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Phytochemical and biological studies od Launaea Cass. Genus ( Asteracea) from Algerian sahara

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Traditional remedies have been employed for the treatment and management of various ailments since the beginning of human civilization. Launaea Cass. is a small genus of the family Asteraceae (tribe Lactuceae, subtribe Sonchinae), consisting of 54 species, of which 9 are presented in the flora of Algeria and is mainly distributed in the South Mediterranean, Africa and SW Asia. Plants in the Launaea genus have been used ethnobotanically as bitter stomachic, for treating diarrhea, gastrointestinal tracts, as anti-inflammatory, for skin diseases, treatment of infected wounds, hepatic pains, children fever, as soporific, lactagogue, diuretic and as insecticidal. The aim of this review is to present as much information as was established from the available scientific literature. The review covers the ethnopharmacological, biological activity related and phytochemical information on the species from genus Launaea, especially those growing in Algerian Sahara and used as medicinal plants.
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Phytochemical and biological studies on Launaea Cass.
genus (Asteraceae) from Algerian Sahara
ABSTRACT
Traditional remedies have been employed for the
treatment and management of various ailments
since the beginning of human civilization. Launaea
Cass. is a small genus of the family Asteraceae
(tribe Lactuceae, subtribe Sonchinae), consisting
of 54 species, of which 9 are presented in the
flora of Algeria and is mainly distributed in
the South Mediterranean, Africa and SW Asia.
Plants in the Launaea genus have been used
ethnobotanically as bitter stomachic, for treating
diarrhea, gastrointestinal tracts, as anti-inflammatory,
for skin diseases, treatment of infected wounds,
hepatic pains, children fever, as soporific, lactagogue,
diuretic and as insecticidal. The aim of this review
is to present as much information as was established
from the available scientific literature. The review
covers the ethnopharmacological, biological activity
related and phytochemical information on the species
from genus Launaea, especially those growing in
Algerian Sahara and used as medicinal plants.
KEYWORDS: Asteraceae, Launaea Cass.,
ethnopharmacological, biological activities,
phytochemical, Sahara
INTRODUCTION
The World Health Organization (WHO) has
recognized the potential utility of traditional
remedies and strives to preserve the primary
health care involving medicinal plants. Thus, there is
ample archaeological evidence indicating that
medicinal plants were regularly employed by
people in prehistoric times. In several ancient
cultures botanical products were ingested for
biomedically curative and psychotherapeutic
purposes [1]. Plants have formed the basis of
Traditional Medicine (TM) systems that have been
in existence for thousands of years and continue
to provide mankind with new remedies, such as,
the oldest known medicinal systems of the world:
Ayurveda, Arabian medicine, Chinese and Kempo
medicine. Although some of the therapeutic
properties attributed to plants have proven to be
erroneous, medicinal plant therapy is based on the
empirical findings of hundreds and thousands of
years [2]. One of the most efficient ways of
finding new bioactive compounds is collecting
data on the use of medicinal plants in traditional
pharmacopeia. Nearly 50,000 species of higher
plants have been used for medicinal purposes.
They are also used in food, cleaning, personal care
and perfumery. In systems of traditional healing,
major pharmaceutical drugs have been either
derived from or patterned after compounds from
biological diversity [3]. Natural products have
made enormous contributions to human health
through compounds such as quinine, morphine,
aspirin (a natural product analog), digitoxin and
many others. Thus natural products are very
important to conduct research on and they can be
a source of new compounds [4]. A trend in
phytomedicine is the use of new plant origin
bioactive compounds with the potential for chemical
modification, which will broaden phytomedical
1
Phytochemistry and Organic Synthesis Laboratory,
2
Bioactive Molecules and Chiral Separation
Laboratory, University of Bechar, Bechar, 08000, Algeria
Abdelkrim Cheriti
1,
*
, Mebarka Belboukhari
1
, Nasser Belboukhari
2
and Houria Djeradi
1
*karimcheriti@yahoo.com
Current Topics in
Phytochemistry
Vol. 11, 2012
68 Abdelkrim Cheriti et al.
L. pinnatifida, L. resedifolia and L. tenuiloba.
Different secondary metabolites including terpenoids,
steroids, triterpenoid saponin, sesquiterpene lactones,
coumarins, flavonoids, flavone glycosides and
phenolic compounds have been reported.
We attempt to present a review on the
ethnopharmacological and phytochemical studies
and biological activities of plants from the genus
Launaea Cass., especially those growing in Algerian
Sahara and used as medicinal plants.
Botanical taxonomy of the genus Launaea Cass.
Asteraceae family (Compositae), known as the
aster, daisy or sunflower family, is one of the largest
angiosperm families of dicotyledenous flowering
plants. It comprises about 1400 genera and more
than 25000 species of herbaceous plants, shrubs,
and trees, spread throughout the world, and
classified over three subfamilies and 17 tribes
[10]. Asteraceae plants tend to grow in sunlit
places, in temperate and subtropical regions and
can share these following characters [11]:
Various members of the aster family are familiar
species in natural habitats, while others are
cultivated plants in gardens and some are grown
as food (Lactuca sativa). Many members of
Asteraceae are pollinated by insects, which
explain their value in attracting beneficial insects
and are major honey plants.
The flowers of this family are of two basic types:
tubular actinomorphic corollas and those with
strap shaped or radiate zygomorphic corollas,
often with the same head. Either type may be
bisexual or unisexual.
Leaves and stems very often contain secretory
canals with resin or latex (particularly common
among the Cichorioideae). The leaves can be
alternate, opposite, or whorled. They may be
simple, but are often deeply lobed or otherwise
incised, and conduplicated or revoluted. The margins
can be entire or dentate.
The fruit of Asteraceae is a specialized type of
achene sometimes called cypsela. One seed per
fruit is formed.
Due to their chemo-diversity, the sesquiterpene
lactones are the most suitable class of naturals
importance. Molecular biology is also being used
in this process and the pharmacological profiles of
these compounds are screened using new research
equipment and new technology [5-8]. Natural
products and their derivatives represent more than
50% of all the drugs in clinical use in the world
and in which higher plants contribute to no less
than 25% [2].
A dozen potent drugs have been derived from
plants including: derived diosgenin; reserpine and
pilocarpine. Other natural products are metabolites
from fungi, bacteria, algae, and marine organisms.
So, the diversity of structures obtained and the
different therapeutic activities shown by the
natural products make the isolation, identification,
synthesis and biosynthesis of new natural
compounds a field of enormous interest. Only a
small part of the 400,000 vegetable species known
have so far been investigated for their phytochemical
and pharmacological aspects, and each species
could contain up to several thousands of different
components [9].
The plant family Asteraceae (Compositae) comprises
of a large number of species that have been and
are still used as medicinal plants, particularly in
folk medicine and used as a food.
Launaea Cass. is a small genus of the family
Asteraceae (tribe Lactuceae, subtribe Sonchinae).
The genus consists of 54 species, of which 9 are
presented in the flora of Algeria and is mainly
distributed in the South Mediterranean, Africa and
SW Asia. They are perennial to annual herbs,
small shrubs or sub shrubs. Many of its plants are
used in folk medicine as bitter stomachic, for
treating diarrhea, gastrointestinal tracts, as anti-
inflammatory, for skin diseases, treatment of
infected wounds, hepatic pains, children fever, as
soporific, lactagogue, diuretic and as insecticidal.
Additionally, crude extracts of some species have
been reported to exhibit antibacterial, antiparasitic,
antioxidant, cytotoxic, neuropharmacological and
insecticidal activities. From a chemical point of
view, only ten species of the genus Launaea Cass.
have been subjected to previous phytochemical
investigation, namely, Launaea acanthoclada,
L. arborescens, L. asplenifolia, L. capitata,
L. cassiniana, L. mucronata, L. nudicaulis,
which is endemic to south west Algeria and south
east Morocco [17].
Launaea arborescens (Batt.) Murb, (syn. Zollikoferia
spinosa DC) is an almost leafless, xerophilous,
perennial spiny shrub, 40-120 cm. high, with typical
zig-zag shaped stems (Figure 1). The young stems
are green, glabrous and erect. The older ones
become tough spines. The leaves are narrow and
dissected in small lobes, evergreen at the base but
shed after flowering from the stems. The flowers
are yellow, and abundant flowering occurs from
March to June, but flowers and achenes are
produced throughout the year. The roots are very
deep, the leaves and stems have white latex which
is similar in appearance to milk (thus the local
name “Oum loubina”) [15-18].
Ethnopharmacolgy and bioactivity of the genus
Launaea Cass.
It is well known that species from Asteraceae family
are used as natural remedies such as: Anthemis
arvensis L. (anti-inflammatory, emetic, sedative),
Artemisia arborescens L. (digestive, stimulant,
expectorant), Calendula arvensis (antispasmodic,
burns, diuretic, disinfectant and vulnerary), Cichorium
intybus L. (blood purification, arteriosclerosis,
anti-arthritis, anti-spasmodic, digestive, hypotensive,
aperitif and laxative) and Helychrysum microphyllum
Willd. (expectorant).
Phytochemical and biological studies on the Saharan Launaea 69
products for chemo-systematic studies within the
family [12, 13].
The tribe Lactuceae Cass. The tribe Lactuceae
(Cichorieae, Asteraceae family) comprises 98
genera and more than 1550 species. The milky
latex and the floral structure make the tribe easily
distinguishable from all other Asteraceae. The
flowering heads are composed of wholly ligulate
florets that are usually 5-lobed [10].
According to classification system on flowering
plants [14], the classification hierarchy of the
genus Launaea can be tracked as follows:
Kingdom : Plantae
Division : Angiosperms
Class : Eudicots
Subclass : Asterids
Order : Asterales
Family : Asteraceae
Subfamily : Cichorioideae
Tribe : Lactuceae (Cichorieae)
Sub-tribe : Sonchinae
Genus : Launaea
The genus Launaea Cass. belongs to the tribe
Lactuceae of the Asteraceae family and contains
about 54 species, most of which are adapted to
dry, saline and sandy habits [15]. Plants of this
genus have several rows of stems, hairless leaves
incised into lobes that are themselves lined with
white teeth, membranous scales on the edges,
yellow ligules, and elongated chain, prismatic or
slightly flattened.
The genus Launaea is represented in the flora of
Algeria by nine species including five endemics
of North Africa: L. angustifolia, L. quercifolia,
and L. cassiniana are the endemic plants of the
North Africa, with limited distribution [15, 16],
whereas L. acanthoclada and L. arborescens
are two endemic plants of the north-west of
Africa. The other four species L. nudicaulis
and L. residifolia sprout in Algeria and Tunisia
Mediterranean Sea, whereas L. glomerata and
L. mucronata grow in the Saharan Atlas [16].
Three of this species are used in Algerian
Sahara ethnopharmacopea as medicinal plants,
L. nudicaulis, L. residifolia and L. arborescens,
Figure 1. Launaea arborescens (Batt.) and flower–
south west Algeria.
70 Abdelkrim Cheriti et al.
On the other hand, triterpenoids and flavonoids
chemio-characteristic of Asteraceae family, including
the Launaea genus, have been reported to have
anti-inflammatory activities, anti-hyperlipidemia,
hepatoprotection, antioxidant, cytoprotective, giving
protection against cardiovascular disease, and
certain forms of cancer [25, 26]. Antibacterial,
antifungal and allelopathic potential activities have
been proven for many species of Launaea. In an
antibacterial assay against Bacillus subtilis the
extracts of L. nudicaulis and L. residifolia showed
18.5 and 20.5 mm zones of inhibition, respectively,
as determined by the disc diffusion method. The
antifungal activity against Aspergillus spp. was
determined by measuring the linear growth in
slants on 4
th
day of incubation. Methanol extracts
of L. nudicaulis and L. residifolia were active
at 0.209 mg/ml levels exhibiting 45 ± 6 mm and
37 ± 6 mm linear growth which decreased to 22 ±
5 mm and 28 ± 4 mm, respectively, at 0.838
mg/ml concentration [27].
As a part of our works on medicinal plants of
Algerian Sahara, recently we have reported the
antibacterial activity of extracts from Launaea
Arborescens and L. nudicaulis which are widely
distributed in the south west of Algeria. The
methanol extract of the aerial part of L. nudicaulis
showed high activities against Candida albicans,
Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and
Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The highest inhibition
observed in S. aureus, a human pathogen, explains
the use of this plant against a number of infections
for generations. Very interesting antifungal activity
against Candida albicans and Saccharomyces
cerevisae and antibacterial activity against
Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella entrecocus
have been reported for the methanol extract of
Launaea Arborescens [18, 28].
Hydroalcoholic extract from aerial parts of
Launaea arborescens was evaluated for acute and
subacute toxicity in Swiss mice after ingestions of
the extract. The LD50 of the extract is higher than
2.75 g/kg and the subacute treatment did not shows
any change in corporal weight and haematological
parameters, which suggest that the plant seems to
be destituted of toxic effects in mice [29].
Algeria with its large area and diversified climate
has a varied flora, which is a source of rich and
abundant medical matter and, in particular, Sahara
part constitutes an important reservoir of many
plants which have not been investigated until today.
Among this flora, some Launaea plants have been
used in the traditional medicine [17-19]. Species
of the genus Launaea are widely applied in
traditional folk medicine throughout their areas of
distribution. Many of them are used in folk
medicine as bitter stomachic, anti-tumour, insecticides
and against skin diseases.
Launaea residifolia (Vernacular name: Lemkar) is
a medicinal plant used in folkloric medicine
mainly for the treatment of hepatic pains.
Launaea nudicaulis (Vernacular name: Reghama)
is used in the traditional medicine to treat gastric
b
urns, pain of stomach, constipation, to relieve
fever in children, in the treatment of itches of
skin and eczema.
Launaea arborescens (Batt) (Vernacular name:
Oum Lbina) commonly used in popular medicine
as an antidiarrhoic and antispasmodic, to relieve
fever, and as a vermifuge in children. The latex is
applied locally to cure sore throats and in the
treatment of furuncles. The powdered root mixed
with Artemisia herba-alba is taken for diabetes.
The plant is appreciated by livestock, mainly by
camel [17-21].
Many phytochemicals are potent effectors of
biologic processes and have the capacity to
influence disease risk via several complementary
and overlapping mechanisms [22].
More than 4000 sesquiterpenoids structures with
around 30 different skeletal types have so far been
reported from several tribes of Asteraceae family
including the Cichorieae tribe. These natural
compounds are responsible for allergic contact
dermatitis and exhibit a wide range of bioactivities
which include plant growth regulation and
antimicrobial activity. Also they are used as
schistosomicidal and insect feeding-deterrent agents.
In addition, they provoke the toxicity for certain
cancer cell lines by inhibition of nuclear DNA
synthesis, especially the enzymatic activity in
tumour cells of DNA polymerase and thymidylate
synthetase [12, 23, 24].
Phytochemical and biological studies on the Saharan Launaea 71
damage in rats, through antioxidant and free
radical scavenging effects of flavonoids and
saponins present in this plant, which might be
responsible for the elimination of various kidneys
insults [34].
Phytochemistry of the genus Launaea Cass.
a. Secondary metabolites from the 2ed group of
Lactuceae tribe
The biodiversity of metabolite products isolated
from Asteraceae makes this family an important
phytochemical and commercial source. Several
phytochemical studies of some genera of Lactuceae
tribe (Cichorieae) revealed to be rich in secondary
metabolites, specifically sesquiterpene lactones
exhibiting the eudesmane, germacrane and guaiane
carbon framework. A total of 360 sesquiterpene
lactones and related compounds have been
isolated from 139 taxa belonging to 31 different
genera of the Lactuceae. Studies realized for these
genera revealed that most sesquiterpenoids within
the Cichorieae belong to the guaianolide class,
particularly: 92 representatives of costus lactone
type, 75 compounds of lactucin type, and 29
representatives of hieracin type [35, 36].
Some phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids and
coumarins were also isolated [37-42]. In addition,
triterpenes have also been detected [43, 44].
Recently, Sareedenchai and Zidorn indicated that
a total of 135 flavonoids have been isolated from
299 species of the Cichorieae (Lactuceae) tribe.
The reported compounds encompass flavanones,
flavanonols, flavones, flavonols, anthocyanidins,
isoflavonoids, chalcones and aurone [45].
Based on the similarity of their sesquiterpenes
profiles, Zidorn grouped the 31 genera of the
Lactuceae into seven main clusters and classified
Launaea with the 2ed group characterized by the
prevalence of guaianolides, formed by 11 genera,
sub-divided into four sub-groups: a) Scorzoneroides;
b) Notoseris, Lactuca, and Cichorium; c) Launaea,
Crepidiastrum, Reichardia, and Cicerbita d)
Taraxacum, Helminthotheca, and Hypochaeris [35].
Phytochemical investigation of 2ed group of the
Cichorieae tribe resulted in the identification and
isolation of differents metabolites including:
Aerial part and roots of Launeae arborescens
were used to evaluate their extracts for antifungal
activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis
Foa. The antifungal test was conducted using disc
diffusion technique and relative virulence (RV)
test (on potato tuber tissue). For both tests, four
extract quantities were used (200, 400, 800 and
1,600 µg). The relative virulence was presented as
necrotic tissue weight (mg) of potato tuber tissue.
Among all solvents, methanol had the best extraction
yield (mean: 6.35%, minimum: 2.27%, maximum:
9.80%) [30].
Coumarins isolated from L. resedifolia showed
high antibacterial activity against some Gram-
positive bacteria such as Bacillus cereus and
Staphyllococcus aureus in minimum inhibitory
concentrations of 200 and 400 µg/mL. However,
they showed no effect on tested Gram-negative
bacteria such as Serratia Sp., Pseudomonas Sp.
and Escherichia coli [31]. The ethanol extract
of L. resedifolia showed neuropharmacological
properties in animal models. The extract exhibited
an inhibitory effect on the locomotor activity of
mice in the open field test, an anti-nociceptive
effect by increasing the hot plate reaction time in
the hot plate test, and an anti-inflammatory
activity in the carrageen-induced paw oedema.
This finding has demonstrated that the extract of
L. resedifolia possesses sedative, analgesic and
anti-inflammatory properties, and some effect on
body weight. The anti-infl ammatory effect of the
plant was found to be as active as the prototype
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)
aspirin [32].
Allelopathic potential effect of aqueous extract of
Launaea procumbens was observed in the soil
application by a significant retarding effect on
wheat growth while shoot spray or root dip
treatment had no such effect and methanol and
chloroform fraction from this specie exhibited
efficient antioxidant scavenging activities, attributed
to the phenolic and polyphenolic compounds such
as myricetin, catechin, vitexin, orientin, hyperoside
and rutin, revealed in HPLC [33].
Other research has shown that extracts from
Launaea procumbens provide effective protection
for kidneys against the CCl
4
-induced oxidative
72 Abdelkrim Cheriti et al.
8-Deoxylactucin 16. The eudesmane derivatives
santamarin 17, ixerisoside E 18, lactuside D 19,
sonchuside C 20 and artesin 21 [39, 46], costinolide
type germacranolides such as picriside B 22, C 23,
sonchuside A 24, B 25 and cichoerioside C 26, [41,
47, 48], and melampolides type, lactulide A 27,
lactuside A 28 and B 29 [38, 39, 49, 50] and in some
case sesquiterpenoid sulphate, 8-deoxy-15-(3’-
hydroxy-2’-methylpropanoyl) lactucin-3’sulfate 30 [51].
Sesquiterpenoids
Costus lactone type guaianolides such as
dehydrocostruslactone 1, ixerisoside B 2, C 3 and D
4, scorzoside 5, zaluzanin C 6, glucozaluzanin C
7, 11 β,13-dihydrozaluzanin C 8, 8β-hydroxy-4 β,15-
dihydrozaluzanin C 9 and prenantheside C 10 [38, 39].
Lactucin type guaianolides, Lactucin 11, 8-O-acetate
Lactucin 12, Crepidiaside A 13, 11β, 13dihydrolactucin
14, 8-O-acetate, 11β, 13 dihydrolactucin 15 and
R
5
R
2
R
1
R
4
R
3
O
O
R
6
H
H
1-10
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
5
R
6
1
H,H CH
2
H H
CH
2
CH
2
2
α H,β OGlc α CH
3
,βH β OH H CH
2
CH
2
3
α H,β OGlc CH
2
H H CH
2
α CH
3
,βH
4
H,H CH
2
H α OGlc CH
2
CH
2
5
H,H CH
2
H α OGlc CH
2
α CH
3
,β
6
α H,β OH CH
2
H H CH
2
CH
2
7
α H,β OGlc CH
2
H H CH
2
CH
2
8
α H,β OH CH
2
H H CH
2
α CH
3
,βH
9
α H,β OH α CH
3
,βH β OH H CH
2
CH
2
10
α H,β OGlc CH
2
α OH H CH
2
α CH
3
,Βh
O
R
3
R
2
R
1
O
O
3
14
12
11
6
5
10
1
15
13
O
HO
O
O
R
H
11 : R
1
= R
3
=OH , R
2
=H
12 : R
1
= OAc , R
2
=H , R
3
=OH
13 : R
1
=R
2
=H , R
3
=O-glc
14 : R=OH
15 : R = OAc
16 : R=H
OR
3
R
4
O
R
1
R
2
H
17-19
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
17
OH H ,H CH
3
CH
2
18
OH H ,H CH
2
OGlc CH
2
19
O-PPA H ,H CH
2
OGlc CH
2
O
R
2
R
3
O
R
1
20-21
R
1
R
2
R
3
20
H α H, β OGlc α CH
3
, β H
21
OH H, H α CH
3
, β H
R
2
R
1
O
O
R
3
R
4
R
5
R
6
22-26
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
5
R
6
22
H CH
2
OGlc H H CH
3
CH
2
23
OGlc CH
3
H H CH
3
CH
2
24
O-Glc CH
3
H H CH
3
α CH
3
, β H
25
OGlc CH
3
H O-PMP CH
3
CH
2
26
OGlc CH
3
OH H CH
3
α CH
3
, β H
R
2
R
4
O
R
5
O
R
3
R
1
27-29
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
5
27
OH CH
3
H CHO α CH
3
,βH
28
OGlc CH
3
H CHO α CH
3
,βH
29
OGlc CH
3
H CH
2
OH α CH
3
,βH
O
O
O
O
O
NaO
3
SO
30
Phytochemical and biological studies on the Saharan Launaea 73
taraxerol 33, taraxeryl acetate 34, taraxasterol 35,
taraxasterone 36, taraxasteryl acetate 37, ψ-
taraxasteryl derivatives 38, 39, α-amyrin
derivatives 40, 41, lupeol 42, lupenone 43, and
lupenyl acetate 44 [39, 44].
Terpenoids
The majority of these triterpenes are pentacyclic
and belong to lupane, oleanane, gammacerane and
ursane groups, with some tetracyclic compounds
such as β-amyrin 31, β-amyrin acetate 32,
74 Abdelkrim Cheriti et al.
luteolin 7,4’-O-diglucoside 73, luteolin 7-O-
gentiobioside-4’-O-glucoside 74, luteolin 7,3’-O-
diglucoside 75 and isoetin glycosides, 7-O-
glucoside 76, 7-O-glucoside-2’-O-arabinoside 77,
7-O-glucoside-2’-O-xyloside 78, 7-O-glucoside-
2’-O-(4-O-acetyl)-xyloside 79. It is well noted
that flavonoids are considered as chemosystematic
markers in the tribe Cichorieae of the Asteraceae
family. Furthermore, usually coumarin compounds
are found in the 2ed group of the Cichorieae tribe
such as, umbelliferone 80, scopoletin 81, esculetin
82 and cichoriin 83 [41, 45, 52, 53].
Phenolic compounds
Several phenolic compounds were identified in
the aerial parts and roots of some species of the
2ed group of Lactuceae tribe such as small phenolic
compounds: p-hydroxybenzoic acids, 4- caffeoylquinic,
chlorogenic, trans-caffeate, methyl and ethyl p-
hydroxyphenylacetate, and p- coumaric, affeic
acids as well as their glycoside derivatives,
dihydroconiferin, syringin and dihydrosyringin
[38, 39]. In addition this group of Lactuceae tribe
contains various flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides
such as flavanone type: 7-hydroxyflavanone 45,
7-methoxyflavanone 46, naringenin 47, naringenin
7-methyl ether 48, miscanthoside 49, hesperitin
50, quercetin derivatives: Isorhamnetin 51, quercetin
7-O-glucoside 52, quercetin 7-O-gentiobioside 53,
hyperin 54, quercetin 3-O-glucuronide 55, quercetin
3-O-rhamnoside 56, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside 57,
isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside 58 and isorhamnetin
3-O-glucuronide 59. Various apigenin, luteolin
and isoetin groups were founds in the tribe such
as: Apigenin 4’-methyl ether 60, apigenin 4’-O-
glucoside 61, apigenin 7-O-glucoside 62, scutellarin
A 63, apigenin 7-O-gentiobioside 64, linarin 65,
luteolin 66, luteolin 4’-O-glucoside
67, luteolin
7-O-galactoside 68, luteolin 7-O-glucoside 69,
luteolin 7-O-rhamnoside 70, luteolin 7-O-
gentiobioside 71, luteolin 7-O-rutinoside 72,
31 R= α H, βOH
32 R= α H, βOAc
R
33 R= OH
34 R= OAc
R
35 R= α H, βOH
36 R= O
37 R= α H, βOAc
R
38 R= α H, βOH
39 R= α H, βOAc
R
40 R= α H, βOH
41 R= α H, βOAc
R
42 R=α H, βOH
43 R= O
44 R= α H, βOAc
H
H
R
O
O
R
2
R
1
R
3
R
4
45-50
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
45
H OH H H
46
H OCH
3
H H
47
OH OH H OH
48
OH OCH
3
H OH
49
OH O-Glc OH OH
50
OH OH OH OCH
3
Phytochemical and biological studies on the Saharan Launaea 75
b. Secondary metabolites isolated from the
Saharan Launaea genus
Different secondary metabolites have been identified
from the genus Launaea. In addition, few
sesquiterpene lactones have been reported from
various species of this genus and the occurrence
of flavones glycosides is remarkable. The first
works in phytochemistry on species of the genus
Launaea was started in 1969 by Prabhu and
Venkateswarlu [54], when they isolated from
leaves and roots of launaea pinnatifida two
compounds Taraxasterol 35 and Taraxerly acetate
37. Five year after, in 1974, Bahadur and Sharma
[55] reported the presence of palmitic, stearic,
oleic and linoleic acids from the roots of Launaea
nudicaulis. Twenty year ago, in 1989, Gupta et al.
[56] investigated Launaea asplenifolia and isolated
nine compounds namely, taraxasterol, taraxasterone,
taraxasteryl acetate and the common compounds
stigmasterol, ethypalmitate, ethylstearate, hexacosanol,
octacosanol and octacosanoic acid.
Launaea nudicaulis
The light petroleum extract of Launaea nudicaulis
leads to the characterization of some
7
and
5
phytosterols: β-sitosterol, brassicasterol, campesterol,
stigmasterol, fucosterol, 24β-
7
-ergosten-3β-ol and
stigmasta-7,24(28)-dien-3-ol [57]. Detailed chemical
investigation of Launaea nudicaulis yielded some
O
O
R
3
O
OR
2
OR
5
OR
4
OR
1
51-59
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
5
51
H H H CH
3
H
52
H H Glc H H
53
H H
Gen H H
54
Gal H H H H
55
Glu H H H H
56
Rha H H H H
57
Rut
H H H H
58
Glc H H CH
3
H
59
Glu H H CH
3
H
O
O
R
2
O
OR
1
OR
3
60-65
R
1
R
2
R
3
60
H H CH
3
61
H H Glc
62
H Glc H
63
H Glu H
64
H Gen H
65
H Rut CH
3
O
O
R
1
O
OH
OR
3
OR
2
66-75
R
1
R
2
R
3
66
H H H
67
H H Glc
68
Gal H H
69
Glc H H
70
Rha
H H
71
Gen H H
72
Rut H H
73
Glc H Glc
74
Gen H Glc
75
Glc Glc H
O
O
R
1
O
OH
OR
3
OH
R
2
O
76-79
R
1
R
2
R
3
76
Glc H
H
77
Glc Ara H
78
Glc Xyl H
79
Glc 4-O-acetyl Xyl H
OR
2
O
R
1
80-83
R
1
R
2
80
H OH
81
OMe OH
82
OH OH
83
OH O-Glc
triterpenes such as taraxasterol 35, ψ- taraxasterol
38, β-amyrin 34, 3β- taraxerol 33, α- amyrin 39,
and lupeol 41 [58].
Two new ursene type triterpenes, nudicauline A
84, and nudicauline B 85 have been isolated from
the aerial parts of this species, along with olean-
11,13(18)-diene 86, 3β-hydroxy-13(28)-epoxy-
urs-11-ene 87 and 3-keto-13(28)-
epoxy-urs-11-
ene 88
[59]
.
Additionally, flavone glycosides
were reported from the 70% EtOH extract of fresh
Recently, ethyl acetate soluble fraction of
methanolic extract of Launaea nudicaulis was
subjected to chromatographic purification to get
four new compounds including a quinic acid
derivative Cholistaquinate 89, a pentahydroxy
acetylene analog: trideca-12-ene-4,6-diyne-2, 8, 9,
10, 11-pentaol 90, a flavone glycoside
O
O
HO
OR
OH
OH
O
HO
OH
HO
HO
O
OH
OH
OH
91
O
O
H
O
HO
O OH
O
92
76 Abdelkrim Cheriti et al.
sample of Launaea nudicaulis and identified as
apigenin-7-O-glucoside 62, luteolin-7-O-glucoside
69, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside 72, apigenin-7-O-
gentiobioside 64, luteolin-7-O-gentiobioside 71,
and three glycosides luteolin-7,3’-diglucoside 75,
luteolin-7’,4’-diglucoside 73 and
luteolin-7-O-
gentiobioside-4’-O-glucoside 74
[60], which are
common metabolites within the 2ed group of
Lactuceae tribe as indicated above. Moreover, two
common coumarins, esculetin 82, and cichoriin
83, were also described [61, 62].
Cholistaflaside 91 and a sesquiterpene lactone
nudicholoid 92. Cholistaquinate 89 exhibited
significant activity in DPPH free radical scavenging
assay with an IC50 value of 60.7 mM, whereas,
nudicholoid 92 exhibited a moderate inhibitory
activity against the enzyme butyrylcholinesterase
with an IC50 value of 88.3 mM [63].
RO
84 R= OH
85 R = Ac
HO
86
O
R
87 R= α H, β OH
88 R = O
HO
O
O
O
O
OH
OH
OH
OMe
O
HO
89
H
2
C
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
90
phenolic components of the plant. In their studies
on Launaea genus from Spain including L.
arborescens, Giner et al. [66] isolated common
phenolic compounds namely, luteolin 66, luteolin-
7-O- glucoside 69, luteolin-7-O-rhamnoside 70,
esculetin 82 and its glycoside cichoriin 83, and
simple compounds, ethyl-caffeoate and ferulic
acid. The authors remarked that cichoriin 83 was
the most abundant compound in all studied
species.
We are the first initiators on the phytochemical
study of the Algerian sample of L. arborescens
collected from the Sahara [67]. From the
methanol extract of the aerial parts of this species,
we have described the isolation of four
compounds, two flavonoids, 3- acetyl-5-methoxy-
7,3’,4’-trihydroxyflavan-3-ol-8-O-glycoside 93,
5,7,4’-trihydroxy-3’- methoxyflavone ( chrysoeriol)
94, one lignan, 4,4’-dihydroxy-3,3’-dimethoxy-
7,9’:7,9’-diepoxylignan 95,
and a diterpene,
methyl-15,16-epoxy-12-oxo-8(17), 13(16), 14-
ent-labdatrien-19-oate 96.
L. arborescens [68]. The hydrodistillation of the
aeriel part of Launaea arborescens gave a green
yellowish oil in an yield of 0.07% from dried
material. Seventeen compounds were identified,
representing 84.96% of the total oil. The essential
oil of L. arborescens was a mixture of different
substances, including oxygen-containing
monoterpenes, alcohols, aldehydes, and esters.
Esters were the dominant group in the
oil (58.24%) with dioctyl phthalate (38.6%) and
Launaea residifolia (L.)
Chemical studie of the plant led to the isolation of
triterpenes α-amyrin 40, lupeol 42, lupeol acetate
44 and their epimer moretenol together with the
7
-stigmasterol. From the aerials parts of Launaea
residifolia growin in Algeria, four coumarin
compounds, cichoriin 83, esculetin 82, scopoletin
81 and its isomere isoscopoletin, were isolated [64].
On the other hand, the chemical composition of
essential oils from this species (0.9%) has been
identified using the ordinary GC-MS technique.
Nineteen compounds of essential oil of L.
residifolia L. were identified representing 86.68%
of the total oil. The compounds were identified by
spectral comparison to be mainly esters, alcohols,
ketones, and terpenes. The principal constituents
are dioctyl phthalate (39.84%), Decanoic acid,
decyl ester (12.09%), 11-Octadecenal (11.24%),
and Eucalyptol (07.31%) [65].
Launaea arborescens
Chemical data on this species are scarce in
literature and few published papers describe
A diversity structure of triterpenes oleanane
(3β-hydroxy-11α-ethoxy-olean-12-ene) and
sesquiterpenes type guaianolides (9α- hydroxy-
11β,13-dihydro-3-epi-zaluzanin C, 9α-hydroxy-
4α,15-dihydro-zaluzanin C) and costinolide
(3β,14-dihydroxycostunolide-3-O-β-Gluc.,3β,
14-dihydroxycostunolide-3-O-β-Gluc.-14-O-p-
hydroxyphenylacetate) together with the lactucin-
sulfate
30 were chemically characterised
from both the aerial parts and roots of
Phytochemical and biological studies on the Saharan Launaea 77
OHO
OH
OH
OH
O
O
93
O
O
HO
OH
OH
OCH
3
94
HO
H
3
CO
O
O
OH
OCH
3
95
96
H
3
COOC
O
O
78 Abdelkrim Cheriti et al.
their biological significance. This review presents
information on the importance of the ethnobotany,
phytochemistry and biological activities of the
members of this genus, especially the species
growing in Algerian Sahara. The given
information can be the base for undertaking future
research. It is necessary to carry out more studies
and to propagate utilization of medicinal plants as
a way to diminish the costs of public health programs.
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80 Abdelkrim Cheriti et al.
... It comprised about 54 species and 10 subspecies distributed in different geographical regions [7]. It had economic values, ecological and ethnobotanical importance [8][9][10]. Despite the richness of Launaea species with different phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, coumarins and terpenoids [11][12][13][14], only limited data was available concerning the anticancer effects of its members. ...
... On the other hand, the lowest inhibition value is recorded for PC-3. Launaea fragilis is commonly used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of hepatic pains and gastric disorders as reported by Cheriti et al. [9]. ...
... This species was traditionally used to treat gastric burns, stomach pain and constipation. Also, it was useful for hemorrhoids, children fever, in addition to the treatment of skin itches and eczema [9]. Similarly, Khan et al. [25] tested the alcoholic extract of Launaea procumbens and reported its significance in the inhibition of the tumor with IC50= 13±0.2 μg/mL. ...
Article
Full-text available
Wild medicinal plants are an efficient source of anticancer agents. The widely distributed Launaea fragilis and Launaea nudicaulis in Egypt were investigated for their anti-proliferative activities against some cancer cell lines. Ethanol extracts of the two species were evaluated in vitro by Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay on six cell lines; hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep G2), prostatic carcinoma (PC-3), colorectal carcinoma (HCT116), non-small cell lung carcinoma (H1299), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) and colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2). The results showed that the incubation of both L. fragilis and L. nudicaulis with non-small cell lung carcinoma (H1299) inhibited significantly the cell proliferation with IC50=26.5 and 20 μg/ml, respectively. Launaea fragilis recorded the lowest inhibition values for prostatic carcinoma (PC-3) with IC50=40μg/ml. However, breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) revealed the lowest inhibition value for L. nudicaulis with IC50=35μg/ml. Ethanol extract of L. nudicaulis was more effective in the inhibition of the cell proliferation than that of L. fragilis for the six cell lines.
... Antiproliferative activity of H. scoparia, [27] C. pendulus [28] and T. gaetula [29] were also reported in literature. H. scoparia, [30] arborescens, [31] A. halimus, [32] R. albida [33] and R. tripartite [34] have been tested against bacterial strains. The effect of leaf extract of M. crassifolia has been evaluated in-vivo as antispasmodic and antimicrobial. ...
... Antiproliferative activity of H. scoparia, [27] C. pendulus [28] and T. gaetula [29] were also reported in literature. H. scoparia, [30] arborescens, [31] A. halimus, [32] R. albida [33] and R. tripartite [34] have been tested against bacterial strains. The effect of leaf extract of M. crassifolia has been evaluated in-vivo as antispasmodic and antimicrobial. ...
Article
An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Laayoune Boujdour Sakia El Hamra region to inventory medicinal plants of South of Morocco. 248 informants including 220 local inhabitants and 28 herbalists were interviewed. Data were analyzed using seven indices: Use Value (UV), botanical Family Use Value (FUV), Fidelity Level (FL), Rank Order Priority (ROP), Informant Consensus Factor (FIC) and Jaccard similarity Index (JI). The highest UV value was recorded for Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana (UV = 0.44). Brassicaceae was the most frequently used by inhabitants of the region (FUV = 0.34). The highest FL was recorded for A. tortilis with a value of 100%. A. tortilis had the highest ROP with a value of 100% for treating gastrointestinal disorders, diabetes, and blood pressure. The highest FIC value was recorded for both hair loss and dandruff care and kidney disorder treatments (FIC = 1). ARTICLE HISTORY
... These types of pentacyclic triterpenoid are chemio-characteristic of Asteraceae family, including the Launaea genus and reported to have many important activities like anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotection, antioxidant and certain forms of cancer. [36] Phenolic The psuedomolecular ion [M+H] + at m/z 185 was identified as a gallate of gallic acid, methyl gallate which gave characteristic fragment ion at m/z 170 due to loss of CH 3 . [32] This compound has been reported in the L. procumbens. ...
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Background: Launaea procumbens is an important medicinal plant took its place also in the ingredient of food as preparation of sherbet, leaves in making curries, and as a goat fodder in most of the part of India. Objectives: The present work was aimed at investigating the phytochemicals of methanolic extract of L. procumbens leaves and its isolated mixtures from column fractions. Materials and Methods: The method was successfully developed and two new compounds (chlorogenic acid and 7-hydroxyflavanone) by liquid chromatography (LC)-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS and four new compounds (lactucin, isorhametin, 1-monopalmitin, and 1-hexacosanol) by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-ESI-quad time of flight (QTOF)/MS in L. procumbens were identified. Identification of compounds by LC-ESI-MS/ MS and UPLC-ESI-QTOF/MS was identified based on the accurate mass of pseudomolecular [M+H] + ion tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data and by comparing retention times, mass spectra, and molecular weights with those published in the literature. Results: The six new compounds, namely chlorogenic acid, 7-hydroxyflavanone, lactucin, isorhametin, 1-monopalmitin, and 1-hexacosanol were identified by in L. procumbens. Conclusion: A total of 26 compounds by gas chromatography-MS and five compounds by LC mass-ESI tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/ MS) and seven compounds by UPLC-ESI tandem mass spectrometry/ quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF/MS) technique were identified.
... These types of pentacyclic triterpenoid are chemio-characteristic of Asteraceae family, including the Launaea genus and reported to have many important activities like anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotection, antioxidant and certain forms of cancer. [36] Phenolic The psuedomolecular ion [M+H] + at m/z 185 was identified as a gallate of gallic acid, methyl gallate which gave characteristic fragment ion at m/z 170 due to loss of CH 3 . [32] This compound has been reported in the L. procumbens. ...
Article
Full-text available
Launaea procumbens is an important medicinal plant took its place also in the ingredient of food as preparation of sherbet, leaves in making curries, and as a goat fodder in most of the part of India. Objectives: The present work was aimed at investigating the phytochemicals of methanolic extract of L. procumbens leaves and its isolated mixtures from column fractions. Materials and Methods: The method was successfully developed and two new compounds (chlorogenic acid and 7-hydroxyflavanone) by liquid chromatography (LC)-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS and four new compounds (lactucin, isorhametin, 1-monopalmitin, and 1-hexacosanol) by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-ESI-quad time of flight (QTOF)/MS in L. procumbens were identified. Identification of compounds by LC-ESI-MS/MS and UPLC-ESI-QTOF/MS was identified based on the accurate mass of pseudomolecular [M+H]+ ion tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data and by comparing retention times, mass spectra, and molecular weights with those published in the literature. Results: The six new compounds, namely chlorogenic acid, 7-hydroxyflavanone, lactucin, isorhametin, 1-monopalmitin, and 1-hexacosanol were identified by in L. procumbens. Conclusion: A total of 26 compounds by gas chromatography-MS and five compounds by LC mass-ESI tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and seven compounds by UPLC-ESI tandem mass spectrometry/quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF/MS) technique were identified.
... Mainly 54 species belong to Genus Launaea Cass. and family Asteraceae were identified (99,100). Mainly such plants are found in sandy and saline habitats or nearby beaches area. ...
... We have previously reported the chemical characterization, antioxidant and phytotoxic activities of essential oils of three Launaea plants including L. nudicaulis [10]. Due to the history of the genus in addition to the potent biological activities of L. nudicaulis especially, antioxidant potentiality, existing evidence suggested that it has potential antidiabetic activity [14][15][16][17]. ...
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Launaea nudicaulis is used in folk medicine worldwide to treat several diseases. The present study aimed to assess the antidiabetic activity of L. nudicaulis ethanolic extract and its effect on diabetic complications in streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats. The extract was orally administrated at 250 and 500 mg/kg/day for 5-weeks and compared to glibenclamide as a reference drug at a dose of 5 mg/kg/day. Administration of the extract exhibited a potential hypoglycemic effect manifested by a significant depletion of serum blood glucose concurrent with a significant elevation in serum insulin secretion. After 5-weeks, extract at 250 and 500 mg/kg/day decreased blood glucose levels by about 53.8 and 68.1%, respectively, compared to the initial values (p ≤ 0.05). The extract at the two dosages prevented weight loss of rats from the 2nd week till the end of the experiment, compared to diabetic control rats. The extract further exhibited marked improvement in diabetic complications including liver, kidney and testis performance, oxidative stress, and relative weight of vital organs, with respect to diabetic control. Histopathological examinations confirmed the previous biochemical analysis, where the extract showed a protective effect on the pancreas, liver, kidney, and testis that degenerated in diabetic control rats. To characterize extract composition, UPLC-ESI–qTOF-MS identified 85 chromatographic peaks belonging to flavonoids, phenolics, acyl glycerols, nitrogenous compounds, and fatty acids, with four novel phenolics reported. The potential anti-diabetic effect warrants its inclusion in further studies and or isolation of the main bioactive agent(s).
... Many of the plants belonging to the Launaea genus are used in traditional medicine for skin disease, as anti-tumors, antihelmintics, insecticidal and for renal disorders [2,3]. The genus Launaea possesses phytochemical features, such as terpenoids, phenolics, flavones and coumarins [4,5]. Many of those secondary metabolites were reported to have an antiinflammatory and analgesic activities, tritepenoids, flavonoids, coumarins. ...
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Inflammations and pain have always been the cause of serious health problems; to treat these problems, the population in south west of Algeria use medicinal plants as an alternative way. Within the same framework, the aim of this study is to explore the potential of aqueous extract of Launaea nudicaulis for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities were evaluated using an acetic acid test-induced abdominal writhing and formalin test-induced paw edema. To assess the mechanism of anti-inflammatory action, the extract was tested against different phlogistic agents such as histamine and serotonin in addition to a test about the effect of the extract on capsacinoid receptors. The result of this work showed the aqueous extract of L.nudicaulis inhibits 99% (P< 0.0001) of the abdominal writhing and reduces the volume of the hide paw edema by 70% , (P< 0.0001).The aqueous extract reduces hide paw edema induced by histamine and serotonin; moreover the extract was effective on capsacinoid receptors by an inhibition rate that reached 50%. The physicochemical analysis of the extract showed presence of potent analgesic and antiinflammatory compounds as Thymol, trans-Totarol, Eugenol and other compounds.
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Traditional medicine is widely used in the treatment and management of various ailments due to its low toxicity, low number of side effects and low cost. Many components of common fruits and vegetables play crucial roles as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agents. This study aimed to evaluate in vitro the antioxidant, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of Launaea mucronata’s methanolic stems and leaves extract. In this screening study, Launaea mucronata’s methanolic extracts showed remarkably antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The maximum zone of inhibition of the methanolic extract of Launaea mucronata leaves was detected against Proteus vulgaris with inhibition zones of 17.8 mm and 14.6 mm, respectively. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay results showed high antioxidant activity for the extract almost comparable to that of ascorbic acid at 30 µg/ml, which indicates that it might potentially be developed into a successful antioxidant agent. Meanwhile, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed by screening the extract against HepG2 (Hepatocellular), A549 (Lung), HCT116 (Colon) and MCF7 (Breast) cancer cells and it was found that the extract exerted its highest activity against A549 cells with an IC50 value of 14.9 µg/ml. The extracts also shown lower cytotoxic activity against normal, healthy MRC-5 cells, with IC50 values of 204.83 g/ml for the stem extract and 412.4 g/ml for the leaves extract, respectively. This suggests that the extract is safe for normal, healthy cells, which is an important characteristic of any possible anticancer treatment. The antiproliferative and apoptosis activities of our selected plant showed that the extracts induced S-phase arrest and apoptosis in A549 cells. This high cytotoxic activity of the extract indicates that highly bioactive pure compounds could potentially be isolated from the extract in future studies and further developed into an anticancer agent specifically against lung cancer. Therefore, the current study has proven the potential of Launaea mucronata’s methanolic extract as a source of potent antioxidant and anticancer agent.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Launaea arborescens, its vernacular name is Mol-albina belonging to asteracaea family origin of the southwest of Algeria. This plant is used in folk medicines to treat gastroenteritis, diabetes, child aliment and other diseases; it is taken macerated or boiled. Aim This study aims to evaluate the anti-inflammation an analgesic activity of the aqueous extract of Launaea arborescens (AqELA) and its pathway of action. Methods the investigation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects were done using formalin test, acetic acid test. For mechanism investigation, it was used hot plate test to induce opioid receptors, a histamine and serotonin test to induce oedema paw, finally, for the TRPV1 receptor, it was used the capsaicin test. Results The aqueous extract of Launaea arborescens showed a significant inhibition of abdominal writhing test 95% and 100% inhibition of licking paw using acid acetic test and formalin test respectively (EC: 47mg/kg and 104 mg/kg). The analgesic effect of the aqueous extract of Launaea arborescens showed inhibition of sensation of pain after 120 min compared to morphine effect. The aqueous extract of Launaea arborescens reduced paw volume after 180 min and 120 min for histamine and serotonin respectively with dose-dependent. Concerning of TRPV1 receptors, the inhibition was showed at doses 100 mg and 300 mg. Conclusion Our results contribute towards validation of the traditional use of Launaea arborescens for inflammation ailment.
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Four new sesquiterpene glycosides, sonchusides A (6), B (7), C (8) and D (9), have been isolated from Sonchus oleraceus L., together with five known glycosides, glucozaluzanin C (1), macrocliniside A (2), crepidiaside A (3) and picrisides B (4) and C (5). The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of chemical and spectral data.
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The broad knowledge of the chemistry of theCompositae allows the discussion of its relevance for the systematics and evolution within the family. Furthermore a separation into subfamilies can be supported by the observed differences in the distribution of the main constituents in the tribes.
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This paper reports the chlorogenic acids content of unroasted chicory root and eleven coffee substitutes which contain either chicory or dandelion. Unroasted chicory root contained CQA and diCQA but at a much lower level than green coffee beans. In the roasted products only 5-CQA was found consistently and 4-CQA occasionally at levels approximately two orders of magnitude lower than in the corresponding roasted coffee products. The roasted substitutes were characterised chromatographically by very large amounts (some 80 to 95% of total chromatogram area) of rapidly eluting material. The chromatograms of most substitutes were characterised by a peak provisionally identified as 5-hydroxymethyl furfural.