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Effects of Distant Intention on Water Crystal Formation: A Triple-Blind Replication

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An experiment tested the hypothesis that water exposed to distant intentions affects the aesthetic rating of ice crystals formed from that water. Over three days, 1,900 people in Austria and Germany focused their intentions towards water samples located inside an electromagnetically shielded room in California. Water samples located near the target water, but unknown to the people providing intentions, acted as ‘‘proximal’’ controls. Other samples located outside the shielded room acted as distant controls. Ice drops formed from samples of water in the different treatment conditions were photographed by a technician, each image was assessed for aesthetic beauty by over 2,500 independent judges, and the resulting data were analyzed, all by individuals blind with respect to the underlying treatment conditions. Results suggested that crystal images in the intentionally treated condition were rated as aesthetically more beautiful than proximal control crystals (p ¼ 0.03, one-tailed). This outcome replicates the results of an earlier pilot test. Keywords: intention—water—consciousness
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Effects of Distant Intention on Water Crystal
Formation: A Triple-Blind Replication
DEAN RADIN,
1
NANCY LUND,
1
MASARU EMOTO,
2
AND
TAKASHIGE KIZU
2
1
Institute of Noetic Sciences
101 San Antonio Road
Petaluma, CA 94952-9524
e-mail: dean@noetic.org
2
IHM General Institute, Tokyo, Japan
Abstract—An experiment tested the hypothesis that water exposed to distant
intentions affects the aesthetic rating of ice crystals formed from that water.
?1 Over three days, 1,900 people in Austria and Germany focused their intentions
towards water samples located inside an electromagnetically shielded room in
California. Water samples located near the target water, but unknown to the
people providing intentions, acted as ‘‘proximal’’ controls. Other samples
located outside the shielded room acted as distant controls.
Ice drops formed from samples of water in the different treatment conditions
were photographed by a technician, each image was assessed for aesthetic
beauty by over 2,500 independent judges, and the resulting data were analyzed,
all by individuals blind with respect to the underlying treatment conditions.
Results suggested that crystal images in the intentionally treated condition
were rated as aesthetically more beautiful than proximal control crystals (p ¼
0.03, one-tailed). This outcome replicates the results of an earlier pilot test.
Keywords: intention—water—consciousness
Introduction
Can one persons intention affect another persons health from a distance? A
growing number of clinical studies have investigated this question. Some of
them provide positive evidence
1
, others do not
2
. To help study this question
under more stringent laboratory controls, investigators have also explored
whether one persons intention can affect another persons nervous system from
a distance
3
. From those studies the evidence is clearer. From a meta-analytic
perspective the original question can be answered with a tentative yes
4
.
Tentative, because while the evidence is statistically significant and repeatable,
the observed effects are small in magnitude, nontrivial to replicate, and theo-
retical explanations remain speculative.
5
Because of the complexities associated with studying human health and
physiological responses, still other investigators have aimed towards further
simplification by asking whether intention affects properties of water. This
remains relevant to the question about health because the human body consists
Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 00, No. 0, pp. 000–000, 2008 0892-3310/08
C1
of 70% to 90% water, depending on age.
6
Evidence from those studies supports
the hypothesis that intention affects properties of water
7
, but like many of the
empirical studies in this domain, most of the experimental reports have appeared
in specialty journals and have gone unnoticed by most medical researchers.
One exception that has elevated the question about intention and water from
the obscure to the infamous is the claim that water exposed to or ‘‘treated’’ by
positive intent ions results in frozen water crystals that are aesthetically more
pleasing than similar crystals formed from ‘‘untreated’’ water
8
. In an earlier pilot
experiment we tested this claim under double-blind conditions and found
evidence in favor of the ‘‘intentional hypothesis’’ (p ¼ 0.001).
9
The present study
was a replication attempt conducted under triple-blind conditions.
Method
Water Sample Preparation
In preparation for the experiment, the first author (D.R.) purchased six plastic
bottles of Fiji brand commercial bottled water, the same type of water used in
the pilot study. D.R. randomly assigned (using a tossed die) the bottles with
labels A through F, and then the second author (N.L.) took the bottles to the
laboratory and randomly selected (again with a tossed die) two bottles as the
treated samples, two as ‘‘proximal’’ controls, and two as ‘‘distant’’ controls.
N.L. noted the resulting assignments and placed two copies in separate
envelopes which remained sealed until after the analyses were completed.
10
She
retained one envelope and the other was stored in D.R.s desk. Then she entered
a double steel-walled, electromagnetically shielded room (Lindgren/ETS, Cedar
Park, Texas, Seri es 81 Solid Ce ll chamber) at the Institute of Noetic Sciences
(IONS) in Petaluma, California, where she placed the two treatment bottles on
top of a small table and the two proximal control bottles under that table. The
shielded room acted as a convenient, limited-access location in which to leave
the bottles during the experiment.
N.L. then took a digital photo of the treat ment and proximal control bottles,
and placed the two remaining bottles (distant controls) in a Styrofoam box and
stored them on top of a bookshelf on another floor of the laboratory building.
D.R. edited the digital photo of the bottles in the shielded chamber to reveal just
the two treatment bottles, then emailed the photo to M.E. and T.K. They used
this photo as a visual aid for three groups that would later direct their intentions
towards those bottles.
Throughout the experimental setup, N.L. was instructed to handle each of the
water bottles in about the same way, and to hold them about the same length of
time. During the intention periods all bottles remained in their originally placed
locations and were not disturbed. The third and fourth authors (M.E. and T.K.)
knew in advance that there would be treated and distant control bottles in this
D. Radin et al.
study, but they were not informed about the existence of the proximal controls
until after all distant intention treatments had ended.
The comparison of principal interest in this study was the average (blindly
rated) aesthetic differences of frozen water crystals obtaine d usin g the treated
vs. proximal control samples. This is because those two conditions were located
close to each other in the same environment, and because the proximal control
was not influenced by M.E. or T.K.s prior knowledge of its existence. That is,
to take seriously the hypothesis that intention plays a role in this experiment,
we felt it was necessary to constrain who knew about the potential targets of
intentional influence. By analogy with a quantum optics system, in which the
knowledge one has of the path that photons take through a double-slit apparatus
influences the behavior of those photons, we speculated that knowledge of the
experimental conditions in this test might influence what was ultimately
measured. Thus, to provide some control over the distant intentions in this
study we required a comparison condition that was unknown to M.E., to T.K.,
or to the groups of ‘‘distant intenders.’’ This was provided by the proximate
control. The distant control was retained in this study primarily because we
used a similar control in the previous study, so M.E. and T.K. would have
expected it.
Intentional Treatments
On May 20, 2006, in Graz, Austria, M.E. led a group of about a thousand
people in a prayer of gratitude directed towards the water in the IONS
laboratory, some 5,700 miles away. M.E. showed the audience where the IONS
laboratory was located in relationship to Graz through a sequence of images
from the Google Earth global mapping application. Then he showed the digital
photo of the treatment bottles inside the shielded chamber with the words of an
intentional ‘‘prayer for water’’ overlaid on the photo. After explaining the photo
and purpose of the experiment, M.E. led the group in speaking aloud the words
of the prayer for about five minutes. M.E. led a second group of 450 people in
a similar exercise on May 23, 2006, from Nuremberg, Germany, and then a third
group of 500 people from Munich, Germany on May 24, 2006.
The day after the third group sent their intentions, N.L. retrieved all six bottles
from the laboratory. Then she and D.R. (who remained blind to the bottles
conditions) wrapped the bottles in separate sheets of aluminum foil and placed
all six bottles in a box. That package was placed inside a larger box, cushioned
with foam peanuts, and mailed to M.E.s laboratory in Tokyo. At this point D.R.
informed M.E. and T.K. about the existence of the proxim al controls. Like D.R.,
M.E. and T.K. remained blind to the conditions of the six bottles throughout the
crystal formation and sta tistical analysis phases. N.L. was not involved in the
study again until after all data had been collected and analyzed, whereupon
she broke the blinding code.
Effect of Intention on Water
Crystal Analysis
Upon receiving the six bottles, T.K. blindly examined water samples from
each bottle according to the fol lowing procedures:
1) From each bottle, a drop (approximately 0.5 ml) of water was placed
into each of 50 Petri dishes, and a lid identifying the bottles randomly
assigned letter (A–F) was placed on each dish. Thus there were 50 water
drops tested from each bottle.
2) Each dish was then placed on a tray in a random position in a freezer
maintained at 25 to 30 degrees C for a minimum of three hours. The
random placements helped to ensure that potential temperature differen-
ces within the freezer would be randomized among the dishes.
3) T.K. later removed the dishes from the freezer, and in a walk-in refrig-
erator (maintained at 5 degrees C) he look a photo of the apex of each
resulting ice drop using a stereo optical microscope at either 1003 or
2003, depending on the presence and size of a crystal. Based on the re-
sults of the earlier experiment, some water drops were not expected to
produce any discernable crystals.
4) All 300 resulting photographs, from all six bottles, were then emailed to
D.R., each identified with a bottle assignment letter A–F, and a within-
bottle sample number from 1 to 50.
Aesthetic Assessments and Analysis
To provide blind, subjective assessments of the aesthetic beauty of the water
crystals, D.R. created a website to allow individuals to judge each crystal
photograph on two factors. The factor of principal interest was beauty, meaning
that the picture was aesthetically pleasing in some way. A second, exploratory
factor was interest, meaning that the picture was notable in some way. In both
cases the rating choices ranged over a seven-point scale, from ‘‘ not’’ to ‘‘very,’’
e.g. ‘‘not beautiful to ‘‘very beautiful.’’ Each part icipating judge viewed and
rated 50 photos, randomly selected out of the 300 available photos, and pre-
sented one at a time in a newly randomized order.
We asked judges to rate both beauty and interest because prior researc h on
aesthetic judgments, in realms ranging from fine art, to faces, to commercial
product design, suggests that numerous factors influence aesthetic preference.
11
They include figural goodness, figure-ground contrast, stimulus repetition,
symmetry, and prototypicality.
12
Such factors suggest that asking for a single
rating of aesthetic beauty may not be sufficient to capture individuals full
assessments of the photographs of frozen water. Whether the factor of interest
was the best possible variable to use for this purpose was unknown, and was thus
considered exploratory.
To test the hypothesis that the crystals in the intentional condition would
be rated as more beautiful on average than the same crystals in the proximal
D. Radin et al.
control condition, a mixed, hierarchically nested variance components analysis
of varianc e was employed
13
, where treatment condition was a fixed effect, and
the two bottles used per condition and 50 crystals sampled per bottle were both
random effects (see Figure 1).
Image Contrast Analysis
In addition to the subjective assessments, we also used image processing
software (Matlab 7.0.1 Image Processing Toolbox, The Mathworks, Inc., Natick,
Massachusetts) to generate an objective score of image ‘‘contrast’’ for each of the
300 photographs. Contrast in this context refers to the proportion of black vs.
white in an image. This was a useful metric because when crystals appear on the
apex of frozen water drops, they tend to rise up beyond the surface of the drop,
partially because ice expands when it freezes and also because water crystals
grow out like branches on a tree. When a microphotograph is taken of such
crystals, the narrow field of focus tends to separate the white-appearing crystal
from the darker background, thus increasing the images overall contrast. When
no crystal is present, the surface is flatter and the image has a more uniformly
gray appearance (see Figure 2). We predicted that these contrast values would be
Fig. 1. The intentional hypothesis was tested using a hierarchically nested variance components
analysis, with treatment condition as a fixed effect, and bottles within condition and
samples within bottles as random effects.
Effect of Intention on Water
Fig. 2. Example of images with high (top [a]) and low (bottom [b]) contrast. The left image shows
a crystal formation, the right does not.
D. Radin et al.
correlated with the average ratings of aesthetic beauty, and thus that contrast in
the treatment condition would be higher than in the proximal control condition.
Results
Analysis of Crystals
Subjective assessment ratings were collected online for one month. During
that time, 2,579 people had each assessed 50 randomly selected images, for
a total of 128,950 assessments and an average of 430 beauty and interest ratings
for each of the 300 images. These average ratings, in the form of point values,
formed the dependent variables in the subsequent analyses. Assessment data
from individuals who started to evaluate images but stopped before finishing all
50 were excluded from further analysis.
Figure 3 shows the average assessments and 95% confidence intervals for
average ratings of aesthetic beauty for each image. Images 1–100 correspond to
the distant control condition, 101–200 to the proximal control condition, and
201–300 to the treated condition. The grand average rating for beauty was 1.77
(on a scale of 0–6), thus most of the images were not regarded as particularly
beautiful. Of the 300 images, 270 obtained average beauty ratings greater than
1.0. This subset of images was examined in a secondary analysis because it was
more likely to contain crystalline shapes, which was of main interest in this
experiment. That is, the intentional hypothesis was not that more crystals would
form due to intention, but rather that crystals that did form would appear to be
more beautiful in the treatment condition vs. the proximal control condition.
Fig. 3. Average ratings of aesthetic beauty for all 300 images, with 95% confidence intervals.
Effect of Intention on Water
The grand average rating for interest was 2.51. The correlation between
average ratings of beauty vs. interest was highly positive (r ¼ 0.86, t ¼ 29.1, N ¼
300, p 0). The correlation between beauty and normalized image contrast was
also positive (r ¼ 0.30, t ¼ 5.35, N ¼ 300, p ¼ 8.97 3 10
8
).
14
Analysis 1: Aesthetic Beauty
The treatment condition resulted in a significant, albeit weak main effect (p ¼
0.03; Table 1; Figure 4). When interest was used as a covariate of beauty, the
main effect for condition was no longer significant (F[2,293] ¼ 3.03, p ¼ 0.20).
The latter is not too surprising given the strong correlation between beauty and
interest variables. For the subset of 270 trials with beauty . 1.0, the results
remained significant (p ¼ 0.04; Table 2; Figure 4).
TABLE 1
Hierarchically Nested Variance Components Analysis for All Trials, with
Beauty as the Dependent Measure
Effect df MS F p
Condition fixed 2 2.13 13.09 .03
Bottle/condition random 3 0.16 0.23 .87
Sample/bottle random 294 0.69
Fig. 4. Average ratings of aesthetic beauty for all 300 images, and for the subset of 270 images
where average rating for beauty . 1.0, with one standard error bars.
D. Radin et al.
The pairwise comparison of principal interest—treated vs. proximal
controls—supported the intentional hypothesis for all trials (t[198] ¼ 1.67, p ¼
0.05, one-tailed). The same comparison was somewhat stronger for the subset of
trials where beauty . 1 (t[168] ¼ 2.32, p ¼ 0.01, one-tailed). The distant control
condition resulted in slightly more beautiful crystals than the intentional
condition when considering all trials (t[198] ¼ 0.77), and slightly less beautiful
for the subset where beauty . 1 (t[168] ¼0.14).
Analysis 2: Image Contrast
Normalized image contrast scores resulted in a nonsignificant main effect
across the three conditions for all trials (p ¼ 0.25; Tables 3 & 4; Figure 5), but
a pairwise comparison between the treated vs. proximal controls showed
suggestive effects for both all trials, t(198) ¼ 1.85 (p ¼ 0.03, one-tailed), and for
the subset of trials where beauty . 1, t(168) ¼ 1.55 (p ¼ 0.06, one-tailed). The
distant control comparisons were nearly identical to the proximal controls.
Discussion
This experiment found a modestly significant difference (p ¼ 0.03) in blind
ratings of subjective aesthetic beauty of crystals formed from water samples
‘‘exposed’’ to distant intentions vs. proximal and distant control samples. The
comparison of main interest confirmed, weakly, that the treated water crystals
were rated as more beautiful, on average, than the proximal controls (p ¼ 0.05,
one-tailed). A similar analysis using objective ratings of image contrast was
not significant when comparing across the three conditions, but a planned
TABLE 2
Hierarchically Nested Variance Components Analysis for All Trials where Beauty . 1
Effect df MS F p
Condition fixed 2 2.12 11.49 .04
Bottle/condition random 3 0.19 0.28 .84
Sample/bottle random 264 0.66
TABLE 3
Hierarchically Nested Variance Components Analysis for All Trials, Using Normalized
Image Contrast as the Dependent Variable
Effect df MS F p
Condition fixed 2 2.59 2.24 .25
Bottle random 3 1.16 1.17 .32
Sample random 294 0.99
Effect of Intention on Water
comparison between the treated and proximal controls again showed a modest
difference in favor of the intentional hypothesis (p ¼ 0.03).
It should be note d that the distant controls were judged as being slightly
(nonsignificantly) more beautiful than the treated samples when considering all
trials, but nevertheless for the comparison of main interest (treated vs. proximal
controls) the difference was in alignment with the previously reported pilot test.
The present experiment extended the earlier test design by including five new
features to address potential alternative explanations. They included (a) using
a proximal control condition to eliminate environmental differences between the
treated and control samples, (b) placing Petri dishes in random positions in
the deep freezer to average out any systematic temperature differences in the
freezer, (c) employing a triple-blind design to control for expectation biases on
the part of the photographer, judges, and data analyst, (d) including image
processing to objectively characterize the images, and (e) analyzing all images
rather than just those judged by the photographer to contain crystals.
TABLE 4
Analysis for All Trials where Beauty . 1, Using Normalized Image Contrast as the
Dependent Variable
Effect df MS df MS F p
Condition fixed 2 2.04 2.99 1.54 1.33 .39
Bottle random 3 1.54 264 0.94 1.65 .18
Sample random 264 0.94
Fig. 5. Average normalized values for contrast for all 300 images, and for the subset of 270 images
where average rating for beauty . 1.0, with one standard error bars.
D. Radin et al.
These design elements excluded obvious environmental differences and
conventional subjective biases as plausible explanations for the observed results,
and the combined results of the two experiments appear to exclude chance as an
explanation (unweighted Stouffer Z ¼ 3.34, p ¼ 0.0004). At first blush this seems
to imply that distant intention influenced water crystallization properties in
accordance with the hypothesis. Howeve r, as in any experiment involving
intention, the intentions of the investigators cannot be cleanly isolated from
those of the nominal participants and this in turn constrains how one should
properly interpret the results.
In addition, there were many uncontrolled degrees of freedom in this
experiment which may have allowed ‘‘unintended intentional’’ effects to creep
in. They all involve human decisions, e.g. selecting six specific bottles of water
from a huge population of available bottles, randomly assigning those bottles to
three conditions, selecting and preparing the water drops, placing the water drop
samples inside the freezer, searching for and photographing ice crystals on the
frozen water drops at different magnification levels, choosing one of a large
possible set of image processi ng algorithms to provide an objective measure of
image contrast, and so on. The challenge for future tests of this kind is to find
ways of reducing these degrees of freedom without imposing such severe
constraints on the design that the effect of interest is either quench ed out of
existence, or that the experiment becomes so expensive to conduct that it doesnt
take place at all.
Notes
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The analysis reported here differs from the original plan in response to
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14
Normalized contrast values were formed as z ¼ (c m)/s, where c was the raw
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and s the standard deviation of all raw contrast values.
Effect of Intention on Water
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Research on the so-called “pyramid power” began in the late 1930s. However, in general, pyramid power has been regarded as having no scientific basis, so there are very few systematic papers on pyramid power other than our academic research papers. Since October 2007, we have been conducting research to experimentally elucidate the unexplained phenomenon of a pyramid by using a pyramidal structure (PS). There have been two main types of experiments: (i) an experiment to detect the pyramid effects that appear due to the potential power (pyramid power) that the PS inherently has; and (ii) an experiment to detect the pyramid effects that appear when a test subject meditates inside the PS. To detect the pyramid effects, biosensors with evenly cut cucumber fruits, Cucumis sativus, were used. As a result of analyzing the concentration of volatile components emitted from the biosensors, we demonstrated the existence of pyramid power near the PS apex and discovered that the PS has the function of converting the unexplained energy of the meditator test subject. The research results so far have been reported as eleven original papers, three comprehensive reports, and one book chapter. We reported the phenomenon of the entanglement between biosensors in parts IV and V of the paper series, “Potential Power of the Pyramidal Structure”. Furthermore, we clarified that the influence of the entanglement is included in the psi index Ψ, which is an index of the magnitude of the pyramid effects. The purpose of the present paper was to separate and analyze the psi index Ψ into the effect of the potential power of the PS and the effect of the entanglement between biosensors (we have named this as the Bio-Entanglement). To do this, we placed biosensors at the PS apex in two layers. The value of the pyramid effect on the biosensors in the upper layer was always larger than that in the lower layer. We found that this was mainly due to the potential power of the PS. We also found that the factor that caused the pyramid effect to change seasonally was mainly the effect of the Bio-Entanglement. In short, we determined that the potential power of the PS, and the Bio-Entanglement had different effects on the biosensors. We were also able to propose a model that could qualitatively explain the analysis results of the psi index Ψ. We expect that our research results will be widely accepted in the future and will become the foundation for a new research field in science, with a wide range of applications.
... The research of Masaru Emoto, M.D. suggests that the molecular structure of water is affected by thoughts, words, sounds, intentions, and music (Emoto, 2004;Radin et al., 2006). Photos from frozen water molecules under the microscope provide visual observation of water's emotional intelligence formations, replicated across double and triple-blind studies (Emoto, 2004;Radin et al., 2006;Radin et al., 2008). ...
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Objective: Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Continuums of Care (COCs) are responsible for providing entry to integrated healthcare for unhoused people toward housing stability. A client’s safety is a crucial variable to receive services. A comprehensive safety strategy understands the importance of relationship quality for clients and their multidisciplinary healthcare teams (MHT) to prevent safety incidents. Greater depth of knowledge on participant experiences informs the development of a process model for implementing the Community Resiliency Model (CRM) for crisis prevention response to decrease health disparities among unhoused Indigenous peoples in Albuquerque. Methods: This qualitative key informant study applied an ecological lens on Relational-Cultural Theory (RCT) and 24 participant interview content analysis. Participants include unhoused people who self-identified with Native American, about accessing and receiving homeless services and members of their MHT across COC agencies. Findings: Participants shared a congruent understanding of the interpersonal, multidisciplinary, and organizational resilience factors for crisis stabilization and prevention. Integrated healthcare providers identified cohesion when an MHT has the organizational supports needed to consistently provided compassionate care and relevant recovery options. Interpersonal resilience emerged as the sense of belonging experienced in a compassionate and accepting relationship. Relational courage is a key facilitator of interpersonal resilience when an integrated healthcare provider can clarify with a client what is the most important and brings purpose or meaning. Participants emphasized multilevel factors for the cultivation of hope in recovery at the heart of crisis prevention. Discussion: The findings provide a rationale for a paradigm shift to resilience for housing stability. CRM wellness skills can enhance growth-fostering connection and cultural relevance for safety planning. Significantly, cohesion enhances the capacity of an MHT to support a client’s success in recovery. Cohesion correlates with integrated healthcare providers in their OK Zones. Ethical distress escalated crises and contributed to barriers preventing safety incidents. The implications for integrated healthcare and housing policy are to increase multilevel support for organizations to provide workforce training, implementation support, and solutions to sustain MHT cohesion and maintain intra-organizational systems. Cohesion is a key variable to enhance the capacity for a comprehensive safety strategy to be successful.
... In an experiment conducted with the expectation that an effect would appear on the experimental samples, two cases were reported in which, contrary to expectations, the effect appeared not on the experimental samples but on the control samples. In the first case, the experiment was done to verify the possibility of affecting the crystallization process of water by the consciousness of many humans, and abnormal results appeared in the control samples instead of the experimental samples [20]. In the second case the experiment was done to verify that the healer affected the emitted gas concentration by focusing on the cucumber biosensor. ...
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Since October 2007, we have been conducting rigorous scientific research on the unexplained "power" of a pyramidal structure (PS). From our research results so far, we could classify pyramid effects by the PS into the following two types: (i) the pyramid effects due to the potential power of the PS and (ii) the pyramid effects due to the influence of the test subject meditating inside the PS. We have been using edible cucumber sections as the biosensors. The pyramid effect existence was clarified by measuring and analyzing the concentration of volatile components released from the biosensors. The biosensors were arranged as a pair: one member of the pair was placed at the PS apex and the other was placed at the calibration control point 8.0 m away from the PS. In this paper, we report a new discovery regarding the type (i) pyramid effects. We discovered a phenomenon considered to be entanglement between the biosensor pairs detecting the pyramid effects. In other words, the biosensors at the PS apex, which were affected by the potential power of the PS, affected the biosensors at the calibration control point. We also confirmed that the effects on the biosensors placed at the calibration control point were not due to the potential power of the PS. Furthermore, we showed that the magnitude of the effect of entanglement changed with the seasons. We expect that our research results will be widely accepted in the future and will become the foundation for a new research field in science, with a wide range of applications.
... Y a partir del individuo se propagan en su sistema organizacional (Childre y Cryer, 2000.), pudiendo llegar a desordenar la estructura molecular del agua (Emoto, 2006(Emoto, , 2008, afectar el ADN (Braden, 2014). ...
Chapter
La presente investigación tiene como objetivo proponer al docente de Educación Media General y Media Técnica, la lectura de la novela negra como una aproximación a la literatura latinoamericana contemporánea. Partiendo de la premisa que la lectura es un acto placentero y personal, donde el profesor como mediador, conductor, organizador y promotor de ésta dentro del aula, debe hacerla atractiva para sus estudiantes. De ahí que sean consideradas las obras: Diario de un libertino de Rubem Fonseca y La flor escrita de Carlos Noguera no solo porque sean muestra de una escritura fresca, amena sino porque giran en torno a temas cotidianos, como el crimen, la sexualidad, la violencia, la promiscuidad, el callejeo, la pugna entre el bien y el mal, entre otros, tópicos propios de la literatura contemporánea. La metodología estuvo centrada en un estudio de desarrollo teórico, en el cual se aplicó una investigación de tipo documental, que permitió estudiar la novela negra. Además se utilizó la técnica de recolección de datos y el instrumento, cuestionario, para diagnosticar el conocimiento que poseen profesores y alumnos sobre dicho género. Los resultados obtenidos corroboraron que la enseñanza de la literatura no tiene por qué seguir siendo fragmentada o adaptada a un grupo selecto de obras, escritores, programas o textos canonizados; por el contrario, estas debe adecuarse al desarrollo psicológico y sociocultural del lector, pues sólo así podrá llegar a ser significativo, afectivo y vivencial, factores que son determinante para la transformación de la realidad y/o del mundo que le atañe. De lo contrario, habremos arado en el mar y lejos de proveer alternativas a la solución de los problemas que enfrenta el sistema educativo venezolano en relación a la enseñanza de la lectura de obras literarias, seguiremos propiciando una enseñanza mecanizada, arcaica, fragmentada e historicista de la literatura latinoamericana contemporánea.
... 5 This supports the possibility that this gain-of-function CRY mutation is apparently sensitive to focused intuition, and as such it may be a possible "transducer" of intention in living systems. 9 This study adds to a growing literature suggesting that focused intention also influences water in ways that can be detected by changes in mood, 2,4 by enhanced growth in plants, 5,15,16 by the shape of frozen water crystals, 17,18 and by alterations in molecular structure and electrochemical impedance. 19À22 The hypothesis that blue plus far-red light would result in enhanced growth, as compared to blue light, was also confirmed. ...
Article
Objective . A previously reported experiment indicated that Arabidopsis thaliana seeds with cryptochrome mutation His-CRY2 showed more robust photomorphogenic growth when hydrated with intentionally treated water as compared to untreated water. The present study attempted to replicate that outcome, adding a condition where the seeds were also intentionally treated. Arabidopsis seeds were used because they contain a photosensitive flavoprotein called cryptochrome (CRY). CRY has been proposed as a possible “transducer” of intention in living systems because it is thought to have quantum biological properties, and as such, it might potentially be sensitive to quantum observer effects. Design Three Buddhist monks directed their attention toward commercially bottled water and Arabidopsis seeds while holding the intention to improve the growth of the plant. As a control condition, no attention was directed at water or seeds from the same sources. Under double-blinded conditions, treated and untreated seeds were placed in an incubator, hydrated with treated or untreated water, and exposed to either continuous blue light or blue plus far-red light. The seed germination process was repeated three times, each time using new seeds. A 2 × 2 × 2 ANOVA, with water, seeds, and light as factors, was used to analyze the results. Results . Treated water was associated with enhanced photomorphogenic growth, as reflected by a shorter hypocotyl length (p = 0.04) and greater amounts of chlorophyll (p = 0.0005) and anthocyanin (p = 2 × 10⁻⁶). Treated seeds resulted in greater amounts of chlorophyll (p = 0.04), but also a longer hypocotyl (p = 0.0004) and less anthocyanin (p = 0.01). Plants exposed to blue plus far-red light were constantly more robust than plants grown under blue light, regardless of the type of water or seed (p < 10⁻¹⁰). Conclusion . Intentionally treated water improved the growth of the His-CRY2 variant of Arabidopsis, confirming results of an earlier experiment. Enhanced growth associated with exposure to blue plus far-red light also confirmed to known effects. A more complex relationship was observed with treated seeds. Further research is required to understand the latter outcome, as it may provide clues about the underlying mechanisms of intentional influences.
... A similar phenomenon has been seen in other experimental reports [39,41]. Figure 4(b) shows the gas concentration ratio calculated by dividing the upper gas concentration by the lower one, taking the logarithm and multiplying by 100. ...
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Research on “pyramid power” began in the late 1930s. To date, many documents on “pyramid power” have been published. We have been conducting scientific research on the unexplained “power” of a pyramidal structure (PS) since October 2007. The research focuses on the detection of a non-contact effect of the unexplained “power” of the PS on biosensors ( i.e ., edible cucumber sections of Cucumis sativus “ white spine type ” ) placed at the top of the PS. In this paper, in particular, we compared the non-contact effect of upper and lower biosensors placed in two layers on the PS apex, and we analyzed the difference of the non-contact effect due to the difference in the layers. The magnitude of the non-contact effect was represented by the calibrated psi index Ψ(E-CAL) calculated from gas concentrations emitted from the biosensors. A method to determine the presence or absence of the non-contact effect by analyzing the gas concentrations was developed by the International Research Institute (IRI). Ψ(E-CAL), which represents the magnitude of the non-contact effect, was the average value of the respective non-contact effect of the upper and lower biosensors stacked in two layers on the PS apex. We conducted the analysis on the assumption that the non-contact effect on the upper and lower biosensors might be different. Therefore, we considered that upper and lower biosensor calibration was required for Ψ(E-CAL), and we introduced a new calibrated psi index Ψ(E-CAL)Layer. Scientifically rigorous experiments to date have detected Ψ(E-CAL) with statistical significance and have demonstrated potential power of the PS (p = 6.0 × 10−3; Welch’s t-test, two-tails, the following p values are also the Welch’s t-test values). Based on data demonstrating the potential power of the PS, we analyzed the non-contact effects on the upper and lower biosensors of the PS apex. We obtained a surprising result that the non-contact effect on the upper biosensors (farther from the PS) was larger than that on the lower biosensors (closer to the PS) (p = 4.0 × 10−7). This suggested that the characteristic of the potential power of the PS, which is considered to exist near the PS apex, is distinctive. We also found that the non-contact effect due to the potential power of the PS varies with the season, and is large in summer and small in winter. In our discussion, we proposed a model that could theoretically explain the experimental results that the non-contact effect on the upper biosensors at the PS apex is larger than the lower biosensors. In proposing this model, we assumed that there were two different types of potential power at the PS apex and that the biosensors had two different gas-generating reactions. In a simulation using the model, the experimental results were well approximated in which the non-contact effect on the biosensors differs depending on the difference between the upper and lower layers. The results of this paper are the world’s first to prove aspects of the “pyramid power” through scientifically rigorous experiments and analysis. These results will become a new field of science in the future, and their broad applications are expected.
Article
Objective : This study explored if human primary mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), derived from two donors and cultivated in a medium made with intentionally treated water, would exhibit more growth and pluripotency than MSCs from the same source but grown in untreated (control) water. Design : To create the treated water, three Buddhist monks directed their attention toward commercially bottled water while holding the intention that the water would enhance the growth of MSCs. Under double-blind conditions, cell culture growth mediums were prepared with the treated and untreated water, which was in turn used to grow the primary MSCs. Primary cells obtained from two donors were designated as Cells #1 and Cells #2. The prediction was that treated water would result in increased cell proliferation, that more cells would enter the cell cycle growth phase, and that there would be increased expression of genes (NANOG, OCT4 and SOX2) associated with improved cell growth and decreased expression of genes (p16, p21, and p53) associated with a decline in cell growth. The improved growth hypothesis was directional, thus one-tailed p-values were used to evaluate the results. Results : Proliferation averaged across Cells #1 and #2 showed overall increased growth in treated as compared to control water (p = 0.0008). Cells #1 and #2 considered separately had differences in the same direction but only Cells #2 showed a significant difference on day 6 (p = 0.01). For cell cycle, there was a significantly greater percentage of Cells #2 in the S interphase with treated vs. control water (p = 0.04). For the gene expression analysis, when considering the average across the two donor cells, only the NANOG gene expression was in the predicted direction (p = 0.01); by contrast, the p16 gene expression was significantly opposite to the predicted direction (p = 0.005, one-tailed, post-hoc). For Cells #1 considered separately, no differences were significant except for p16, which resulted in an effect opposite to the predicted outcome (p = 0.05). For Cells #2, three genes were significantly in the predicted directions: NANOG (p = 0.0008), OCT4 (p = 0.005), and P53 (p = 0.05); p16 was significantly opposite to the prediction (p = 0.001). Conclusion : Intentionally treated water appeared to have some biological effects on the growth, pluripotency and senescence of human MSCs. This was especially the case in one of the two donor cells tested, but the effects were not consistently in the predicted direction. As an exploratory study, caution is warranted in interpreting these outcomes, and adjustment for multiple testing would likely reduce some of the weaker effects to nonsignificant. But given the double-blind protocol, as well as several more significant outcomes in the predicted directions, further research is warranted.
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Objective Mitochondria are considered a portal to receive, process and integrate external energy and information to maintain cellular homeostasis. We examined the effect of Chinese texts with positive and negative meaning on the growth and mitochondrial functions using a mouse kidney collecting duct cell line called M1 cells. Methods To avoid skewing the results due to differential handling of the cells or analyzing the results, we conducted experiments by keeping the texts and blanks covered in brown opaque envelopes, exposed the cells to randomly selected envelopes and examined the differences over time. All operators involved in the experiments did not know the contents of the envelopes until the end of the experiments, and all data are expressed relative to the controls. Results Cell growth rate was not affected for the group treated with positive information but was significantly reduced by 18% when treated with negative information. At the biochemical level, positive texts significantly increased whole cell adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glutathione (GSH) by 22% and 21% respectively. Conclusions This study for the first time demonstrated the effect of written words on specific biochemical measures in cultured mammalian cells.
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Previously reported experiments suggest that healing intention focused toward water, or merely taking place in the vicinity of water, affects the hydrogen-oxygen (HO) covalent bonds. This claim was explored in the context of a clinical energy medicine pilot study involving 17 practitioners and 190 participants. In a “direct” test, samples of water were directly treated by the practitioners; in an “indirect” test, aliquots attached to lanyards were worn by practitioners and participants as they were engaged in healing sessions. Samples of laboratory-grade distilled water and Fiji brand water were used in the tests, and the water was analyzed using an Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer equipped with a liquid nitrogen-cooled detector. The comparison of interest was the ensemble average spectrum recorded during pre- vs. post-intentional healing periods in the primary infrared absorption portion of the water spectrum. The analyses indicated that distilled water directly treated by the practitioners resulted in a change in the HO bond at the wavenumber 3200 cm⁻¹ (p < 0.03, two-tailed). No effect was observed with the Fiji water. The distilled water in aliquots worn by practitioners also resulted in a significant change at the same wavenumber (p = 0.0004, two-tailed). No effects were observed in Fiji water aliquots worn by practitioners or participants, or in distilled water worn by participants. This study contributes to previously reported observations suggesting that the structure of water reacts in an anomalous way to healing intentions. Such effects appear to involve some form of energetic influence, but that is not yet well established. Nor is it certain that the observed effect can only be due to intention; it is conceivable, for example, that an unidentified environmental factor may have been responsible for the observed comparisons. However, given similar results observed in several experiments so far, including the present study, further research seems warranted.
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To examine electroencephalograms (EEG) in pairs of people to see if event-related potentials evoked in one person's brain are correlated with concurrent responses in the brain of a distant, isolated person. Simultaneously record EEGs using independent physiologic monitoring systems. One person relaxes in a double steel-walled, electromagnetically and acoustically shielded room while a second, located in a dimly lit room 20 meters away, is stimulated at random times by the live video image of the first person. Thirteen (13) pairs of volunteers. Eleven (11) pairs of adult friends and 2 mother-daughter pairs. Epochs of interest were the moments of stimulus onset and offset, +/- 5 seconds, in both participants' EEGs. A positive correlation was postulated to appear between the ensemble variance of the stimulated subjects' EEGs versus an identical measure in the nonstimulated subjects. Control data using the same equipment and test conditions, but without humans present, was collected to check for equipment and analytical artifacts. Nonparametric bootstrap methods were used to assess statistical significance of the observed correlations. The control test resulted in a correlation of r =-0.03, p = 0.61; the experimental test resulted in r = 0.20, p = 0.0005. Three (3) of the 13 pairs of participants showed independently significant correlations. Examination of the stimulated subjects' event-related potentials showed that the stronger their responses, the larger the corresponding responses in the nonstimulated subjects (p = 0.0008). Under certain conditions, the EEG of a sensorially isolated human subject can become correlated with event-related potentials in a distant person's EEG. This suggests the presence of an unknown form of energetic or informational interaction.
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Mean growth of 12 radish seeds in peat pots watered with holy water were not significantly different from that of 12 watered with tap water. Limitations on data were listed.
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A REVIEW One critic calls Dr. Masaru Emoto's The Hidden Messages in Water a "most valuable contribution to the creation of a positive future in our world." With all due respect to that critic, it is much more than that. The Hidden Messages in Water is simply magnificent. A work of art that should be read by anyone seeking peace and love in their heart. Hidden Messages (Atria Books 2005) culminates a years-long theory of Japanese Dr. Emoto, a graduate of the Yokohama Municipal University and the Open International University as a Doctor of Alternative Medicine. Dr. Emoto believed for many years, long before he undertook his massive photographic and scientific experiments, that frozen ice crystals – water cooled to -5 degree C (23 degree F) – will form differently depending on how we treat the crystals. The crystals will express themselves in different ways if we are either kind and loving to the water or mean and cruel to it. Dr. Emoto's numerous color photographs prove him right.
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Distant healing, a treatment that is transmitted by a healer to a patient at another location, is widely used, although good scientific evidence of its efficacy is sparse. This trial was aimed at assessing the efficacy of one form of distant healing on common skin warts. A total of 84 patients with warts were randomly assigned either to a group that received 6 weeks of distant healing by one of 10 experienced healers or to a control group that received a similar preliminary assessment but no distant healing. The primary outcomes were the number of warts and their mean size at the end of the treatment period. Secondary outcomes were the change in Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and patients' subjective experiences. Both the patients and the evaluator were blinded to group assignment. The baseline characteristics of the patients were similar in the distant healing (n = 41) and control groups (n = 43). The mean number and size of warts per person did not change significantly during the study. The number of warts increased by 0.2 in the healing group and decreased by 1.1 in the control group (difference [healing to control] = -1.3; 95% confidence interval = -1.0 to 3.6, P = 0.25). Six patients in the distant healing group and 8 in the control group reported a subjective improvement (P = 0.63). There were no significant between-group differences in the depression and anxiety scores. Distant healing from experienced healers had no effect on the number or size of patients' warts.
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To determine the effect of intercessory prayer, a widely practiced complementary therapy, on cardiovascular disease progression after hospital discharge. In this randomized controlled trial conducted between 1997 and 1999, a total of 799 coronary care unit patients were randomized at hospital discharge to the intercessory prayer group or to the control group. Intercessory prayer, ie, prayer by 1 or more persons on behalf of another, was administered at least once a week for 26 weeks by 5 intercessors per patient. The primary end point after 26 weeks was any of the following: death, cardiac arrest, rehospitalization for cardiovascular disease, coronary revascularization, or an emergency department visit for cardiovascular disease. Patients were divided into a high-risk group based on the presence of any of 5 risk factors (age = or >70 years, diabetes mellitus, prior myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, or peripheral vascular disease) or a low-risk group (absence of risk factors) for subsequent primary events. At 26 weeks, a primary end point had occurred in 25.6% of the intercessory prayer group and 29.3% of the control group (odds ratio [OR], 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.60-1.14]; P=.25). Among high-risk patients, 31.0% in the prayer group vs 33.3% in the control group (OR, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.60-1.34]; P=.60) experienced a primary end point. Among low-risk patients, a primary end point occurred in 17.0% in the prayer group vs 24.1% in the control group (OR, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.20-1.36]; P=.12). As delivered in this study, intercessory prayer had no significant effect on medical outcomes after hospitalization in a coronary care unit.
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Typicality and novelty have often been shown to be related to aesthetic preference of human artefacts. Since a typical product is rarely new and, conversely, a novel product will not often be designated as typical, the positive effects of both features seem incompatible. In three studies it was shown that typicality (operationalized as 'goodness of example') and novelty are jointly and equally effective in explaining the aesthetic preference of consumer products, but that they suppress each other's effect. Direct correlations between both variables and aesthetic preference were not significant, but each relationship became highly significant when the influence of the other variable was partialed out. In Study 2, it was furthermore demonstrated that the expertise level of observers did not affect the relative contribution of novelty and typicality. It was finally shown (Study 3) that a more 'objective' measure of typicality, central tendency - operationalized as an exemplar's average similarity to all other members of the category - yielded the same effect of typicality on aesthetic preference. In sum, all three studies showed that people prefer novel designs as long as the novelty does not affect typicality, or, phrased differently, they prefer typicality given that this is not to the detriment of novelty. Preferred are products with an optimal combination of both aspects.
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Findings in parapsychology suggest an effect of distant intentionality. Two laboratory set-ups explored this topic by measuring the effect of a distant intention on psychophysiological variables. The 'Direct Mental Interaction in Living Systems' experiment investigates the effect of various intentions on the electrodermal activity of a remote subject. The 'Remote Staring' experiment examines whether gazing by an observer covaries with the electrodermal activity of the person being observed. Two meta-analyses were conducted. A small significant effect size (d =.11, p =.001) was found in 36 studies on 'direct mental interaction', while a best-evidence-synthesis of 7 studies yielded d =.05 (p =.50). In 15 remote staring studies a mean effect size of d = 0.13 (p =.01) was obtained. It is concluded that there are hints of an effect, but also a shortage of independent replications and theoretical concepts.