RetractedArticle

“Boom, Headshot!”

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Abstract

The editors of Communication Research, Drs. Gibbs and Knobloch-Westerwick, wish to issue a retraction of the article entitled ““Boom, Headshot!?”: Effect of Video Game Play and Controller Type on Firing Aim and Accuracy” by Jodi L. Whitaker and Brad J. Bushman. This article was first published online on April 30, 2012 and in print in the October 2014 issue of Communication Research (issue 41, pp. 879-891) as doi:10.1177/0093650212446622. It should be noted that, to ensure impartiality, Dr. Knobloch-Westerwick was not involved in the preparation of this decision, because she is on the faculty at the same institution as the corresponding author. This retraction is in response to inquiries from Drs. Markey (Villanova U) and Elson (Ruhr U Bochum), in agreement with the corresponding author Dr. Bushman. A Committee of Initial Inquiry at Ohio State University recommended retracting this article after being alerted to irregularities in some variables of the data set by Drs. Markey and Elson in January 2015. Unfortunately, the values of the questioned variables could not be confirmed because the original research records were unavailable. In 2016, Drs. Markey and Elson sent their report to Dr. Gibbs, one of the editors of Communication Research, who decided that a retraction was warranted. A replication of the study by Dr. Bushman is in review.

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... Página 3 de 18 war games oriented to promote fighting and shooting strategies, which can unconsciously result in undesirable conduct patterns (Whitaker & Bushman, 2012). Based on our conviction that collaborative play provides chances for highly advantageous socio-cognitive learning, the game CityVille was selected with the aim of verifying whether or not it facilitates collaboration and strategy exchange between players for the construction of virtual cities. ...
... Today's motion capturing controllers are vastly different than traditional controllers and the research surrounding the impact of game controllers demonstrates that Journal of Communication (2015) © 2015 International Communication Association different controllers have a significant influence on the gaming experience (Gerling, Klauser, & Niesenhaus, 2011;Kim, 2009;Markey & Scherer, 2009;McEwan, Johnson, Wyeth, & Blackler, 2012;McGloin et al., 2011;Whitaker & Bushman, 2012). ...
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Administered the Attitudes Toward Guns and Violence Questionnaire (AGVQ) to 1,619 students in Grades 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, and 12 from four demographically diverse school systems. Fifty-two of the 61 items exhibited satisfactory part-whole correlation and correlation with a validity criterion. Factor analysis revealed four main factors: Aggressive Response to Shame, Comfort With Aggression, Excitement, and Power/Safety. The instrument was reduced to 23 items by deleting items with high cross-loadings. Construct validity was similar for the longer and shorter versions. Youth who self-reported owning a gun produced scores 1.5 SD higher than nonowners. Low scores were associated with a 1 in 125 chance of gun ownership, and high scores were associated with a 1 in 3 chance. Congruency coefficients indicated similar factor structure for the present sample and a separate sample of 5th-, 7th- and 9th-grade students. These results indicate that the AGVQ is a reliable and valid measure of violence-related attitudes in young people.
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When attempting to implement evidence-based medicine, such as through clinical guidelines, we often rely on passive educational tactics, for example didactic lectures and bulletins. These methods involve the recipient in relatively superficial processing of information, and any consequent attitude changes can be expected to be short-lived. However, active methods, such as practice-based discussion, should involve recipients in deep processing, with more enduring attitude changes. In this experiment, the aim was to assess the efficacy of an active strategy at promoting deep processing and its effectiveness, relative to a typical passive method, at changing attitudes between groups of GPs over 12 months across an English Health District. All 191 GPs operating from 69 practices in the Wirral Health District of Northwest England were assigned, with minimization of known confounding variables, to three experimental groups: active, passive and control. The groups were shown to have similar learning styles. The objective of the study was to impart knowledge of best management of infections as captured in a series of locally developed clinical guidelines. The passive group GPs were given a copy of the guidelines and were invited to an hour-long lecture event. The GPs in the deep group were given a copy of the guidelines and were invited to engage in an hour-long discussion about the guideline content at their own premises. The control group received neither the guidelines nor any educational contact regarding them. Three months before and 12 months after the interventions, all GPs were sent a postal questionnaire on their preferred empirical antibiotic for 10 common bacterial infections. The responses were compared in order to ascertain whether increased knowledge of best clinical practice was evident in each group. Seventy-five per cent (144/191) of GPs responded to the pre-intervention questionnaire, 62 % (119/191) post-intervention. Thirty-four per cent (22/64) of GPs in the passive group attended the lecture; 91% (60/66) of the active group engaged in discussion at meetings with the authors. A significantly higher proportion of the active group participants' speaking time, during a sample of four visits, was devoted to verbal indicators of active processing than the passive group lecture attenders (difference = 55%, Fisher's exact test P = 0.002, OR = 11.5, 95% CI 2.1-113.4). Inter-observer agreement on the classification of the verbal evidence was highly statistically significant for all classes (Pearson's product moment correlation, P < 0.0005, r = +0.893 to +0.999) except repetition (P > 0.05, r = +0.407). Median compliance of responses with the guidelines improved by 2.5% within the control group and 4% within the passive, but by 23% within the active. The difference between the changes in the active and control groups was highly statistically significant at 17.5% (Mann-Whitney test, P = 0.004, 95% CI 6-29%). However, for the 10 infections, the median difference between the changes in the passive and control groups was not significant at 3% (P = 0.75, 95% CI -8 to +12. The median difference between changes in the active and passive groups was significant at 17% (P = 0.015, 95% CI 7-24%) in favour of the active. An active educational strategy attracted more participation and was more effective at generating deep cognitive processing than a passive strategy. A large improvement, lasting for at least 12 months, in attitude-compliance with guidelines on the optimal treatment of infections was imparted by the active processing method. A typical passive method was much less popular and had an insignificant impact on attitudes. The findings suggest that initiatives aiming to implement evidence-based guidelines must employ active educational strategies if enduring changes in attitude are to result.
Article
As video-game playing has become a ubiquitous activity in today's society, it is worth considering its potential consequences on perceptual and motor skills. It is well known that exposing an organism to an altered visual environment often results in modification of the visual system of the organism. The field of perceptual learning provides many examples of training-induced increases in performance. But perceptual learning, when it occurs, tends to be specific to the trained task; that is, generalization to new tasks is rarely found. Here we show, by contrast, that action-video-game playing is capable of altering a range of visual skills. Four experiments establish changes in different aspects of visual attention in habitual video-game players as compared with non-video-game players. In a fifth experiment, non-players trained on an action video game show marked improvement from their pre-training abilities, thereby establishing the role of playing in this effect.
Article
In a previous study (see ^W37^n: 856) children imitated the behavior of a model in the presence of the model. The present study investigated the degree of imitation when the model was not present. Degree to which like-sexed model behavior would be followed was also studied. Nursery school children exposed to aggressively behaving models tended to imitate not only their aggressiveness but other behavior as well. There was some confirmation of like-sex imitation. The results were related to the psychoanalytic theory of identification.
Article
Performance of laparoscopic surgery requires adequate hand-eye coordination. Video games are an effective way to judge one's hand-eye coordination, and practicing these games may improve one's skills. Our goal was to see if there is a correlation between skill in video games and skill in laparoscopy. Also, we hoped to demonstrate that practicing video games can improve one's laparoscopic skills. Eleven medical students (nine male, two female) volunteered to participate. On day 1, each student played three commercially available video games (Top Spin, XSN Sports; Project Gotham Racing 2, Bizarre Creations; and Amped 2, XSN Sports) for 30 minutes on an X-box (Microsoft, Seattle, WA) and was judged both objectively and subjectively. Next, the students performed four laparoscopic tasks (object transfer, tracing a figure-of-eight, suture placement, and knot-tying) in a swine model and were assessed for time to complete the task, number of errors committed, and hand-eye coordination. The students were then randomized to control (group A) or "training" (i.e., video game practicing; group B) arms. Two weeks later, all students repeated the laparoscopic skills laboratory and were reassessed. Spearman correlation coefficients demonstrated a significant relation between many of the parameters, particularly time to complete each task and hand-eye coordination at the different games. There was a weaker association between video game performance and both laparoscopic errors committed and hand-eye coordination. Group B subjects did not improve significantly over those in group A in any measure (P >0.05 for all). Video game aptitude appears to predict the level of laparoscopic skill in the novice surgeon. In this study, practicing video games did not improve one's laparoscopic skill significantly, but a larger study with more practice time could prove games to be helpful.
Article
Goal-oriented, task-specific training has been shown to improve function; however, it can be difficult to maintain patient interest. This report describes a rehabilitation protocol for the maintenance of balance in a short-sitting position following spinal cord and head injuries by use of a center-of-pressure-controlled video game-based tool. The scientific justification for the selected treatment is discussed. Three adults were treated: 1 young adult with spina bifida (T10 and L1-L2), 1 middle-aged adult with complete paraplegia (complete lesion at T11-L1), and 1 middle-aged adult with traumatic brain injury. All patients used wheelchairs full-time. The patients showed increased motivation to perform the game-based exercises and increased dynamic short-sitting balance. The patients exhibited increases in practice volume and attention span during training with the game-based tool. In addition, they demonstrated substantial improvements in dynamic balance control. These observations indicate that a video game-based exercise approach can have a substantial positive effect by improving dynamic short-sitting balance.
Article
Many Americans live with physical functional limitations stemming from stroke. These functional limitations can be reduced by task-specific training that is repetitive, motivating, and augmented with feedback. Virtual reality (VR) is reported to offer an engaging environment that is repetitive, safe, motivating, and gives task-specific feedback. The purpose of this case report was to explore the use of a low-cost VR device [Sony PlayStation 2 (PS2) EyeToy] for an individual in the chronic phase of stroke recovery. An individual two years poststroke with residual sensorimotor deficits completed 20 one-hour sessions using the PS2 EyeToy. The game's task requirements included target-based motion, dynamic balance, and motor planning. The feasibility of using the gaming platform was explored and a broad selection of outcomes was used to assess change in performance. Device use was feasible. Clinically relevant improvements were found on the Dynamic Gait Index and trends toward improvement on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Berg Balance Scale, UE Functional Index, Motor Activity Log, and Beck Depression Inventory. A low-cost VR system was easily used in the home. In the future it may be used to improve sensory/motor recovery following stroke as an adjunct to standard care physical therapy.
Article
Although most health professionals perform home visits, there is not a structured method for performing them. In addition, in-training health professionals' exposure to home visits is limited for logistical reasons. A new method for medical students to learn how to perform an effective home visit was developed using an instructional video game. It was expected that students would learn the principles of a home visit using a video game while identifying the usefulness of video gaming (edutainment) in geriatrics education. A video game was created simulating a patient's house that the students were able to explore. Students played against time and distracters while being expected to click on those elements that they considered to be risk factors for falls or harmful for the patient. At the end of the game, the students received feedback on the chosen elements that were right or wrong. Finally, evaluation of the tool was obtained using pre- and posttests and pre- and postexposure feedback surveys. Fifty-six fourth-year medical students used the video game and completed the tests and the feedback surveys. This method showed a high level of engagement that is associated with improvement in knowledge. Additionally, users' feedback indicated that it was an innovative approach to the teaching of health sciences. In summary, this method provides medical students with a fun and structured experience that has an effect not only on their learning, but also on their understanding of the particular needs of the elderly population.
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