Phytoestrogens mediated anti-inflammatory effect through suppression of IRF-1 and pSTAT1 expressions in lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Phayathai, Bangkok 10400, Thailand. International immunopharmacology
(Impact Factor: 2.47).
08/2013; 17(2). DOI: 10.1016/j.intimp.2013.07.013
Microglial activation has been implicated in various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and HIV encephalopathy. Phytoestrogens have been shown to be neuroprotective in neurotoxicity models; however, their effect on microglia has not been well established. In the current study, we report that the soy phytoestrogens, genistein, daidzein, and coumestrol, decreased nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the rat microglial cell line (HAPI). The levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein expression were also reduced. Transcription factors known to govern iNOS expression including interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) and phosphorylated STAT1 were down regulated. These observations explain, at least in part, the inhibitory effect of phytoestrogens on NO production. The levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-6 mRNA, proinflammatory chemokine and cytokine associated with various neurological disorders, were also reduced following LPS stimulation when HAPI cells were pretreated with phytoestrogens. Hence, genistein, daidzein, and coumestrol could serve as anti-inflammatory agents and may have beneficial effects in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
Available from: Katja Schmitz
- "Dietary habits, including intake of soy, have been suggested to reduce the risk of developing MS, based on a cross-sectional study, in which the prevalence of MS was lower in lacto-vegetarians as compared to people on a high animal fat diet (Razeghi Jahromi et al., 2014). Phytoestrogenes, such as genistein, daidzein and coumestrol may partly contribute to these effects owing to their anti-inflammatory properties, such as reduction of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduction of microglial activation (Jantaratnotai et al., 2013). In MOG35–55 induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice daily subcutaneous injections of 200 mg/kg genistein starting 14 days after EAE induction attenuated clinical EAE scores and reduced the body weight loss as compared to the vehicle group. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The association between vitamin D and multiple sclerosis has (re)-opened new interest in nutrition and natural compounds in the prevention and treatment of this neuroinflammatory disease. The dietary amount and type of fat, probiotics and biologicals, salmon proteoglycans, phytoestrogens and protease inhibitor of soy, sodium chloride and trace elements, and fat soluble vitamins including D, A and E were all considered as disease-modifying nutraceuticals. Studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice suggest that poly-unsaturated fatty acids and their 'inflammation-resolving' metabolites and the gut microflora may reduce auto-aggressive immune cells and reduce progression or risk of relapse, and infection with whipworm eggs may positively change the gut-brain communication. Encouraged by the recent interest in multiple sclerosis-nutrition nature's pharmacy has been searched for novel compounds with anti-inflammatory, immune-modifying and antioxidative properties, the most interesting being the scorpion toxins that inhibit specific potassium channels of T cells and antioxidative compounds including the green tea flavonoid epigallocatechin-3-gallate, curcumin and the mustard oil glycoside from e.g. broccoli, sulforaphane. They mostly also inhibit pro-inflammatory signaling through NF-κB or toll-like receptors and stabilize the blood brain barrier. Disease modifying functions may also complement analgesic and anti-spastic effects of cannabis, its constituents, and of 'endocannabinoid enhancing' drugs or nutricals like inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase. Nutricals will not solve multiple sclerosis therapeutic challenges but possibly support pharmacological interventions or unearth novel structures.
Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Available from: Stephen Kent
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to increase longevity and elicit many health promoting benefits including delaying immunosenescence and attenuating neurodegeneration in animal models of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.CR also suppresses microglial activation following cortical injury and aging. We previously demonstrated that CR attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fever and shifts hypothalamic signaling pathways to an anti-inflammatory bias;however, the effects of CR on LPS-induced microglial activation remain largely unexplored. The current study investigated regional changes in LPS-induced microglial activation in mice exposed to 50% CR for 28 days. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to examine changes in ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 (Iba1), a protein constitutively expressed by microglia, in a total of 27 brain regions involved in immunity, stress,and/or thermoregulation. Exposure to CR attenuated LPS-induced fever, and LPS-induced microglial activation in a subset of regions: the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) and the subfornical organ (SFO). Microglial activation in the ARC and VMH was positively correlated with body temperature. These data suggest that CR exerts effects on regionally specific populations of microglia; particularly, in appetite-sensing regions of the hypothalamus, and/or regions lacking a complete blood brain barrier, possibly through altered pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling in these regions.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Natural products are often used in drug development due to their ability to form unique and diverse chemical structures. Coumestans are polycyclic aromatic plant secondary metabolites containing a coumestan moiety, which consists of a benzoxole fused to a chromen-2-one to form 1-Benzoxolo[3,2-c]chromen-6-one. These natural compounds are known for large number of biological activities. Many of their biological effects can be attributed to their action as phytoestrogens and polyphenols. In the last decade, anticancer effects of these compounds have been described in vitro but there is only limited number of studies based on models in vivo. More information concerning their in vivo bioavailability, stability, metabolism, toxicity, estrogenicity, cellular targets and drug interactions is therefore needed to proceed further to clinical studies. This review focuses on coumestans exhibiting anticancer properties and summarizes mechanisms of their toxicity to cancer cells. Moreover, the possible role of coumestans in cancer prevention is discussed.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.