Prognostic significance of sphingosine kinase 2 expression in non-small cell lung cancer
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150086, China. Tumor Biology
(Impact Factor: 3.61).
08/2013; 35(1). DOI: 10.1007/s13277-013-1051-1
Sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2) as a conserved lipid kinase has not been thoroughly elucidated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of SphK2 in NSCLC tissues and to determine its correlation with clinicopathologic characteristics and its impact on patient prognosis. We assessed the expression of SphK2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) (as a proliferative index) by immunohistochemistry in 180 NSCLC patient's formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks. Relationship between the expression of SphK2 and PCNA and various clinicopathological features in these patients was evaluated. We detected that expression of SphK2 was gradually upregulated from normal, metaplasia/dysplasia tissues to NSCLC tissues. At the same time, PCNA expression followed a similar pattern. Statistical analysis showed that expression of SphK2 in NSCLC tissues was strongly associated with PCNA expression, histology grade, live vaccine strain invasion, lymph node status, clinical stage, tumors size, and histology type. Patients with SphK2 overexpression in their tissues had lower overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates than those with low SphK2 expression. Using uni- and multivariate analysis, we found that SphK2 overexpression was an independent prognostic factor for both OS and DFS. The expression of SphK2 parallels the progression of NSCLC, and SphK2 overexpression may represent a novel and potentially independent biomarker for the prognosis of patients with NSCLC.
Available from: Jun Jia
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies showed that incomplete cell reprogramming can transform cells into tumour-like cells. Lin28A is associated with fibroblast and sarcoma cell reprogramming, whereas its homologue Lin28B is associated with hematopoietic cell reprogramming. This study aimed to investigate the expression and prognostic difference between Lin28A and Lin28B in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Expression level was assessed by immunohistochemistry and staining location was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Prognostic values were analysed and compared by the Kaplan-Meier analysis and uni and multivariate Cox regression models. Besides, in vitro cell assays and in vivo nude mice xenograft were used to demonstrate the influence of increased Lin28B expression in OSCC. Lin28A and Lin28B expression increased in OSCC, and co-expression of Lin28A and Lin28B showed no significant association with patient prognosis. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with high Lin28B but not Lin28A expression had lower overall survival (OS) rates than those with low Lin28B expression. Further Univariate analysis showed that patients with increased Lin28B expression had shorter disease-free survival (DFS) and shorter OS, while multivariate analysis showed Lin28B overexpression with TNM stage predicted poor prognosis in patients with OSCC. Besides, stable expressing Lin28B in oral cancer cells promoted cell migration, invasion, colony formation, in vivo proliferation and increased the expression of cancer suppressor miRNA let-7 targeted genes IL-6, HMGA2, the EMT markers Snail and Twist, the angiogenesis inducer VEGF, and the apoptosis inhibitor Survivin. These combined results indicate that Lin28B is a novel marker for predicting prognosis in patients with OSCC and may be a therapeutic target.
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ABSTRACT: Lin28B, a homologue of Lin28, represses biogenesis of let-7 microRNAs with a role in tumorigenesis and is considered a potential therapeutic target for various human cancers. The aim of the study was to identify the clinical significance of Lin28B in gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC). We examined the expression of Lin28B in 97 human gastric cancer samples with 32 samples of non-dysplastic tissues by immunohistochemistry. In the 97 GAC cases, 42 were with high Lin28B expression. The expression levels of Lin28B proteins in GAC were higher than in corresponding adjacent normal tissues (P=0.001). Significant correlations were noted between Lin28B expression and lymph node status (P=0.005), TNM stage (P < 0.001), tumor invasion (P=0.036), and differentiation (P=0.001) of GAC patients. The Kaplan-Meier estimates showed a negative correlation of overall 5-year survival rate with Lin28B expression where higher expression resulted in poorer prognosis in GAC. In univariate analysis, lymph node metastasis, TNM stage, serosal invasion, Lin28B expression as well as differentiation grade could predict the prognosis of GAC patients (P=0.002, P < 0.001, P=0.003, P < 0.001, P=0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that the expression level of Lin28B (P < 0.001), TNM stage (P < 0.001) as well as differentiation grade (P < 0.001) were the three potential independent prognostic factors in our study [Hazard ratio (HR)=2.108 and P=0.017, HR=1.994 and P=0.018, HR=1.939 and P=0.046, respectively]. Our findings point to the prognostic role of Lin28B in GAC, and indicate Lin28B as a potential therapeutic target of GAC patients.
Available from: Lisa M Ebert
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ABSTRACT: The dynamic balance of cellular sphingolipids, the sphingolipid rheostat, is an important determinant of cell fate, and is commonly deregulated in cancer. Sphingosine 1-phosphate is a signaling molecule with anti-apoptotic, pro-proliferative and pro-angiogenic effects, while conversely, ceramide and sphingosine are pro-apoptotic. The sphingosine kinases (SKs) are key regulators of this sphingolipid rheostat, and are attractive targets for anti-cancer therapy. Here we report a first-in-class ATP-binding site-directed small molecule SK inhibitor, MP-A08, discovered using an approach of structural homology modelling of the ATP-binding site of SK1 and in silico docking with small molecule libraries. MP-A08 is a highly selective ATP competitive SK inhibitor that targets both SK1 and SK2. MP-A08 blocks pro-proliferative signalling pathways, induces mitochondrial-associated apoptosis in a SK-dependent manner, and reduces the growth of human lung adenocarcinoma tumours in a mouse xenograft model by both inducing tumour cell apoptosis and inhibiting tumour angiogenesis. Thus, this selective ATP competitive SK inhibitor provides a promising candidate for potential development as an anti-cancer therapy, and also, due to its different mode of inhibition to other known SK inhibitors, both validates the SKs as targets for anti-cancer therapy, and represents an important experimental tool to study these enzymes.
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