cycles. The presented study investigates the claimed benefits of methods described in the literature, the level to which such tools are diffused through educational programs in Technical Institutes, the expectations and the demands of a sample of enterprises with respect to new tools supporting Product Planning. It emerges that, whereas existing methods strive to fulfil relevant properties according to the perception of the companies, limitations come out in terms of the transfer of the proposed techniques and their perceived reliability.
... A systematic (Morris, 2011) and total innovation approach (Nagji and Tuff, 2012) shall be applied yielding in new product development (NPD), which requires continuous efforts for idea generation, screening and selection (Deppe et al., 2002;Stamm, 2003). Initially, idea selection is done in the Front End (FE) phase, where appropriate project/ product definitions are made (Achiche et al., 2013). Unfortunately, at this early stage there is only a limited set of information available, which is referred by Smith and Reinertsen (1991) as a fuzzy environment as well. ...
... However, the evaluation shall be made systematically with analytical tools to include all required aspects. Achiche et al. (2013) consolidated 29 different FE tools to support the innovation process, but these are distinct tools applicable to any circumstance without any reference set for comparison and evaluation. Moreover, a high level of information is required to be able to apply all these tools. ...
Article
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Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine whether there are antecedents of innovation, which can be looked at during idea evaluations at the fuzzy front end. Methodology: A systematic literature review was conducted for the antecedents of the innovation output, which were then verified and weighed by an integrated team of experts and academicians participating TIM's InoSuit project by using AHP. Findings: The antecedents were isolated as value, applicability, contribution to innovation, generalization, strategy, risk, and suitability of existing solution, and their weights were determined as 12, 15, 10, 18, 8, 32, and 5 % respectfully. Practical Implications: This research provides an analytical assessment model for the initial idea selection for innovation, which can be used within innovation management systems. Originality: There is no comparable scale applicable to the selection in the very early phases of ideation.
... A systematic (Morris, 2011) and total innovation approach (Nagji and Tuff, 2012) shall be applied yielding in new product development (NPD), which requires continuous efforts for idea generation, screening and selection (Deppe et al., 2002;Stamm, 2003). Initially, idea selection is done in the Front End (FE) phase, where appropriate project/ product definitions are made (Achiche et al., 2013). Unfortunately, at this early stage there is only a limited set of information available, which is referred by Smith and Reinertsen (1991) as a fuzzy environment as well. ...
... However, the evaluation shall be made systematically with analytical tools to include all required aspects. Achiche et al. (2013) consolidated 29 different FE tools to support the innovation process, but these are distinct tools applicable to any circumstance Cilt/Volume 7 | Sayı/Issue 1 | Haziran/June 2018 without any reference set for comparison and evaluation. Moreover, a high level of information is required to be able to apply all these tools. ...
Research
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The purpose of this study is to determine organizational cultures and innovation performance mediating effect of empowerment by examining a set of manufacturing firms. The findings show that there is a significant relationship between different organizational cultures features empowerment and innovation performance. It is also found that only adhocracy culture directly supports innovation performance and it is determined as the most important predictor of innovation performance
... Another research front identified in the BP is a fuzzy technique to reach the determined objectives. Achiche, Appio, McAloone, and Di Minin (2013) focused on the decision support to managers in evaluating costs by using tools in the Fuzzy Front End core in complex situations. The results confirmed the possibility of relative costs using the tools to structure the front-end approach in innovation in the development of models of human knowledge. ...
... The differential, when linked to ontologies, is the inclusion of systems that incorporate knowledge automatically when the expert describes it and proposes design solutions. Data gathering may be the key for experts to find solutions and tools appropriate to situations from an interface with specific end-user data based on the expertise (Achiche et al., 2013). ...
Article
The early stages of product development are characterized by uncertainties. Designers must deal with challenges that arise unexpectedly in an agile and responsive manner. Expert information systems based on ontological models are a promising approach to capture knowledge and rationale of domain specialists, either for decision making or knowledge reuse. The present study presents a bibliometric analysis on the use of ontologies in product development for cost estimation. It identifies trends and research opportunities that can orient future works. From a general search in scientific databases, 31 articles were found and selected based on criteria established using the Proknow-C method. Results indicate that there are several possibilities for solutions using ontological and hybrid, transdisciplinary approaches. Using intelligent systems is not only promising but is also challenging as a new and real transdisciplinary research area of interest.
... The features of the front-end phase in NPD process are qualitative, informal, approximate, equivocal, unstructured, and uncertain in nature rather than quantitative, formal, and precise (Montoya-Weiss and O'Driscoll, 2000;Kim and Wilemon, 2002;Frishammar et al., 2011;Wowak et al., 2016). Many studies have made efforts to provide clarity and techniques for mitigating ambiguity in the FFE phase (Khurana and Rosenthal, 1997;Reinertsen, 1999;Montoya-Weiss and O'Driscoll, 2000;Koen et al., 2001Koen et al., , 2002Martinsuo and Poskela, 2011;Achiche et al., 2013;Wowak et al., 2016). Reinertsen analyzed FFE process quantitatively to give some guidelines and deep understanding regarding the structural process design of FFE (Reinertsen, 1999). ...
... Prior research aimed toward better understanding the FFE in NPD has paid much attention to the idea source of innovation (Cooper and Kleinschmidt, 1986;Bj€ ork and Magnusson, 2009), opportunity Managing strategic intellectual property assets R&D Management 00, 00, 2018 identification/recognition (Urban and Hauser, 1993;Leifer et al., 2000;Crawford and Benedetto, 2011), idea generation and concept development (Rangaswamy and Lilien, 1997;Crawford and Benedetto, 2011), up-front activities in NPD process (Cooper and Kleinschmidt, 1995;Griffiths-Hemans and Grover, 2006), the role of marketing activities in the FFE (Schoonmaker et al., 2013), decision support tools in the FFE (Leon, 2009;Achiche et al., 2013;Wowak et al., 2016), the role of intuition in the FFE (Eling et al., 2014), information collection/exploration (Crawford and Benedetto, 2011), supplier integration in the FFE (Wagner, 2012;Schoenherr and Wagner, 2016), customer's involvement in the FFE (Wong et al., 2011;Menguc et al., 2014), organizational processes (Khurana and Rosenthal, 1997;Markham and Lee, 2013), and the impact of FFE on product performance (Verworn, 2009;Markham, 2013). However, the screening process targeting product ideas intended to be filed for a patent at FFE phase has been underdeveloped and poorly supported through concrete decision-making methods and criteria. ...
Article
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The strategic use of intellectual property (IP) is crucial for technology-based companies to gain competitive advantage. The recent transformation of the US patent system brings new challenges and opportunities in this arena. In this regard, this study attempts to identify techniques which can help with IP evaluation and selection in the fuzzy front end (FFE) of new product development (NPD) process. This study combines data collection methods such as mining the literature, conducting in-depth interviews, surveying questionnaires, and analyzing cases. This research serves as an analysis of modern literature and identifies a multi-criteria weighted scoring model that can be employed to help with the patent decision process. The criterion to discern patent eligibility is a contended discussion. For this survey administration, 300 companies, as the targeted sample, were randomly selected to be reached from LexisNexis database. Consequently, this paper identifies the key decision criteria to incorporate into this model and obtains weights gathered from surveying IP professionals and R&D managers in U.S.-based electronics manufacturing firms (SIC code: 36). This study proposes a structured approach to identify ideas that should be patented in the FFE of NPD process by way of an analysis of pertaining literature and case studies. The technique we present in this paper could be essential for many firms to achieve IP success as their strategic means. Moreover, this tool can help R&D managers not only speed up the FFE of NPD process but also make more informed and target-worthy decisions for IP filing.
... Although five experts might seem low as a number of a sample size, there are no standards about the number of expert participants for conducting an evaluation. 73 Achiche et al. 74 pointed out that the required number of expert participants is far less than general participants. For instance, five experts participated in the research by Achiche et al. 74 and four experts participated in the study presented by Dore´et al. 75 Additionally, Charyton and Merrill 76 employed two experts for assessing general creativity and creative engineering design. ...
... 73 Achiche et al. 74 pointed out that the required number of expert participants is far less than general participants. For instance, five experts participated in the research by Achiche et al. 74 and four experts participated in the study presented by Dore´et al. 75 Additionally, Charyton and Merrill 76 employed two experts for assessing general creativity and creative engineering design. In this case study, the five experts were trying to analyse and assess how the concept of a product is generated, which was challenging and considered as reverse engineering at concept levels. ...
Article
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Creativity is a crucial element of design. The aim of this study is to investigate the driving forces behind combinational creativity. We propose three driven approaches to combinational creativity, problem-, similarity- and inspiration-driven, based on previous research projects on design process, strategy and cognition. A case study involving hundreds of practical products selected from winners of international design competitions has been conducted to evaluate the three approaches proposed. The results support the three driven approaches and indicate that they can be used independently as well as complementarily. The three approaches proposed in this study have provided an understanding of how combinational creativity functions in design. The approaches could be used as a set of creative idea generation methods for supporting designers in producing creative design ideas.
... Product innovation initiates from FE phase of NPD process, which covers idea generation and idea selection. FE covers the activities that precede structural New Product and Process Development (Koen et al., 2001), where project-/product definition is made (Achiche et al., 2013). According to Jou et al. (2016), FE is very important for the success of innovation projects, since the project is selected and then its quality, costs and schedule are defined. ...
... Successful ideas for NPD contain three dimensions which are novelty for customer, usefulness for customer and usefulness for companies (Hirunyawipada et al., 2015). There are two main approaches to structure the FE: the New Concept Development (NCD) model (Koen et al., 2001;Koen, 2004) further fuzzified by Achiche et al. (2013) and the Stage-Gate Model (Cooper and Edgett, 2008). The research of Koen et al. (2001) revealed that organizational attributes including senior management involvement, vision, strategy, resources and culture are the most important factors for FE performance. ...
Article
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Companies need to deliver innovative new products in order to compete in the global market successfully. Customer preferences as well technologies are highly dynamic that continuous ideation is required in the fuzzy Front End of product development, where suitable ideas have to be selected to initiate object innovation. The fuzzy Front End is mainly unorganized in companies, and there is a lack of a consistent taxonomy in the literature covering all aspects in the fuzzy Front End for successful product innovation. Consequently a model describing the pillars of the fuzzy Front End with respect to object innovation is synthesized here based on evidence from the industry supported by a systematic literature review, which shall support practitioners and researchers in the successful evaluation of innovation ideas.
... Serrano and Robledo, (2013) Evaluating Innovation Capabilities at University Institutions Combination between a fuzzy logic system and the experience or knowledge of experts Fuzzy inference system (Medina, 2006;Kosko, 1994;Mizutani and Sun, 1997) Multi-value logic that allows reasoning about a world of objects as relational entities (Pedrycz and Gomide, 1998). Achiche et al., (2013) New product development Fuzzy decision support models Triangular fuzzy sets (Achiche et al. 2006;Duda 2001), Genetically generated Fuzzy Models (Achiche et al., 2004) Approximate characterization of phenomena that are too complex or illdefined (Zadeh 1975) Sorayaei et al., (2014 Marketing strategy Fuzzy logic decision making support system Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (Saaty, 2000;Chang 1996) Uncertainty in the subjective judgments. ...
... Moreover, they tend to focus models to a specific domain, e.g. Büyüközkan and Feyzıoglu, (2004); Achiche et al., (2013) for product development, Kong et al., 2008 for technological innovation capability. Zouggari and Benyoucef (2012) for partner selection models. ...
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Empirical studies in the late 1980s and 1990s on financial liberalization lent support to the reforms carried out in line with the Mckinnon-Shaw hypothesis. Later evidence shows financial liberalization failed to achieve its desired results in many countries. Thus, the emphasis of current literature is to identify and explain the reasons for non-achievement of expected objectives to be realized through financial liberalization. An extensive literature survey done through this study reveals two main reasons for this failure. One is the incorrect policy procedure being followed in implementing financial liberalization referred to as a sequential problem. The other is to have policy inconsistencies during the reforming periods, referred to as a macroeconomic problem. This paper analyses the theoretical evolution of financial liberalization considering the empirical evidence presented by researchers through first, second and third generations of financial liberalization. The objective is to develop a more comprehensive analysis that can be identified as a fourth generation model of financial liberalization. Future researchers can make use of this model in their empirical analysis on measuring the success of financial reforms’ in various countries.
... Indeed, the 'V-model' process emphasizes requirement-driven design and testing, so the initial concept is modified when data are gathered from numerical simulations and experiments. The detailed dimensioning of the system components (including, e.g., the development of a static model of the system and of its components, the choice of the structural components from catalogues, the choice of the materials to be used, the calculation of the thicknesses and a fatigue analysis of some components, if necessary) does not relate to phase 1 of the general design-process ('Conceptual and embodiment design') [62,[65][66][67]: it is instead a subsequent process ('phase 2') and therefore has not been addressed here. . Preliminary steps useful in conceiving a test system, based on the approach followed to design a test/experiment starting from a real situation/phenomenon to be investigated (adapted from [55]). ...
... Indeed, the 'V-model' process emphasizes requirement-driven design and testing, so the initial concept is modified when data are gathered from numerical simulations and experiments. The detailed dimensioning of the system components (including, e.g., the development of a static model of the system and of its components, the choice of the structural components from catalogues, the choice of the materials to be used, the calculation of the thicknesses and a fatigue analysis of some components, if necessary) does not relate to phase 1 of the general design-process ('Conceptual and embodiment design') [62,[65][66][67]: it is instead a subsequent process ('phase 2') and therefore has not been addressed here. Following the specific approach for conceiving and designing a test system, it is necessary to define the typical situations leading to a sideways overturning or a lateral rollover of an agricultural machine. ...
Article
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In this study, a new rig for investigating the static and dynamic stability of agricultural machines was conceived: its architecture was studied and its layout was designed following a specific conceptual approach. The first part of the proposed design process specifically addresses the test equipment and follows a ‘top-down’ logic starting from the requisites of the tests to perform. This approach alternates analysis and synthesis phases and exploits two important principles of the creative design process: functional analysis and decomposition, and kinematic inversion. During this process, many solutions (kinematic mechanisms, actuators) were proposed and discussed based on their advantages and disadvantages towards the definition of an optimal configuration. Therefore, the layout of a new mechanical system has been developed, which is supposed to steer subsequent and more detailed design-phases appropriately. The proposed facility has many innovative features compared to traditional test systems, in which vehicles are tested for lateral overturning under static conditions with the steering components (wheels/central joint for conventional/articulated vehicles) usually in a configuration corresponding only to a straight-path trajectory. Indeed, the present test rig is a mechanical installation with three degrees of freedom. It presents a wide plane, which can be tilted, composed by two semi-platforms connected by a central articulation hinge, operated by hydraulic jacks which allow the different angulations of the semi-platforms. It is specifically thought for performing dynamic stability tests of vehicles, especially on circular trajectories. An additional subsystem embedded in one of the two semi-platforms, configured as a rotating platform (‘turntable’), can test the global (static) stability of motionless vehicles placed on it.
... Academic research on FEI processes aims at helping entrepreneurs and organisations take advantage of the opportunity landscape by giving them the tools that may help reducing the risk and innovation costs [3,4]. At the same time, researchers have been looking into how to reduce the time to market of the innovation while balancing the increasing technological complexity [5,6]. ...
... In fact, the FEI complex setting poses managerial challenges for organisations. Studies have shown that companies tend to start the FEI without a clear definition or analysis of the process of how to go from Opportunity Identification to Concept Generation; as a result, the FEI process is often aborted or forced to be restarted [3]. ...
Article
The initial phase of the innovation process is widely accepted as an important driver of positive results for new products and for the success of businesses. The Front End of Innovation (FEI) is a multidisciplinary area that includes a variety of activities, such as ideation, opportunity identification and analysis, feasibility analysis, global trends analysis, concept definition, customer and competitor analysis, and even business model development. Due to the number and variety of FEI responsibilities, this phase entails a considerable level of complexity and decision making. This fact is reflected in the literature, where one finds a variety of FEI approaches and proposals, seldom overlapping and offering no clear consensual guidance. This work aimed at overcoming this gap by proposing an Ontology for the Front End of Innovation as a comprehensive knowledge representation of the FEI, the so-called Front End of Innovation Integrative Ontology (FEI2O). The ontology balanced the differences and addressed the shortcomings of the main FEI Reference Models and included contributions from the field. This research builds on a combination of qualitative and quantitative methodologies. It combines the qualitative methods of interviewing and focus group discussion to collect the views of domain experts, used to refine the artefact and later to evaluate the final ontology. Quantitative analysis of data was carried out using the Attribute Agreement approach. The FEI2O explicitly provides a description of a domain regarding concepts, properties and relations of concepts. The main benefit of the FEI2O is to provide a comprehensive formal reference model and a common vocabulary.
... Serrano and Robledo, (2013) Evaluating Innovation Capabilities at University Institutions Combination between a fuzzy logic system and the experience or knowledge of experts Fuzzy inference system (Medina, 2006;Kosko, 1994;Mizutani and Sun, 1997) Multi-value logic that allows reasoning about a world of objects as relational entities (Pedrycz and Gomide, 1998). Achiche et al., (2013) New product development Fuzzy decision support models Triangular fuzzy sets (Achiche et al. 2006;Duda 2001), Genetically generated Fuzzy Models (Achiche et al., 2004) Approximate characterization of phenomena that are too complex or illdefined (Zadeh 1975) Sorayaei et al., (2014 Marketing strategy Fuzzy logic decision making support system Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (Saaty, 2000;Chang 1996) Uncertainty in the subjective judgments. ...
... Moreover, they tend to focus models to a specific domain, e.g. Büyüközkan and Feyzıoglu, (2004); Achiche et al., (2013) for product development, Kong et al., 2008 for technological innovation capability. Zouggari and Benyoucef (2012) for partner selection models. ...
... Although at a first glance the number of experts involved may appear to be low, Lai et al. (2006) indicate that there is no common agreement as to the minimum number of experts required for such evaluations. Furthermore, Achiche et al. (2013) indicate that the number of experts needed in an evaluation is far less compared with employing general people. Many design studies involving expert evaluations have employed a low number of experts, for example, less than six experts have participated in the studies conducted by Doré et al. (2007), Charyton and Merrill (2009), and Achiche et al. (2013), respectively. ...
... Furthermore, Achiche et al. (2013) indicate that the number of experts needed in an evaluation is far less compared with employing general people. Many design studies involving expert evaluations have employed a low number of experts, for example, less than six experts have participated in the studies conducted by Doré et al. (2007), Charyton and Merrill (2009), and Achiche et al. (2013), respectively. Therefore, the nineteen experts employed in this case study can be considered a sufficient number. ...
Article
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Creativity is considered to have a significant impact on the design process and its outcomes, while aesthetics and functionality are considered key characteristics of products. A relationship between creativity, aesthetics and functionality is, therefore, often assumed, however, researchers view the relations between creativity, functionality and aesthetics differently. In this paper, the authors present first evidence that novelty, usefulness and surprise are the core elements of design creativity. The aim of this research is the exploration of the relations between functionality, aesthetics, novelty, usefulness, surprise, and overall creativity, by means of an experimental case study involving design experts evaluating forty-five design samples. Statistical analysis has been conducted to investigate and understand these relations. The results obtained indicate that aesthetics has a significant positive relationship with creativity but that functionality does not have a statistically significant relationship with creativity in general. Further analysis confirms that design creativity is strongly and positively related to novelty and surprise, but not significantly related to usefulness. In addition, high correlation coefficient values have revealed that creativity, novelty and surprise are perceived as the same dimension as are functionality and usefulness. This paper may be of interest to researchers, practitioners, and educators in the broader realm of design, including industrial design, creativity in design, engineering design, design innovation, product design and new product development. It provides new insights into how creativity is perceived within the field and offers a new point of view on creativity and its dimensions for the community to meditate and to debate.
... Although at a first glance the number of experts involved may appear to be low, Lai et al. (2006) indicate that there is no common agreement as to the minimum number of experts required for such evaluations. Furthermore, Achiche et al. (2013) indicate that the number of experts needed in an evaluation is far less compared with employing general people. Many design studies involving expert evaluations have employed a low number of experts, for example, less than six experts have participated in the studies conducted by Doré et al. (2007), Charyton and Merrill (2009), and Achiche et al. (2013), respectively. ...
... Furthermore, Achiche et al. (2013) indicate that the number of experts needed in an evaluation is far less compared with employing general people. Many design studies involving expert evaluations have employed a low number of experts, for example, less than six experts have participated in the studies conducted by Doré et al. (2007), Charyton and Merrill (2009), and Achiche et al. (2013), respectively. Therefore, the nineteen experts employed in this case study can be considered a sufficient number. ...
Article
Full-text available
Creativity is considered to have a significant impact on the design process and its outcomes, while aesthetics and functionality are considered key characteristics of products. A relationship between creativity, aesthetics and functionality is, therefore, often assumed, however, researchers view the relations between creativity, functionality and aesthetics differently. In this paper, the authors present first evidence that novelty, usefulness and surprise are the core elements of design creativity. The aim of this research is the exploration of the relations between functionality, aesthetics, novelty, usefulness, surprise, and overall creativity, by means of an experimental case study involving design experts evaluating forty-five design samples. Statistical analysis has been conducted to investigate and understand these relations. The results obtained indicate that aesthetics has a significant positive relationship with creativity but that functionality does not have a statistically significant relationship with creativity in general. Further analysis confirms that design creativity is strongly and positively related to novelty and surprise, but not significantly related to usefulness. In addition, high correlation coefficient values have revealed that creativity, novelty and surprise are perceived as the same dimension as are functionality and usefulness. This paper may be of interest to researchers, practitioners, and educators in the broader realm of design, including industrial design, creativity in design, engineering design, design innovation, product design and new product development. It provides new insights into how creativity is perceived within the field and offers a new point of view on creativity and its dimensions for the community to meditate and to debate.
... É necessário um grande esforço de gestão, principalmente no nível cognitivo. Apesar de algumas ferramentas de apoio (ACHICHE et al., 2013;. BUYUKOZKAN;FEYZIOGLU, 2004;HAZIR, 2014), os gerentes usam a intuição no FFE (ELING et al., 2014). ...
Thesis
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Strategic product planning (SPP) for new product development (NPD) in the fuzzy front end (FFE) requires high cognitive effort from managers and practitioners, since the large number of Activities as well as the high level of interdependence Among Them And Also the peculiarities of each project make the structuring Activities the messy problem. In order to structure key Activities on SPP in the FFE, we propose the cognitive model using the Strategic Options Development and Analysis (SODA) method. The Proposed model was applied in two Brazilian industries from the food sector. This study revealed that the activities in the FFE report to each other in a hierarchical mannered, with a high level of complexity, and some Activities behave the other options the strategies and the other goals. The activities found in the food sector are similar to those found in the mobile sector, but have some differences due to peculiarities of each sector. We recommend the cognitive model to assist managers and practitioners structuring Activities on SPP.
... A number of existing studies focus on the adoption, adaptation and use of decisionmaking and creativity tools with the aim, for instance, to deal with the Fuzzy Front End of innovation (Achiche et al., 2013), rather than supporting managers in measuring NPD success factors (Bhuiyan, 2011); some scholars provide a cross-industry overview of tools adoption (Nijssen and Frambach, 2000). However, the literature is still silent on the adoption and use of biomimicry tools by companies. ...
Article
As technological problems and societal challenges become increasingly complex, designers are urged to recombine knowledge from different sources in order to innovate. In this paper we question how nature may be the key source of inspiration. Precisely, the work presented in this paper focuses on the impact that bio-inspired design is having on the new product development (NPD) process. The overall aim of the study is to shed new light on how designers and researchers use biomimicry tools along the NPD process. We aim to understand whether designers are: first, familiar with biomimicry tools; second, aware of their characteristics; third, in favor of using biomimicry tools in the NPD process; fourth, able to assess the impact of biomimicry tools on the NPD performance. By modeling and analyzing survey data, counterintuitive results for designers emerged both concerning the awareness of the biomimetic tools and their impact on the NPD innovation outcomes.
... Porém, conforme o próprio autor menciona, muitas ferramentas e técnicas se sobrepõem em diversas atividades e a questão da efetividade delas não foi abordada no trabalho. De fato, tanto a escolha de técnicas e ferramentas para o FEI quanto o estudo da efetividade delas já começam a ser foco de algumas pesquisas (por exemplo, Achiche et al. (2013)), entretanto esse ainda é um campo que necessita de desenvolvimentos teóricos e empíricos. ...
Article
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O front end da inovação é o primeiro subprocesso do processo da inovação. Esse subprocesso reúne as atividades realizadas antes da proposição e aprovação de um conceito a ser desenvolvido e implementado. Uma vez que as organizações podem se beneficiar substancialmente da otimização e melhoria do front end da inovação, e que esse ainda tem recebido pouca atenção, tanto da academia quanto das organizações, justifica-se a importância de estudos que busquem a compreensão e a organização desse corpo da literatura, auxiliando assim na evolução dos conceitos teóricos, bem como o preenchimento das lacunas de pesquisa ainda existentes. Nesse sentido, este artigo relata os resultados de um estudo cujo objetivo foi, a partir de levantamento e análise da literatura relativa ao front end da inovação e, em especial, dos modelos desse subprocesso, propor um conjunto de pressupostos como base para o desenvolvimento teórico e empírico do tema. Com o levantamento, realizado em quatro bases de dados eletrônicas, foram identificados 268 trabalhos, dos quais oito apresentam modelos de front end da inovação considerados relevantes para análise. Esses modelos são comparados com base em alguns critérios de análise de conteúdo dos artigos. A partir dessa análise, também são sugeridas perspectivas de pesquisa, bem como pontos que necessitam de aprofundamento teórico são identificados.
... It is intuitive that the creation of successful products requires that both macro-phases be carried out accurately. However, literature tends to assign the FFE a predominant role [4] and the definition of design objectives, clearly shaped also by market inputs, is to be considered the most critical activity to future product success within the FFE [5]. Such an activity leading to the definition of new product attributes can be supported by proper techniques. ...
Conference Paper
As creativity is increasingly important in order to achieve differentiation and competitiveness in industry, designers face the challenge of conceiving and rating large numbers of new product development options. The authors’ recent studies show the effectiveness of ideation procedures guided by stimuli that are submitted to designers in the form of abstract benefits. A rich collection of said benefits has been created to this scope; more specifically, the authors have performed a detailed clustering of the categories described in TRIZ ideality, i.e. useful functions, attenuation of undesired effects and reduction of consumed resources. Aspects related to sustainability and environmental friendliness manifestly appear in the list of stimuli and these issues are reflected in several ideas emerged in initial experiments. However, many promising product development objectives conflict with sustainability or, at least, their adherence to eco-design is arguable. The paper assesses the share of ideas that are supposed to comply with sustainability in experiments described in recent literature. Subsequently, it intends to stimulate a discussion about the introduction of measures to attract attention of designers on sustainability in the critical early product development stages also when green aspects do not represent the fundamental driver to achieve greater customer value. As well, it discusses which sustainability aspects are worth being considered adequately during the very early design phases and which ones could result as exceedingly constraining.
... Technical and market uncertainties influence some aspects of NPD effectiveness (e.g., prototype development proficiency) [40]. High uncertain conditions in market and technology will require more valuable information for making quality decisions especially in early PD phases [41]. Although these studies examined the effect of uncertainty on ICT usage or NPD performance, no study with ICT focus, addressing the moderating role of CPD project uncertainty was found in literature. ...
Article
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Manufacturing firms are increasingly adopting collaborative product development (CPD) as a strategy to achieve competitive advantage through joint synergies in introducing new products to market. Substantial increase in use of information and communication technology (ICT) in CPD is evidenced recently, as a result of extended spans between collaborative partners and enhanced collaboration effectiveness. Since using ICT is a highly cost intensive task, uncovering a detailed picture of the effect of ICT usage on CPD performance would be immensely useful for effective management ICT in CPD. This study develops a conceptual model (measurement considerations included) to comprehensively examine the role of ICT in CPD. Organizational information processing theory (OIPT) is adopted as the key methodology to draw the relationship between ICT usage and tangible and intangible outcomes of CPD. The model guides testing of hypotheses concerning direct and moderated effects of ICT usage on CPD performance considering project characteristics (complexity, uncertainty, and urgency) as moderators. Key insights from the model suggest that utilization of ICT resources and capabilities based on the information processing requirement generated by the characteristics of a project would provide better results in terms of both collaborative and new product performance. © 2014 International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology.
... In fact, studies have shown that companies are likely to start the FEI without a clear picture of the process of how to go from the Identification of an opportunity to the generation of the concept (that will feed the NPD). Hence, the FEI process is frequently aborted or forced to be restarted (Achiche, Appio, McAloone, & Di Minin, 2013). ...
Conference Paper
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Entrepreneurship is a key component for answering the need for creating and strengthening businesses. The expected results of entrepreneurial activities are the creation of jobs and innovative firms. Therefore, entrepreneurship education plays a vital role in engaging students in the systematic practice of innovation. An entrepreneur committed to a management role has a significant perspective to innovation and entrepreneurship endeavor, both tasks demanding a management practice for creating change. In this context, the Front End of Innovation (FEI) plays a critical role. However, this is a challenging phase for entrepreneurs and companies as the FEI demands a variety of activities and approaches, necessary to overcoming the risks entailed in a new concept development, which hopefully will be unfolded as a new product or service, or even a business. The literature reflects this situation, with a variety of FEI approaches and works. This study builds on the results of research that aimed at overcoming this issue by proposing the FEI Integrative Ontology (FEI 2 O). This paper details the manner by which the FEI Integrative Ontology offers an appropriate novel conceptual model for entrepreneurship education providing a cross-analysis of the FEI 2 O and the Content Standards for Entrepreneurship Education considering the "Entrepreneurial Process" that is part of the "Entrepreneurial Skills" section of the standard. Therefore, it explores the benefits of adopting the FEI 2 O canvas to support innovation projects in the classroom, and ultimately the management of the FEI. Lastly, the work evaluates the FEI 2 O answers for FEI Critical Success Factors, such as strategy, resources, processes, climate and leadership. Given the clear relationship between the subset of skills required for entrepreneurship education and the concepts handled at the front-end of innovation, our results demonstrate that the in-depth understanding of the FEI ontology could help entrepreneurship educators to enrich entrepreneurship and management skills by the use of an organized body of knowledge. In sum, this comprehensive tool is helpful to translate into action the management of the FEI contributing as a novel approach to education for entrepreneurship.
... In our case study, both raters recruited were experts who have more than three years of experience in product design and also have experience of using CAT for creativity evaluation. Although the number of employed raters seems low, there is not a standard number of raters for a CAT0 assessment (Lai et al., 2006), and the number of expert raters is far less required than general raters (Achiche et al., 2013). Both raters were blind of from which group each solution came, and there were 51 solutions generated from session 1 and 43 solutions generated in session 2. The raters are asked to score each solution within a scale from 1 to 7 (which means from the "least creative" to "most creative" in term of combinational creativity) based on their comprehension of combinational creativity, the requirements of the design task and comparisons between solutions. ...
... It basically aims to provide managers and researchers with a multi-dimensional construct for dealing with the search practices in the fuzzy front end of innovation. A wide range of scientific contributions pointed to the variety of tools that can be used to manage this phase of the innovation process (e.g., Achiche et al., 2013); yet what is not addressed is the conceptualization and empirical validation of those dimensions that can help managers in understanding whether, in their searching for innovation, they are confronting with a radical rather than an incremental outcome. Attempts to provide an objective measurement basis to one of the key activities of the innovation process are almost absent. ...
Article
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In this paper, we shed light on why academics are in one of the best positions to orchestrate inter-organisational initiatives of continuous innovation (CI) within an innovation context that is shifting towards an open collaborative ecosystem mode. Two rationales seem to explain the potential key role of academics within a CI ecosystem: 1) their independence; 2) their compliance to CI ecosystem’s purposes – independently by its type. The implications of the five papers invited to be part of the special issue, and formerly presented at the 14th International CINet Conference in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, are also discussed.
... Although the number of experts seems low, there is not a standard of the number of experts for an assessment (Lai et al., 2006). It is also indicated that the number of expert evaluators is far less required than general evaluators (Achiche et al., 2013). For instance, two experts participated the study conducted by Charyton and Merrill (2009) to evaluate creativity and creative engineering designs. ...
... The complexity of the accelerating technological frontier is particularly visible at the front end of innovation (De Brentani and Reid, 2012;Eling and Herstatt, 2017), where novel and useful ideas must be promptly generated and evaluated prior to prototype (Pea Häufler et al., 2021). It is therefore important to identify the appropriate tools and methods for these preliminary phases of the innovation process (Appio et al., 2013;Marion and Fixson, 2021;Michieli et al., 2019). ...
Article
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The inherent uncertainty of the innovation process, along with the fast-changing world of technology, presents significant difficulties to modern companies. As a result, product managers and engineers are under growing pressure to come up with better, more effective, more inventive solutions faster. Science fiction is one of the various approaches available, although it is yet relatively unexplored. Despite the fact that science fiction has demonstrated its promise in a variety of areas, it is sometimes seen as little more than an escapism. In this Catalyst, we show how to use science fiction into the innovation process to help product managers and engineers envision new opportunities. We provide a preliminary explanation of how science fiction may be implemented by showcasing evidence from inventors and pioneering companies and demonstrating examples of utopian technology transformed into reality. Finally, we offer a set of actionable research directions to promote debate and discussion among product managers, engineers, and academics.
... The differential when linked to ontologies is the inclusion of systems that incorporate knowledge automatically when the expert describes it and proposes design solutions. Data gathering may be the key for experts to find solutions and tools appropriate to situations from an interface with specific end-user data based on the expertise [30]. ...
Book
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The early stages of product development are characterized by uncertainties and assumption of parameters that directly affect the product and project costs, the development time, and the quality of the manufacturing process. Designers must deal with challenges that arise unexpectedly in an agile and responsive manner. Expert information systems based on ontological models are a promising approach to capture knowledge and rationale of domain specialists, either for decision making or knowledge reuse. The present study presents a bibliometric analysis on the use of ontologies in product development for cost estimation. It identifies trends and research opportunities that can orient future works. From a general search in scientific databases that originally listed thousands of entries, 31 articles were found and selected based on criteria established using the Proknow-C method. The outcome of the present study can help researchers in the search of relevant research gaps to guide future scientific investigations in the area of knowledge-based cost estimation for product development. Results indicate that there are several possibilities for solutions using ontological and hybrid, transdisciplinary approaches. In the search for solutions that support the product cost estimation in the early stages of development, the use of intelligent systems is not only promising, but is also challenging as a new and real transdisciplinary research area of interest.
... This is suitable for quantitative criteria but for qualitative criteria it is important to bear in mind that any scoring system used, for example, five-point versus three-point, [56] might also affect the final ranking. However, when such criteria are used either in design concept selection [57], or in tools selection [58], or in materials selection [26] problems, the decision-making process needs contributions from a range of different disciplines (the team of engineers and designers) involved. In these situations, fuzzy decision-making methods are generally used. ...
Article
Considerable effort has been spent on the development of normalization models in multi-attribute decision-making (MADM) but despite all of these there is no definitive answer to question: which technique is the most appropriate? Therefore, after a thorough review of the literature, thirty-one methods were identified, classified and evaluated for use in materials selection problems. The objective of this paper is to examine the shortcomings of normalization methods and suggest ways of improving their use in the engineering design decision-making process. The emphasis is placed on materials selection, for problems that include target criteria, as well as cost and benefit considerations, typically seen in more challenging applications such as aerospace and biomedical engineering. It is shown that although many normalization methods may appear to be minor variants of each other, these nuances can have important consequences in engineering design decision-making. To conclude, some dimensionless methods are proposed. The result of this research investigation will help ensure engineering decision makers in general improve their current use of MADM methods but in particular aid designers in developing suitable design performance indices for materials selection.
... Although the number of experts seems low, there are no common agreements on the number of experts required for an evaluation (Lai et al., 2006). Comparing with general evaluators, the required number of expert evaluators is far less (Achiche et al., 2013). For instance, Charyton and Merrill (2009) only employed two experts for evaluating creativity and engineering designs. ...
... It corresponds to the optimization of the principle from Pahl et Beitz, i.e. task clarification, conceptual design and part of embodiment design phases (Pahl & Beitz, 2007). Another term, close to this definition, can be found in literature as the Fuzzy Front End, which concerns the stages from opportunity identification to the concept definition (Achiche, Appio, McAloone, & Di Minin, 2012). ...
Thesis
To increase integration of environmental expertise in design process, the present work aims to explore the information exchange matter. More precisely, the research question addressed is: what is the product outcome when different sets of information from the design process are given to the environmental expert?The development of this dissertation covers, first, the representation of product development information from the point of view of the environmental expert. Second, this baseline information is used to create an environmental expert role in the context of a design simulation. Based on this simulation, three sets of information are tested: specifications; specifications plus rules of thumb; and “all design exchanges” (i.e. the expert joins the design team). The comparison of the 3 levels of information reveals, among other results, that: in a context where the environmental expert is disconnected form the design team, and, in which rules of thumb are presented, the expert is less focused on reducing the environmental impact. Nevertheless, he is more concerned with the overall feasibility of the house. This is not the case of an integrated context, which results in the best compromise between feasibility and environmental performance
... This difficulty comes from the inherent uncertainty and ambiguity of parameters which pervade the FFE to a significant degree [8,[10][11][12]. Hence, there has been an increase in the volume of FFE studies over the last decade [11,[13][14][15], including studies which have developed many toolkits, structural and functional framesets in which NPDrelated input and output parameters are produced, which consider how the FFE deals with processing and deciding parameters [2,16,17]. Firstly, few toolkits have been developed with contextual performance (generally activated in a single functional domain) in mind. This means those toolkits do not link to each other but instead have a tendency to be separate and to exist independently for a given purpose and role. ...
Article
A data-driven model for the Fuzzy Front End (FFE) stage in new product development (NPD) programmes, with a series of toolkits to decrease uncertainty and ambiguity of parameter processing, has been developed. Parameters produced in toolkits provided in previous models tend to exist independently, without any interrelationship in the contextual performance relationship of a single functional domain nor concurrent collaboration relationship across multiple functional domains. This results in uncertainty and ambiguity triggered by an incorrect interpretation of parameters. The new model involved inferring a single representative FFE scenario wherein diverse FFE performance structures interlock from the contextual performance and concurrent collaboration perspectives by analysing various real-world FFE scenarios gathered from NPD expert interviews. This representative scenario was embodied into the model with a performative structure, through deployment of toolkits. Users are informed of the purpose, roles and meanings of parameters and their relationships and thus can infer each parameter from other parameters. This contributes to reduction in uncertainty and ambiguity in processing parameters. The study proposes an FFE execution concept, giving mathematical reasoning behind the performance structure of the model.
... Although the number of experts seems low, there are no common agreements on the number of experts required for an evaluation [14]. Comparing with general evaluators, the required number of expert evaluators is far less [15]. ...
Article
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In today's business environment, the trend towards more product variety and customization is unbroken. Due to this development, the need of agile and reconfigurable production systems emerged to cope with various products and product families. To design and optimize production systems as well as to choose the optimal product matches, product analysis methods are needed. Indeed, most of the known methods aim to analyze a product or one product family on the physical level. Different product families, however, may differ largely in terms of the number and nature of components. This fact impedes an efficient comparison and choice of appropriate product family combinations for the production system. A new methodology is proposed to analyze existing products in view of their functional and physical architecture. The aim is to cluster these products in new assembly oriented product families for the optimization of existing assembly lines and the creation of future reconfigurable assembly systems. Based on Datum Flow Chain, the physical structure of the products is analyzed. Functional subassemblies are identified, and a functional analysis is performed. Moreover, a hybrid functional and physical architecture graph (HyFPAG) is the output which depicts the similarity between product families by providing design support to both, production system planners and product designers. An illustrative example of a nail-clipper is used to explain the proposed methodology. An industrial case study on two product families of steering columns of thyssenkrupp Presta France is then carried out to give a first industrial evaluation of the proposed approach.
... The number of experts might seem low, but there are no standard agreements on the number of experts for an assessment (Lai et al., 2006). Achiche et al. (2013) indicated that the number required for expert evaluators is far less than general evaluators. For example, only two experts were involved in the creativity evaluation study conducted by Charyton and Merrill (2009). ...
Conference Paper
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Combinational creativity is a significant element of design in supporting designers to generate creative ideas during the early phases of design. There exists three driven approaches to combinational creativity: problem-, similarity- and inspiration-driven. This study provides further insights into the three combinational creativity driven approaches, exploring which approach could lead to ideas that are more creative in the context of practical product design. The results from a case study reveal that the problem- driven approach could lead to more creative and novel ideas or products compared with the similarity- and inspiration-driven approach. Products originating from the similarity- and inspiration-driven approach are at comparable levels. This study provides better understanding of combinational creativity in practical design. It also delivers benefits to designers in improving creative idea generation, and supports design researchers in exploring future ideation methods and design support tools employing the concept of 'combination'.
... Although the number of experts seems low, there are no common agreements on the number of experts required for an evaluation (Lai et al., 2006). Comparing with general evaluators, the required number of expert evaluators is far less (Achiche et al., 2013). For instance, Charyton and Merrill (2009) only employed two experts for evaluating creativity and engineering designs. ...
Article
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Creativity is often said to play a vital role in the product design process, while functionality and aesthetics are considered key factors of actual products. Functionality refers to the performance of a product, and aesthetics represents the visual and ergonomic appeals of the product. However, there appears to be an elusive relation between creativity, functionality and aesthetics. This study explores how functionality, aesthetics and creativity are related to one another in design. Through exploring the definitions and assessments of creativity in design, this study reveals that novelty, usefulness and surprise are the three core elements of design creativity. A case study involving experts evaluating design samples in terms of novelty, usefulness, surprise, functionality, aesthetics and overall creativity is conducted. The results imply that there are no statistically significant relations between creativity, functionality, and aesthetics. Considering the three core elements of design creativity, the results indicate that creativity is only statistically significantly related to novelty. Moreover, our results suggest that creativity and novelty are measuring the same construct.
... Papageorgiou and Salmeron (2014) establish that fuzzy cognitive mapping has a wide scope of applicability, particularly useful in modeling complex systems with existing knowledge and human experience in a flexible, adaptable, and easy to use approach. Thus far, the FCM approach has had limited use in engineering design, applied in the context of environmental planning (Borri et al. 2015), manufacturability analysis (Gavankar and Rao 1995), virtual modeling in the industrial design of automobiles (Silva 1996), failure analysis (Augustine et al. 2012), new product development (Achiche et al. 2013), consensus in the design process (Ostrosi et al. 2011), and assembly design decision making (Kim et al. 2008). The application of fuzzy cognitive mapping to modeling socio-technical systems in system analysis made in the research presented here relates this advancement in knowledge engineering to engineering design and does so with the following methodology. ...
Article
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This paper outlines a fuzzy cognitive mapping (FCM) approach for engaging users in constructing a model for engineering design system analysis. The model’s scope is drawn in reference to a socio-technical system and demonstrated with an assembly production system (a socio-technical system archetype). In particular, this paper focuses on modeling an existing assembly production system that needs to be re-designed, then analyzing the system models to inform the re-design task. The modeling approach engages users as participants (18 in this research) in observation and interviews, and these data are coded into adjacency matrices and fuzzy cognitive maps separately then integrated. The ability to model multiple users and technical entities together in breadth and detail, qualitatively and quantitatively, enables designers to zoom in to see the detail and zoom out to see a holistic perspective. The models are analyzed for overall cause, effect, and central variables. Through the FCM analysis of these variables, the elements of the existing design solution are made explicit, including inputs, external and boundary constraints, design principles, outcomes and outputs, function, and operations and structure. This is particularly useful in re-design, as demonstrated in the industrial re-design project here, where the FCM models make the current system design explicit and their analyses inform re-design intent by being synthesized into re-design foci and tasks.
... As we want to derive heuristics from the learned model, ANFIS is valid choice as it deals well with managing data uncertainties. Also, it is worth noting that we are dealing with a relatively small sample, it is therefore more suitable to have a prior knowledge of how to design the model in terms of rules in each dimension, selection of some features, the shape of membership functions, etc. [72]. This will result in more simple and more generalized models. ...
Article
This paper proposes a Decision Support System that can provide European policy makers with systematic guidance in allocating and prioritizing scant public resources. We do so by taking the stance of the Smart Specialisation Strategies which aim at consolidating the regional strengths and make effective and efficient use of public investment in R&D. By applying the ANFIS method we were able to understand how – and to what extent – the competitiveness drivers promoted technological development and how the latter contributes to the economic growth of European regions. We used socio-economic, spatial, and patent-based data to train, test and validate the models. What emerges is that an increase of R&D investments enhances the regional employment rate and the number of patents per capita; in turn, by taking into account the several combinations of specialization and diversification indicators, this leads to an increase of the regional GDP.
... According to the acknowledged distinction of engineering design activities, the Fuzzy Front End (FFE) is responsible for the acquisition and preliminary transformation of market inputs, usually in terms of human needs or customer requirements, into a product development project. Many sources from design, e.g. ( Tzortzopoulos et al. 2006;Achiche et al. 2013), and CONTACT F. Rotini federico.rotini@unifi.it Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università degli Studi di Firenze, via di S. Marta, 3, Firenze 50139, Italy management, e.g. ...
Article
Many scholars argue that very early design phases are not supported adequately in many respects, although they are at the cornerstone of successful new product development. Difficulties in developing appropriate methods emerge because of the need to account for uncertainties and ambiguities that feature the Fuzzy Front End. This is likely the reason behind the limited industrial adoption of existing design methods, especially those that are oriented to support Product Planning. In this context, the thrust of the paper is the attempt to identify key activities and functions featuring Product Planning. The study entrusts figures about the foreseeable growth of the intensity of research displayed by classes of methods supporting different functions in Product Planning. As the data, emerging from the application of S-curves, indicate no preferential direction in the medium term, other phenomena are monitored that might overturn the conventional systematic course of action to design in the early stages. The ‘trial-and-error’ learning approach characterising agile strategies can be seen as a partial answer to the expected demise of research about Product Planning. Beyond these conclusions, the paper includes a frame of reference that classifies Product Planning methods (adequately reviewed) beyond the classical distinction between responsive and proactive approaches.
Article
This study offers insight into the processes of expert designers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and how they use heuristics in the design process. A methodology for the extraction, classification, and characterization of heuristics is presented. Ten expert participants were interviewed to identify design heuristics used during early stage space mission design at JPL. In total, 101 heuristics were obtained, classified, and characterized. The use of interviews to extract heuristics allowed for researchers to confirm that those heuristics were indeed used by designers. Through the use of post-interview surveys, participants characterized heuristics based on attributes including source/origin, applicability based on concept maturity, frequency of use, reliability, and tendency to evolve. These findings are presented, and statistically significant correlations were found between the participant perceptions of frequency of use, reliability, and evolution of a heuristic. A positive correlation was found between frequency of use and reliability while negative correlations were found between frequency of use and evolution, and reliability and evolution. Survey results and analysis aim to identify valid attributes for assessing the applicability and value of multiple heuristics for design practice in early space mission formulation.
Article
Over the past decade, engineering design research has seen a significant surge of the discussion of empathy. As such, design researchers have been devoted in devising and assessing empathic design activities. While prior research has examined the utility of empathic design experiences on driving creative concept generation, little is known about the role of a designer's empathic tendencies in driving creative concept generation and selection in an engineering design project. Without this knowledge, we cannot be sure if, when, or how empathy influences the design process. Thus, the main goal of this paper was to identify the role of trait empathy in creative concept generation and selection in an engineering design student project. In order to achieve this objective, a study was conducted with 103 first-year engineering students during two design stages of an 8-week design project (concept generation and concept selection). The main findings from this paper highlighted that empathic concern tendencies positively impacted the generation of more ideas while personal distress tendencies negatively impacted the generation of more ideas. During concept selection, perspective-taking tendencies positively impacted participants’ propensity for selecting elegant ideas. This research took the first step in encouraging empirical investigations aimed at understanding the role of trait empathy across different stages of the design process.
Chapter
This chapter presents the foundations of designing a decision support system in terms of a declarative approach. The proposed decision support system includes dependency analysis between input and output variables, prediction of an output variable (e.g. the NPD cost), portfolio selection of NPD projects, and optimal resource allocation for a project portfolio.
Article
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The beginning of the innovation process also known as Front End of Innovation (FEI) is an important contributor to the successful development of new products and the business success. The present study aims at giving an overview of how the FEI concept has been handled over the years, by identifying the focus of the research conducted in this domain knowledge. To this end, this study unfolds an encompassing perspective by developing an analysis of existing publications against two FEI Reference Models. This analysis comprised of the compilation, selection, and review of the content of 169 publications concerning the Front End of Innovation. The period of analysis covered all years until 2015. Evidence shows that this topic has received greater attention in the recent years both regarding depth and the number of publications. However, there are still pending gaps in the literature that are highlighted in this paper. The topics addressing organisational issues were the ones that received more attention.
Article
Early design is crucial for the success of the final product. In the conceptual design phase, several constraints, criteria, objectives and disciplines have to be considered. To this aim, multidisciplinary optimization has proven effective for the solution of engineering design problems, even in the industrial every-day practice, to improve and simplify the work of designers in a successful quest of the best compromise solution. In this paper, a multicriteria decision-making (MCDM)-based design platform for early optimal design of industrial components is proposed. In a group decision-making context, the selection of the most suitable component among several possible layouts is performed by means of a group Fuzzy Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution approach. Hence, a multi-objective optimization is performed on the selected component by applying a multi-objective particle swarm optimization for finding optimal component dimensions. An industrial case study is presented for showing the efficiency of the multicriteria decision-making-based design platform, regarding an innovative and low-cost solution to increase the duration of heel tips in women’s shoes.
Chapter
A relevant approach to increase success on products or services is based on customer oriented product design. In this case, the product will support expected requirements while meeting specific characteristic of attributes of particular type of products. Developing new products is an essential ability to compete in markets where important factors appear like globalization, customer demand and quality of products. Due that multi-criteria decision aids approaches are becoming relevant for the product design, thereby preference aggregation and disaggregation approaches complement existing methods in this area, since customer preferences need to be regarded and aggregated to customer preferences models concerning the target market. Besides that, customer needs to express their preference in an easy-to-answer format, taking into consideration they will not be surveyed again. This chapter is focused on describing a heuristic algorithm for product development, particularity focused on a case study of Agrifood products. The heuristic models customer preferences through the disaggregation of global preferences on corn toast products. The use of heuristics for disaggregating and modelling customer preferences has important implications for marketing managers concerning the development of new products, regarding they can be developed from consumer preferences expressed on attributes on known products.
Chapter
In the recent years, there has been a significant attention among researchers and practitioners to new product development (NPD) strategies. The development of a new product also has long been categorized as the key function of companies in an increasingly competitive global market. However, the initiation of a new product is a process involving risk and uncertainty. That is why companies needs to adapt more accurate product development strategies and evaluate the launching of a new product carefully. One way to cope with this risk is to use novel product development strategies. Therefore, this control problem is formulated as a systematic decision process in order to select the more rational candidate to be launched as a new product. Basically in this chapter, the determination of a comparable new product alternatives and the selection of the best one is done through an integrated approach based on a heuristic multi-criteria decision methodology. The Pythagorean Fuzzy sets (PFSs) are used as an objective world environment since its definite advantages in handling vagueness and uncertainty. A significant focus of the chapter is the dependency of decision criteria and to reflect this situation, the Pythagorean Fuzzy based heuristic approach is proposed for the first time as a combination of AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) and ARAS (Additive Ratio Assessment). A production system is considered where manufacturing of a new product is performed in a Group Decision Making (GDM) setting. Literature reviewed in this chapter presents the current state of the art and discusses the potential future research trends. Finally, a practical case study is presented to demonstrate the potential of the methodology and validate the outcome.
Conference Paper
The research into the front end of innovation has increased substantially in the last decades. In spite of this, it seems that many studies lack alignment in terms of knowledge building, which results in disconnected lines of research. This fact indicates the need of addressing the state-of-the-art concerning the front-end of innovation research field, guiding new attempts towards the most important knowledge gaps. Currently, few attempts have been made to provide an overview of this field. This paper presents a bibliometric analysis conducted to describe the evolution of the knowledge structure of the front-end of innovation. It considers a sample of papers published from 1988 to 2014 and indexed in the Web of Science scientific. This sample is used to develop metrics regarding journal publications and investigate collaboration networks, clarifying opportunities for partnerships and supporting the formulation of research policies. As a result, this study provides useful information for new entrants assimilate the state-of-the-art of the front-end of innovation as well as for experts consolidate their view of the knowledge structure.
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This paper investigates the current state of design in the mechatronic industry. First, based on a literature overview, key circular product characteristics are identified, namely modularity and robustness. Then, a survey has been distributed to practicing mechatronic engineers. Based on the survey, it is found that mechatronic systems are currently designed for long-term circular strategies, while the end-of-life is rarely considered. Furthermore, it is found that one issue in designing mechatronic devices is that they are prone to electronics obsolescence, and that safety regulations may prevent to design for circularity. Moreover, it is reported that customers do not currently require circular aspects in the mechatronic products and thus there is no incentive to designs according to circular principles. Finally, the paper discusses on new research ways of improving the circularity aspect of mechatronic devices, such as by facilitating remanufacturing or by using distributed system.
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In this paper we aim at tackling the problem of searching for novel and high-performing product designs. Generally speaking, the conventional schemes usually optimize a (multi) objective function on a dynamic model/simulation, then perform a number of representative real-world experiments to validate and test the accuracy of the some product performance metric. However, in a number of scenarios involving complex product configuration, e.g. optimum vehicle design and large-scale spacecraft layout design, the conventional schemes using simulations and experiments are restrictive, inaccurate and expensive. In this paper, in order to guide/complement the conventional schemes, we propose a new approach to search for novel and high-performing product designs by optimizing not only a proposed novelty metric, but also a performance function which is learned from historical data. Rigorous computational experiments using more than twenty thousand vehicle models over the last thirty years and a relevant set of well-known gradient-free optimization algorithms shows the feasibility and usefulness to obtain novel and high performing vehicle layouts under tight and relaxed search scenarios. The promising results of the proposed method opens new possibilities to build unique and high-performing systems in a wider set of design engineering problems.
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The front end (FE) of innovation is critical for a firm's new product success. Since academic interest in this research field has increased significantly, we include 168 FE papers and their 9119 references to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the FE literature. We use cocitation analysis to reduce their risk of researchers’ implicit bias. We show that 11 intellectual research bases characterize extant FE literature: new product development (NPD) capabilities, NPD process, knowledge creation and NPD, organizational NPD creativity, externally influenced NPD creativity, external NPD creativity, new process development, social NPD capital, new product success, NPD project performance, and competitive NPD advantages. The citation burst analysis shows that researchers have varying degrees of interests in these topics. A better understanding of FE research's intellectual background and the identification of hot, cold, and evergreen FE topics are valuable contributions. For instance, FE researchers discuss the nature and characteristics of FE activities by referring to NPD process and new-process literature. They call for further assessments of this issue in order to make both the process implementation and the operationalization more flexible.
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The beginning of the innovation process also known as Front End of Innovation (FEI) is an important contributor to the successful development of new products and the business success. The present study aims at giving an overview of how the FEI concept has been handled over the years, by identifying the focus of the research conducted in this domain knowledge. To this end, this study unfolds an encompassing perspective by developing an analysis of existing publications against two FEI Reference Models. This analysis comprised of the compilation, selection, and review of the content of 169 publications concerning the Front End of Innovation. The period of analysis covered all years until 2015. Evidence shows that this topic has received greater attention in the recent years both regarding depth and the number of publications. However, there are still pending gaps in the literature that are highlighted in this paper. The topics addressing organisational issues were the ones that received more attention.
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Front-end (FE) of innovation is crucial for the success of companies' new products. In this research stream, the concept of FE activities has become central to the whole discipline. It describes how the process of finding new product opportunities, as well as enhancing and assessing them, can be implemented. This paper builds on results that FE processes should be flexible and context-specific. It addresses the current need to understand how organisations can influence FE activities so as be more efficient. By conducting semi-structured interviews with 24 FE experts from German material science and engineering (MSE) companies, we identified three organisational factors that impact on FE activities: organisational capabilities, strategic orientation, and organisational culture. Findings indicate that organisational capabilities and strategic orientation could directly reduce the uncertainty rate in the analysis of FE activities. Further, organisational culture and soft skills have moderating effects, and the initial extent of uncertainty has a mediating effect on this rate. Overall, our research contributes to the discussion about FE proficiency, which refrains from the FE life-cycle perspective and demands project-specific and complete execution of FE activities.
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Society is in constant flux and increasing in complexity, challenging organizations to approach innovation in a more proactive manner. This entails anticipating, rather than reacting to what could be next by preparing for a variety of possible futures. Specifically, it means exploring the future value of an idea rather than analysing it as is. In the context of the fuzzy front end of a new product development, scholars highlight the efficacy of using anticipatory systems and the underlying futures-oriented reasoning to make more accurate decision making (i.e., futures thinking, abductive reasoning and contingency mapping). Yet how to systematically stimulate such reasoning in practice is still understudied. The paper presents findings from semistructured interviews with expert innovation managers, which show that futures thinking approaches do feature in strategic decision making on innovation ideas. Yet they are limited in their use and in most cases outweighed by more classical, deductive reasoning patterns. The paper proposes the Innovation System Roadmap (ISR) for innovation managers making strategic decisions on early-stage ideas. It leads users to employ the cognitive processes underlying anticipatory systems. The Innovation System Roadmap stimulates innovation managers to hypothesize the future value of a given innovation idea and how it may (not) be turned into a commercial success following further development. We contend that the Innovation System Roadmap supports innovation managers for sound decision making in early-stage innovation under extreme uncertainties.
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For many industries, new product development is now the single most important factor driving firm success or failure. The emphasis on new products has spurred researchers from strategic management, engineering, marketing, and other disciplines to study the new product development process. Most conclude that in order to be successful at new product development, a firm must simultaneously meet two critical objectives: maximizing the fit with customer needs, and minimizing time to market. While these objectives often pose conflicting demands on the firm, there is a growing body of evidence that the firm may employ strategies to successfully meet these objectives. Successful firms are those that articulate their strategic intent and map their R&D portfolio to find a fit between their new product development goals and their current resources and competencies. Their success also rests on how well the technology areas they enter contribute to the long term direction of the firm by helping them build new core capabilities critical to the firm's long term goals. Strategic alliances to obtain enabling technologies may shorten the development process, but partners must be chosen and monitored carefully. When firms are choosing technologies to acquire externally, they must assess the importance of the learning that would be accrued through internal development of the project, and its impact on the firm's future success. Other imperatives include using a parallel (rather than sequential) development process to both reduce cycle time and to better incorporate customer and supplier requirements in the product and process design, and using executive champions to ensure that projects gain the resources and organizational commitment necessary to their completion. Development teams should include people from a diverse range of functions and should include suppliers and customers to improve the project's chances of maximizing the fit with customer requirements while reducing cycle time and potentially reducing costs. Tools such as Stage-Gate processes. Quality Function Deployment, Design for Manufacturing, and Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing may be useful on different projects.
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Although both the academic and the trade literature have widely acknowledged the need to foster the development of more-innovative products, little empirical research has examined the cognitive processes underlying the creation of these novel product concepts. In this research, three empirical studies examine how analogical thinking influences the idea-generation stage of the new product development process. The first study uses the verbal protocols of real-world industrial designers to trace the role of analogy in the context of a new product development task, and the second and third studies use an experimental approach to assess the effectiveness of different ideation strategies and conditions. Findings from these studies indicate that the originality of the resulting product design is influenced by the extent of analogical transfer, the type of analogies used, and the presence of external primes. In addition, these studies reveal a positive relationship between the originality of the product concept and consumers' willingness to pay for it, an important measure in the concept-testing phase of product development.
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Winning at New Products is a 2001 book. It is now in its 5th edition, "Winning at New Products: Creating Value Through Innovation" 5th ed.. Available as paperback on Amazon.
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This article presents six new principles emerging from four decades of academic and industry research on the generation of high-quality creative ideas by “brainstorming”. The principles are: (a) brainstorming insructions are essential and should emphasize, paradoxically, number and not quality of ideas; (b) a specific, difficult target should be set for the number of ideas; (c) individuals, not groups, should generate the initial ideas; (d) groups should then be used to amalgamate and refine the ideas; (e) individuals should provide the final ratings to select the best ideas, which will increase commitment to the ideas selected; and, (f) the time required for successful brainstorming should be kept remarkably short. By following these principles, brainstorming will more dependably produce high-quality creative results.
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Companies operating in today's competitive markets are compelled to develop new products that accomplish several objectives simultaneously. The products should be competi- tive in global markets, offer gwd value to customers, be en- vironment friendly, enhance the strategic position of the company, and be introduced at the right time. To meet this formidable set of objectives, companies are embracing new concepts and techniques to support changes in the new prod- uct development (NPD) process. These new approaches in- clude techniques such as quality function deployment and stage-gate reviews, measures such as cycle time, and orga- nizational mechanisms such as cross-functional teams (see, for example, Griffin 1993; Zangwill 1993). An accompany- ing trend has been the growth of software tools to facilitate the new NPD processes. There is, however, little in the mar- keting literature that reports on the role and impact of these tools, with the exception of software for new product design trade-offs, such as conjoint analysis. We identify and classify the major categories of software tools that are available for supporting NPD. Then, we briefly explain their role in the NPD process and outline some re- search issues in evaluating these tools. Our objective is to highlight the goals. advantages, and disadvantages of these tools rather than to provide complete evaluations of the mer- its of specific software packages. Although we describe some individual packages, space does not permit us to com- pile a compendium of all the software available in this area. In selecting software for this review, we applied three crite- ria. The software should I. Support activities typically associated with marketing's role in the process. Thus, we exclude software twls that are used in physical product design such as computer-aided design (CAD) andlor computer-aided manufacturing (CAM). 2. Be commercially available for general purpose use rather than be proprietary or customized for a particular firm or indusuy. 3. Run on personal computers (PCs) and be available for our evaluation.
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Traditional idea generation techniques based on customer input usually collect information on new product needs from a random or typical set of customers. The "lead user process" takes a different approach. It collects information about both needs and solutions from users at the leading edges of the target market, as well as from users in other markets that face similar problems in a more extreme form. This paper reports on a natural experiment conducted within the 3M Company on the effect of the lead user (LU) idea-generation process relative to more traditional methods. 3M is known for its innovation capabilities--- and we find that the LU process appears to improve upon those capabilities. Annual sales of LU product ideas generated by the average LU project at 3M are conservatively projected to be $146 million after five years---more than eight times higher than forecast sales for the average contemporaneously conducted "traditional" project. Each funded LU project is projected to create a new major product line for a 3M division. As a direct result, divisions funding LU project ideas are projecting their highest rate of major product line generation in the past 50 years.
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The authors review and categorize the research in applications of artificial intelligence (AI) and expert systems (ES) in new product development (NPD) activities. A brief overview of NPD process and AI is presented. This is followed by a literature survey in regard to AI and ES applications in NPD, which revealed twenty four articles (twenty two applications) in the 1990–1997 period. The applications are categorized into five areas: expert decision support systems for NPD project evaluation, knowledge-based systems (KBS) for product and process design, KBS for QFD, AI support for conceptual design and AI support for group decision making in concurrent engineering. Brief review of each application is provided. The articles are also grouped by NPD stages and seven NPD core elements (competencies and abilities). Further research areas are pointed out.
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Incorporating the `voice of the consumer' in early stages of the new product development process has been identified as a critical success factor for new product development. Yet, this step is often ignored or poorly executed. This may be due to lack of familiarity on which methods are available, the use of disciplinary terminology, and difficulty in accessibility of papers on this subject. This paper reviews and categorises 10 of the most common methods in this area, in terms of what their key features are, and what strengths, weaknesses and appropriateness are. We develop a classification scheme based on three performance dimensions with specific criteria: (1) stimuli used as cue for need elicitation, (2) task format, and (3) need actionability. We provide guidelines for the appropriateness of these methods in the new product development process based on the newness strategy of the development process (radical versus incremental innovation) and identify which functional department (marketing versus R&D) the method should primarily support
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Innovations have the ability to create entirely new markets, or bring about substantial shifts in the balance of power in existing ones. As such, innovation should be an integral element in strategic marketing management, but in practice many large organizations seem better suited to squeeze it out rather than encourage it. This article examines the risks and complexities involved in managing the process of innovation, and sets out the management action required to build a more innovative organization.
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This paper discusses applications of approximate reasoning techniques in risk analysis. Vagueness and imprecision in mathematical quantification of risk are equated with fuzziness rather than randomness. The concept of fuzzy risk evaluation, using linguistic representation of the likelihood of the occurrence of a hazardous event, exposure, and possible consequences of that event, is proposed.
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The early stages of new product development, called the Fuzzy Front End (FFE), are essential for the success of innovation. Therefore, various software tools have been proposed to support FFE activities. However, little evidence is provided about the benefits of using such tools. The objective of this study is to present evidence that will assist industry practitioners to make informed choices about software support tools to be used in the FFE. The method used for this study was a systematic literature review that analyzed 1090 articles published between 1997 and 2009. The results show that software tools can speed up the FFE, reduce costs, increase collaboration, improve decision quality and knowledge management, reduce risks, and enhance overall creativity.
Book
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The TRIZ theory of technology evolution is introduced and its limitations in new product development is assessed in this paper, Based on the multiple approaches evolution patterns of TRIZ Theory, a decision-making procedure model for new product development is proposed and a sample product is used to demonstrate how to use new model to the real developing procedure of a new product.
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The optimistic forecasts for computerized information systems in the support of top-level decision making have not been realized. In many firms, studies indicate, the contribution of computerized information systems to strategic decisions is poor. A special "decision support system" is needed.
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In a field study of thirty-two business application systems, the relationship between the time spent in various phases of the development life cycle and the outcome of the development was examined. Results indicate that systems which spent more time in the analysis phase required less time to code, resulted in greater user satisfaction, and were developed in agreement with established budgets and deadlines. These results suggest preferred strategies for the development of application systems and have implications for their successful management and control.
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(McGrath and Akiyama 1996) approach for managing projects in the NPD portion of the innovation process. Attention is increasingly being focused on the front-end activities that precede this formal and structured process in order to increase the value, amount, and success probability of high-profit concepts entering product development and commercialization. The purpose of this chapter is to provide the reader with the most effective methods, tools, and techniques for managing the FFE.3 The chapter begins with a brief discussion of the literature and the rationale for developing the new concept development (NCD) model. The next section describes the NCD model. The remaining sections provide a description of the most effective meth- ods, tools, and techniques to be used in each part of the NCD model.
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While managers and researchers agree that the fuzzy front end of new product development (NPD) is critical for project success, the meaning of the term “front-end fuzziness” remains vague. It is often used broadly to refer to both the exogenous causes and the internal consequences of fuzziness. This imprecise language makes it difficult for managers to separate cause and effect and thus identify specific prescriptive remedies for “fuzziness” problems. The vagueness of the concept and the lack of a framework for defining “front-end fuzziness” also impede empirical research efforts. Building upon uncertainty theory, we define front-end fuzziness in terms of environmental uncertainties. Front-end fuzziness has consequences for a project’s team vision. It reduces the team’s sense of shared purpose and causes unclear project targets and priorities. Describes how foundation elements of a firm’s overall product development program can help project teams cope with front-end fuzziness.
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The authors update and extend their 1978 review of conjoint analysis. In addition to discussing several new developments, they consider alternative approaches for measuring preference structures in the presence of a large number of attributes. They also discuss other topics such as reliability, validity, and choice simulators.
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Considers the development of the culture of innovation and how the concept can be beneficial in business. Examines the application of marketing innovation (new products) and technological innovation which is not market driven. Illustrates the growth of innovative products through “S” curves and Product‐Life Cycles. Concludes that innovation needs to be encouraged by managers, albeit within a controlled framework that maximizes the inherent benefits, flexibility and emphasis on the need for change being central to the successful implementation of such a programme.
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Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is a systematic thinking process for product planning that enables businesses to consider the characteristics of product to ensure that products satisfy customer requirements. QFD utilizes the house of quality (HOQ) as a method of understanding customer requirements, establishing the priorities of design requirements, and product segmentation and positioning. This study integrates fuzzy logic into HOQ to establish a framework for prioritizing customer requirements to simply, objectively, and scientifically analyze product features and conduct product positioning.
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This paper presents a procedure for decomposing design for X (DFX) analysis techniques into individual sources of information. These sources of information are then evaluated for quality and utility. This process ensures that only those analysis tools of benefit to the designer are being employed. By determining an overall analysis structure for the DFX technique, it is possible to determine whether the overall procedure is in fact feasible or necessary. This is achieved through identifying the focus of the analysis tool and mapping this focus on to the product development process. The overall procedure is clarified through an evaluation of the Boothroyd and Dewhurst design for assembly technique.
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Michael Porter's five competitive forces model has been a most influential model within business schools but has perhaps had less appeal to the practising manager outside of an MBA and certain short business school courses. In this article it is argued that whilst there are a number of reasons why the model has not achieved greater currency, most importantly it can be developed a lot further. The paper looks at a number of important opportunities for using Porter's model in an even more practical way, including: mapping the competitive forces, which can vary significantly over market and competitive terrain and within the same industry; understanding its dynamics; prioritizing the forces; doing macro analysis of the sub-drivers of each of the five forces; exploring key interdependencies, both between and within each force. Copyright
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A wide variety of market research methods can be used for researching innovations. The methods can be divided into four main groups, corresponding to the stages of product development: methods for (1) understanding customers, (2) idea generation, (3) concept testing, and (4) estimating market size, growth, and composition. This grouping is somewhat artificial, as many of the methods can be used in several different parts of the sequence. The first two groups of methods tend to be more qualitative, imaginative, and open. They require divergent thinking. The second two groups of methods are more evaluative. However, many combinations and variations of methods are possible. The following list covers most methods.
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Effectively managing the "upfront or fuzzy front-end" (FFE) of the product development process is one of the most important, difficult challenges facing innovation managers. In this paper, we define the FFE as the period between when an opportunity is first considered and when an idea is judged ready for development. We classify the outcomes of the FFE into product definition, time, and people dimensions. We suggest several strategies to manage the FFE by assigning a FFE manager or team; by providing organizational support for FFE activities; by understanding the sources of FFE ambiguity; by building an information system; and by developing relationships with supporters, partners, and alliances.
The approach described in this paper represents a substantive departure from the conventional quantitative techniques of system analysis. It has three main distinguishing features: 1) use of so-called ``linguistic'' variables in place of or in addition to numerical variables; 2) characterization of simple relations between variables by fuzzy conditional statements; and 3) characterization of complex relations by fuzzy algorithms. A linguistic variable is defined as a variable whose values are sentences in a natural or artificial language. Thus, if tall, not tall, very tall, very very tall, etc. are values of height, then height is a linguistic variable. Fuzzy conditional statements are expressions of the form IF A THEN B, where A and B have fuzzy meaning, e.g., IF x is small THEN y is large, where small and large are viewed as labels of fuzzy sets. A fuzzy algorithm is an ordered sequence of instructions which may contain fuzzy assignment and conditional statements, e.g., x = very small, IF x is small THEN Y is large. The execution of such instructions is governed by the compositional rule of inference and the rule of the preponderant alternative. By relying on the use of linguistic variables and fuzzy algorithms, the approach provides an approximate and yet effective means of describing the behavior of systems which are too complex or too ill-defined to admit of precise mathematical analysis.
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This paper presents a new approach of user-oriented design for transforming users’ perception into product elements design. An experimental study on mobile phones is conducted to examine how product form and product color affect product image individually and as a whole. The concept of Kansei Engineering is used to extract the experimental samples as a data base for Quantitative Theory Type I and neural networks (NNs). The result of numerical analysis suggests that mobile phone makers need to provide various product colors to attract users, in addition to product forms. This paper demonstrates the advantage of using NNs for determining the optimal combination of product form and product color, particularly if the product into design elements. Based on the analysis of NNs, we can use 72 representative product colors of each mobile phone to develop a product color data base consisting of 16777216 (=256×256×256, True-Color model) colors with the associated product image. The design data base provides useful insights to save any amount of money and time for the new product development. The product designers can input a product image to work out an adequate color on a mobile phone. Furthermore, the design data base can be used, in conjunction with computer-aided design system or virtual reality technology, to build a 3D model for facilitating the design process of mobile phones. Although, the mobile phones are chosen as the object of the experimental study, this approach can be applied to other products with various design elements.
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Incorporating the `voice of the consumer' in early stages of the new product development process has been identified as a critical success factor for new product development. Yet, this step is often ignored or poorly executed. This may be due to lack of familiarity on which methods are available, the use of disciplinary terminology, and difficulty in accessibility of papers on this subject. This paper reviews and categorises 10 of the most common methods in this area, in terms of what their key features are, and what strengths, weaknesses and appropriateness are. We develop a classification scheme based on three performance dimensions with specific criteria: (1) stimuli used as cue for need elicitation, (2) task format, and (3) need actionability. We provide guidelines for the appropriateness of these methods in the new product development process based on the newness strategy of the development process (radical versus incremental innovation) and identify which functional department (marketing versus R&D) the method should primarily support.
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In this contribution, we will analyse the importance of the fuzzy partition granularity for the linguistic variables in the design of fuzzy rule-based systems (FRBSs). In order to put this into effect, we will study the FRBS behaviour considering uniform fuzzy partitions with the same number of labels for all the linguistic variables, and considering uniform fuzzy partitions with any number of labels for each linguistic variable. We will present a method based on Simulated Annealing (SA) in order to obtain a good uniform fuzzy partition granularity that improves the FRBS behaviour. It is an efficient granularity search method for finding a good number of labels per variable.
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The use of machine learning (ML), and in particular, artificial neural networks (ANN), in engineering applications has increased dramatically over the last years. However, by and large, the development of such applications or their report lack proper evaluation. Deficient evaluation practice was observed in the general neural networks community and again in engineering applications through a survey we conducted of articles published in AI in Engineering and elsewhere. This status hinders understanding and prevents progress. This article goal is to remedy this situation. First, several evaluation methods are discussed with their relative qualities. Second, these qualities are illustrated by using the methods to evaluate ANN performance in two engineering problems. Third, a systematic evaluation procedure for ML is discussed. This procedure will lead to better evaluation of studies, and consequently to improved research and practice in the area of ML in engineering applications.
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Nowadays fuzzy logic is increasingly used in decision-aided systems since it offers several advantages over other traditional decision-making techniques. The fuzzy decision support systems can easily deal with incomplete and/or imprecise knowledge applied to either linear or nonlinear problems. This paper presents the implementation of a combination of a Real/Binary-Like coded Genetic Algorithm (RBLGA) and a Binary coded Genetic Algorithm (BGA) to automatically generate Fuzzy Knowledge Bases (FKB) from a set of numerical data. Both algorithms allow one to fulfill a contradictory paradigm in terms of FKB precision and simplicity (high precision generally translates into a higher level of complexity) considering a randomly generated population of potential FKBs. The RBLGA is divided into two principal coding methods: (1) a real coded genetic algorithm that maps the fuzzy sets repartition and number (which drives the number of fuzzy rules) into a set of real numbers and (2) a binary like coded genetic algorithm that deals with the fuzzy rule base relationships (a set of integers). The BGA deals with the entire FKB using a single bit string, which is called a genotype. The RBLGA uses three reproduction mechanisms, a BLX-α, a simple crossover and a fuzzy set reducer, while the BGA uses a simple crossover, a fuzzy set displacement mechanism and a rule reducer. Both GAs are tested on theoretical surfaces, a comparison study of the performances is discussed, along with the influences of some evolution criteria.