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Optimizing strength training for running and cycling endurance performance: A review



Here we report on the effect of combining endurance training with heavy or explosive strength training on endurance performance in endurance-trained runners and cyclists. Running economy is improved by performing combined endurance training with either heavy or explosive strength training. However, heavy strength training is recommended for improving cycling economy. Equivocal findings exist regarding the effects on power output or velocity at the lactate threshold. Concurrent endurance and heavy strength training can increase running speed and power output at VO2max (Vmax and Wmax , respectively) or time to exhaustion at Vmax and Wmax . Combining endurance training with either explosive or heavy strength training can improve running performance, while there is most compelling evidence of an additive effect on cycling performance when heavy strength training is used. It is suggested that the improved endurance performance may relate to delayed activation of less efficient type II fibers, improved neuromuscular efficiency, conversion of fast-twitch type IIX fibers into more fatigue-resistant type IIA fibers, or improved musculo-tendinous stiffness.
Optimizing strength training for running and cycling endurance
performance – a review
Running head: “Strength training and endurance performance
Bent R. Rønnestad1, Iñigo Mujika2,3
1 Lillehammer University College, Section for Sport Science, Lillehammer, Norway
2 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of the Basque Country,
Leioa, Basque Country
3 School of Kinesiology and Health Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Finis Terrae University,
Santiago, Chile.
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2013 Aug 5. doi: 10.1111/sms.12104.
Corresponding author:
Bent R. Rønnestad
Lillehammer University College
PB. 952, 2604 Lillehammer
E-mail: Phone: +47 61288193 Fax: +47 61288200
Here we report on the effect of combining endurance training with heavy or explosive
strength training on endurance performance in endurance-trained runners and cyclists.
Running economy is improved by performing combined endurance training with either heavy
or explosive strength training. However, heavy strength training is recommended for
improving cycling economy. Equivocal findings exist regarding the effects on power output
or velocity at the lactate threshold.Concurrent endurance and heavy strength training can
increase running speed and power output at VO2max (Vmax and Wmax, respectively) or time to
exhaustion at Vmax and Wmax. Combining endurance training with either explosive or heavy
strength training can improve running performance, while there is most compelling evidence
of an additive effect on cycling performance when heavy strength training is used. It is
suggested that the improved endurance performance may relate to delayed activation of less
efficient type II fibres, improved neuromuscular efficiency, conversion of fast-twitch type IIX
fibres into more fatigue resistant type IIA fibres, or improved musculotendinous stiffness.
Key words: Aerobic capacity, concurrent training adaptions, exercise economy, neuromuscular
function, cycling, running
The effects of strength training on endurance athletic performance have long been the subject
of debate among athletes, coaches and sport scientists. Strength training includes both
explosive strength training and heavy strength training that promote different training
adaptations. Heavy strength training can be defined as “all training aiming to increase or
maintain a muscle or a muscle group’s ability to generate maximum force” (Knuttgen &
Kraemer, 1987) and is here equal to training with a load that allows between 1 repetition
maximum (RM) and 15 RM. Explosive strength training is here defined as exercises with
external loading of 0–60% of 1RM and maximal mobilization in the concentric phase (0% of
1RM equals body weight). Performance in most endurance events is mainly determined by
the maximal sustained power production for a given competition distance, and the energy cost
of maintaining a given competition speed. In shorter endurance events and during
accelerations and sprint situations, anaerobic capacity and maximal speed may also contribute
to performance. Strength training contributes to enhance endurance performance by
improving the economy of movement, delaying fatigue, improving anaerobic capacity and
enhancing maximal speed.
Some of the early studies that investigated the effect of combining endurance and strength
training in endurance-trained athletes did not identify any additive effect on endurance
performance (Jensen, 1963; Paavolainen et al., 1991; Tanaka et al., 1993). However, recent
evidence contradicts the findings of those early studies and points towards an additive effect
of combining the endurance and strength training on running and cycling performance
(Tanaka & Swensen, 1998). At the time of this review there was a lack of good studies on
already well-trained endurance athletes, especially in cycling. The purpose of this review is to
provide an updated synopsis on the effect of combining endurance training with heavy or
explosive strength training on endurance performance in endurance-trained runners and
The effects of strength training on factors determining endurance performance
Maximal oxygen consumption
Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) has long been associated with success in
endurance sports (Saltin & Åstrand, 1967; Costill et al., 1973; Bassett & Howley, 2000)
and is one of the major characteristics that determine endurance performance (di
Prampero, 2003; Levine, 2008). Importantly, the highest VO2max value does not
necessarily equate to the best endurance performance, but the best endurance
performance typically demands high VO2max values (Saltin & Åstrand, 1967; Costill et
al., 1973; Lucia et al., 1998; Bassett & Howley, 2000; Impellizzeri et al., 2005). In
addition, VO2max sets the upper limit of intensity for prolonged steady-state exercise.
There is little evidence that strength training should be the primary training mode to
improve VO2max, and only a trivial effect of concurrent strength and endurance training
on VO2max compared to endurance training alone in trained cyclists (Hickson et al.,
1988; Bishop et al., 1999; Bastiaans et al., 2001; Levin et al., 2009; Rønnestad et al.,
2010a, 2010b; Sunde et al., 2010; Aagaard et al., 2011), long distance runners
(Paavolainen et al., 1999; Johnston et al., 1997; Spurrs et al., 2003; Turner et al., 2003;
Saunders et al., 2006; Mikkola et al., 2007a, 2011; Storen et al., 2008; Taipale et al.,
2010), cross country skiers (Hoff et al., 1999, 2002; Osteras et al., 2002; Mikkola et al.,
2007b; Losnegard et al., 2011; Rønnestad et al., 2012), or triathletes (Millet et al., 2002).
However, the majority of the training interventions investigating the effects of
concurrent training lasted only 8 to 12 weeks. Caution should be used when long-term
effects of concurrent training are considered.
Exercise economy
Exercise economy has been defined as the oxygen consumption required at a given absolute
submaximal exercise intensity (Jones & Carter, 2000; Saunders et al., 2004). There is
substantial interindividual variability in exercise economy in both running and cycling despite
a similar VO2max (Conley & Krahenbuhl, 1980; Horowitz et al., 1994). The importance of
exercise economy is underlined by the close relationship with endurance performance in
trained individuals with homogenous VO2max (Costill, 1967; Conley & Krahenbuhl, 1980;
Horowitz et al., 1994). Accordingly, it is likely that any improvement in exercise economy
will be associated with improved long-term endurance performance.
Numerous studies have reported improved running economy after 8-14 weeks of concurrent
heavy strength and endurance training, while no substantial changes were observed in the
control groups (Johnston et al., 1997; Hoff & Helgerud, 2002; Millet et al., 2002; Storen et al.,
2008; Guglielmo et al., 2009; Taipale et al., 2010). Improved running economy is also evident
after 6-12 weeks of combined explosive strength and endurance training in runners
(Paavolainen et al., 1999; Spurrs et al., 2003; Turner et al., 2003; Saunders et al., 2006;
Taipale et al., 2010). Mikkola et al. (2007a) replaced some of the endurance training of young
distance runners with only one session a week of explosive strength training and did not find
changes in running economy. Given that running economy can be improved by 2-3 strength
training sessions per week, it seems a threshold of (explosive) strength training volume and
frequency has to be overcome to achieve improved running economy. When cycling economy
is measured by the same traditional method used in running (i.e. short, 3-5 min, submaximal
bouts of exercise), it appears there is little change after combining heavy strength or explosive
strength training with endurance training (Bastiaans et al., 2001; Rønnestad et al., 2010a,
2010b; Aagaard et al., 2011). However, adding heavy strength training to endurance training
can improve cycling economy after only 8 weeks (Sunde et al. 2010). The reasons for this
discrepancy remain unclear, but the lower performance level of the cyclists in the latter study
may have affected the outcome of strength training. On the other hand, by using a non-
traditional protocol to measure cycling economy during 5-min periods every half hour
throughout 3 hours of submaximal cycling, a superior improvement was observed during the
last hour after a period of concurrent heavy strength and endurance training (Rønnestad et al.
2011). Lowered heart rate at the end of 2 hours of submaximal cycling has also been observed
after 5 weeks of heavy strength training in triathletes (Hausswirth et al., 2010). Thus,
divergent findings are evident on whether performing heavy strength training together with
ordinary endurance training improves cycling economy. This shortcoming may relate in part
to methodological differences between studies. Nevertheless, there are no reports of a
negative effect of heavy strength- and explosive strength training on either cycling or running
Lactate threshold
The fraction of VO2max which can be sustained during a performance bout (performance VO2)
is associated with the degree of blood lactate accumulation during exercise (Farrell et al.,
1979; LaFontaine et al., 1981; Tanaka & Seals, 2008). Several methods have been devised to
express the relationship between blood lactate concentration ([la-]) and fraction of VO2max
(Bentley et al., 2007; Faude et al., 2009). A common term is lactate threshold, which
describes an estimation of a breakpoint on the [la-] curve as a function of exercise intensity
(Tokmakidis et al., 1998). Lactate threshold expressed as a percentage of VO2max is largely
unaffected by exercise economy and VO2max, which might explain the small correlation
between lactate threshold expressed as % VO2max and time trial cycling performance in
cyclists (Støren et al. 2012). There are numerous ways to determine the power output or speed
at the lactate threshold, resulting in diverse “thresholds” on the [la-] vs. power/speed curve
which all seem to correlate well with long-term endurance performance (Tokmakidis et al.,
1998). Any rightward movement of the [la-] curve results in improved power output/velocity
at the lactate threshold regardless of how the lactate threshold has been determined
(Tokmakidis et al., 1998). A higher velocity/power output at the lactate threshold theoretically
means that an athlete can maintain a higher velocity/power output during extended exercise.
Numerous studies report a high relationship between long-term performance and
velocity/power output at the lactate threshold in both cycling and running, and the latter is
useful for predicting endurance performance in both runners and cyclists (e.g. Farrell et al.,
1979; Coyle et al., 1988, 1991; Grant et al., 1997; Bishop et al., 1998; Lucia et al., 1998;
Impellizzeri et al., 2005; Slattery et al., 2006).
Since the majority of studies reported improved running economy in response to a period of
concurrent strength and endurance training in endurance-trained individuals, it would be
reasonable to expect an improvement in the exercise velocity or intensity associated with the
lactate threshold. This expectation is based on the assumption that the main determinants of
the lactate threshold velocity are VO2max and exercise economy (di Prampero et al., 1986), and
that VO2max is not compromised while concurrently performing strength and endurance
training. However, the endurance training literature comprises equivocal findings: some
studies report little change in the lactate threshold of runners (Paavolainen et al., 1999; Hoff
& Helgerud, 2002; Støren et al., 2008; Mikkola et al., 2011), while others observed
substantial improvements in velocity at the lactate threshold (Mikkola et al., 2007a, 2011;
Guglielmo et al., 2009; Taipale et al., 2013). Some studies report improved power output at a
certain [la-] (Koninckx et al., 2010; Rønnestad et al., 2010a, 2010b), while others report no
additional effect of performing strength training (Bishop et al., 1999; Sunde et al., 2010;
Aagaard et al., 2011). Importantly, none of the studies on long-distance runners and cyclists
report a negative effect of strength training on velocity or power output at the lactate
Other factors important for endurance performance
The key performance and physiological measures of VO2max, lactate threshold and
exercise economy explain >70% of the between-subject variance in long-duration
endurance performances (di Prampero et al. 1986).Other factors contribute to endurance
performance including running speed and power output at VO2max (Vmax and Wmax,
respectively) predict endurance performance in endurance-trained runners and cyclists,
respectively (Morgan et al., 1989; Noakes et al., 1990; Hawley & Noakes, 1992;
Yoshida et al., 1993; Billat & Koralsztein, 1996; Bentley et al., 1998; Lucia et al., 1998;
Balmer et al., 2000; Stratton et al., 2009). Both Wmax and Vmax distinguish the endurance
performance in well-trained cyclists and long distance runners, making them a useful
marker of endurance performance (Noakes et al., 1990; Lucia et al., 1998). Wmax and
Vmax are influenced by VO2max and exercise economy, but also incorporate anaerobic
capacity and neuromuscular characteristics (Jones & Carter, 2000). Anaerobic power
and neuromuscular characteristics are also involved in long-duration endurance
performance, especially when athletes are matched for aerobic capacity(Bulbulian et al.
1986; Houmar et al., 1991; Paavolainen et al., 1999b; Baumann et al., 2012).
Concurrent endurance and heavy strength training can increase Wmax/Vmax or time to
exhaustion at Wmax/Vmax (Hickson et al., 1988; Millet et al., 2002; Støren et al., 2008;
Sunde et al., 2010; Rønnestad et al., 2010a, 2010b; Taipale et al., 2010, 2013; Mikkola et
al., 2011). However, this positive effect in cyclists was not observed by using explosive
strength training (Bastiaans et al., 2001) nor after short-term (6 weeks) strength training
(Levin et al. 2009).
Another related factor important for endurance performance is the ability to generate
high power output over a short period of time to get a good position at the start of a race,
close a gap, make a critical pass, break away from the pack, or win a final sprint. Peak
power output is markedly affected by muscle cross-sectional area (Izquierdo et al. 2004)
- increased cross-sectional area of the quadriceps muscle was associated with increased
peak power output after combined heavy strength training and endurance training in
well-trained cyclists (Rønnestad et al. 2010a). Similarly, anaerobic running power can
increase substantially after a period of added explosive strength training (Paavolainen et
al., 1999; Mikkola et al., 2007a).
Endurance performance
The traditional way of measuring cycling performance is time trialling lasting between 30 and
60 minutes. However the effects of strength training are contradictory with studies variously
showing either improvements (Hickson et al., 1988; Koninckx et al., 2010; Rønnestad et al.,
2010b; Aagaard et al., 2011) or a trivial effect (Bishop et al., 1999; Bastiaans et al., 2001;
Levin et al., 2009). When positive effects are reported, heavy strength training is performed
with multiple leg exercises. In contrast studies failing to show much improvement were
typically short-term in duration, with a low volume of strength training or using explosive
strength training. In contrast, adding both explosive and heavy strength training to endurance
training can improve running performance, while no change was observed in the control
groups performing endurance training only (Paavolainen et al., 1999; Spurrs et al., 2003;
Støren et al., 2008).
Combining heavy strength training and regular endurance training increased mean power
output production during a final 5-min all-out sprint after 3 hours of submaximal cycling by 7
%, while no changes occurred in the endurance training group (Rønnestad et al., 2011).
Not all studies, however, have reported that concurrent training results in superior endurance
performance, especially in males (Kraemer et al., 2004, Barnes et al. 2013). Nevertheless,
there are no reports of negative impacts of concurrent training on endurance performance.
Potential mechanisms
A likely mechanism for improved performance after combined strength and endurance
training is (altered) muscle fibre type recruitment pattern. When measuring cycling
economy the traditional way, by measuring oxygen consumption during a short period of
time at steady state exercise intensities below the lactate threshold, mainly type I fibres
that are activated. In this setting may the effect of increasing the maximum strength of
type I fibres and postponing the activation of the less economical type II fibres be trivial
or small. This effect might explain why the literature seems is equivocal on
improvements in cycling economy in well-trained cyclists measured the traditional way.
Altered muscle fibre recruitment may also explain why improvement of cycling
economy in well-trained cyclists after a period of concurrent training is detected first
after about two hours of submaximal cycling (Rønnestad et al., 2011) It is likely that
after prolonged cycling will some of the type I fibres be exhausted and the less
economical type II fibres gradually increases their contribution to the exercise. It might
be suggested that the strength training increases the maximum strength of type I fibres
and postpones their time to exhaustion and thereby delaying the activation of type II
fibres. Strength training increases maximal force, and therefore peak force or muscle-
fibre tension developed in each movement cycle at the same absolute exercise intensity
decreases to a lower percentage of the maximal values. A cross-sectional study of
cyclists with similar VO2max and Wmax, reported lower EMG activity in the cyclists with
higher compared with lower maximal strength (Bieuzen et al. 2007).
Another potentially contributing factor to improved endurance performance is an
increased proportion of type IIA fibres and reduced proportion of type IIX fibres. A 16
week study in top-level cyclists combining heavy strength training and endurance
training in top-level cyclists examined the proportional redistribution in type II muscle
fibres (Aagaard et al., 2011). The increase in the more fatigue resistant, yet high
capability of power output, type IIA fibres may contribute to improved endurance
performance. However, there have also been reported no changes in fibre composition in
endurance athletes after a period of concurrent strength and endurance training (Bishop
et al., 1999). The different findings might be related to differences in initial percentages
of type IIX fibres (Bishop et al., 1999).
According to the size principle of motor unit recruitment (Henneman et al., 1965), the
following mechanism may be hypothesized: a reduced reliance on the less efficient type
II muscle fibres and thus improved exercise economy; slower emptying of glycogen
stores; reduced overall muscle fatigue; and a potentially increased capacity for high-
intensity performance following prolonged exercise or an increased ability by the athlete
to exercise longer until exhaustion (Hickson et al., 1988; Coyle et al., 1992; Horowitz et
al., 1994). A 12 week program of heavy strength training resulted in higher
phosphocreatine and glycogen content and lower [la-] at the end of 30 min cycling at
72% of VO2max, despite no change in VO2max (Goreham et al. 1999). The performed
strength training program was almost identical to the strength training performed in the
studies reporting a superior effect of concurrent training in long-term endurance
performance, despite the observation of no change in the traditional way of measuring
cycling economy (Aagaard et al., 2011; Rønnestad et al., 2011). The studies in which no
additive performance effect of concurrent training in cyclists was found performed either
explosive strength training with low external load (Bastiaans et al., 2001), low volume of
heavy strength training (Bishop et al. 1999), or lasted for a short duration (Levin et al.,
2009). Thus, it seems that differences in a strength training program can explain the
different findings. Explosive strength training and low-volume heavy strength training
can induce inferior strength- and hypertrophic responses compared to higher volume of
heavy strength (Rønnestad et al. 2007; Holm et al., 2008). Unfortunately, no
performance measurements were obtained in the study of Goreham et al. (1999), but the
improved aerobic metabolism and conservation of limited glycogen stores are important
for long-term endurance performance. Interestingly, they did not observe any change in
cycling economy.
Another putative mechanism explaining improvement in endurance-related
measurements after concurrent training is increased maximum force, and/or increased
rate of force development (RFD) facilitating better blood flow to exercising muscles
(Hoff et al., 1999, 2002; Støren et al., 2008; Sunde et al., 2010; Aagaard et al., 2011).
Increases in RFD is often caused by increased neural activation and both heavy strength
training with maximal velocity in the concentric phase of the lift and explosive strength
training can increase neural activation (Mikkola et al. 2011). Superior improvement in
maximum force and RFD was accompanied by superior improvement in exercise
economy (Heggelund et al., 2013). Improvement in maximum force and/or RFD might
lower the relative exercise intensity and induce less constriction of the blood flow.
Alternatively, improved RFD may reduce time to reach the desired force in each
movement cycle. A shorter contraction time or shorter time with relative high force
production in working muscles may increase blood flow to the muscles by reducing time
where blood flow is restricted. Whether blood flow is enhanced after a period of
concurrent training has not been thoroughly investigated, but in theory an increase in
blood flow will increase delivery of O2 and substrates to the working muscles-
contributing to enhanced endurance performance (but not necessarily improved exercise
economy).On the other hand, a recent study on moderately trained cyclists by Barrett-
O`Keefe et al. (2012), showed that 8 weeks of heavy strength training improved work
economy at a cadence of 60 rpm, reduced muscular blood flow, while maintaining
muscular arterial-venous oxygen difference. The latter indicates that improvement in
muscular efficiency is an important mechanism behind improved work economy and
improved endurance performance.
Magnetic resonance imaging indicates that increased maximum strength reduces the
amount of activated muscle mass to generate the same absolute submaximal power
(Ploutz et al., 1994). If less muscle mass generates the same power after increased
maximum strength, metabolic strain is concentrated on fewer fibres and obviates the
effect of increased maximum strength. In the opposite direction, activated muscle fibres
might exercise at the same relative intensity due to the increase in maximum strength. If
that is the case, then the strength training would presumably not affect exercise economy
directly, measured as oxygen consumption, but potentially increase the endurance
performance via increasing the quantity of fresh muscle mass available when the final
sprint is approaching. In a time-trial setting, where the objective is to cover a certain
distance as fast as possible, this adaptation could theoretically result in superior
performance, due to increased power output per unit muscle mass.
One of the distinct differences between cycling and running is the stretch-shortening
cycle in running, while the leg movements in cycling are mainly composed of concentric
muscle actions. Thus, cyclists are not able to store energy during an eccentric phase and
utilize it in the subsequent concentric phase to the same extent as runners. It is estimated
that storage and return of elastic energy during running approximates about half of the
mechanical work performed during the eccentric phase of a running stride (Cavagna et
al., 1964).In accordance with the latter assertion, stiffness of the musculoskeletal system
in the lower-body is associated with enhanced running economy in a wide range of
runners (Craib et al., 1996; Jones, 2002; Trehearn & Buresh, 2009). Muscle-tendon
system is able to increase its stiffness through both explosive strength training (Foure et
al., 2011) and heavy strength training (Kubo et al., 2001, 2002). Furthermore, stiffness
increases in the muscle-tendon system of the lower-body after adding both heavy
strength training (Millet et al., 2002) and explosive strength training (Spurrs et al., 2003)
to the ongoing endurance training. Importantly, it is likely that there may be an
individual optimal stiffness in the muscle-tendon system. There are apparent advantages
of stiff tendons in some cases and compliant tendons in other cases (Fletcher et al.,
2010). Improved utilization of elastic energy in the muscle-tendon system in the lower-
body would reduce the demand of ATP production even at low submaximal running
intensities, thus improving running economy as observed in the majority of the presented
studies. This mechanism is unlikely to be equally important when cycling, due to the
lack of pronounced eccentric phase from which the elastic energy can be utilized.
Potential negative outcomes
A potential counterproductive outcome of strength training is that muscle hypertrophy
could have a negative impact on weight-bearing endurance events. An increase in
myofiber cross-sectional area could reduce capillary to muscle fibre cross-sectional area
ratio, thus increasing diffusion distance. In this respect, it is worth mentioning that 8-16
weeks of supplemental strength training failed to increase total body mass nor
compromise the development of VO2max in endurance athletes including cyclists (Bishop
et al., 1999; Bastiaans et al., 2001; Levin et al., 2009; Rønnestad et al., 20010a, 2010b;
Sunde et al., 2010; Aagaard et al., 2011), runners (Johnston et al., 1997; Paavolainen et
al., 1999; Spurrs et al., 2003; Turner et al., 2003; Saunders et al., 2006; Mikkola et al.,
2007a, 2011; Storen et al., 2008;), duathletes and triathletes (Hickson et al., 1988; Millet
et al., 2002) and cross-country skiers (Hoff et al., 1999, 2002; Osteras et al., 2002;
Mikkola et al., 2007b; Losnegard et al., 2011; Rønnestad et al., 2012).
Even though strength training can be added to endurance training without a concomitant
increase in total body mass, there seems to be a small, ~3-6%, increase in measurements
of muscle hypertrophy of the main target muscles (Rønnestad et al., 2010a, 2012;
Taipale et al., 2010; Losnegard et al., 2011; Aagaard et al., 2011). An impaired
hypertrophic response to strength training is likely explained by recent developments
within molecular sports science. Endurance exercise may negatively affect intracellular
pathways important for myofibrillar protein synthesis (reviewed in Hawley 2009).
Activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by endurance
exercise may inhibit mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling and suppress
strength exercise-induced myofibrillar protein synthesis (Nader, 2006; Hawley, 2009).
Consequently, acute intracellular signalling response to concurrent strength and
endurance training does not promote ideal activation of pathways responsible for muscle
hypertrophy (Coffey et al., 2009). Observations of disparate mRNA response to
concurrent strength and endurance training underline the importance of local factors in
explaining compromised strength training adaptations to a large volume of concurrent
training (Coffey et al., 2009).
The observed impaired or absence of whole muscle or muscle fibre hypertrophy after
combining strength training with large volumes of endurance training (Hickson et al.,
1988; Bishop et al., 1999; Rønnestad et al. 2010a, 2012, 2012b; Losnegard et al., 2011;
Aagaard et al. 2011) greatly reduces the risk of impaired capillary to muscle fibre ratio.
In untrained subjects, strength training alone can increase some aspects of the capillaries
perfusing skeletal muscle fibres (Hather et al., 1991; McCall et al., 1996; Green et al.,
1999). In moderate trained students an increase in capillary to fibre ratio has been
observed after concurrent strength and endurance training, while no change was evident
after strength or endurance training alone (Bell et al., 2000). The only study performed
on top-level endurance athletes did not observe a negative effect after 16 weeks of
concurrent heavy strength training and endurance training on muscle capillarization
(Aagaard et al., 2011). In addition, after a period of concurrent strength and endurance
training there is no impairment of the oxidative enzyme activity in endurance-trained
athletes (Hickson et al., 1988; Bishop et al., 1999; Bell et al., 2000). Thus, with regard to
muscle vascularization and oxidative potential, there seems to be no indications of
negative effect of strength training.
Practical recommendations
To increase the probability of improved endurance performance subsequent to a strength
training period, the strength training exercises should involve similar muscle groups and
imitate the sports specific movements. This advice is underpinned by adaptations in the
neural system (like optimal activation of the involved muscles) as well as structural
adaptations (like optimising the number of active cross-bridges in that particular range of
motion). An intended rather than the actual velocity appears to determine the velocity-
specific training response (Behm & Sale, 1993; Heggelund et al., 2013). This scenario
means that even though the actual movement velocity is quite low, RFD might be
increased if the athlete focuses on performing the concentric phase of the lift as quick as
possible. Superior adaptations in maximal strength and RFD are achievable after 8
weeks of heavy strength training with maximal velocity in the concentric phase
compared to moderate velocity in the concentric phase (Heggelund et al., 2013). This
superiority was accompanied by superior improvement in exercise economy during
single leg knee-extension in untrained to moderate trained persons. Athletes are advised
to build up maximal strength in the important muscles during the preparatory period.
Two strength training sessions per week, designed as a ‘‘daily undulating periodized
program’’ is typically enough to achieve a sufficient increase in strength during a 12-
week period. Athletes are advised to perform between 4RM and 10RM and 2-3 sets with
approximately 2-3 min of rest between sets. Before endurance athletes start lifting heavy
loads they must ensure that they have first developed a proper lifting technique with
lighter loads. Note that in the beginning of a strength training period, it is common to get
“heavy” and “sore” legs in the first days after the strength training session. Therefore, it
is important to commence at low level with the concurrent endurance training during the
first two to three weeks of a strength-training program. One approach to overcome this
initial strength training adaptation phase is to conduct it just after the end of a
competition season, when endurance training has a lower priority. During the
competitive season or in training periods development of strength is not prioritized,
approximately one strength training session per week (low volume) with high intensity
seems to maintain the previous strength training adaptations (Rønnestad et al., 2010b;
Both explosive and maximal strength training have positive influences on endurance
running performance and/or running economy in endurance athletes (e.g. Paavolainen et
al., 1999; Millet et al., 2002; Spurrs et al., 2003; Støren et al., 2008). Recently, the
enhancing effects of combining endurance training with either heavy or explosive
strength training on running performance have been investigated. The studies that report
a difference in adaptations after heavy or explosive strength training point towards more
favorable adaptations as a result of heavy strength training (Guglielmo et al., 2009;
Mikkola et al., 2011, Barnes et al. 2013).
Recent research on highly trained athletes indicates that strength training can be
successfully prescribed to enhance endurance performance (Table I). For cycling
performance, heavy strength training with maximal velocity during the concentric phase
is preferred, while both heavy strength training with maximal velocity during the
concentric phase and explosive strength training have additive effects on running
performance. The primary explanation for improved endurance performance is most
likely adaptations within the strength trained muscle including postponed activation of
less efficient type II fibres, improved neuromuscular efficiency, conversion of fast-
twitch type IIX fibres into more fatigue resistant type IIA fibres, and improved
musculotendinous stiffness. Importantly, no negative effects of adding strength training
to an endurance training program have been reported.
The effects of strength training on endurance athletic performance have been the subject
of a long debate among athletes, coaches and sport scientists. Incorporation of strength
training in endurance athletes’ preparation has gradually received more attention during
the last two decades with studies showing divergent findings. Some of this discrepancy
seems to be related to the mode of strength training. In general a coach and athlete can
employ with confidence concurrent endurance and strength training to improve athletic
endurance performance. To optimize the effect of added strength training to cycling
performance, athletes should undertake heavy strength training with maximal velocity
during the concentric phase should be the training mode to recommend (instead of
explosive strength training), while both explosive- and heavy strength training with
maximal velocity during the concentric phase appear to have an additive effect on
running performance.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the editorial comments and suggestions made by Prof.
David Pyne (Physiology, Australian Institute of Sport) in the preparation of this manuscript. No
sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this article. The authors have no
conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this article.
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Table I. Effects of heavy and explosive strength training on endurance performance.
Potential positive
physiological and
performance effect
Evidence of
benefit Potential negative
physiological and
performance effect
Evidence of
negative outcome
Improved VO2max No Increased body
mass No
Improved exercise
economy Yes Compromised
relative VO2max No
Improved anaerobic
capacity Yes Increased diffusion
distance No
Improved lactate
threshold Yes Reduced
capillarisation No
Reduced or delayed
fatigue Yes Reduced oxidative
enzyme activity No
Improved maximal
strength Yes
Improved rate of
force development Yes
Improved maximal
speed Yes
Improved endurance
performance Yes
... This may be contrary to popular processes used by some endurance coaches who may implement low load and high repetition programs to focus on muscular endurance, because they believe this will better suit the metabolic and muscular demands of the endurance athlete. It is important for coaches to understand that traditional endurance training (e.g., long duration aerobic focused cycles or running specific interval training) should be prescribed to address the cardiovascular and muscular endurance aspects of performance, whereas recent research suggests ST should be implemented to focus on improving maximal strength, dynamic rate of force development (RFD), muscular power, and improved neural activity (12,18,81,90,91). ...
... To encourage improvements in RFD, exercises should also be prescribed with a focus on intended (rather than actual) velocity of movement during the concentric phase of each exercise (44,81); however, improvements in RFD may still occur from heavy ST without this focus on velocity (1). Before lifting heavy loads with an eccentric focus, it is recommended that athletes focus on the technique a All performance/strength exercises completed with a 3-second eccentric lower, as fast as possible concentric phase with the exception of the hang clean which should be completed with the concentric phase as fast as possible and the athlete taking time between each repetition to ensure good technique. ...
... of more basic exercises and gradually progress to eccentric movements (56). It is recommended that athletes commence ST with lighter loads and progressively build to heavy ST loads to minimize fatigue and delayed onset muscle soreness, which may affect later endurance training sessions (81). ...
... Features related to these dimensions as well as the interactions between these features were found to influence cycling performance and chances of success [3]. Indeed, cyclists' power output is the result of the equilibrium and interaction among internal factors (e.g., physiological variables) influencing mechanical power sessions with higher velocity during the concentric phase and increased time under tension during the eccentric one, (ii) involve discipline-specific muscle groups, and (iii) reproduce sport-specific movements [21][22][23][24]. ...
... Accordingly, one previous study was interested in determining the adaptations phases to HRST and suggested two main phases: an early phase mainly involving neuromuscular pathways and connective tissue adaptations, followed by a second phase in which muscular adaptations occur as a result of a progressive increase in training volume and loads [14]. Regarding the possible impacts of applying strength training strategies on endurance disciplines, previous reports described how endurance designed resistance training can be successfully tolerated by elite cyclists to promote functional adaptations, support endurance training capacity and directly contribute to performance improvements [21][22][23][24]. Particularly, these reports suggest that strength training should (i) include heavy load and conditioning training programme. ...
... Body mass was measured using a mechanical balance scale (Seca 874) with a precision of 0.01 kg [30]. Heights proportion of type IIX fibres, (iii) increased maximum force and/or rate of force development facilitating better blood flow to exercising muscles, and (iv) reduction of activated muscle mass to generate the same absolute submaximal power [21,22]. Indeed, the provided training protocol has combined cycling training reproducing sportspecific movements and resistance training gym sessions involving discipline-specific muscle groups and including heavy load sessions with higher velocity during the concentric phase and increased time under tension during the eccentric phase. ...
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Changes and relationships between cycling performance indicators following a one-year strength and conditioning training have not been totally clarified. The aims of this study are to investigate (i) the effect of a combined strength and conditioning training programme on performance indicators and the possible relationships between these indicators, and (ii) the existence of possible endurance-functional-adaptive windows (EFAWs) linked to changes in muscular strength and body composition markers. Functional and lactate threshold power (FTP and LTP), maximal strength (1RM) and body composition (body mass index [BMI], body cell mass [BCM] and phase angle [PA]) were measured at the beginning and the end of a strength and conditioning training programme of thirty cyclists. Correlations, differences, and predictive analysis were performed among parameters. Significant differences were found between pre- and post-conditioning programme results for FTP, LTP, 1RM (p<0.0001) and BCM (p=0.038). When expressed as power output (W), FTP and LTP were significantly correlated with 1RM (r=0.36, p=0.005 and r=0.37, p=0.004, respectively), body mass (r=0.30 and p=0.02), BCM (r=0.68, p<0.001) and PA (r=0.42 and 0.39, respectively and p<0.001). When expressed as W·kg-¹, these power thresholds were strongly correlated with body mass (r=-0.56 and -0.61, respectively) and BMI (r=-0.57 and -0.61 respectively) with p<0.001. Predictive polynomial regressions revealed possible endurance and strength adaptation zones. The present findings indicated beneficial impacts of one-year strength and conditioning training on cycling performance indicators, confirmed the correlation between performance indicators, and suggested the existence of different EFAWs. Strategies aiming to improve performance should consider cyclist characteristics and performance goals to achieve EFAWs and thereby enhance cycling performance.
... Interestingly, professional cyclists typically use cadences below FCC when training in order to increase muscle tension and provide resistance training-like adaptations, or above FCC to increase the metabolic demand and work on their pedaling gesture to improve their performance at FCC. While Hansen and Rønnestad [3] reported no evidence for a positive effect of training at low cadence, the authors did not emphasize the effect of cadence on chronic neuromuscular alterations while these could contribute to cycling performance [8]. This systematic review aimed to clarify how the utilization of different cycling cadences affects neuromuscular function (i) following a cycling bout, (ii) throughout a cycling exercise, and (iii) following a training period. ...
... Hansen and Rønnestad [3] already reviewed articles focusing on the effect of a training period at imposed cadences on cycling performance factors such as maximal power output and oxygen consumption or gross efficiency. Although muscular strength was considered as a performance factor and has mainly been focused on training for cyclists [8], only one study (out of seven in Ronnestad's review) considered it as the main outcome [21]. Then, we reported only one complete study and a conference paper that compared the effect of preferred and low cadences on lower limb muscle strength. ...
Full-text available
There is a wide range of cadence available to cyclists to produce power, yet they choose to pedal across a narrow one. While neuromuscular alterations during a pedaling bout at non-preferred cadences were previously reviewed, modifications subsequent to one fatiguing session or training intervention have not been focused on. We performed a systematic literature search of Pub-Med and Web of Science up to the end of 2020. Thirteen relevant articles were identified, among which eleven focused on fatigability and two on training intervention. Cadences were mainly defined as "low" and "high" compared with a range of freely chosen cadences for given power output. However, the heterogeneity of selected cadences, neuromuscular assessment methodology, and selected population makes the comparison between the studies complicated. Even though cycling at a high cadence and high intensity impaired more neuromuscular function and performance than low-cadence cycling, it remains unclear if cycling cadence plays a role in the onset of fatigue. Research concerning the effect of training at non-preferred cadences on neuromuscular adaptation allows us to encourage the use of various training stimuli but not to say whether a range of cadences favors subsequent neuromuscular performance.
... Pomembnost ene in druge se kaže v močni povezanosti z uspešnostjo na vzdržljivostnih preizkušnjah med tekmovalci s primerljivimi vrednostmi največjega privzema kisika(Horowitz, Sidossis in Coyle, 1994). Skladno s tem je velika verjetnost, da bo izboljšanje ekonomičnosti vadbe povezano z izboljšanjem sposobnosti vzdržljivosti(Rønnestad in Mujika, 2014).Zmogljivost kolesarjev v zaključku dirke je odvisna od tedanje utrujenosti. Rønnestad idr. ...
[Main text in Slovene]. The most important predictors of performance in endurance sports are maximal oxygen uptake, the second lactate threshold or critical power and movement efficiency. For a long time it was believed that resistance training is not suitable for endurance athletes due to unwanted increases in muscle mass and training of muscle fibres that are not important for those athletes. Based on the literature review that we performed we conclude that resistance training positively affects numerous important determinants of endurance performance and that there are no downsides reported. Studies report that addition of resistance training can have possitive effects as only as 8 weeks after the onset of such training. Resistance training can thus very effectively contribute towards better performance provided that exercise is designed according to the needs of a discipline and the athlete. The main reasons for efficacy of resistance training appears to be improved movement efficiency, maximal locomotion speed, improvements of anaerobic capacity and concomitant delayed onset of fatigue.
... In agreement with these findings, Authors [32,33] showed that aerobic capacity was not inhibited by concurrent training (endurance and strength training). Rather, a better neuromuscular coordination delaying the onset of fatigue after strength intervention and a skeletal muscles changes in fiber composition might be the mechanism responsible for the increase of aerobic performance [34][35][36]. Therefore, we looked across literature for the type(s) of non-sport-specific strength training (MST, PST, EST and RST) reported as more efficient in increasing endurance ability, focusing on WE (running economy, cycling economy, double poling economy) ( Figure 2) and endurance performance tests (TT, TTE and Po) (Figure 3). ...
Full-text available
Non-sport-specific strength training is a way to increase endurance performance; however, which kind of exercise (maximal, plyometric, explosive or resistance strength training) gives the best results is still under debate. Scientific publications were analyzed according to the PRISMA checklist and statement. The initial search yielded 500 studies, 17 of which were included in this review using the PEDro Scale. Maximal strength training boosted the ability to express strength particularly in cross-country skiing and cycling, increasing endurance performance, measured as a decrease of the endurance performance tests. In running, explosive strength training did not generate advantages, whereas plyometric strength training led to an improvement in the endurance performance tests and work economy. In running it was possible to compare different types of non sport-specific strength training and the plyometric one resulted the best training methodology to enhance performance. However, studies on other sports only investigated the effects of maximal strength training. It resulted more effective in cross-country skiing (although only one study was eligible according to the inclusion criteria) and in the cycling component of the triathlon and, by contrast, induced modest effects on cyclists’ performance, suggesting different type of strength would probably be more effective. In conclusion, each sport might optimize performance by using appropriate non sport-specific strength training, which, however, should be studied individually.
... For other performance indices such as cycling economy and gross efficiency, which were measured using a one-legged cycling protocol, COPD showed larger relative improvements compared to Healthy (∆4% (COPD -Healthy) for both cycling economy and gross efficiency, Fig. 5). For these indices of cycling performance, COPD, but not Healthy, displayed benefits of 10RM compared to 30RM training (Fig. 5), corresponding to previously observed effects of heavy resistance training in healthy, young individuals [54]. ...
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Background Subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are prone to accelerated decay of muscle strength and mass with advancing age. This is believed to be driven by disease-inherent systemic pathophysiologies, which are also assumed to drive muscle cells into a state of anabolic resistance, leading to impaired abilities to adapt to resistance exercise training. Currently, this phenomenon remains largely unstudied. In this study, we aimed to investigate the assumed negative effects of COPD for health- and muscle-related responsiveness to resistance training using a healthy control-based translational approach. Methods Subjects with COPD (n = 20, GOLD II-III, FEV1predicted 57 ± 11%, age 69 ± 5) and healthy controls (Healthy, n = 58, FEV1predicted 112 ± 16%, age 67 ± 4) conducted identical whole-body resistance training interventions for 13 weeks, consisting of two weekly supervised training sessions. Leg exercises were performed unilaterally, with one leg conducting high-load training (10RM) and the contralateral leg conducting low-load training (30RM). Measurements included muscle strength (nvariables = 7), endurance performance (nvariables = 6), muscle mass (nvariables = 3), muscle quality, muscle biology (m. vastus lateralis; muscle fiber characteristics, RNA content including transcriptome) and health variables (body composition, blood). For core outcome domains, weighted combined factors were calculated from the range of singular assessments. Results COPD displayed well-known pathophysiologies at baseline, including elevated levels of systemic low-grade inflammation ([c-reactive protein]serum), reduced muscle mass and functionality, and muscle biological aberrancies. Despite this, resistance training led to improved lower-limb muscle strength (15 ± 8%), muscle mass (7 ± 5%), muscle quality (8 ± 8%) and lower-limb/whole-body endurance performance (26 ± 12%/8 ± 9%) in COPD, resembling or exceeding responses in Healthy, measured in both relative and numeric change terms. Within the COPD cluster, lower FEV1predicted was associated with larger numeric and relative increases in muscle mass and superior relative improvements in maximal muscle strength. This was accompanied by similar changes in hallmarks of muscle biology such as rRNA-content↑, muscle fiber cross-sectional area↑, type IIX proportions↓, and changes in mRNA transcriptomics. Neither of the core outcome domains were differentially affected by resistance training load. Conclusions COPD showed hitherto largely unrecognized responsiveness to resistance training, rejecting the notion of disease-related impairments and rather advocating such training as a potent measure to relieve pathophysiologies. Trial registration: ID: NCT02598830. Registered November 6th 2015,
... Finally, since it is established that both normal endurance training, especially high intensity aerobic training (Laursen, 2010), and heavy strength training (Rønnestad & Mujika, 2014) can improve endurance performance, it is important to stress that there were no difference between HEAT and CON in conducted training volume, intensity distribution or amount of heavy strength training. Accordingly, there were no group differences in 1RM leg press. ...
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The objective was to compare the efficacy of three different heat acclimation protocols to improve exercise performance in the heat. Thirty four cyclists completed one of three 10-day interventions 1) 50-min cycling per day in 35°C, 2) 50-min cycling per day wearing thermal clothing, 3) 50-min cycling wearing thermal clothing plus 25 min hot water immersion (HWI) per day. Pre- and post- intervention hemoglobin mass, intravascular volumes and core temperature were determined at rest. Heart rate, sweat rate, blood lactate concentration and core temperature were evaluated during 15-min submaximal and 30-min all-out cycling performance conducted in 35.2 ± 0.1°C and 61 ± 1 % relative humidity. There were no significant between-group differences in any of the determined variables. None of the interventions statistically altered any of the parameters investigated as part of the 15-min submaximal trial. However, following the intervention period, heat chamber, thermal clothing and thermal clothing + HWI all improved 30-min all-out average power in the heat (9.5±3.8%, 9.5±3.6 and 9.9±5.2%, respectively, p<0.001, F=192.3). At termination of the 30-min all-out test, the increase in blood lactate concentration, rate of perceived exertion and sweat rate were not different between the three interventions. In conclusion, daily training sessions conducted either in ambient 35°C, while wearing thermal clothing in temperate conditions or while wearing thermal clothing combined with HWI are equally effective for improving exercise performance in the heat.
... The most adapted runners could be those more experienced, since training adaptation is elicited by duration of practice as well as training regimen [34][35][36][37]. Therefore, runners reaching higher ACWRs may be the most adapted ones, thus, capable of running at higher workload spikes [38][39][40][41]. Novice and even inexperienced runners usually have a lower running workload compared to more experienced runners. ...
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Objective To investigate the association between the acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR) and running-related injuries (RRI). Methods This is a secondary analysis using a database composed of data from three studies conducted with the same RRI surveillance system. Longitudinal data comprising running exposure (workload) and RRI were collected biweekly during the respective cohorts’ follow-up (18–65 weeks). ACWR was calculated as the most recent (i.e., acute) external workload (last 2 weeks) divided by the average external (i.e., chronic) workload of the last 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks. Three methods were used to calculate the ACWR: uncoupled, coupled and exponentially weighted moving averages (EWMA). Bayesian logistic mixed models were used to analyse the data. Results The sample was composed of 435 runners. Runners whose ACWR was under 0.70 had about 10% predicted probability of sustaining RRI (9.6%; 95% credible interval [CrI] 7.5–12.4), while those whose ACWR was higher than 1.38 had about 1% predicted probability of sustaining RRI (1.3%; 95% CrI 0.7–1.7). The association between the ACWR and RRI was significant, varying from a small to a moderate association (1–10%). The higher the ACWR, the lower the RRI risk. Conclusions The ACWR showed an inversely proportional association with RRI risk that can be represented by a smooth L-shaped, second-order, polynomial decay curve. The ACWR using hours or kilometres yielded similar results. The coupled and uncoupled methods revealed similar associations with RRIs. The uncoupled method presented the best discrimination for ACWR strata. The EWMA method yielded sparse and non-significant results.
... Based on experimental evidence, adding supplementary training on 2-3 occasions per week in the form of strength, power and plyometric training appears to improve running economy, time trial performance and MSS in middle-and long-distance runners across a broad performance range [4,[147][148][149]. In contrast, a causal relationship between core stability, athletic performance and injury risk has not been established [150]. ...
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Despite an increasing amount of research devoted to middle-distance training (herein the 800 and 1500 m events), information regarding the training methodologies of world-class runners is limited. Therefore, the objective of this review was to integrate scientific and best practice literature and outline a novel framework for understanding the training and development of elite middle-distance performance. Herein, we describe how well-known training principles and fundamental training characteristics are applied by world-leading middle-distance coaches and athletes to meet the physiological and neuromus-cular demands of 800 and 1500 m. Large diversities in physiological profiles and training emerge among middle-distance runners, justifying a categorization into types across a continuum (400-800 m types, 800 m specialists, 800-1500 m types, 1500 m specialists and 1500-5000 m types). Larger running volumes (120-170 vs. 50-120 km·week −1 during the preparation period) and higher aerobic/anaerobic training distribution (90/10 vs. 60/40% of the annual running sessions below vs. at or above anaerobic threshold) distinguish 1500-and 800-m runners. Lactate tolerance and lactate production training are regularly included interval sessions by middle-distance runners, particularly among 800-m athletes. In addition, 800-m runners perform more strength, power and plyometric training than 1500-m runners. Although the literature is biased towards men and "long-distance thinking," this review provides a point of departure for scientists and practitioners to further explore and quantify the training and development of elite 800-and 1500-m running performance and serves as a position statement for outlining current state-of-the-art middle-distance training recommendations.
Background and Study Aim. To study changes in the functional state of professional Russian cross country skiers in the course of the preparatory phase and their effects on their competition ratings. Materials and methods. In this study we examined 10 cross-country skiers. The functional state was assessed through a maximal load bicycle ergometer test, coordination and special performance tests. Concentrations of lactate and cortisol were checked in the blood plasma of participants. Results. The training effects on general physical preparedness and special physical preparation in September in comparison with June were observed as an increased number of pull-ups on a pull-up bar (by 14%) and decreased time of the roller ski test (by 4%). In autumn higher systolic (by 11%) and diastolic (by 10%) arterial blood pressure levels, higher levels of plasma lactate and cortisol (by 48% and 64%, respectively) were detected (p
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Physiological variables, such as maximum work rate or maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), together with other submaximal metabolic inflection points (e.g. the lactate threshold [LT], the onset of blood lactate accumulation and the pulmonary ventilation threshold [VT]), are regularly quantified by sports scientists during an incremental exercise test to exhaustion. These variables have been shown to correlate with endurance performance, have been used to prescribe exercise training loads and are useful to monitor adaptation to training. However, an incremental exercise test can be modified in terms of starting and subsequent work rates, increments and duration of each stage. At the same time, the analysis of the blood lactate/ventilatory response to incremental exercise may vary due to the medium of blood analysed and the treatment (or mathematical modelling) of data following the test to model the metabolic inflection points. Modification of the stage duration during an incremental exercise test may influence the submaximal and maximal physiological variables. In particular, the peak power output is reduced in incremental exercise tests that have stages of longer duration. Furthermore, the VT or LT may also occur at higher absolute exercise work rate in incremental tests comprising shorter stages. These effects may influence the relationship of the variables to endurance performance or potentially influence the sensitivity of these results to endurance training. A difference in maximum work rate with modification of incremental exercise test design may change the validity of using these results for predicting performance, and prescribing or monitoring training. Sports scientists and coaches should consider these factors when conducting incremental exercise testing for the purposes of performance diagnostics.
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In 1923, Hill and Lupton pointed out that for Hill himself, ‘the rate of oxygen intake due to exercise increases as speed increases, reaching a maximum for the speeds beyond about 256 m/min. At this particular speed, for which no further increases in O2 intake can occur, the heart, lungs, circulation, and the diffusion of oxygen to the active muscle-fibres have attained their maximum activity. At higher speeds the requirement of the body for oxygen is far higher but cannot be satisfied, and the oxygen debt continuously increases’. In 1975, this minimal velocity which elicits maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) was called ‘critical speed’ and was used to measure the maximal aerobic capacity (max Eox), i.e. the total oxygen consumed at V̇O2max. This should not be confused with the term ‘critical power’ which is closest to the power output at the ‘lactate threshold’. In 1984, the term ‘velocity at V̇O2max’ and the abbreviation ‘vV̇O2max’ was introduced. It was reported that vV̇O2max is a useful variable that combines V̇O2max and economy into a single factor which can identify aerobic differences between various runners or categories of runners. vV̇O2max explained individual differences in performance that V̇O2max or running economy alone did not. Following that, the concept of a maximal aerobic running velocity (Vamax in m/sec) was formulated. This was a running velocity at which V̇O2max occurred and was calculated as the ratio between V̇O2max (ml/kg/min) minus oxygen consumption at rest, and the energy cost of running (ml/kg/sec). There are many ways to determine the velocity associated with V̇O2max making it difficult to compare maintenance times. In fact, the time to exhaustion (tlim) at vV̇O2max is reproducible in an individual, however, there is a great variability among individuals with a low coefficient of variation for vV̇O2max. For an average value of about 6 minutes, the coefficient of variation is about 25%. It seems that the lactate threshold which is correlated with the tlim at vV̇O2max can explain this difference among individuals, the role of the anaerobic contribution being significant. An inverse relationship has been found between tlim at vV̇O2max and V̇O2max and a positive one between vV̇O2max and the velocity at the lactate threshold expressed as a fraction of vV̇O2max. These results are similar for different sports (e.g. running, cycling, kayaking, swimming). It seems that the real time spent at V̇O2max is significantly different from an exhaustive run at a velocity close to vV̇O2max (105% vV̇O2max). However, the minimal velocity which elicits V̇O2maxand the tlim at this velocity appear to convey valuable information when analysing a runner’s performance over 1500m to a marathon.
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TANAKA, H., D. L. COSTILL, R. THOMAS, W. J. FINK, and J. J. WIDRICK. Dry-land resistance training for competitive swimming. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 25, No. 8, pp. 952-959, 1993. To determine the value of dry-land resistance training on front crawl swimming performance, two groups of 12 intercollegiate male swimmers were equated based upon preswimming performance, swim power values, and stroke specialities. Throughout the 14 wk of their competitve swimming season, both swim training group (SWIM, N = 12) and combined swim and resistance training group (COMBO, N = 12) swam together 6 d a week. In addition, the COMBO engaged in a 8-wk resistance training program 3 d a week. The resistance training was intended to simulate the muscle and swimming actions employed during front crawl swimming. Both COMBO and SWIM had significant (P < 0.05) but similar power gains as measured on the biokinetic swim bench and during a tethered swim over the 14-wk period. No change in distance per stroke was observed throughout the course of this investigation. No significant differences were found between the groups in any of the swim power and swimming performance tests. In this investigation, dry-land resistance training did not improve swimming performance despite the fact that the COMBO was able to increase the resistance used during strength training by 25-35%. The lack of a positive transfer between dry-land strength gains and swimming propulsive force may be due to the specificity of training. (C)1993The American College of Sports Medicine
To investigate the effects of simultaneous explosive-strength and endurance training on physical performance characteristics, 10 experimental (E) and 8 control (C) endurance athletes trained for 9 wk. The total training volume was kept the same in both groups, but 32% of training in E and 3% in C was replaced by explosive-type strength training. A 5-km time trial (5K), running economy (RE), maximal 20-m speed ( V 20 m ), and 5-jump (5J) tests were measured on a track. Maximal anaerobic (MART) and aerobic treadmill running tests were used to determine maximal velocity in the MART ( V MART ) and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙o 2 max ). The 5K time, RE, and V MART improved ( P < 0.05) in E, but no changes were observed in C. V 20 m and 5J increased in E ( P < 0.01) and decreased in C ( P < 0.05).V˙o 2 max increased in C ( P < 0.05), but no changes were observed in E. In the pooled data, the changes in the 5K velocity during 9 wk of training correlated ( P< 0.05) with the changes in RE [O 2 uptake ( r = −0.54)] and V MART ( r = 0.55). In conclusion, the present simultaneous explosive-strength and endurance training improved the 5K time in well-trained endurance athletes without changes in theirV˙o 2 max . This improvement was due to improved neuromuscular characteristics that were transferred into improved V MART and running economy.
McCall, G. E., W. C. Byrnes, A. Dickinson, P. M. Pattany, and S. J. Fleck. Muscle fiber hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and capillary density in college men after resistance training. J. Appl. Physiol. 81(5): 2004–2012, 1996.—Twelve male subjects with recreational resistance training backgrounds completed 12 wk of intensified resistance training (3 sessions/wk; 8 exercises/session; 3 sets/exercise; 10 repetitions maximum/set). All major muscle groups were trained, with four exercises emphasizing the forearm flexors. After training, strength (1-repetition maximum preacher curl) increased by 25% ( P < 0.05). Magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed an increase in the biceps brachii muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) (from 11.8 ± 2.7 to 13.3 ± 2.6 cm ² ; n = 8; P < 0.05). Muscle biopsies of the biceps brachii revealed increases ( P < 0.05) in fiber areas for type I (from 4,196 ± 859 to 4,617 ± 1,116 μm ² ; n = 11) and II fibers (from 6,378 ± 1,552 to 7,474 ± 2,017 μm ² ; n = 11). Fiber number estimated from the above measurements did not change after training (293.2 ± 61.5 × 10 ³ pretraining; 297.5 ± 69.5 × 10 ³ posttraining; n = 8). However, the magnitude of muscle fiber hypertrophy may influence this response because those subjects with less relative muscle fiber hypertrophy, but similar increases in muscle CSA, showed evidence of an increase in fiber number. Capillaries per fiber increased significantly ( P < 0.05) for both type I (from 4.9 ± 0.6 to 5.5 ± 0.7; n = 10) and II fibers (from 5.1 ± 0.8 to 6.2 ± 0.7; n = 10). No changes occurred in capillaries per fiber area or muscle area. In conclusion, resistance training resulted in hypertrophy of the total muscle CSA and fiber areas with no change in estimated fiber number, whereas capillary changes were proportional to muscle fiber growth.
During the last nearly 50 years, the blood lactate curve and lactate thresholds (LTs) have become important in the diagnosis of endurance performance. An intense and ongoing debate emerged, which was mainly based on terminology and/or the physiological background of LT concepts. The present review aims at evaluating LTs with regard to their validity in assessing endurance capacity. Additionally, LT concepts shall be integrated within the ‘aerobic-anaerobic transition’ — a framework which has often been used for performance diagnosis and intensity prescriptions in endurance sports. Usually, graded incremental exercise tests, eliciting an exponential rise in blood lactate concentrations (bLa), are used to arrive at lactate curves. A shift of such lactate curves indicates changes in endurance capacity. This very global approach, however, is hindered by several factors that may influence overall lactate levels. In addition, the exclusive use of the entire curve leads to some uncertainty as to the magnitude of endurance gains, which cannot be precisely estimated. This deficiency might be eliminated by the use of LTs. The aerobic-anaerobic transition may serve as a basis for individually assessing endurance performance as well as for prescribing intensities in endurance training. Additionally, several LT approaches may be integrated in this framework. This model consists of two typical breakpoints that are passed during incremental exercise: the intensity at which bLa begin to rise above baseline levels and the highest intensity at which lactate production and elimination are in equilibrium (maximal lactate steady state [MLSS]). Within this review, LTs are considered valid performance indicators when there are strong linear correlations with (simulated) endurance performance. In addition, a close relationship between LT and MLSS indicates validity regarding the prescription of training intensities. A total of 25 different LT concepts were located. All concepts were divided into three categories. Several authors use fixed bLa during incremental exercise to assess endurance performance (category 1). Other LT concepts aim at detecting the first rise in bLa above baseline levels (category 2). The third category consists of threshold concepts that aim at detecting either the MLSS or a rapid/distinct change in the inclination of the blood lactate curve (category 3). Thirty-two studies evaluated the relationship of LTs with performance in (partly simulated) endurance events. The overwhelming majority of those studies reported strong linear correlations, particularly for running events, suggesting a high percentage of common variance between LT and endurance performance. In addition, there is evidence that some LTs can estimate the MLSS. However, from a practical and statistical point of view it would be of interest to know the variability of individual differences between the respective threshold and the MLSS, which is rarely reported. Although there has been frequent and controversial debate on the LT phenomenon during the last three decades, many scientific studies have dealt with LT concepts, their value in assessing endurance performance or in prescribing exercise intensities in endurance training. The presented framework may help to clarify some aspects of the controversy and may give a rationale for performance diagnosis and training prescription in future research as well as in sports practice.
The five different training methods used in this study consisted of various proportions of swimming and of weight training exercises. Sixty subjects were divided into five equated groups. Each group was exposed to a different treatment over a period of six weeks. Tests of swimming speed were administered at the beginning of the experiment, and at the end of each week. All five treatments resulted in significant swimming improvements, but none of the treatments were significantly more effective than the other treatments.