Conference PaperPDF Available

East Balkan swine in Bulgaria – an option for organic production.

Authors:
Systems development: quality and safety
of organic livestock products
Proceedings of the 4
th
SAFO Workshop
17-19 March 2005, Frick, Switzerland
Edited by
M. Hovi, M. Walkenhorst and S. Padel
Archived at http://orgprints.org/5965
Sustaining Animal Health and Food Safety in Organic Farming (SAFO)
Co-ordinator: Mette Vaarst (Danish Institute of Animal Science, Denmark)
Steering Committee Malla Hovi (The University of Reading, England)
Susanne Padel (The University of Aberystwyth, Wales)
Albert Sundrum (The University of Kassel, Germany)
David Younie (Scottish Agricultural College, Scotland)
Edited by: Malla Hovi, Micheal Walkenhorst and Susanne Padel
Publication date: July 2005
Printed in: The University of Reading
ISBN: 07049 9851 3
Contents
Foreword
M. Hovi, M.Walkenhorst, S. Padel
1
Acknowledgements
3
In Memoriam- Jan Zastawny
The analysis of forage quality and grasslands utilization for livestock
production on organic farms
J. Zastawny, H. Jankowska-Huflejt and B. Wrobel
7
Part A: Quality concept and organic livestock products
Quality of organic livestock products
M. Walkenhorst
17
Consumer expectations of quality of organic livestock products: how can
premiums be justified?
J. Bachmann
19
Producer expectations of quality of organic livestock products
R. Fuhrer
21
Posters:
Organic production and nutrimarketing strategy of ‘Hungaricums’ of animal
orgin
V. Szente, G. Tarnavolgyi, Sz. Berke, O. Szigeti and Z. Szakaly
25
Working Group Reports:
Differences in quality and safety expectations between stakeholders re.
organic livestock produce and suggestions on how this can be addressed
31
Report of the working group discussion on the draft IFOAM principles in
relation to animals
33
Part B: Quality and safety of organic livestock products
Organic milk
Studies comparing the composition of milk produced on organic and
conventional dairy farms in th UK
K.A. Ellis, W.G. McLean, D.H. Grove-White, P.J.Cripps, C.V. Howard and
M. Mihim
41
The influence of the grazing season on polyunsaturated fatty acids content in
cow milk fat from Bieszcady Reigion of Poland
K. Sloniewsji, T. Sakowski, A. Jozwik and E. Rembailkowska
47
Minimal processing of dairying products
B. Rehberger, P. Eberhand and H.P. Bachmann
55
Posters:
Aflatoxins in milk (organic and biodymanic) marketed in Florence area
A. Martini, G. Lorenzini, J. Labrada Ching, F. Riccio, F. Cervelin, G. Betti,
R.Giannelli and S. Pieri
63
The comparison of intensive and extensive pasture feeding for dairy cows on
a Bohemian farm
B. Cermak, V. Koukolova, F. Lad and B. Slipka
67
Selecting dairy cows for organic farming
W.J. Nauta and H. Bovenhuis
71
Organic pork
Carcass yield and meat quality of organic pig production
A. Sundrum
77
Salmomonella infection risk associated eith ooutdoor organic pork
production
A.N. Jensen and D.B. Baggesen
87
Posters:
East Balken Swine in Bulgaria- an option for organic production
S.G. Ivanova-Peneva and A. Stoykov
97
Organic poultry production
Enhanced biodiversity and the perceived risk to food safety: Campylobacter
and poultry
J. O’Brien, L. Woodward and B.D. Pearce
103
Organic egg production in Finland- animal health, welfare and food safety
issues
A. Virtala, U. Holma, M. Hovi, M. Aniñen, T. Hyyrynen, L. Rossow,
H. Kahiluoto and A. Valros
119
Food Safety control
Assessment of current procedures for animal food production chains and
critical control points regarding their safety and quality: preliminary results
from the Organic HACCP project
G.S. Wyss and K. Brandt
127
Assessing the risk from mycotoxins for the organic food chain: results from
Organic HACCP project and other research
G.S. Wyss
133
Working Group Report:
Food quality research of organic animal products: future research needs and
implications for standards
139
Part C: Veterinary medicinal inputs: Impact on product quality and
food safety
Fate of veterinary medicines in the environment
A.B.A. Boxall
143
Are antibiotic-resistant bacteria present on organic livestock farms?
E. Pleydell
145
Is the doubling of withdrawal time a sufficient measure? Evaluations of
Oxytetracycline residue persistence in sheep milk
G. Calaresu, G. Leori, C. Testa, G. Marogna and L. Secchi
149
Analysis of disease prevalence and medical treatments in organic dairy herds
in the Netherlands
A. Kijstra and J. van derWerf
157
Is Orbesel the answer to mastitis on organic farms?
C. Notz
165
Posters:
The use of an internal test sealant, Orbseal, as prevenative measure for the
dry cow period
W. Schaeren and J. Maurer
171
Health and welfare in organic animal rearig in Spain: what do the
veterinarians who advise organic farms say?
R. Garcia Trujillo and J. Fernandez
175
Ruminant health in organic agriculture- a research and development project
in Austria
E. Stoger
181
Exploring the potential of clinoptilolite for the control of gastrointestinal
nematodes in orgainic sheep production
D. Zygoyiannis
183
WORMCOPS - Worm control in organic production systems for small
ruminants in Europe: Towards the implementation of non-chemical
sustainable approaches (EU-project: QLK5-CT-2001-1843)
S.M. Thamsborg et al
185
Working Group Report:
Restricted veterinary inputs in organic systems: how should their use be
restricted?
191
Part D: Other posters
Opportunities for Hungarian organic goat milk producer
O. Szekely and T. Kupai
195
Opportunities for the Hungarian organic sheep and deer farmer
T.Kupai and O. Szekely
199
Native breeds in organic animal production in Hungary
L. Radics and P. Pusztai
203
Limitations to organic livestock production: Turkey as a case study for
developing countries
Y. Sayan and M.Polat
207
Opening channels of communication between the Associated Candidate
Countries and the EU in ecological farming
L. Radics and J. Nagy
213
Part E: Report on SAFO messages
Key messages from the EU- funded concerted action network Sustaining
Animal Health and Food Safety in Organic Farming- results of a participant
consulatation
219
Part F: Standard development work
4
th
Report from the SAFO Standard Development Group
Preliminary recommendations for the development of organic livestock
standards in relation to animal health and food safety-working group
feedback
229
List of delegates 243
Proceedings of the 4th SAFO Workshop, Frick, Switerland 1
Systems development: quality and safety in organic livestock products
Foreword
Sustaining Animal Health and Food Safety in Organic Farming (SAFO) is a European
Commission funded project, with the objective to contribute to improved animal health and
food safety in organic livestock production systems in existing and candidate member
countries of the European Union. This volume, with the contributions from the 4
th
SAFO
Workshop at the Research Institute for Organic Farming in Frick, Switzerland in March 2005,
is one in a series of five proceedings published during the lifetime of the project (2003-2006).
Electronic versions of the proceedings are available at the SAFO web-site at
http://www.safonetwork.org/.
The fourth Workshop in Switzerland carried on from the 3
rd
Workshop in Poland: defining
and discussing the concept of quality in organic livestock production. The collection of the
presented papers reflected the complexity of the issues involved, ranging from the problems
with zoonotic agents to the composition of milk and carcase quality of pigs. The emphasis on
local breeds and local food traditions in the new member states in relation to organic livestock
production was, once again, highlighted.
The use of veterinary medicines and their role in organic systems was addressed in one
session. The presentations covered issues from the environmental impact of conventional
veterinary medicines to veterinary attitudes to disease and health management in organic
systems.
This was the second last of the SAFO Workshops, and further activities of the network will
focus on dissemination of the results. The SAFO participants and workshop delegates were,
therefore, invited to share and discuss, in an interactive workshop, the most important
messages that they will take-home from SAFO. The results from this workshop are also
published here, making interesting reading and highlighting the importance of networking.
Soon after the workshop in Frick, we received the sad news of the passing of Dr. Jan
Zastawny, one of the SAFO partners and the organiser of the previous workshop in Poland.
We publish here a paper by him and his colleagues at the
Institute for Land Reclamation and
Grassland Farming at Falenty. We regret that Jan is not with us any more and wish his colleagues all
the best with the work he initiated with organic livestock production in Poland.
Malla Hovi, Michael Walkenhorst and Susanne Padel
Reading, July 2005
2 Proceedings of the 4th SAFO Workshop, Frick, Switzerland
Sysyems development: quality and safety in organic livestock products
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Proceedings of the 4th SAFO Workshop, Frick, Switerland 3
Systems development: quality and safety in organic livestock products
Acknowledgements
SAFO would like to thank the Swiss project partners and organiser Michael Walkenhorst and
Nicole Roelli, Urs Niggli and Susanne Padel from Aberystwyth University for the
organisation of the workshop. We are also grateful to the Director Urs Niggli, Maria Guriano,
Nina Baseler, André and Erika Belloli and the whole team at FIBL for help with the
organisation, for wonderful organic food and for making us feel very welcome.
Our special thanks goes to the farmers Andreas Ott, Angelika Grossgasteiger, Albert und
Elisabeth Hess-Wittwer, Urs und Joan Brändli and Christophe and Brigitte Pally who
welcomed us on their farms during the field trip. Also, the Swiss retailer COOP sponsored
organic lunch packets for the field trip.
4 Proceedings of the 4th SAFO Workshop, Frick, Switzerland
Sysyems development: quality and safety in organic livestock products
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Proceedings of the 4th SAFO Workshop, Frick, Switerland 5
Systems development: quality and safety in organic livestock products
In Memoriam:
Jan Zastawny
6 Proceedings of the 4th SAFO Workshop, Frick, Switzerland
Sysyems development: quality and safety in organic livestock products
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Proceedings of the 4th SAFO Workshop, Frick, Switerland 7
Systems development: quality and safety in organic livestock products
The analysis of forage quality and grasslands utilization for
livestock production on organic farms
J. Zastawny, H. Jankowska-Huflejt and B. Wróbel
Institute for Land Reclamation and Grassland Farming at Falenty, 05-090 Raszyn, Poland
Introduction
Grasslands with legumes, as the basic source of nitrogen, should play an essential part in
organic agriculture systems. The proportion of grasslands of the total area of all types of
organic croplands in Poland in 2002 highlights its importance (>45% of the total 41 thousand
ha) (Zastawny et al., 2003).
Grasslands are the obvious basis of organic livestock production. They provide cheap but
valuable roughage that can serve as the only forage for ruminants in the summer period. They
also allow access to range and natural grazing behaviour for stock, as an essential element of
organic agriculture (Jankowska-Huflejt et al., 2004). The condition of grasslands and the
quality of produced forages have a major influence on animal health, their condition, welfare
and the quality of animal products. Conversely, the management on grasslands is stimulated
by livestock production.
In 2004, the Institute of Land Reclamation and Grasslands Farming in Falenty initiated a
major study into organic livestock production. Research into grassland management was to be
a large part of the study. The study is supported by the Ministry of Agriculture and
Development of Rural Areas of Poland.
Methods of study
A total 39 organic farms with livestock production were chosen for the study. The farms are
located in different geographic conditions in eight of the Polish provinces (Figure 1). The
total area of the farms is 1,502 ha, and the area of permanent grasslands is 665 ha (43.6 % of
the area). The size of the farms ranges 3.13 ha (Little Poland province) to 312 ha (Pomorskie
province). The farms were grouped into four groups by size: 1-10 ha; 11-20 ha; 21-50 ha and
>50 has (Table 1). The biggest group is the 21-50 ha farms.
Table 1 The share of grasslands and livestock density in each group of the study farms.
Livestock density
Share of grasslands in area of
agriculture lands of farm [ %]
Area group of
farms [ha]
Number of
farms
mean range from – to
LU/ha heads
1-10 6 50.3 28.1-85.7 0.93 0.83
11-20 15 36.3 10.3-73.4 0.72 0.74
21-50 12 63.3 7.4-94.9 0.61 0.58
above 50 6 39.6 13.6-92.3 0.70 0.66
Total/Mean 39 47.3 - 0.74 0.70
The quality of forages from grasslands of each farm was evaluated by botanical composition
of sward, the useful value of sward (Lwu) (Filipek, 1973), the content of nutritive
8 Proceedings of the 4th SAFO Workshop, Frick, Switzerland
Sysyems development: quality and safety in organic livestock products
components, i.e. crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat, crude ash, and nitrogen free extract
(NFE) in relation to dry matter (DM).
Figure 1 The location of examined organic farms.
Pomorskie
Podlaskie
Mazowieckie
Kujawsko
Pomorskie
Wielkopolskie
Lubuskie
Opolskie
Podkarpackie
Małopolskie
Falenty
Results and discussion
Grasslands and structure of agriculture lands on the farms
The farms were characterised with a large proportion of grassland (average 47.3%). This
figure is twice as high as the mean of country (Table. 1). The grasslands, with multi species
community of meadow sward and with high content of legumes (up to 50%), were typical of
these organic farms. Only three of the 39 farms had no arable land, apart from the grassland,
and, on two farms, the arable area was very small (0.15 and 0.69 ha). The highest proportion
of permanent grassland (>50%) was found on the smallest farms (<10 ha) and on farms with
21-50 ha, with considerable variation between farms. The proportion of forage production
from grassland varied according to farm size as follows:
- on farms with 1-10 ha – 66.3%;
- on farms with 11-20 ha – 67.0%;
- on farms with 21-50 ha – 90.1%; and
- on farms with > 50 ha – 63.4%.
The proportion of permanent grassland was high (40.7% mean), but ranged from 23% in
Lubuskie province to 66% in Pomorskie. These figures suggest that the organic farms in the
study were following good grassland management practices, in compliance with the principle
that the large proportion of pastures in grasslands warrants their better utilisation and higher
quality of green forage (Moraczewski et al., 2001). The average area of pastures in
investigated provinces was 8.5 ha. In a situation were farm-sizes are diminishing in Poland, it
appears to be a large area. However, the area of pastures in each farm ranged from 0 to 77 ha.
Proceedings of the 4th SAFO Workshop, Frick, Switerland 9
Systems development: quality and safety in organic livestock products
The biggest avearage area of pastures was found in Pomorskie province (25.6 ha), and the
smallest in Opolskie province (1.2 ha).
Livestock production and feeding
The dominant livestock on the farms was cattle, but also sheep and goats and, on one farm,
horses (for meat prodution) were kept. On three of the farms, goose production on grasslands
was carried out. The cattle were mainly milk breeds. On 14 of the farms, the cattle were
Polish Black and White, on five farms Red Polish, on four farms Simmentals, on three farms
Red and White, on another three farms Holsteins and on the remaining 14 farms there was a
mixture of breeds.
Livestock density (Table 1) varied on farms from 0.33 to 1.73 head/ha. The highest densities
were observed on the smallest farms (average 0.93 LU/ha), and lowest on the medium sized
farms (group 21-50 ha; average 0.61 LU/ha). While there were considerable differences
between farms, the average livestock density on the organic farms was high, i.e. 2-2.5 times
higher than the mean in Poland (Table 2).
Table 2 Comparison of grasslands area (in ha) per head of cattle in examined organic
farms and the means for conventional farms in each province (GUS, 2003) and per 1 LU all
animals.
Area of grasslands per 1 head on farm
organic conventional
Province
N
(farms)
Grasslands
(ha)
Cattle
(heads)
LU all
animals
LU
cattle
Heads
of cattle
Heads of
cattle
Wielkopolskie 1 2.10 - 1.21 - - 2.53
Lubuskie 6 121.58 21 0.18 7.24 5.79 6.58
Podkarpackie 4 111.99 36 2.10 3.89 3.11 4.05
Pomorskie 6 201.57 353 0.64 0.71 0.57 4.33
Kujawsko-
Pomorskie
3 28.41 79 0.41 0.45 0.36 2.66
Podlaskie 6 81.97 95 0.65 1.08 0.86 1.67
Mazowieckie 6 42.60 73 0.69 0.73 0.58 2.18
Opolskie 2 5.39 21 0.29 0.32 0.25 4.12
Małopolskie 5 68.38 21 1.80 4.07 3.26 2.73
Total 39 663.99 699 0.49 1.19 0.95 3.43
Cattle feeding was based on bulk feeds and concentrates, usually made on the farm (in
compliance with principles of the organic farming). The share of concentrates bought outside
the farm was small. The basis of summer feeding of cattle was mainly green forage from
grasslands or arable lands at 50-60kg/head/day. Additionally, animals were given hay (26%
farms), silage (10% farms), root crops (18% farms) and concentrates (51% farms). The basis
of winter feeding was hay (18% farms), silage from arable lands (51% farms), partly root
crops (51% farms), concentrates and the addition of the straw from cereals or cereal-
leguminous straw.
On most of the investigated organic farms (~70%), grassland was well utilised for livestock
production, considerably better than in remaining conventional farms, and almost in all
provinces of Poland. On the remaining farms, there were reserves of fodder, with more than 2
10 Proceedings of the 4th SAFO Workshop, Frick, Switzerland
Sysyems development: quality and safety in organic livestock products
ha of permanent grasslands per 1 LU. This was particularly the case on one of the farms in
Małopolskie province, where there was 3.9 ha of permanent grassland/1 LU, and in
Pomorskie province, where there was 4.5 ha/1 LU. These farms did not have adequate
numbers of livestock to fully utilise the grassland area on the farm.
Quality of feeds from grasslands
The basis of summer feeding for cattle was grazing of pastures and meadows, mostly after the
harvest of first or second cut. Among 39 farms, 9 (30%) had no pastures, but did have
livestock production. On these farms, the grazing of animals took place on meadows,
similarly, after first and second cuts.
The mean area of pastures on investigated farms was 8.5 ha and ranged from 0 to 77 ha.
Pastures were situated close to the farmsteads (in 75% of cases within 500m), and pastured
animals had a permanent access to water (except two farms) and, in most cases, to salt-licks.
Yields of green herbage (23.6 tha
-1
) were good and in general higher than the average yields
in the country on conventional farms (15-17 tha
-1
) (Table 3).
Table 3 Yields of herbage from pastures, its botanical composition and the useful value
of sward (Lwu) acc. to Filipek (1973).
Botanical composition (groups of plants - %)
Province Green mass
yield
(t/ha)
grasses legumes herbs and
weeds
sedges, rushes
and horsetails
Useful value
of sward
(Lwu)
Kujawsko-
Pomorskie
17.7 50 16 30 4 6.9
Lubuskie 25.6 62 1 27 10 5.8
Małopolskie 26.2 57 25 18 - -
Mazowieckie 18.4 67 19 14 - -
Podkarpackie 26.0 77 15 6 2 7.0
Podlaskie 23.8 86 5 9 - 8.0
Pomorskie 22.2 54 30 14 - 8.0
Opolskie 29.0 47 50 3 2 8.1
Wielkopolskie
x/
- - - - - -
Mean 23.6 63 20 15 2 7.6
x/
in examined farm there is not any pasture and not any livestock
The yield from investigated pastures was created mostly by grasses (average 63%), legumes
(average 20%, in some cases even 60%), herbs and weeds (15%) and sedges, rushes or
horsetails (2%). The quality of herbage was evaluated according to the useful value of sward
Lwu by Filipek (1973). The quality of plant species present in the sward was good, and even
close to very good (the average useful value of sward Lwu=7.6, while very good Lwu is 8.1-
10.0). The most common grasses were:: Poa pratensis L., Lolium perenne L., Lolium
multiflorum L., Festuca rubra L.s.s., Festuca pratensis L., Dactylis glomerata L., Agropyron
repens (L.) Beauv.
There was a high share of legumes on all pastures. Dominant species were Trifolium repens
(L) and Trifolium pratense (L.). The share of herbs and weeds was not high. On some farms,
Proceedings of the 4th SAFO Workshop, Frick, Switerland 11
Systems development: quality and safety in organic livestock products
the share of herbs was higher, up to 30%, with Taraxacum officinale F.H.Wigg., Achillea
millefolium L., Rumex acetosa L., as the dominant species.
The crude protein content (Table 4) in investigated green forages from pastures ranged
between farms from 13.5 to 23.1% (average 17.8%). On most farms, the levels were adequate
even for high performing dairy cows. The green forage was not too old, but grazed at
appropriate height and in appropriate phase of growth for good protein composition. This was
particularly the case on the smaller (1-10 ha) and the medium sized farms (11-20 ha),
indicating good grassland management culture on these farms, where knowledge-based
decision about yields and profits are more important than on big farms, that profit from the
scale of production. The energy value of evaluated green forages from pasture was also
comparatively high (Table 4).
Table 4 Nutritive value of feeds from grasslands on examined organic farms.
Content of nutritive components, % of DM Energetic value [MJ]
Type of
forage
crude
protein
crude
fibre
crude
fat
crude
ash
NFE
1 kg of
DM
1 kg of
feed
Green forage 17.76 24.36 3.62 8.97 45.29 5.8 1.15
Hay 13.92 29.41 3.31 7.08 46.28 4.95 4.26
Silage 16.06 27.73 3.26 14.07 38.88 5.10 2.43
Meadow forages
A prevailing technology of harvest and conservation of the meadow sward on investigated
organic farms was hay production (Table 5), especially on smaller farms (100% farms from
the group 1-10 ha). Usually, the sward from first cut (82.0 % farms) and second cut (61.5%
farms) was intended for hay. The green forage from third cut was dried for hay only on 12%
of the farms. On remaining farms, it was consumed directly by animals. Ensilaging of
meadow sward is still not popular among organic farmers. Unfortunately, only few of them
(15% in I cut, 10% in II cut and 2.6% in III cut) used the technology of harvest and
conservation of meadow sward. It had the influence on the quality and nutritive value of
obtained feeds. Hay drying on the surface of meadow causes a significant loss of nutritive
components.
12 Proceedings of the 4th SAFO Workshop, Frick, Switzerland
Sysyems development: quality and safety in organic livestock products
Table 5 Technologies of harvest and conservation of meadow grass on examined 39
organic farms.
Hay production
(% of farms)
Silage production
(% of farms)
Farm area
Number of
examined
farms
I cut II cut III cut I cut II cut III cut
1-10 ha 6 100,0 83,3 0,0 16. 7 0.0 0.0
11-20 ha 11 72,7 63,6 18,2 9.1 0.0 9.1
21-50 ha 16 81.3 68.8 18.8 25.0 25.0 0.0
Above 50 ha 6 83.3 16. 7 0.0 0 0.0 0.0
% 100 82 61.5 12.8 15.4 10.3 2.6
The content of crude protein in investigated fodders for cattle was higher than the mean given
for this type of fodder. In hay, the crude protein content ranged from 10.2% to 19.6%
(average 13.9% - Table 4). The content of crude fibre correlated with the content of protein
and was on average 29.4%. The percentage content of ash in investigated hay samples was not
too high, i.e. ab. 7% on average. The fat content ranged from 3% to 4%. The results were
similar to the results from conventional farms (Zastawny and Paluch, 1996) and to the
contents of the nutritive components in the hay dried traditionally on the surface of meadow.
Table 6 Content of mineral components in hay and silage samples from organic farms
Content in % of DM
Farm area
P
2
O
5
K
2
O CaO Na
2
O MgO
hay
1-10 ha 0.96 3.29 2.09 0.94 0.87
11-20 ha 1.12 2.94 1.87 1.22 0.98
21-50 ha 1.06 2.79 1.80 1.16 1.04
Above 50 ha 1.01 2.59 1.52 1.07 0.86
Mean 1.04 2.90 1.82 1.10 0.94
silage
1-10 ha 1.79 1.60 3.09 1.07 1.07
11-20 ha 1.48 3.10 3.15 0.54 0.35
21-50 ha 1.36 3.12 1.96 0.29 0.69
Above 50 ha - - - - -
Mean 1.54 2.61 2.73 0.63 0.70
Six samples of silage from meadow swards were analysed. The content of crude protein in
DM ranged from 12.8 to 17.4% (average 16.1%), and fibre from 20.8 to 35.5% (average
27.7%). This suggests that the silage was prepared from different material to the hay. The
high (35.5%) content of fibre in one silage sample testified about too late cutting. Generally,
the content of basic nutritive components was comparable with results of the chemical
evaluation of hay.
According to literature, 1 kg DM of silage should have from 14 to 17 % of crude protein, and
the NEL should be 6.0-6.5 MJ/kg DM (Zastawny et al., 2000). The nutritive value of
evaluated silage samples was lower than this. It suggests that losses of nutritive components
Proceedings of the 4th SAFO Workshop, Frick, Switerland 13
Systems development: quality and safety in organic livestock products
during the process of harvest and conservation took place. The nutritive value of 1 kg DM of
hay was 4.95 MJ/kg, while the nutritive value of 1 kg of DM of silage was 5.1 MJ.
In seven samples of fodder from meadow sward, excessive quantities of ash were found
(>12.6%). It is the result of impurities in the fodder with sand, and disqualifies it as fodder.
The high content ash decreases the digestibility and has the influence on the decrease of NFE
content and, consequently, on the fodder value. However, in spite of the lack of the mineral
fertilization, the fodder from the meadows contained more protein and energy than is required
in feeding standards.
The P
2
O
5
content in hay was about 1 % (Table 6). It is the optimum content of this component
in the meadow sward. In the case of silage, the content of this component was even higher
(1.5%). The K
2
O content was more diverse and ranged from 1.6% (in silage - which is too
little for this type of fodder) to over 3% (the average for hay and the most of silage samples –
this ia an optimum value). In case of remaining mineral components ie, calcium, magnesium
and sodium, the content in investigated samples of the fodder was too high. For magnesium
and calcium, the quantities were twice, and for the sodium three times higher than norms.
Conclusions
A prevailing direction in the most farms was livestock production, mostly cattle for milk
production. The mean livestock density of cattle in examined farms was 2-2.5 times higher
than the mean for the country. This is seen as a consequence of the importance of grassland in
organic farming.
The basis of summer feeding of animals was grazing of pastures or meadows, usually after the
harvest of the first or the second cut. In the winter, the animals were fed with hay and silage
from arable lands, partly roots crops and concentrates with the addition of straw. Such feeding
is influenced by organic form of agricultural utilisation of permanent grasslands.
There was a high proportion of pastures in agricultural land, suggesting the correct direction
of the utilization of the land area on these farms. The average surface of pastures on
investigated farms was 8.5 has. The grassland yield was created usually by grasses, legumes,
herbs and weeds. The quality of pasture herbage was good or very good and higher than on
conventional farms in Poland.
A prevailing technology of harvest and conservation of meadow sward on the examined
organic farms was hay production. The hay usually was prepared from the herbage of the first
and the second cut, not always in accordance with the principles of good hay making.
Ensilaging of herbage is still not popular.
The content of nutritive components in hay and similarly silage samples from organic farms
was rather low. It suggests that the knowledge of available technologies by farmers is limited.
However, the utilisation of grasslands for livestock production was better on the studied
organic farms than on conventional farms in Poland.
References
Badania nad wpływem pasz pochodzenia łąkowo-pastwiskowego na produkcję zwierzęcą w gospodarstwach
ekologicznych. 2005. Raport naukowy z realizacji projektu badawczego nr HORre-401-219/04 zleconego przez
Ministerstwo Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi decyzją z dnia 3 sierpnia 2004 r.
Filipek J. 1973. Projekt klasyfikacji roślin łąkowych i pastwiskowych na podstawie liczb wartości użytkowej.
Postępy Nauk Rolniczych, nr 4. 59-68.
14 Proceedings of the 4th SAFO Workshop, Frick, Switzerland
Sysyems development: quality and safety in organic livestock products
Jankowska-Huflejt H., Moraczewski R., Zastawny J., 2003. Potencjał produkcyjny trwałych użytków zielonych
w Polsce i możliwości poprawy jego wykorzystania. Pamiętnik Pułaski z. 132. IUNG Puławy. 121-126.
Jankowska-Huflejt H., Zastawny J., Wróbel B., Burs W. 2004. Natural and economic conditions for the
development of organic farms in Poland. Proceedings of the 3
rd
SAFO workshop, 16-18 September 2004,
Falenty Poland. 101-113.
Normy żywienia zwierząt gospodarskich. Pr. zbior. Red. R. Ryś. Warszawa: PWRiL 1981.
Zastawny J., Hamnett R.G., Jankowska-Huflejt H., 2000. Zakiszanie runi łąkowej, Wydaw. IMUZ. Falenty. 32.
Zastawny J., Jankowska-Huflejt H., Wróbel B., 2003. Organic agriculture in Poland – legal and market aspects.
Proceedings of the 1
st
SAFO Workshop, 5-7 September, Florence, Italy. 241-252.
Zastawny J., Paluch B., 1996. The influence of technology of preservation on the nutritive value of roughages
from grassland. Proceedings of the 11th International Silage Conference, 8-11 September 1996, Aberystwyth.
204-205.
Proceedings of the 4th SAFO Workshop, Frick, Switerland 15
Systems development: quality and safety in organic livestock products
Part A:
Quality concept and organic livestock products
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Systems development: quality and safety in organic livestock products
Quality of organic livestock products
M. Walkenhorst
Forschungsinstitute fur Biologische Landbau, Switzerland
European consumers have become increasingly more aware of food safety issues, as a
consequence of a number of food ‘scandals’. Most of these ‘scandals’ have been related to
livestock products. However, most consumers still believe that it is possible to produce ‘safe’
food at low prices, while a small group of consumers is willing to pay a price surplus for
special quality. The individual definition of such “special quality” is diverse and includes both
product and process quality. This paper attempts to describe this diversity for livestock
products and to create a connection between aspects of quality and the organic standards.
“Intrinsic” or “product” quality is directly measurable in the product itself and includes
physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. Nutrient content, taste, texture, smell and
appearance are food characteristics that can benefit the consumer. Residues, toxins and
pathogens are potential risks. Food safety measures should decrease these risks.
Aspects that are not detectable directly in the product are part of the “extrinsic” or “process”
quality. Certification aims at ensuring these aspects that could be divided into three areas:
1. ethical (responsibility towards human beings and animals);
2. ecological (responsibility towards different parts of the ecosystem, including the
whole world); and
3. cultural aspects of quality.
Arable organic production is regulated in more detail and more consistently in the EU organic
standards than organic livestock production. In spite of the implementation of the livestock
standards in 1999 and their obvious positive aspects (low stocking densities, free-range
systems, organic feed, preventive health measures, minimisation of veterinary medicines etc.),
many critical points remain: tethering of dairy cows is still allowed, non-organic feed is still
allowed in ration, ruminants are still fed on high concentrate diets and the use of conventional
veterinary medicines is still common. Approach to longevity and killing of organically reared
animals does not differ from the approaches in the conventional systems. There is little
difference in the consumption of fossil energy between organic and conventional livestock
systems, and organic food often accumulates even more ‘food miles’ than conventional food.
And last but not least, organic livestock are still fed high quality protein feeds that are suitable
for human consumption, such as feeding Brazilian soy to European organic livestock.
Organic standards, especially for livestock products, have very few definitions of process
quality, and even fewer of these definitions that influence product quality. As most consumers
of organic livestock products expect high process and product quality, the organic movement
has to address this issue. It is suggested that a two-way approach is taken:
1. Consumer education and information on the importance of process quality; and
2. Definition and development of organic product qualities that are measurably better
than those of the conventional products (e.g. lower somatic cell counts in milk, lower
pathogen contamination of carcases, etc.)
[As the presentation was made in German, only an abstract of it is available.]
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Systems development: quality and safety in organic livestock products
Consumer expectations of the quality of organic livestock
products: how can premiums be justified?
J. Bachmann
Stiftung Fur Konsumentenschutz, CH; The Swiss Foundation for Consumer Protection
Consumers have a right to transpareny, clear and understandable information, opportunity to
compare and choose, protection against unfair competition and the right to benefit from
competition. They have the right to have safe and healthy food and other goods. The Swiss
Foundation for Consumer Protection (SKS) has set itself guidelines for its activities and
interventions. The SKS works for healthy, ethical and ecologically responsible food.
In relation to organic food, the consumers have the right to food products that are safer, more
natural and more welfare friendly than conventional ones. They also have high expectations,
in terms of choice. Consumers are willing to pay a fair but competitive price that is not
isolated from comparison.
With highly priced organic products, the tolerance of consumer of false promises is much
reduced.
If the consumer expectations are fulfilled, and the additional value of organic food products is
clearly communicated, the higher prices become justified and plausible, and consumers are
willing to pay a premium.
Clear communication, based on images and on the emotional value, is one, if not the most
important factor, for successful placement of the food products of Swiss organic farming in
future markets.
[As the presentation was made in German, only an abstract of it is available.]
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Producer expectations of quality of organic livestock products
R. Fuhrer
BIO SUISSE CH
BIO SUISSE is the umbrella federation of 35 organic farming organizations in Switzerland.
BIO SUISSE was established by Swiss orgnaic farmers and their wives in 1981. They agreed
on a common standard of high ecological standing and introduced a common label, the Bud.
The members of BIO SUISSE are the organic farmers of Switzerland. Approximately 6,500
agriculture enterprises (11 per cent of all Swiss farmers) follow the standards of BIO SUISSE.
Improvement of soil fertility, soil cultivation and crops were the most important issues at the
start of the BIO SUISSE activities. In the past few years, also the animal husbandry standards
of BIO SUISSE have been developed. All animals on BIOSUISSE farms benefit of the
welfare friendly guidelines: low stocking densities in housing, type of stable, grazing and
regular outdoor access are a matter of course. Great emphasis is also placed on welfare
friendly feeding, including high roughage proportion in ruminant diets (maximum of 10%
concentrates). BIO SUISSE farmers recognise that respect for livestock and quality of
products provides both pride and self confidence to the producer.
Since its initiation, BIO SUISSE has also been engaged in the processing of organic food. The
organisation sets guidelines for Bud-products from cultivation to the supermarket shelf. The
consumers rightfully expect from organic products that they are carefully processed, if
possible, without additives. The raw materials should be unique and maintain their distinct
quality throughout the processing. For BIO SUISSE-labelled food, the most preserving
processing method is used in each case, without artificial flavouring and colouring: the taste
of fruit in the yogurt comes from “Bud” fruits and nothing else.
BIO SUISSE is an active federation that does not rest on past successes or ignores social
change. Therefore, convenience products have become and important topic for us recently.
People take less time for cooking, but nevertheless want to have healthy food. Therefore, for
example ready made pizza or canned tomatos are also available in “Bud” quality today. We
hope to meet similar challenges in the future and are confident that, with organic farming, we
can offer credibility and additional value for the consumers.
[As the presentation was made in German, only an abstract of it is available.]
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Posters:
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Systems development: quality and safety in organic livestock products
Organic production and nutrimarketing strategy of
‘Hungaricums’ of animal origin
V. Szente, G. Tarnavölgyi, Sz. Berke, O. Szigeti and Z. Szakály
University of Kaposvár, Faculty of Economics, H-7400 Kaposvár, Guba S. u. 40.
Introduction
During the past decade, the general attitude of the population towards health, nutrition, quality
and environment has remarkably changed. Consequently, organic farming is increasing,
especially in economically developed countries. Due to the growing demand, government
subsidies and other economic advantages, the cropping area has increased.
In Hungary, organic farming principally means organic crop production. Livestock with
organic certification has existed in Hungary only for some years, with organic animal
husbandry usually located in the areas of national parks. For this reason, farmers primarily
keep breeds that are suitable for rough grazing, e.g. indigenous, traditional breeds. Table 1
shows the total number of animals in animal unit and the numbers of the two chosen species
from 2001.
Table 1 Organic livestock production in numbers of livestock units and farms in
Hungary in years 2001-2003.
2001 2002 2003 2004
Total (in animal unit) 8,388 11,855 11,210 12,254
Organic cattle 6,181 8,862 7,503 8,419
Organic pigs 225 327 446 704
Number of farms 72 83 137 160
Source: Biokontroll Hungária Kht., 2001-2005.
In the present study, two animal breeds are presented. Their numbers are increasing year on
year, with demand for the products increasing. Between these traditional Hungarian breeds,
the Hungarian Grey cattle amounts to 80% of the domestic, certified organic cattle stock,
while the organic pig stock consists of about 90% of the Mangalitsa pigs.
The Hungarian Grey Cattle and the Mangalitsa Pig
Historical sources, of which the earliest are from the 15th century, confirm the development
and origin of the animal breeds belonging to the Hungarian nation living in the Carpathian
Basin. In recent times, these breeds have been determined as ‘hungaricums’. This term shows
their indigenous origin and Hungarian production, helping the marketing of the products. The
main characteristics of ‘hungaricums’ have been described by several experts. From these
definitions we highlight the following, in order to help the interpretation of the study:
Hungaricums are animals, plants and food industry products made from them which
are related to the Hungarian production traditions developed through generations,
and which are recognized by the population of Hungary or a smaller region to be
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Sysyems development: quality and safety in organic livestock products
typical of Hungary, and foreign countries also accept them as Hungarian specialities”
(Andrásfalvy, 2003).
The Hungarian Grey Cattle
The Hungarian Grey cattle can be characterized as tough and undemanding animals. Fat
depositing begins early. However, the fat builds in the abdominal cavity and the subcutaneous
connective tissue instead of between the muscle-fibres (Holló, 2003). This makes the valuable
beef parts dry and low in cholesterol. The meat is suitable for people on special diets, and has
a taste similar to game (Kovács, 2002). Due to its extensive character, the Hungarian Grey
cattle require large pasture areas (5 to 10 hectares per animal unit, depending on the quality of
the herbage). There is no need for housing; the stock’s living-space can be designated by
natural boundaries and cattle-grids. At the beginning of 2004, approximately 8,000 Hungarian
Grey cattle were counted in the agricultural census, owned by 194 farmers. It is remarkable
that about 75% of the Grey cattle stock is kept on organic farms.
Mangalitsa pig
The Mangalitsa is the only remaining indigenous Hungarian pig breed. Since the middle of
the 20
th
century, the Mangalitsa pig began to lose ground on the Hungarian market, due to the
flooding of the market with intensively reared pork and increasing use of vegetable oils for
cooking. It should be noted that the Mangalitsa is the fattiest pig breed in the world, with an
ability to produce over 70% of its body weight in fat (Magyar Mezőgazdaság, 2002).
The production indices of the ancient Hungarian Mangalitsa are low. The slow gain in
muscles is accompanied with the increased infiltration of fat. Therefore, Mangalitsa pig
counts among the so-called heavy fat pigs with a recommended slaughter weight of 150-180
kg (Holló et al, 2003). Similarly to th