HIV peripheral neuropathy
Department of Neurology, UNIFESP-Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: . Handbook of Clinical Neurology
08/2013; 115:515-29. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-444-52902-2.00029-1
Peripheral neuropathies are the most common neurological manifestations occurring in HIV-infected individuals. Distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy is the most common form encountered today and is one of the few that are specific to HIV infection or its treatment. The wide variety of other neuropathies is akin to the neuropathies seen in the general population and should be managed accordingly. In the pre-ART era, neuropathies were categorized according to the CD4 count and HIV viral load. In the early stages of HIV infection when CD4 count is high, the inflammatory demyelinating neuropathies predominate and in the late stages with the decline of CD4 count opportunistic infection-related neuropathies prevail. That scenario has changed with the present almost universal use of ART (antiretroviral therapy). Hence, HIV-associated peripheral neuropathies are better classified according to their clinical presentations: distal symmetrical polyneuropathy, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), mononeuropathies, mononeuropathies multiplex and cranial neuropathies, autonomic neuropathy, lumbosacral polyradiculomyelopathy, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-like motor neuropathy. Treated with ART, HIV-infected individuals are living longer and are at a higher risk of metabolic and age-related complications; moreover they are also prone to the potentially neurotoxic effects of ART. There are no epidemiological data regarding the incidence and prevalence of the peripheral neuropathies. In the pre-ART era, most data were from case reports, series of patients, and pooled autopsy data. At that time the histopathological evidence of neuropathies in autopsy series was almost 100%. In large prospective cohorts presently being evaluated, it has been found that 57% of HIV-infected individuals have distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy and 38% have neuropathic pain. It is now clear that distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy is caused predominantly by the ART's neurotoxic effect but may also be caused by the HIV itself. With a sizeable morbidity, the neuropathic pain caused by distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy is very difficult to manage; it is often necessary to change the ART regimen before deciding upon the putative role of HIV infection itself. If the change does not improve the pain, there are few options available; the most common drugs used for neuropathic pain are usually not effective. One is left with cannabis, which cannot be recommended as routine therapy, recombinant human nerve growth factor, which is unavailable, and topical capsaicin with its side-effects. Much has been done to and learned from HIV infection in humans; HIV-infected individuals, treated with ART, are now dying mostly from cardiovascular disease and non-AIDS-related cancers. It hence behooves us to find new approaches to mitigate the residual neurological morbidity that still impacts the quality of life of that population.
Available from: David A Lubarsky
- "In Europe and the U.S., approximately 2-7% of the population suffers from neuropathic pain, a condition caused by damage and/or inflammation to nerves following traumatic injury, viral infection or chemotherapy . Neuropathic pain (NP) related to human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) infection is severe and unrelenting and represents an important unmet need in medicine . This HIV neuropathy can be associated with viral infection alone, probably involving a role for the envelope glycoprotein gp120 and/or antiretroviral drug-induced toxic neuropathy associated with the use of nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors as a component of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). "
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HIV-associated sensory neuropathy affects over 50% of HIV patients and is a common peripheral nerve complication of HIV infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Evidence shows that painful HIV sensory neuropathy is influenced by neuroinflammatory events that include the proinflammatory molecules, MAP Kinase, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), stromal cell-derived factor 1-α (SDF1α), and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4). However, the exact mechanisms of painful HIV sensory neuropathy are not known, which hinders our ability to develop effective treatments. In this study, we investigated whether inhibition of proinflammatory factors reduces the HIV-associated neuropathic pain state.
Neuropathic pain was induced by peripheral HIV coat protein gp120 combined with 2′,3′-dideoxycytidine (ddC, one of the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)). Mechanical threshold was tested using von Frey filament fibers. Non-replicating herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors expressing interleukin 10 (IL10) were inoculated into the hindpaws of rats. The expression of TNFα, SDF1α, and CXCR4 in the lumbar spinal cord and L4/5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) was examined using western blots. IL-10 expression mediated by the HSV vectors resulted in a significant elevation of mechanical threshold. The anti-allodynic effect of IL-10 expression mediated by the HSV vectors lasted more than 3 weeks. The area under the effect-time curves (AUC) in mechanical threshold in rats inoculated with the HSV vectors expressing IL-10, was increased compared with the control vectors, indicating antinociceptive effect of the IL-10 vectors. The HSV vectors expressing IL-10 also concomitantly reversed the upregulation of p-p38, TNFα, SDF1α, and CXCR4 induced by gp120 in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn and/or the DRG at 2 and/or 4 weeks.
The blocking of the signaling of these proinflammatory molecules is able to reduce HIV-related neuropathic pain, which provide a novel mechanism-based approach to treating HIV-associated neuropathic pain using gene therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Dideoxycytidine (zalcitabine, ddC) produces neurotoxic effects. It is particularly important to understand the toxic effects of ddC on different subpopulations of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons which express distinct tyrosine kinase receptor (Trk) and to find therapeutic factors for prevention and therapy for ddC-induced peripheral sensory neuropathy. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been shown to have neurotrophic effects on DRG sensory neurons. However, little is known about the effects of ddC on distinct Trk (TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC) expression in DRG neurons and the neuroprotective effects of IGF-1 on ddC-induced neurotoxicity. Here, we have tested the extent to which the expression of TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC receptors in primary cultured DRG neurons is affected by ddC in the presence or absence of IGF-1. In this experiment, we found that exposure of 5, 25, and 50 μmol/L ddC caused a dose-dependent decrease of the mRNA, protein, and the proportion of TrkA-, TrkB-, and TrkC-expressing neurons. IGF-1 (20 nmol/L) could partially reverse the decrease of TrkA and TrkB, but not TrkC, expression with ddC exposure. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 (10 μmol/L) blocked the effects of IGF-1. These results suggested that the subpopulations of DRG neurons which express distinct TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC receptors were affected by ddC exposure. IGF-1 might relieve the ddC-induced toxicity of TrkA- and TrkB-, but not TrkC-expressing DRG neurons. These data offer new clues for a better understanding of the association of ddC with distinct Trk receptor expression and provide new evidence of the potential therapeutic role of IGF-1 on ddC-induced neurotoxicity.
Available from: David A Lubarsky
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ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related neuropathic pain is a debilitating chronic condition that is severe and unrelenting. Despite extensive research, the detailed neuropathological mechanisms remain unknown, which hinders our ability to develop effective treatments. In this study, we investigated the role of proinflammatory molecules, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), CXCR4 and stromal-derived factor-1 α (SDF1α), in the L4/5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and the spinal dorsal horn in HIV gp120 protein-mediated neuropathic pain. Our results showed that the application of HIV gp120 to the sciatic nerve induced upregulation of TNFα, CXCR4 and SDF1α in both the DRG and the lumbar spinal dorsal horn. Non-replicating herpes simplex virus (HSV) vector encoding the p55TNFSR gene and producing a TNF-soluble receptor (TNFSR) to block bioactivity of TNFα reversed mechanical allodynia. Intrathecal AMD3100 (CXCR4 antagonist) increased mechanical threshold. The HSV vectors expressing p55TNFSR reversed upregulation of TNFα, CXCR4 and SDF1α induced by gp120 in the DRG and the spinal dorsal horn. These studies suggest that proinflammatory TNFα to the CXCR4/SDF1 pathway has an important role in the HIV-related neuropathic pain state and that blocking the proinflammatory cytokines or chemokines is able to reduce neuropathic pain. This work provides a novel gene therapy proof-of-concept for HIV-associated neuropathic pain.Gene Therapy advance online publication, 23 January 2014; doi:10.1038/gt.2013.90.
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