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Effect of sesame on sperm quality of infertile men

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High level of semen reactive oxygen species is considered as an important factor in male infertility. Sesame has antioxidant properties, which could be effective on improvement of semen parameters. This study was designed to determine the effects of sesame on sperm quality. Twenty-five infertile men entered this clinical trial. They were treated with a 3-months course of taking 0.5 mg/kg sesame. The pre intervention sperm analysis (sperm count, motile sperm percentage and normal morphology sperm percentage) was compared with post treatment sperm analysis. Based on the post intervention seamen analysis, patients were advised to undergo either IVF or ICSI to assess their fertility status. There was significant improvement in the sperm count (10.56 ± 5.25 vs. 22.71 ± 30.14 million per ml) and motility (15.32 ± 13.58 vs. 23.32 ± 20.61 percent) after treatment with sesame (P value: 0.04 and <0.0001 respectively), but there was no significant improvement in sperm morphology after the treatment (10.72 ± 6.66 vs. 13.20 ± 11.14 percent, P value: 0.10). Three patients (12%) underwent IUI, which resulted in 1 successful pregnancy. Two patients (8%) underwent ICSI, which was not successful; however 2 (8%) patients had spontaneous pregnancy. Fortunately, all pregnancies led to live birth. Except 1 case of diarrhea, no other major side effect was reported. Sesame improved sperm count and motility, and can be prescribed as an effective and safe method for male factor infertility.
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... With antioxidant therapy, we observed a significant improvement in sperm concentration which can help in change in the management plan from in vitro fertilization to intrauterine insemination. In [19,23,24] Kacem et al. [21] did another study on 48 infertile men after giving antioxidant for 2-month duration; they found no increase in sperm volume, concentration, and motility. The length of treatment for 2 months is less than the life cycle of sperm to show any effect of antioxidant in their study. ...
... Antioxidants improve sperm motility which is one of the important parameters in the management of male infertility. In our study, there was a significant improvement in motility after antioxidants in men with abnormal semen parameters ( [18,19,[23][24][25][26] All the above studies used either single or combination of antioxidants for 3 months and observed improvement in sperm motility, except Suleiman et al., [18] who observed improvement in sperm motility after giving Vitamin E alone for 6 months. ...
... In our study, we found significant improvement in sperm morphology after antioxidant therapy. Our result was similar to the studies done by Piomboni et al. and Heidary et al. [26,27] as both studies observed improvement in the sperm morphology after 3 months of antioxidant therapy; however, Khani et al. [23] performed a study on 25 infertile men to determine the effect of antioxidant therapy on sperm morphology, and they found no significant improvement in sperm morphology. This difference may be due to less sample size in their study. ...
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Aims: The study aims, in infertile men, (i) to assess oxidative stress parameters in semen plasma and (ii) to study the effect of antioxidants in those with abnormal semen parameters. Settings and design: This was an interventional study. Population: Ninety men attending and infertility clinic in a tertiary center were enrolled in the study. Materials and methods: The present study was conducted in the departments of obstetrics and gynecology and biochemistry in a tertiary center. Ethical approval was obtained from the institute ethics subcommittee, and the study was conducted between July 2014 and July 2016. The study was conducted on two groups of 45 men with normal semen parameters in group 1 and 45 men with abnormal semen parameters in group 2. Results: Malondialdehyde (MDA) value was higher in men with abnormal semen parameters, which was statistically significant. The total antioxidant assay was higher in men with abnormal semen parameters, which was not statistically significant. Oxidative stress index (OSI) value was higher in men with normal semen parameters, which was not statistically significant. After 90 days of antioxidants therapy to men with abnormal semen parameters, MDA value decreased, total antioxidant assay increased, and OSI value decreased, which were statistically significant. Semen parameters such as sperm concentration, motility, and normal morphology improved after 90 days of antioxidant therapy, which were statistically significant. Conclusions: Oxidative stress is increased in men with abnormal semen parameters. Antioxidant therapy improves sperm concentration and motility and decreases oxidative stress in the semen plasma.
... Sesamin, a lignan isolated from the seeds of S. indicum plants and sesame oil, has several important biological properties, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities (Zhou et al., 2015). Preclinical investigations have demonstrated that sesame and sesame oil exhibit potent effects on male factor infertility, and the clinical potential of these compounds has also been highlighted by other studies, further substantiating their role as fertility agents (Ashamu et al., 2010;Abbasi et al., 2013;Khani et al., 2013). ...
... Previous studies have shown that sesame, sesame alcohol extract, and sesame oil have protective effects on male fertility, which is closely related to their antioxidant activities. For instance, sesame can effectively improve male semen parameters because of its antioxidant properties, which is a safe and effective method for the treatment of male spermatogenic dysfunction (Khani et al., 2013). The vitamin C and ethanol extract of sesame can improve the fertility of rats through antioxidant effect (Ashamu et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Most of the clinically infertile patients show spermatogenesis dysfunction. Cyclophosphamide, as an anticancer drug, can induce spermatogenesis dysfunction. Sesamin is the main bioactive component of natural lignans in sesame. It is abundant in sesame oil and has strong biological activities such as antioxidant, antibacterial, and hypoglycemic properties. By establishing the model of spermatogenic dysfunction induced by cyclophosphamide in male mice and then feeding sesamin (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) for 2 weeks, we proved that sesamin can improve the reproductive organ damage induced by cyclophosphamide and increase the number and activity of sperms. Sesamin can resist cyclophosphamide-induced sperm nuclear maturity and DNA damage by increasing the expression levels of histones H2A and H2B in the testis. In addition, sesamin can improve the ubiquitination of histones regulated by RNF8 to protect the testis. In conclusion, these results suggest that sesamin can improve spermatogenic dysfunction induced by cyclophosphamide, which may be mediated by ubiquitination of histones.
... Recently, an oral supplement of various antioxidants was shown to decrease the number of immotile sperm and to significantly increase the TMSC in men undergoing fertility treatment [30]. In another study, daily intake of sesame was shown to increase sperm count and motility [31]. In both these studies, the interval of semen analysis from baseline to follow-up was at least two months, leaving no information on whether the supplements had an effect on epididymal sperm. ...
... Nevertheless, both studies referred to the antioxidant effect as the major reason for sperm quality improvement. In the study on the effects of sesame on sperm quality, sperm morphology was also assessed, but in accordance with our present findings there was no improvement in sperm morphology after three months of taking the sesame supplement [31]. ...
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Pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) and galangal (Alpinia galanga) have separately been shown to stimulate spermatogenesis and to increase sperm counts and motility in rodents. Within traditional medicine, pomegranate fruit has long been used to increase fertility, however studies on the effect on spermatogenesis in humans have never been published. With this study we investigated whether oral intake of tablets containing standardised amounts of extract of pomegranate fruit and powder of greater galangal rhizome (Punalpin) would increase the total number of motile spermatozoa. The study was designed as a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial. Enrolment was based on the mean total number of motile spermatozoa of two ejaculates. The participants delivered an ejaculate after 4–8 days of tablet intake and two ejaculates just before they stopped taking the tablets. Seventy adult men with a semen quality not meeting the standards for commercial application at Nordic Cryobank, but without azoospermia, were included in the study. Participants were randomized to take tablets containing extract of pomegranate fruit (standardised with respect to punicalagin A+B, punicalin and ellagic acid) and freeze-dried rhizome of greater galangal (standardised with respect to 1′S-1′-acetoxychavicol acetate) or placebo on a daily basis for three months. Sixty-six participants completed the intervention (active treatment: n = 34; placebo: n = 32). After the intervention the total number of motile spermatozoa was increased in participants treated with plant extracts compared with the placebo group (p = 0.026). After three months of active treatment, the average total number of motile sperm increased by 62% (from 23.4 to 37.8 millions), while for the placebo group, the number of motile sperm increased by 20%. Sperm morphology was not affected by the treatment. Our findings may help subfertile men to gain an improved amount of motile ejaculated sperm by taking tablets containing preparations of pomegranate fruit extract and rhizome of greater galangal. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01357044
... On the other hand, consumption of sesame seeds (group V and VI) increases the sperm count and motility of seminiferous tubule as well as improves the testicular morphology when compared with the control group. These beneficial effects of sesame on semen parameters may be attributed to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radical scavenging moiety of sesame lignans (Hemalatha et al. 2004) or sesame inhibits lipid peroxidases which inhibit sperm motility and maturation in the human epididymis (Jeng & Hou, 2005;Khani, Soroor, & Fariborz, 2013). Furthermore, it may be attributed to the fact that sesame seeds possess essential nutrients, minerals, and fatty acids which are beneficial during spermiogenesis process. ...
... These findings were disagreed with the results of some studies that demonstrated a significant increase in sperm motility and viability (Alp et al., 2012;Shehab, Zaki, Boutros, Emam, & El-kawas, 2014). Yet, other studies revealed that chronic administration of sildenafil had no adverse effect on semen parameters, while sesame noticeably improved sperm count and motility Khani et al. (2013). Moreover, Shittu et al. (2007) concluded that sesame extract enhances the process of spermatogenesis through a complex of hormonal pathway or increase LH and improves spermatogenesis as stated by Mahabadi, Bafrani, Nikzad, Taherian, and Salehi (2013). ...
Article
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Background Sildenafil (Viagra) is widely used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction under various etiologies. Unfortunately, chronic administration of sildenafil negatively affects fertility. The aim of the present study is to investigate the improvement role of sesame on the testis alterations caused by long-term administration of sildenafil on albino rats. Results Light microscopically observations showed that overdoses of sildenafil had provoked tubular and interstitial histological alterations. Tubular degeneration and abnormality in the germinal epithelium of the seminiferous tubules included spermatocyte degeneration and arrest of spermatogenesis. Sperm count and motility were negatively affected by sildenafil. These alterations were improved by sesame feeding. Conclusion Sesame intake improve the side effects of prolonged treatment with sildenafil significantly. These results demonstrate the pivotal role of sesame that may improve male infertility.
... Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (cinnamon) has a modulating role on heat stress and decreased testis apoptosis (Türk et al., 2015). Sesamun indicum L (sesame) might improve sperm count via its antioxidant properties (Khani et al., 2013). There is some controversy on the effects of allium cepa (onion) on sperm counts derived from the use of different parts of the plant (bulb vs. seeds). ...
... Cocos nucifera L. (coconut) via its anti-oxidant properties in maintaining bioactivity of biological systems, cytokinins, and other components like sugar, vitamin, minerals and amino acids are considered effective at increasing sperm motility (Jimoh, 2020). Increasing blood serum omega-6 and plant source of omega-3 by Juglans regia (walnut) (Robbins et al., 2012), sugar component of Corylus avellana L. ( hazelnut) (Li & Ross, 1988), and anti-oxidant properties of Sesamun indicum L and Withania somnifera (Khani et al., 2013; might enhance motility. Although allium cepa may improve sperm motility by its antioxidant activity and alteration of ion channels permeability (Chae et al., 2017;Khaki et al., 2009), Adeoye et al. (2018) revealed a dose-dependent toxic effect of allium cepa bulb on sperm motility by increasing the incidence of abnormal sperm tail shapes. ...
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Objective: Male infertility secondary to exposure to gonadotoxic agents during reproductive age is a concerning issue. The aim of this experimental study was to determine the effect of Loboob on sperm parameters. Methods: 55 healthy rats were selected, weighted and divided into five groups consisting of 11 rats each. The control group received no medication. Rats in Treatment Group 1 received 10mg/kg Busulfan and rats in Treatment Groups 2, 3, and 4 received 35,70 and 140 mg/kg Loboob respectively in addition to 10mg/kg Busulfan. Finally, the sperm parameters and weights of the rats were compared using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn-Bonferroni tests. Results: All sperm parameters and weights were significantly decreased among rats receiving Busulfan. All dosages of Loboob were effective to enhance the motility of slow spermatozoa, while only in the rats given 70 and 140 mg/kg of Loboob saw improvements in progressively motile sperm percentages (0.024 and 0.01, respectively). Loboob at a dosage of 140mg/kg improved sperm viability. It did not improve normal morphology sperm or decrease immotile sperm counts. Loboob did not affect mean rat weight. Conclusions: Loboob offered a dose-dependent protective effect on several sperm parameters in rats with busulfan-induced subfertility.
... Interestingly the study found an increased sperm count (156%), sperm motility (57%), and semen volume (53%) from the baseline. Khani et al. [38] studied the antioxidant intervention of Sesamum indicum (sesame (contains lignans)) against semen quality of infertile men. A 0.5 mg/kg sesame was given to 25 infertile men for three months, and a significant increase in sperm count and motility was observed at the end of the treatment. ...
Chapter
Living creatures, including humans, preserve their traits in this dynamic world after their demise. They reproduce to make better offspring, enabled to fight against the odds in nature to become the fittest survivor. Infertility, unable to give birth to a live child, is one of the burning problems in the present era worldwide; around 12% of women in the United States have difficulty getting pregnant or carrying a full-term pregnancy at their fertile age. The infertility issues with men are less in percentage among heterosexual couples, however, it is significant. Modern biomedical research and technology have improved significantly to diagnose the majority of infertility issues with fruitful remedies. Among them, the in vitro fertilization technique has been moderately successful in time (∼30% of individual attempts), but the success rate is still improving. Nevertheless, usage of ‘herbal medicines sometimes is ignorantly beneficial to improve the outcome of assisted reproduction, either by supplementing the conventional medical treatment and/or by mitigating the mental health of the futile patients under distress. Various herbal medicines have been utilized over the years as adjuvant therapies, depending on ethnicity and cultural diversity. Overall, the quality of evidence for herbal medicines in assisted reproduction is poor due to the lack of randomized controlled trials and scientific analyses; moreover, population-based qualitative studies are often misleading. This chapter is dedicated to discussing the pre-clinical and clinical evidence, underlying the potentiality of herbal medicines/phytochemicals to treat male and female infertility.
... The sperm suspension from right testes was diluted 1:1 in 10 % buffered formalin. Spermatozoa were counted using improved Neubauer haemocytometer [30][31][32][33][34]. Three observers, blinded to the control and experimental groups, analyzed the sperm parameters independently. ...
Article
In this study, the effects of beta-carotene (BC) on testicular germ cell apoptosis arising from titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NTiO2) have been evaluated. In NTiO2-treated mice, expression of apoptotic related genes including Bid, FasL, caspase-3 and p38MAPK was significantly increased. Measurement apoptosis using TUNEL method showed significant increase in apoptotic index of germ cells in NTiO2-treated mice (P < 0.05). TUNEL assessments showed that the increase of apoptotic index of testicular germ cells in NTiO2-treated mice was reversed by BC. Beta-carotene pre-treatment could also effectively attenuate the expression of apoptotic related genes. The application of BC may serve as a beneficial medication to protect germ cells against apoptosis induced by nanoparticles and be helpful for male fertility.
... However, some studies have declined the positive effects of sesame oil on sperm parameters Sandhu et al., 2014). In one clinical trial on 25 infertile men, considerable improvement in sperm count and motility by S. indicum was seen, but no meaningful changes were recorded in sperm morphology after treatment (Khani et al., 2013). Sesame increased spermatogenesis via affecting hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis and elevating blood testosterone level (Ashamu et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Infertility is defined as inability of a sexually active couple to conceive after 1 year of regular intercourse without contraception. Male factors account for 20%–50% of cases of infertility. The aim of this study was to review medicinal plants that proposed to improve sperm abnormalities in traditional Persian medicine. For this purpose, PubMed, Scopus, GoogleScholar and Cochrane library were explored for medicinal plants used in traditional Persian medicine for sperm abnormalities to obtain studies giving any evidence for their efficacy and pharmacological mechanisms related to male infertility. Data were collected for the years 1966 to March 2015. For some of them, including Chlorophytum borivilianum, Crocus sativus, Nigella sativa, Sesamum indicum, Tribulus terrestris, Mucuna pruriens and Withania somnifera, more reliable evidence was found. The mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of medicinal plants in sperm abnormalities are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-oedematous and venotonic activity as well as containing precursors for sperm production and increasing blood testosterone level. Various phytochemical categories including saponins, phytosterols, carotenoids, oxygenated volatile compounds, phenolic compounds and alkaloids seem to be responsible for these beneficial effects. Further studies are recommended for obtaining more conclusive results about the efficacy and safety of the mentioned medicinal plants.
... Abnormal morphology was found when the head was smaller than normal, the neck was broken, the tail was branched or cut, etc. Three observers, blinded to the control and experimental groups, analyzed the sperm parameters independently (Khani et al. 2013;Hajshafiha et al. 2013). ...
Article
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The present study was conducted to assess the impact of elevated levels of O3 and shifting of crop calendar practice, singly, and in combination on Triticum aestivum cv. HD 2967 on its growth, gas exchange parameters, and yield attributes in open-top chambers (OTCs). Two sowing dates were considered: timely sown and late sown. Late sowing was delayed by 20 days from the timely sowing date. The result revealed that wheat plants under elevated O3 and timely sown conditions (ET) showed reductions in growth parameters, while such effects were synergistic when plants were exposed to elevated O3 under late sown conditions (EL). Photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and water use efficiency reduced significantly under EL followed by ET and AL as compared with AT (ambient O3 + timely sown) whereas transpiration rate showed maximum increment under EL. Grain yield reduced by 45.3% in EL as compared with AT and 16.2% in ET as compared with AT. The growth parameters and yield attributes obtained from the present experiment revealed that (i) O3 is affecting the growth and productivity of the wheat and (ii) late sowing practice has not proved to be a feasible adaptation strategy for the wheat cultivation against O3-induced production losses under the prevailing conditions of Indo-Gangetic Plain. This is the first report documenting the shifting of crop calendar practice at the present and future scenario of O3 concentration under agro-ecological conditions in the tropical region of India.
... Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is used as a condiment and vegetable oil and is reported to have medicinal properties (Khani et al., 2013;Ogunsola and Fasola, 2014). Seeds of sesame contain 35%-63% oil (Baydar et al., 1999), 18%-25% proteins, and 6% carbohydrates (Anilakumar et al., 2010). ...
Article
Sodic soils reduce growth and production of most vegetables, including sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), and NaCl interferes with the nutrient balance of the rhizosphere. A greenhouse experiment was undertaken to investigate the effects of calcium nitrate fertigation and NaCl concentration on growth and development of sesame. The NaCl concentrations applied in the irrigation water were 0, 30, 70, or 100 mM, and the calcium nitrate levels were 0 or 100 mg·L⁻¹. Leaf area and shoot dry weight did not change with addition of calcium nitrate (100 mg∙L⁻¹) at all NaCl levels. At 100 mM, plants supplemented with 100 mg∙L⁻¹ calcium nitrate produced 51% and 136% more chlorophyll (a) and carotenoids, respectively, and enhanced proline content by 45% and total soluble proteins by 25%. Calcium nitrate supplemented plants accumulated more Na⁺ ions at roots (+26%) and less Na⁺ ions at leaves (−20%). These plants generally had higher K⁺ content at roots (+30%) and at leaves (+94%) owing to 100 mM NaCl. Calcium nitrate (100 mg·L⁻¹) enhanced catalase activity (+43%) and phenolic compounds. Calcium nitrate supplemented plants (100 mg∙L⁻¹) accumulated less malondialdehyde (−50%) and had the highest antioxidant activity compared to 0 mg·L⁻¹. Calcium nitrate may be used to moderate some adverse physiological effects of NaCl for sesame in sodic soils. However, the calcium nitrate concentration was not sufficiently high to benefit yield.
... Sample size [5] Sample size = 4 Z α 2 P (1-P) D 2 Z α = standard normal deviate (at 95% confidence interval = 1.96) P = prevalence of male infertility (8%) [6] D = Total width of confidence (0.125) Thus, the sample size at 95% of confidence interval = 4 (1.96) 2 X 0.08 X 0.92 = 72 0.015625 ...
... Sample size [5] Sample size = 4 Z α 2 P (1-P) D 2 Z α = standard normal deviate (at 95% confidence interval = 1.96) P = prevalence of male infertility (8%) [6] D = Total width of confidence (0.125) Thus, the sample size at 95% of confidence interval = 4 (1.96) 2 X 0.08 X 0.92 = 72 0.015625 ...
Article
A cross sectional study was carried out in the fertility clinic of the Gampaha Wickramarachchi Ayurveda Hospital (August 2014 to August 2015) to screen the effect of carrying mobile phones in trouser pockets on seminal parameters. Though, the mobile phones are an important instrument in the modern society, emitting of possible harmful rays is the disadvantage. However, the attention on the area is not sufficient. Thus, the current study was set up to fill the gap. In the study the male individuals who visited the clinic were evaluated to gather the data on usage of mobile phones. Then semen of each subject was collected and analyzed separately. Out of all (n = 76) 49 were used to carry the phones in trouser pocket sat least a while per day as a custom. However, when comparing the average semen parameters of them (test) such as semen volume, concentration, motility and morphology with the sameness of the non-users (control), a statistically insignificant reduction were seen in all parameters of the test group (P>0.05). Thus, the usage of mobile phone in trouser pockets has a lesser effect on the semen parameters. Perhaps, this could be due to the habit of subjects of non-continuous usage of the phones in pockets.
... Supplements such as vitamins C and E, carnitine, selenium and acetylcysteine (Haghighian et al., 2015;Safarinejad et al., 2011) and also some common medicinal plants including sesame (Khani, Bidgoli, Moattar, & Hassani, 2013) and saffron (Heidary et al., 2008) have been reported to be effective on sperm morphology and motility with focus on their antioxidant activities. There are some studies on the effect of Alpinia. ...
Article
Despite scientific advances, many of the treatments in male infertility remained indeterminate. In recent years, the attention to herbal remedies as an effective treatment for male infertility is considerable. We designed this study to determine the effects of Alpinia officinarum on the results of semen analysis in men with idiopathic infertility. In this clinical trial, seventy‐six participants with idiopathic infertility were included in the intervention (plant treatment: n = 31; placebo: n = 29). Participants were randomised to take capsules containing dried extract of A. officinarum rhizome or placebo on a daily (total daily dosage of 300 mg) basis for 3 months. After 12 weeks of intervention, the sperm count and total number of spermatozoa with normal morphology were increased in participants treated with A. officinarum extract compared with the placebo group. The mean sperm count was initially 52 × 106 ± 24 × 106/ml which changed to 71 × 106 ± 23 × 106/ml, after intervention (p = 0.043). Also, the mean percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology was 14.34% ± 9.16% before the treatment which significantly increased to 19% ± 14.89% (p < 0.001). Alpinia officinarum, a traditional medicine remedy, can be effective in the improvement of sperm morphology and sperm count in idiopathic infertility without causing adverse effects.
... Sample size [5] Sample size = 4 Z α 2 P (1-P) D 2 Z α = standard normal deviate (at 95% confidence interval = 1.96) P = prevalence of male infertility (8%) [6] D = Total width of confidence (0.125) Thus, the sample size at 95% of confidence interval = 4 (1.96) 2 X 0.08 X 0.92 = 72 0.015625 ...
Article
Full-text available
A cross sectional study was carried out in the fertility clinic of the Gampaha Wickramarachchi Ayurveda Hospital (August 2014 to August 2015) to screen the effect of carrying mobile phones in trouser pockets on seminal parameters. Though, the mobile phones are an important instrument in the modern society, emitting of possible harmful rays is the disadvantage. However, the attention on the area is not sufficient. Thus, the current study was set up to fill the gap. In the study the male individuals who visited the clinic were evaluated to gather the data on usage of mobile phones. Then semen of each subject was collected and analyzed separately. Out of all (n = 76) 49 were used to carry the phones in trouser pocket sat least a while per day as a custom. However, when comparing the average semen parameters of them (test) such as semen volume, concentration, motility and morphology with the sameness of the non-users (control), a statistically insignificant reduction were seen in all parameters of the test group (P>0.05). Thus, the usage of mobile phone in trouser pockets has a lesser effect on the semen parameters. Perhaps, this could be due to the habit of subjects of non-continuous usage of the phones in pockets.
... The calculation of sample size [5] Sample size = 4 Z α 2 P (1-P) / D 2 Z α = Standard normal deviate (at 95% confidence interval = 1.96) P = Prevalence of male infertility (8%) [6] D = Total width of confidence (0.125) Thus, the sample size at 95% of confidence interval = 4 (1.96) 2 X 0.08 X 0.92 / 0.015625 = 72 ...
Article
Full-text available
A cross sectional study was carried out in the fertility clinic of the Gampaha Wickramarachchi Ayurveda Hospital in Sri Lanka (August 2014 to May 2017) to screen the seminal parameter which is most liable to be affected in the males with fertility issues. The male infertility is increasing in the modern society. The poor quality semen can cause to male infertility. The quality of semen is decided by four main seminal parameters naming semen volume, sperm count, sperm motility and morphology. Thus, the defective seminal parameters lead to poor quality semen hence male infertility. Most of the causes for defective seminal parameters are unknown. Due to the fact that the male fertility is increasing day by day, it is important to find out the seminal parameter which is most liable to be subnormal/defective for the treating purposes of male infertility. The study which was carried out with 100 males with fertility issues disclosed that the seminal volume is the most liable seminal parameter which is to be affected easily. Thus, under the outcome of the study, it is better to pay the attention on seminal volume in the event of treating male infertility.
... Kolangi et al. Improvement in semen quality according to TPM edy including sesame [21], saffron [18] and Withania somnifera [22] have been reported to be effective on sperm parameters with focus on their antioxidant activities. ...
Article
Male infertility is one of the most important subjects in medical sciences. It can cause private, social, and economic problems. Idiopathic male infertility is a situation where abnormal sperm parameters are created due to no specific cause and without definite standard treatment. Some herbal antioxidants can improve semen quality and assist infertile patients. We here report a case with idiopathic infertility who had been trying to have a child for 4 years, but he failed. A 33-year-old non-smoker, overweight man referral from urologist due to idiopathic infertility to the traditional medicine clinic. He had been trying to have a child for 4 years, and the first three years received antioxidant supplements but he was unsuccessful. Alpinia officinarum (Lesser galangal) rhizome in powder form was prepared and administered to the patient for three months. After the intervention, all the semen parameters were improved. A. officinarum has a high amount of galangin that has antioxidant effects. In this study, we showed that the spouse of an idiopathic infertile male becomes pregnant after receiving A. officinarum rhizome
... İnfertil 25 hastanın değerlendirildiği klinik bir çalışmada, 3 ay susam tedavisi sonrasında hastaların sperm sayısı ve motilitesinde anlamlı düzelmelerin görüldüğü bildirilmiştir. [48] Punica Granatum (Nar) ...
... Sesame oil is important source of phytoestrogens and has estrogenic properties [25]; furthermore, it can improve sperm count and motility. Thus, it has been suggested that sesame oil could be considered as an effective agent for improving the condition of epididymal spermatozoa [26]. An appropriate dose of sesame oil for its high antioxidant activity may have effective anti-aging results due to its ability to neutralize physiological ROS. ...
Article
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Objective: Studies of the effects of estrogens on the male reproductive system have emphasized the role of these hormones in male fertility. Sesame oil has many phytoestrogenic compounds and may improve male fertility. This study investigated the effects of sesame oil and different concentrations of estrogen on sperm parameters and DNA integrity in male mice. Methods: Twenty old NMRI (The Naval Medical Research Institute) male mice (40 weeks; weight, 30-35 g) were treated with sesame oil or different concentrations of estrogen (estradiol, 1 and 10 μL/kg/ day) or received no treatment (controls). After 35 days, sperm parameters and DNA integrity were assessed and analyzed. Results: Sperm count, progressive motility, and morphology were decreased in the group that received 10 μL/kg of estradiol. A remarkably lower percentage of DNA fragmentation and protamine deficiency were detected in the group that received 1 μL/kg of estradiol. In the groups that received sesame oil and 1 μL/kg of estradiol, the numbers of spermatogonia and Leydig cells were higher than in controls. The combination of sesame oil and 1 μL/kg of estradiol led to improved sperm parameters and chromatin and testicular structure. Conclusion: Based on this study, consumption of sesame oil and a low concentration of estradiol may improve testicular function in older mice.
... Commonly used AOX for male infertility include vitamins A, C, and E, L-carnitines, N-acetyl cysteine, and Co-enzyme Q10, along with important AOX co-factors zinc, selenium, and folic acid. These and numerous others are included in various registered AOX formulations [12][13][14] and food enriched with natural AOX [15,16]. Multiple studies have shown the benefit of AOX supplementation [17][18][19], and a recent Cochrane review found that oral AOX therapy may improve semen parameters and the likelihood of pregnancy [20]. ...
Article
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Purpose: The use of antioxidants is common practice in the management of infertile patients. However, there are no established guidelines by professional societies on antioxidant use for male infertility. Materials and methods: Using an online survey, this study aimed to evaluate the practice pattern of reproductive specialists to determine the clinical utility of oxidative stress (OS) testing and antioxidant prescriptions to treat male infertility. Results: Responses from 1,327 participants representing 6 continents, showed the largest participant representation being from Asia (46.8%). The majority of participants were attending physicians (59.6%), with 61.3% having more than 10 years of experience in the field of male infertility. Approximately two-thirds of clinicians (65.7%) participated in this survey did not order any diagnostic tests for OS. Sperm DNA fragmentation was the most common infertility test beyond a semen analysis that was prescribed to study oxidative stress-related dysfunctions (53.4%). OS was mainly tested in the presence of lifestyle risk factors (24.6%) or sperm abnormalities (16.3%). Interestingly, antioxidants were prescribed by 85.6% of clinicians, for a duration of 3 (43.7%) or 3-6 months (38.6%). A large variety of antioxidants and dietary supplements were prescribed, and scientific evidence were mostly considered to be modest to support their clinical use. Results were not influenced by the physician's age, geographic origin, experience or training in male infertility. Conclusions: This study is the largest online survey performed to date on this topic and demonstrates 1) a worldwide understanding of the importance of this therapeutic option, and 2) a widely prevalent use of antioxidants to treat male infertility. Finally, the necessity of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines from professional societies is highlighted.
... An open trial was conducted on twenty-five infertile men, where they were given 0.5 mg/kg Sesame seeds powder for three months. After treatment, pre and post-assessment show increased sperm count and motility (Khani et al., 2013). The analgesic effect of Sesame oil mixed with ginger, cinnamon, and mastic was assessed by double-blind, randomized control trials in ninety-two patients with knee osteoarthritis. ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Sesamum indicum L. (Pedaliaceae) is an annual plant, which has been domesticated for well over 5000 years. It is widely cultivated for its seeds and is one of the oldest known oilseed crops. Traditionally, its seeds, seed oil, and different organs of the plant have been used to treat various diseases or conditions like ulcers, asthma, wound healing, amenorrhea, hemorrhoids, inflammations, etc. Aim of the review The main aim of this review is to provide an outline and to assess the reported ethnopharmacological, phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological studies of Sesamum indicum L. Materials and methods An extensive literature survey was done on various search engines like PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, SciFinder, Google Scholar, Science direct, etc. Other literature sources like Wikipedia, Ethnobotanical books, Chapters were also studied to get maximum information possible on the Sesamum indicum L. Results Over 160 different phytochemical compounds have been characterized and isolated from seeds, seed oil, and various plant organs, including lignans, polyphenols, phytosterols, phenols, anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, triterpenes, cerebroside, fatty acids, vitamins, proteins, essential amino acids, and sugars using suitable analytical techniques (e.g., LC-MS, GC-MS, HPTLC, HPLC). All the reported pharmacological activities like antioxidant, anticancer, antipyretic, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, and anti-inflammatory are due to the virtue of these phytochemical compounds. Conclusion This review mainly highlights the botanical aspect of Sesamum indicum and its phytochemical constituents, ethnomedicinal uses, different pharmacological activities followed by ongoing clinical trials and future prospects. Sesamum indicum has great importance in traditional Indian medicine, which is further supported by modern pharmacological studies, especially in hepatoprotection, inflammation, and cancer. Several researchers have suggested that Sesamum indicum extracts and isolated compounds could have a wide therapeutic potency range. More research is needed to uncover key features of Sesamum indicum in medical practice, such as structure-activity relationships, toxicity, and therapeutic potential. In order to fully explore the plant's potential, safety assessments and implementation of an integrated cultivation method are also areas that need to investigate.
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This review attempts to collate existing data and provide the perspectives for future studies on the effects of plants on the male gonads. For many of these medicinal plants such as Lepidium meyenii, Rupus coreanus, Tribulus terrestres, Panax ginseng, Petasites japonicas, Apium graveolens, Eurycoma longifólia, Pedalium murex, Corchorus depressus, Mucuna pruriens, Astragalus membranaceus, Nigella sativa, Crataegus monogyna, Fagara tessmannii, Phaleria macrocarpa, Anacyclus pyrethrum, Cynomorium songaricum and Morinda officinalis, the mechanism of actions of their active principles and crude extracts has been shown in both laboratory animals, in vitro, and human studies, and includes their antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, spermatogenesis‐inducing, aphrodisiac, smooth muscle relaxing and androgenic properties. Several active chemical leads including glucosinolates, anthocyanins, protodioscin, ginsenosides, sesquiterpenes, phyto‐oestrogens, quassinoids, diosgenin, thymoquinone, proanthocyanidins and bajijiasu isolated from these plants are known to have target effects on the testis, but efforts have been limited in their application at the clinical level. There still appear to be many more extracts of medicinal plants that have not been characterised to determine the phytochemicals unique to them that have target effects on the gonads. Further, collaborative efforts at isolating pro‐drug candidates from medicinal plants for studies at the molecular, cellular and clinical level towards elucidating their mechanisms of action on the testes are therefore warranted in the light of the current male fertility crisis.
Chapter
In this chapter, the main causes of male factor infertility, specifically endocrine abnormalities and effect of endocrine disrupters, will be outlined. For many patients, conventional therapy presents considerable financial strain and moral dilemma. In this context, many patients are preferring complementary medicine (CAM). Hence, the promises offered by herbal medicine including Ayurveda, Arab, and Chinese medicine will be explored in this chapter. Many naturopathic medicaments such as Withania somnifera, Asparagus racemosus, Curculigo orchioides, Zingiber officinale, etc. are being routinely used as part of traditional medicine practice in Ayurveda and Arab medicine and gaining wider acceptance in other countries. Common herbs, targeted infertility condition, and results thereafter shall be discussed. In the concluding part of the chapter, the potential deleterious contraindications of alternate medicine such as lead toxicity from Ayurvedic medications shall be briefly discussed.
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It is widely accepted that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of male infertility and that antioxidants could have a significant role in the treatment of male infertility. The main objectives of this study are: 1) to systematically review the current evidence for the utility of antioxidants in the treatment of male infertility; and 2) propose evidence-based clinical guidelines for the use of antioxidants in the treatment of male infertility. A systematic review of the available clinical evidence was performed, with articles published on Scopus being manually screened. Data extracted included the type of antioxidant used, the clinical conditions under investigation, the evaluation of semen parameters and reproductive outcomes. The adherence to the Cambridge Quality Checklist, Cochrane Risk of Bias for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), CONSORT guidelines and JADAD score were analyzed for each included study. Further, we provided a Strength Weakness Opportunity Threat (SWOT) analysis to analyze the current and future value of antioxidants in male infertility. Of the 1,978 articles identified, 97 articles were included in the study. Of these, 52 (53.6%) were uncontrolled (open label), 12 (12.4%) unblinded RCTs, and 33 (34.0%) blinded RCTs, whereas 44 (45.4%) articles tested individual antioxidants, 31 (32.0%) a combination of several products in variable dosages, and 22 (22.6%) registered antioxidant products. Based on the published evidence, we 1) critically examined the necessity of additional double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials, and 2) proposed updated evidence-based clinical guidelines for antioxidant therapy in male infertility. The current systematic review on antioxidants and male infertility clearly shows that antioxidant supplementation improves semen parameters. In addition, it provides the indications for antioxidant treatment in specific clinical conditions, including varicocele, unexplained and idiopathic male infertility, as well as in cases of altered semen quality.
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This study was designed to investigate the effect of sesame oil on lipid profile and liver enzyme in male albino rats treated with Carbone tetrachloride (CCl4). Forty adult male rats were divided into four equal groups, first group was daily administrated with tap water, the second group was injected with CCl4 (80mg/kg.BW/day), the third group was administrated with sesame oil (150mg/kg.BW/day) and the fourth group was injected with CCl4 (80mg/kg.BW/day) and was administrated with sesame oil (150 mg /kg.BW /day) for 30 days. The statistical results of the present study showed a significant (p
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Attention to diet was considered important issues in improvement of men infertility in Persian Medicine (PM). The purpose of this study was to extract herbal foodstuffs introduced by Avicenna, one of the greatest PM physicians to improve the semen production and to provide evidence of their impact on the basis of current studies.“Canon of Medicine”, the most important Avecinna's book, was searched with keywords equivalent to semen, fertility and infertility, main herbal foodstuffs were extracted and was searched with keywords sperm, semen, infertility, and fertility in Google scholar, PubMed and Scopus databases. Manuscripts from 1950 up to December 2019 were selected and reviewed. Almond, Onion, Chickpea, Garlic, Coconut, Palm date, Sesame, Fenugreek, Carrot, Fig, Grapes, Pistachio, Hazelnut and Walnut are among main foodstuffs which recommended by Avicenna and there is also evidence that they have positive effects on testosterone production and improvement of various sperm parameters, including count, motility and morphology. Containing large amount of different macro and micronutrients such as vitamins including vit B, C, A and E, minerals such as Mg, Se, Zn, Cu and Fe, important unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic and oleic acids, amino acids such as lysine and arginine and phytochemicals such as polyphenols, flavonoids, triterpenes and steroids can be considered as a main factor in the effectiveness of these foodstuffs. Designing a diet based on the fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds that Avicenna has recommended, may be effective in treating male infertility but further studies are needed to clarify this issue. Research on the effectiveness of his other recommended foodsuffs may also offer new treatments and supplements for this purpose.
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Objective: Male infertility is involved in about half of the casess of infertility and the only sole reason for infertility in 20%-30% of the cases. Following the recent interest in the use of medicinal plants, scientists have sought to clarify their effects on male fertility. This review aimed to summarize the results of studies available to determine the effectiveness, safety and mechanism of herbal treatments in the improvement of male fertility. Materials and methods: Medline/PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Central) databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published during 2000-2020. Studies were only included if they adhered to the CONSORT checklist. The methodological quality of the selected studies was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results: Finally, 20 studies recruiting a total of 1519 individuals were reviewed. These studies compared the effects of eleven different medicinal plants, i.e. ginseng, saffron, Nigella sativa, palm pollen, ADOFON, TOPALAF, sesame, and Mucuna pruriens, on male fertility with those of placebo. All studies (except one) confirmed the beneficial effects of medicinal plants on the improvement of sperm and reproductive parameters and thus male infertility. Conclusion: The existing RCTs indicated the positive effects of medicinal plants on male fertility. Therefore, in order to develop a novel approach to the treatment of male infertility, further clinical trials are warranted to determine the maximum dosage and duration of treatment with herbal medicines and evaluate any potential side effects of such interventions.
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This study evaluated the protective effect of beta-carotene (BC) on titanium oxide nanoparticle (TNP) induced spermatogenesis defects in mice. Thirty-two NMRI mice were randomly divided into four groups. BC group received 10 mg/kg of BC for 35 days. TNP group received 300 mg/kg TNP for 35 days. TNP+BC group initially received 10 mg/kg BC for 10 days and was followed by concomitant administration of 300 mg/kg TNP for 35 days. Control group received only normal saline for 35 days. Epididymal sperm parameters, testicular histopathology, spermatogenesis assessments and testosterone assay were performed for evaluation of the TNP and BC effects on testis. Serum testosterone levels were markedly decreased in TNP-intoxicated mice. Epididymal sperm parameters including sperm number, motility and percentage of abnormality were significantly changed in TNP-intoxicated mice (p < 0.01). Histopathological criteria such as epithelial vacuolization, sloughing of germ cells and detachment were significantly increased in TNP-intoxicated mice (p < 0.001). BC+TNP treatment significantly prevented these changes (p < 0.05). BC also significantly elevates testosterone levels in BC+TNP group compared to TNP-treated mice (p < 0.01). The results of this study demonstrated that BC improved the spermatogenesis defects in TNP-treated mice. BC had a potent protective effect against the testicular toxicity and might be clinically useful.
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Increasing concern has been expressed about the potential effects of both synthetic and natural estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EEDs) on human reproductive health in our environment in the last decade. However, little attention is paid to histomorphometric structural changes of the epididymis. We aim to evaluate the chronic exposure effects of phytoestrogens found in aqueous extract of Sesame radiatum leaves on the male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats’ epididymes. Thirty adult male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups (2 treated and 1 control groups respectively). In the treated groups, a single daily dose of aqueous leaves extract of S. radiatum (14.0 mg/kg and 28.0 mg/kg body weight) were administered via gastric garvage, while, equal volume of normal saline was administered in control group for six weeks. Histomorphometric study of the epididymal tissues and hormonal assay were analyzed using SPSS software and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Significant (P < 0.05) body weight gain in a dose dependent was observed in all the animals. Also, there was significant weight gain in both raw weight and relative organo-somatic weight of the epididymis per 100 g body weight. However, the weight gain was more in the high dose than the low dose group. The epididymal lumen appeared wider and fuller with spermatocytes when compared to the control. There is significant (P > 0.05) increases in testosterone level compared to control, however, the low dose was also significantly lower than the control. Sesame improves the storage capacity for the spermatozoa in the epididymis in a dose related manner.
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Increasing concern has been expressed about the declining sperm count of humans and the potential environmental effects of both synthetic and natural estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EEDs) on human reproductive health in the last few decades. However, due to paucity of knowledge, we evaluate the chronic reproductive toxicity of sesame phytoestrogenic lignans on the male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats' testis. Thirty adult male SD rats weighing 150-200g were divided into three groups. Two treated groups received a daily dose of aqueous leaves extract of Sesamum radiatum at 14.0 mg/kg bw and 28.0mg /kg bw respectively via gastric gavage, while equal volume of normal saline was administered to the control group for six weeks. Seminal analysis and hormonal assay study were analyzed using SPSS software and P 0.05) increases in testosterone and a significant decrease in FSH in the high dose (treated) compared to control. Sesame phytoestrogenic lignans improves spermatozoa quality in a dose related manner.
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Male infertility is directly or indirectly responsible for 60% of cases involving reproductive-age couples with fertility-related issues. Nevertheless, the evaluation of male infertility is often underestimated or postponed. A coordinated evaluation of the infertile male using standardized procedures improves both diagnostic precision and the results of subsequent management in terms of effectiveness, risk and costs. Recent advances in assisted reproductive techniques (ART) have made it possible to identify and overcome previously untreatable causes of male infertility. To properly utilize the available techniques and improve clinical results, it is of the utmost importance that patients are adequately diagnosed and evaluated. Ideally, this initial assessment should also be affordable and accessible. We describe the main aspects of male infertility evaluation in a practical manner to provide information on the judicious use of available diagnostic tools and to better determine the etiology of the most adequate treatment for the existing condition.
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Sesame oil is commonly used as antioxidant. Sesamin (SA) and sesamolin (SO) are major lignans (a non-fat constituent) in sesame seed oil, inhibit 5-desaturase activity and cause accumulation of dihomo-- linolenic acid (DGLA), a precursor of 1-series prostaglandins, and the decreasing production of proinflammatory 2-series prostaglandins and 4-series leukotrienes. Diets supplemented with SA and/or SO, lower serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 but elevate IL-10 in mice after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure. Mice fed with sesame seed oil have a 65% survival rate after cecal ligation and puncture as compared with the 20% survival in the controls. SA and SO inhibit the IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- and nitric oxide (NO) productions from microglia under LPS stimulation. The protective effects of SA/SO to stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats and hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury have been attribute to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The antioxidant activities of SA/SO are identified in their methylenedioxyphenyl moieties that can be changed into dihydrophenyl (catechol) moieties. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) are mediators of a variety of pathological processes, including inflammation and ischemic/hypoxic injury, the ROS scavenging moiety may contribute as an important component to prevent cells from the free radical injury. Hypoxia or HO-induced cell injury are related with activated MAPKs and caspase-3 activities. Evidence suggests that the protective effects of SA and SO on hypoxic neuronal cells are related to suppression of ROS generation and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). In addition, SA/SO significantly reduce LPS-activated p38 MAPK. Specific inhibitors of MAPKs dose-dependently inhibit NO and cytokine productions in LPS-stimulated microglia. Therefore, the inhibition of NO and cytokine productions may partly due to the reduction of LPS-induced p38 MAPK signal pathway by SA and SO.
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The high stability of sesame oil against oxidative deterioration is attributed to lignans in its non-glycerol fraction. The present study evaluates the effects of feeding sesame lignans (sesamin and sesamolin) on Fe2+-induced oxidative stress in rats. Three groups, each of sixteen male weanling WNIN rats, were fed diets containing 200 g casein/kg and 100 g oil/kg (group 1, groundnut oil; group 2, sesame oil; group 3, sesame oil+sesamin (0·4 g/kg). After 45 d of feeding, eight rats from each group were injected with saline (9 g Na Cl/l, controls) intraperitoneally while the remaining eight rats were injected with 30 mg Fe2+/kg body weight as ferrous sulfate in normal saline. The animals were killed after 90 min to evaluate hepatic function and antioxidant status. Compared with those fed groundnut oil (group 1), sesame oil-fed rats (groups 2 and 3) had lower levels of hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, serum glutamate:oxaloacetate transaminase activities and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase activities, indicating protection against Fe-induced oxidative stress. Despite similar tocopherol levels in the three diets, hepatic α-tocopherol levels were higher in rats fed the sesame-oil diets (groups 2 and 3) compared with controls (group 1). However, activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) were significantly (P<0·05) increased only in rats fed higher levels of lignans (group 3). These observations suggest that sesame lignans may have sparing effects on tocopherols. The increased bioavailability of tocopherols in the presence of dietary lignans might be due to the regeneration of oxidized tocopherols. The synergistic effects of lignans with tocols has nutritional and therapeutic implications.
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Male infertility is directly or indirectly responsible for 60% of cases involving reproductive-age couples with fertility-related issues. Nevertheless, the evaluation of male infertility is often underestimated or postponed. A coordinated evaluation of the infertile male using standardized procedures improves both diagnostic precision and the results of subsequent management in terms of effectiveness, risk and costs. Recent advances in assisted reproductive techniques (ART) have made it possible to identify and overcome previously untreatable causes of male infertility. To properly utilize the available techniques and improve clinical results, it is of the utmost importance that patients are adequately diagnosed and evaluated. Ideally, this initial assessment should also be affordable and accessible. We describe the main aspects of male infertility evaluation in a practical manner to provide information on the judicious use of available diagnostic tools and to better determine the etiology of the most adequate treatment for the existing condition.
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Infertile men have higher levels of semen reactive oxygen species (ROS) than do fertile men. High levels of semen ROS can cause sperm dysfunction, sperm DNA damage and reduced male reproductive potential. This observation has led clinicians to treat infertile men with antioxidant supplements. The purpose of this article is to discuss the rationale for antioxidant therapy in infertile men and to evaluate the data on the efficacy of dietary and in vitro antioxidant preparations on sperm function and DNA damage. To date, most clinical studies suggest that dietary antioxidant supplements are beneficial in terms of improving sperm function and DNA integrity. However, the exact mechanism of action of dietary antioxidants and the optimal dietary supplement have not been established. Moreover, most of the clinical studies are small and few have evaluated pregnancy rates. A beneficial effect of in vitro antioxidant supplements in protecting spermatozoa from exogenous oxidants has been demonstrated in most studies; however, the effect of these antioxidants in protecting sperm from endogenous ROS, gentle sperm processing and cryopreservation has not been established conclusively.
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DNA damage in human spermatozoa is known to be associated with a variety of adverse clinical outcomes affecting both reproductive efficiency and the health and wellbeing of the offspring. However, the origin of this damage, its biochemical nature and strategies for its amelioration, still await resolution. Using novel methods to simultaneously assess DNA fragmentation (modified TUNEL assay), DNA-base adduct formation (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine [8OHdG]) and cell vitality, spermatozoa from a cohort of 50 assisted conception patients were examined and compared with a group of donors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was then used to examine the frequency distribution of the data and to determine optimized thresholds for identifying patients exhibiting abnormally high levels of DNA damage. 8OHdG formation and DNA fragmentation were highly correlated with each other and frequently associated with cell death. Percoll centrifugation improved sperm quality but, unexpectedly, increased 8OHdG formation in live cells, as did sperm fractionation using Puresperm gradients. ROC analysis indicated that the frequency distribution of 8OHdG and DNA fragmentation data were significantly different between patients and donors (P < 0.001), permitting the development of thresholds that would allow the accurate diagnosis of DNA damage in the male germ line. The aetiology of DNA damage in spermatozoa involves a cascade of changes that progress from the induction of oxidative stress and oxidized DNA base adduct formation to DNA fragmentation and cell death. Preparation of spermatozoa on discontinuous density gradients aggravates the problem by stimulating the formation of 8OHdG in live cells. However, the development of novel methods and optimized thresholds for diagnosing oxidative DNA damage in human spermatozoa should assist in the clinical management of this pathology.
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This study investigates the efficacy of ethanolic extract of Sesamum indicum (EES), vitamin C (VC), and EES + VC in promoting fertility and finding a possible link between their profertility effects and their antioxidant activities. Forty adult male Wistar rats [Body weight (BW) 186.56 +/- 0.465 g] were randomly analyzed into four groups of ten rats each: Control, EES(G) (EES only), VC(G) (vitamin C only), and EES + VC(G) (EES in conjunction with vitamin C). Control was given 5 ml/kg BW/day of normal saline orally; EES(G) was administered 0.3 g/kg BW/day of EES; VC(G) was administered 15 mg/kg BW/ day of VC; while EES + VC(G) was administered both 0.3 g/kg BW/day of EES and 15 mg/kg BW/day of VC. All treatments were for 10 weeks. Independent-sample T test was used to analyze the obtained results. The results obtained showed that EES, VC, and more importantly EES + VC are capable of significantly increasing BW gain, seminal parameters, testosterone level, and body antioxidant activities. These findings lead to the conclusion that EES + VC as well as ESS and VC promote fertility due to both their testosterone-increasing effects and their antioxidant effects.
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Infertile men possess substantially more sperm DNA damage than do fertile men, damage that may impact negatively on reproductive outcomes. In this era of assisted reproductive technologies there is mounting concern regarding the safety of utilizing DNA-damaged spermatozoa in this setting. Therefore, it is important to identify strategies that may reduce sperm DNA damage. The purpose of this review is to discuss the rationale for antioxidant therapy in men with sperm DNA damage and to evaluate the data on the efficacy of dietary and in vitro antioxidant preparations on sperm DNA damage. We reviewed the literature on antioxidants and sperm DNA damage. To date, the data suggest that dietary antioxidants may be beneficial in reducing sperm DNA damage, particularly, in men with high levels of DNA fragmentation. However, the mechanism of action of dietary antioxidants has not been established and most of the clinical studies are small. A beneficial effect of in vitro antioxidant supplements in protecting sperm DNA from exogenous oxidants has been demonstrated, however, the effect of these antioxidants in protecting sperm from endogenous ROS, gentle sperm processing and cryopreservation has not been established.
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Factors influencing success of sperm retrieval in azoospermic patients and outcome of ICSI were evaluated. Uni- and multifactorial analysis were performed using logistic and stepwise analysis, following surgical sperm retrieval by percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (55 cycles) or testicular sperm extraction (142 cycles) in 52 and 123 patients with obstructive azoospermia (OA) and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) respectively. ICSI cycles using fresh or cryopreserved-thawed sperm were included. Sperm were retrieved to allow ICSI in 100 and 41% of OA and NOA patients, with no significant correlation with patients' age or FSH level. Occurrence of pregnancy was significantly correlated with female age (90th quantile: 38 years), number of oocytes retrieved (10th quantile: five oocytes) and number of oocytes injected (10th quantile: four oocytes). Sperm origin (epididymal versus testicular), status (fresh or thawed), male partner's age, and serum FSH had no significant effect upon implantation rate, pregnancy rate per embryo transfer or spontaneous miscarriage rate. In OA patients ICSI should be planned in conjunction with surgical sperm retrieval. In contrast, the lack of efficient non-invasive parameters to predict sperm retrieval in NOA suggests that elective surgical sperm retrieval may be offered to these patients prior to ovarian stimulation of their partners, especially when donor back-up is not an alternative. Female factors such as age and ovarian reserve have significant impact upon clinical success rates.
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The antioxidant activity of compounds isolated from a methanolic extract of commercial sesame cake was studied using a peroxidation model and a radical-scavenging method. Pure compounds were isolated from the extract by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified and confirmed as sesamol, sesamin, sesamolin, sesaminol diglucoside and sesaminol triglucoside by HPLC, infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. When the rate of inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the superoxide radical-scavenging power of the individual compounds were evaluated, the compounds showed antioxidant activity to different extents. The antioxidant activity of compounds by the β-carotene-bleaching assay followed the order sesamol > sesamolin ≥ sesamin > butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) > sesaminol triglucoside > sesaminol diglucoside. By the thiocyanate method the inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation shown by sesamol, sesamin, sesamolin, sesaminol triglucoside, sesaminol diglucoside and BHT at 200 mg l−1 was 77, 60, 69, 32, 25 and 49% respectively. A concentration–dependent superoxide–scavenging effect was also shown by these compounds. Sesamolin had an appreciable effect at 300 and 500 mg l−1, while the other compounds were more effective at 100 mg l−1. The study also established the occurrence of sesamol in the methanolic extract of defatted sesame cake for the first time. Copyright © 2005 Society of Chemical Industry
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The objectives of this systematic review were to determine the effectiveness of (a) acupuncture and (b) Chinese herbal medicine on the treatment of male and female subfertility by assisted reproductive technologies (ART). All reports from RCTs of acupuncture and/or Chinese herbal medicine in ART were obtained via searches through The Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Sub-fertility Group's Specialised Register of controlled trials, and other major databases. The outcome measures were determined prior to starting the search, and comprised: live birth rate, ongoing pregnancy rate, clinical pregnancy rate, the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and multiple pregnancy, miscarriage rate and adverse effects arising from treatment. Overall, 14 trials (a total of 2670 subjects) were included in the meta-analysis. The results provided no evidence of benefit in the use of acupuncture during assisted conception. Further studies should attempt to explore the potential placebo, as well as treatment, effects of this complimentary therapy. Essential elements for a quality RCT will be the size of the trial, the use of a standardised acupuncture method and of placebo needles.
Article
To observe the effect of the Chinese medicine Shengjing Granule on spermatogenic disturbance in mice. Forty-six male Kunming mice were randomly divided into a normal (n = 10), a model (n = 12), a control (n = 12) and a Shengjing group (n = 12), and models of spermatogenic disturbance were established by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide in the latter three. Then the first two groups received intragastric administration of physiological saline and the second two that of clomiphene (21.6 mg/kg x d) and Shengjing Granule (16 g/kg x d), respectively, all for 15 days. On the following day, the testis weight was measured, the levels of the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), the luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) determined by radioimmunoassay. Histological observations were made of the testis tissues under the microscope. The testis index and T level were (3.958 +/- 0.342) g/kg and (7.046 +/- 0.291) nmo/L, obviously increased, while the levels of FSH and LH were (2.947 +/- 0.587) mIU/ml and (3.254 +/- 0.492) mIU/ml, significantly decreased, in the Shengjing group, as compared with (3.525 +/- 0.462) g/kg, (6.231 +/- 0.317) nmol/L, (5.428 +/- 0.719) mIU/ml and (5.155 +/- 0.460) mIU/ml in the model group (P < 0.05). The number of spermatogenic cells on the seminiferous tubules and that of sperm in the lumina of the tubules were markedly increased in the Shenginjg group, compared with the models. CoCONCLUSION Shenginjg Granule is effective for spermatogenic disturbance in mice.
Article
In this study Chinese herbs commonly used in the treatment of male infertility were investigated for relevant biochemical activity. Male factor infertility predominantly arises via barriers to, or defects in, spermatogenesis. The process of spermatogenesis is under strict endocrine control; in addition oxidative stress has been implicated in male infertility with significant levels of reactive oxygen species detected in 25% of infertile males. A total of 37 individual herbs and seven herb decoctions used in the treatment of male factor infertility were therefore tested for endocrine activity using a recombinant yeast based assay and antioxidant activity using the FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant potential) assay. Individual herbs tested did not show androgenic properties, 20 showed strong and 10 weak anti-oestrogenic activity (per g of dried herb tamoxifen equivalents ranged from 1.18-1280.66 mg and 0.06-0.98 mg, respectively). Oestrogenic responses were elicited for two herbs (85.30-550 microg oestradiol equivalents/g dried herb), with seven and three herbs exhibiting a strong or weak anti-androgenic response (per g of dried herb DHT equivalents ranged from 1.54-66.78 mg and 0.17-0.32 mg), respectively. Of these 37 herbs, strong (15 herbs), intermediate (7 herbs) and weak/no (15 herbs) antioxidant activity was detected (ranging from 0.912-1.26; 0.6-0.88 and 0-0.468 microg ascorbate equivalent/mg dried herb, respectively). The seven decoctions (previously used to treat patients) tested elicited strong (5 herbs) and weak (2 herbs) anti-oestrogenic responses (per g of dried herb tamoxifen equivalents ranged from 1.14-13.23 mg and 0.22-0.26 mg, respectively), but not oestrogenic, androgenic nor anti-androgenic, consistent with their individual composition. With regard to antioxidant activity the following responses were recorded: three strong, three intermediate and one weak (ranging from 1.02-1.2; 0.72-0.76 and 0.44 microg ascorbate equivalent/mg dried herb, respectively). The prospects for introducing Chinese herbal treatments into the Western-based medicine are discussed.
Article
To analyze the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles in infertile couples in whom the main diagnosis of infertility was azoospermia of obstructive and nonobstructive origin. Eighty-three consecutive ICSI cycles were carried out with retrieved testicular or epididymal spermatozoa, 60 cycles in 32 patients with obstructive azoospermia and 23 cycles in 12 patients with nonobstructive azoospermia. Fifty-four testicular biopsies (testicular sperm extraction) and 18 epididymal aspirations (microepididymal sperm aspiration) were performed.Results. Motile spermatozoa were recovered in 65 cycles (90.3%). In another 3 (4.2%), nonmotile spermatozoa were retrieved. In 4 patients (5.5%), sperm could not be recovered. In 11 cycles, frozen sperm from a previous procedure were used. A significantly lower fertilization rate (64% versus 73%, P = 0.02), clinical pregnancy rate (13% versus 47%, P <0.001), and good embryo quality rates (35% versus 56%, P = 0.009) were observed in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia. In patients with obstructive azoospermia, no significant differences were observed when the outcome was analyzed on the basis of the sperm origin (ie, from testicular sperm extraction or microepididymal sperm aspiration). When combining testicular sperm extraction or microepididymal sperm aspiration with ICSI in patients with obstructive azoospermia, the results in terms of fertilization, implantation, and pregnancy rates were similar to those found in patients with nonazoospermic obstruction who underwent ICSI with ejaculated sperm. Patients with nonobstructive azoospermia had lower fertilization, embryo quality, and pregnancy rates than did those with obstructive azoospermia, probably because of severe defects in spermatogenesis, leading to poor gamete quality. The urologist and reproductive endocrinologist now have an excellent therapeutic option to offer men with previously intractable infertility.
Article
To assess the efficiency of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using testicular spermatozoa in cases of nonobstructive azoospermia. Retrospective case series. Tertiary university-based infertility center. Overall, 595 couples were included. In 360 couples, the man had normal spermatogenesis. In 118, 85, and 32 couples the man had germ-cell aplasia, maturation arrest, and tubular sclerosis/atrophy, all with focal spermatogenesis present. We performed 911 ICSI cycles using fresh sperm obtained after testicular biopsies: 306 ICSI cycles used testicular sperm from men with nonobstructive azoospermia, and 605 ICSI cycles used testicular sperm from men with obstructive azoospermia. Fertilization, cleavage, implantation, and pregnancy rates. Overall, the 2PN fertilization rate was lower in the nonobstructive group: 48.5% vs. 59.7%. There were no differences in in vitro development or in the morphological quality of the embryos. In the nonobstructive group, a total of 718 embryos were transferred (262 transfers) vs. 1,525 embryos in the obstructive group (544 transfers). Both the clinical implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate per cycle were significantly lower in the nonobstructive group compared with the obstructive group: 8.6% vs. 12.5% and 15.4% vs. 24.0%, respectively. A statistically significant lower rate of fertilization and pregnancy results from ICSI with testicular sperm from men with nonobstructive azoospermia, compared with men with obstructive azoospermia.
Article
Seminal oxidative stress in the male reproductive tract is known to result in peroxidative damage of the sperm plasma membrane and loss of its DNA integrity. Normally, a balance exists between concentrations of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant scavenging systems. One of the rational strategies to counteract the oxidative stress is to increase the scavenging capacity of seminal plasma. Numerous studies have evaluated the efficacy of antioxidants in male infertility. In this review, the results of different studies conducted have been analysed, and the evidence available to date is provided. It was found that although many clinical trials have demonstrated the beneficial effects of antioxidants in selected cases of male infertility, some studies failed to demonstrate the same benefit. The majority of the studies suffer from a lack of placebo-controlled, double-blind design, making it difficult to reach a definite conclusion. In addition, investigators have used different antioxidants in different combinations and dosages for varying durations. Pregnancy, the most relevant outcome parameter of fertility, was reported in only a few studies. Most studies failed to examine the effect of antioxidants on a specific group of infertile patients with high oxidative stress. Multicentre, double-blind studies with statistically accepted sample size are still needed to provide conclusive evidence on the benefit of antioxidants as a treatment modality for patients with male infertility.
Article
The high stability of sesame oil against oxidative deterioration is attributed to lignans in its non-glycerol fraction. The present study evaluates the effects of feeding sesame lignans (sesamin and sesamolin) on Fe2+-induced oxidative stress in rats. Three groups, each of sixteen male weanling WNIN rats, were fed diets containing 200 g casein/kg and l00 g oil/kg (group 1, groundnut oil; group 2, sesame oil; group 3,sesame oil + sesamin (0.4 g/kg). After 45 d of feeding, eight rats from each group were injected with saline (9 g Na Cl/l, controls) intraperitoneally while the remaining eight rats were injected with 30 mg Fe2+/kg body weight as ferrous sulfate in normal saline. The animals were killed after 90 min to evaluate hepatic function and antioxidant status. Compared with those fed groundnut oil (group 1), sesame oil-fed rats(groups 2 and 3) had lower levels of hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, serum glutamate:oxaloacetate transaminase activities and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase activities, indicating protection against Fe-induced oxidative stress. Despite similar tocopherol levels in the three diets, hepatic a-tocopherol levels were higher in rats fed the sesame-oil diets (groups 2 and 3) compared with controls (group 1).However, activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) were significantly (P< 0-05) increased only in rats fed higher levels of lignans (group 3). These observations suggest that sesame lignans may have sparing effects on tocopherols. The increased bioavailability of tocopherols in the presence of dietary lignans might be due to the regeneration of oxidized tocopherols. The synergistic effects of lignans with tocols has nutritional and therapeutic implications.
Article
Azoospermia, the absence of sperm in ejaculated semen, is the most severe form of male factor infertility and is present in approximately 5% of all investigated infertile couples. The advent of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), however, has transformed treatment of this type of severe male factor infertility. Sperm can be retrieved for ICSI from either the epididymis or the testis depending on the type of azoospermia. To evaluate the efficacy of the various surgical retrieval techniques for men with obstructive or non obstructive azoospermia prior to ICSI. We searched the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Trials Register (searched 12 Jan 2005), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2004), MEDLINE (1966 to Nov 2004), EMBASE (1980 to Dec 2004), and Biological Abstracts (1980 to Nov 2004) and reference lists of articles. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effectiveness of sperm retrieval techniques in men with azoospermia prior to ICSI. Due to the lack of RCTs, non-randomised trials that used the participants as their own control, were also considered in the review but not included in the meta-analysis. Two reviewers independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Two trials involving 98 men were included. The first small RCT had 59 participants and compared two epididymal techniques. The trial gave limited evidence that microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) achieved significantly lower pregnancy (One pregnancy in 29 procedures compared with seven pregnancies in 30 procedures, OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.83) and fertilisation rates (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.48) than the micropuncture with perivascular nerve stimulation technique. The other RCT comparing two testicular techniques in 39 participants gave no statistically significant evidence about the superiority of the ultrasound guided aspiration technique compared to the aspiration technique without ultrasound guidance. TSA with ultrasound resulted in pregnancy in 3 out of 16 participants and TSA without ultrasound in four pregnancies with 23 participants (OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.21 to 5.74) There is insufficient evidence to recommend any specific sperm retrieval technique for azoospermic men undergoing ICSI. In the absence of evidence to support more invasive or more technically difficult methods the reviewers recommend the least invasive and simplest technique available. Further randomised trials are warranted, preferably multi-centred trials. The classification of azoospermia as obstructive and non-obstructive appears to be relevant to a successful clinical outcome so a distinction according to the cause azoospermia is important for future clinical trials.
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