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Defining mental health and mental illness



Key featuresDiscussion of the terminological confusion that exists in relation to issues associated with mental health.  The scale of individual suffering from mental health problems and illness among young people.  The worldwide phenomenon of the stigmatization of mental illness, originating during childhood.
Defining mental health and
mental illness
Sharon Leighton and Nisha Dogra
Key features Discussion of the terminological confusion that exists in relation to issues
associated with mental health.
The scale of individual suffering from mental health problems and illness
among young people.
The worldwide phenomenon of the stigmatization of mental illness,
originating during childhood.
Evidence regarding interventions to reduce stigma.
In this chapter we explore the concepts of mental health and mental illness from different
perspectives, including those relating to children, and of children. This is important as those
who work in mental health, or are familiar with the eld, often make the assumption that the
terms used are readily understood by others. The scale of the problem and access to services is
outlined. We then discuss stigma generally, explore the reasons for it and possible sequelae, and
then consider how this relates to children. Finally, interventions to reduce stigma are briey
presented. As mentioned in the Introduction, where possible we have referred specically to the
literature relating to children but where this is limited we have drawn from the wider literature
to highlight key issues.
The chapter begins with an exercise which provides a practical context for the theoretical
content and should be borne in mind as you read, and answered once you have nished the
Box 1.1
General questions
What words or images do you associate with the following terms:
Mental health
Mental health problems
Mental illness
Mental disorder
What sorts of problems do people experience that could be described as mental
health problems or mental illness?
How would you be able to tell if someone was experiencing mental health prob-
lems or mental illness?
Case scenarios and associated questions
Please read each senario and then consider the following questions in relation to it:
What do you think might be happening with the young person?
Do you think the young person has a mental health problem or illness? If so, on
what grounds would you justify that decision?
Do they need help?
If so, who and/or what might be helpful?
How might this be helpful?
Case scenario 1
Jack, aged 9, lives with his mother and younger brother. His father unexpectedly left the
family a year ago. Jack started a new school six months ago and is having difficulty
settling in. He complains of tummy ache each school morning and is increasingly
reluctant to attend.
Case scenario 2
Emily, aged 14, lives with her parents, who are both busy professionals. She works hard,
achieves A-grades and plans to be a lawyer. Recently she has been teased by her
friends about her weight and has decided to go on a strict diet. She is pleased with the
results so far and plans to continue eating little, making herself sick after meals and
exercising a lot.
Case scenario 3
Joshua, aged 15, lives with his dad and stepmother. He has little contact with his mum or
younger brother and sister. Recently he has been cautioned by the police for joy-riding
in stolen cars with his mates. He prefers to spend time smoking dope with older boys
rather than going to school.
Dening mental health and mental illness
Clarity is essential when using the terms mental health and mental illness. In all phases of a
recent small-scale research project, conceptual confusion was identied in the literature review
and among participants (Leighton 2008). Ironically, referring to mental illness in terms of
mental health originated in the 1960s in an attempt to reduce stigma (Rowling et al. 2002).
There is no widely agreed consensus on the meaning of these terms and their use. Mental health
and mental illness can be perceived as two separate, yet related, issues.
Ryff and Singer (1998) suggest that health is not a medical concept associated with absence
of illness, but rather a philosophical one that requires an explanation of a good life being one
where an individual has a sense of purpose, is engaged in quality relationships with others, and
possesses self-respect and mastery. This is synonymous with the World Health Organization
(WHO) (2000, 2005b) denition of positive mental health.
However, such a denition is incomplete as individuals do not exist in isolation, but are
inuenced by, and inuence, their social and physical environments. Furthermore, people will
have their own individual interpretations of what a good life is. Rowling et al. (2002: 13) dene
mental health as the
8Nursing in child and adolescent mental health
capacity of individuals and groups to interact with one another and the environment in ways that
promote subjective wellbeing, the optimal development and use of cognitive, affective and relational
abilities, the achievement of individual and collective goals consistent with justice.
This is a more rounded denition, and one that can coexist alongside the WHO (1992) denition
of mental disorder.
Mental health one of many factors
It is also important to recognize that neither physical nor mental health exist separately
mental, physical and social functioning are interdependent (WHO 2004). Furthermore, all
health issues need to be considered within a cultural and developmental context, as do the
social constructs of childhood and adolescence (Walker 2005). The quality of a persons mental
health is inuenced by idiosyncratic factors and experiences, their family relationships and
circumstances and the wider community in which they live (WHO 2004). Additionally, each
culture inuences peoples understanding of, and attitudes towards, mental health issues.
However, a culture-specic approach to understanding and improving mental health can be
unhelpful if it assumes homogeneity within cultures and ignores individual differences (WHO
2004). Culture is only one, albeit important, factor that inuences individuals beliefs and
actions (Tomlinson 2001; Dogra 2003). Interaction between different factors may lead to differ-
ent outcomes for different individuals.
It can be argued that the above approaches are rooted in western perspectives. However, they
provide a useful starting point from which to discuss mental health issues with children and
their families.
Denitions of child mental health
Denitions of mental health as they relate specically to children have been provided by the
Health Advisory Service (HAS) (1995) and the Mental Health Foundation (1999). These def-
initions bear similarities to those provided by Ryff and Singer (1998) and Rowling et al. (2002),
while recognizing the developmental context of childhood i.e. the ability to develop psycho-
logically, emotionally, creatively, intellectually and spiritually; initiate, develop and sustain
mutually satisfying personal relationships; use and enjoy solitude; become aware of others and
empathize with them; play and learn; develop a sense of right and wrong; and resolve problems
and setbacks and learn from them (HAS 1995; Mental Health Foundation 1999). Such denitions
are useful as they relate to societal expectations of children.
Different denitions are used to dene mental ill health. The WHO uses the term mental
disorders broadly, to include mental illness, intellectual disability, personality disorder, sub-
stance dependence and adjustment to adverse life events (WHO 1992). The WHO acknowledges
that the word disorder is used to avoid perceived greater difculties associated with illness
for example, stigma and the emphasis on a medical model. Meltzer et al. (2000) use the term
mental disorders in reference to emotional, conduct, hyperkinetic and less common disorders
as dened by the ICD (International Classication of Diseases) 10 and DSM (Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) IV. Jorm (2000) focuses specically on depression and
psychosis. Meanwhile, Rowling et al. (2002) use the terms mental illness and mental disorder
interchangeably. Johns (2002) and the British Medical Association (BMA 2006) identify that
the term mental health problems is used to cover a broad spectrum of conditions ranging
from diagnosable disorders such as anxiety and depression, through to acting out behaviours.
The BMA (2006) also distinguish between mental disorders and illness, with illness being severe
psychiatric disorders such as depression and psychosis.
Dening mental health and mental illness 9
Others take a broader view. Rickwood et al. (2005) refer to young peoples help-seeking for
mental health problems and proceed to use various terms including psychological distress,
mental health issues, mental health problems and mental disorder. The interchangeable use
of these terms in effect renders them meaningless, as their use may reect an individuals bias,
or political correctness, rather than indicating the extent or severity of the problem. However,
all identify alterations in mood, thinking and behaviour associated with distress or impaired
functioning across various domains.
Entity or dimension?
Kendall (1988) presents the relative merits of using categories and dimensions with respect
to mental disorders. Typically, medicine has used categories, given its roots in the biological
sciences. Categorization allows for easier denitions, recognition if someone ts a particular
category and therefore conformity with a clinical concept. However, a dimensions approach
allows for greater exibility. Kendall (1988) concludes that where psychotic illness is concerned
a categorical approach may be preferable, whereas in other conditions the situation is more
likely to be changeable, and would perhaps benet from a dimensional perspective.
One way of distinguishing between distress associated with adverse life events and more
severe disorders which involve physiological symptoms and underlying biological changes is to
distinguish between mental health problems and mental illness, using a multi-dimensional
model. This has an additional advantage in enabling normal distress (e.g. grief following
bereavement) to be recognized as part of the human condition, rather than being medicalized
and possibly classed as depression. It is suggested that a variety of normal human experiences
have become medicalized through an ever increasing range of psychological disorders with
virtually every type of behaviour eligible for a medical label (e.g. social phobia, over-eating
disorder, dependent personality disorder) (Illich 1977; WHO 1992; American Psychiatric
Association 1994).
Rowling et al. (2002) propose that mental health and mental illness can be seen to exist as
part of a multi-dimensional model. An exemplar of mental health and mental illness being
two separate and yet related continua can be found in the vulnerability-stress working model
developed by Asarnow et al. (2001). This model suggests how the effects of ongoing stress on
mental health can lead to mental illness (depression) if left unchallenged.
Depression is classed as a diagnosable disorder which is reported to be on the increase (WHO
1996). However, the term depression is also employed in everyday language for a variety of
states of distress: demoralization as a result of long-term suffering; living with chronic adversity
and stress; reaction to loss; low self-esteem; and pessimistic outlook. While there are similarities
between the feelings of unhappiness, despondency, frustration and sense of hopelessness
associated with a state of emotional stress and with depression, the latter involves pervasive
physical symptoms such as sleep and appetite disturbance, and, ultimately, changes in brain
chemistry. However, the cut-off between what is normal stress and what is depression may
not always be clear. It is not just the presence of symptoms that denes a disorder but also its
severity and pervasiveness as well as its impact on everyday functioning.
Thus, from a dimensional perspective, many features of mental disorder (psychosis excepted)
can be viewed as part of the range of normal human behaviour. For example, anxiety is
a normal human response to the perception of danger. Different types of anxiety are develop-
mentally appropriate during childhood for example, separation is an issue for infants,
academic performance can cause anxiety during middle childhood and peer rejection concerns
adolescents (Moore and Carr 2000).
10 Nursing in child and adolescent mental health
Mental health literacy
Finally, in this section, it is also worth considering how the mental health literacy of adults
and children in the general population varies from that of professionals. In all phases of a recent
research project, conceptual confusion was identied in the literature review and among ado-
lescent participants (Leighton 2006, 2008). Focus group participants did not nd the single
continuum model suggested by the WHO (2000) helpful (Leighton 2006). Furthermore, in the
focus group feedback session, participants suggested that labelling serious mental illnesses such
as schizophrenia and major depression, as mental health problems, diminishes the seriousness
of mental illness, with implications for attitudes towards, and treatment of, those with mental
illness (Leighton 2006). It is also evident that there is considerable confusion for young people
between the terms mental health, mental illness and learning disability (Dogra et al. 2007;
Rose et al. 2007).
However, whatever terminology is used, the scale of individual suffering from mental health
problems and illness is signicant, and this is now briey outlined.
The scale of the problem
The number of people experiencing mental health problems worldwide is reported to have risen
to nearly epidemic proportions, with depression identied as the leading cause of disability
among 1544-year-olds (WHO 1996). In the UK the prevalence of mental health problems
among adolescents is high. One in 20 is reported to be experiencing mental health problems at
any given time (Mental Health Foundation 1999; Meltzer et al. 2000; Coleman and Schoeld
2005). The Ofce for National Statistics (ONS) survey carried out in 1999 identied the follow-
ing prevalence rates of diagnosable mental disorder among 1115-year-olds: depression 1.8 per
cent; anxiety 4.6 per cent; conduct disorder 6.2 per cent (Meltzer et al. 2000). Moreover, the
prevalence of serious mental illness increases greatly during adolescence (Davidson and Manion
1996; Smith and Leon 2001; Rickwood et al. 2005). Such problems have a negative impact on an
individuals development across all areas of their lives i.e. self-esteem, relationships, academic
success, career options and lifestyle (Mental Health Foundation 1999; Meltzer et al. 2000).
Furthermore, the burden of adolescent mental health problems and illness involves enormous
nancial costs to individuals, families and society. These include loss of earnings for parents
and adolescents, and social care, health service, education and Home Ofce costs (Appleton
and Hammond-Rowley 2000). Although the scale of the problem is vast, studies indicate that
less than a fth of young people who need mental health care actually receive any services and,
of those who do receive services, less than half obtain services appropriate to their need (Atkins
et al. 2003; Hinshaw 2005).
Stigma and mental illness
In this section the aim is to explore the concepts of, and the relationship between, stigma and
mental illness. One possible reason for both conceptual confusion and reluctance to seek help is
that the stigmatization of mental illness continues to be a worldwide phenomenon (Jorm et al.
1997; Crisp et al. 2000; Sartorius 2002; Gureje et al. 2005).
Denition of the concept of stigma
Stigma can be viewed as a social construct. Setting people apart from other members of society
has a long history. In ancient Greece members of tainted groups for example, slaves and
Dening mental health and mental illness 11
traitors were branded with a mark (Goffman 1970; Hinshaw 2005). The concept is applied in
diverse circumstances, including with reference to the mentally ill (Link and Phelan 2001).
Additionally, stigmatization can be seen to depend on social, economic and political power and
can occur on a large and tragic scale for example, the systematic and dreadful stigmatization
of the Jewish people by the Nazis (Link and Phelan 2001). Stigma was dened by Goffman
(1970) as the position of the individual who is disqualied from full social acceptance. It is
perceived as the outcome of a process of social labelling which singles out difference, names this
difference inferiority, subsequently blames those who are different for their otherness and
contributes to the creation of a spoilt identity (Goffman 1970). Since that seminal develop-
ment, the concept has evolved. For example, stigma can be described with reference to the
relationships between a set of interrelated concepts, rather than focusing solely on personal
attributes i.e. stigma exists when elements of labelling, stereotyping, separation, status loss
and discrimination occur together in a power situation that allows these processes to happen
(Link and Phelan 2001).
The nature and extent of stigmatization in adult mental illness
There are many factors involved in the formation of individuals beliefs about mental illness,
and their attitudes and behaviour towards those labelled as mentally ill. These include personal
experience of mental illness, either personally or in someone known to them; the impact of the
media; beliefs as to what causes mental illness (e.g. genetic, self-inicted); and socio-cultural
inuences (Hinshaw 2005).
Four possible explanations for the stigmatization of mental illness have been identied in
the research literature:
attribution of responsibility;
belief that mental illness is chronic with a poor prognosis;
disruption of normal social interactions based on social rules (Hayward and Bright 1997).
These explanations can be elaborated as follows: people with mental illness are perceived as
dangerous and unpredictable; there is an implied belief that the mentally ill choose to behave
as they do and have only themselves to blame for their situation; people with mental illness
are believed to respond poorly to treatment, and outcomes are poor, therefore they are an
embarrassment and should be avoided; the mentally ill are seen as difcult to communicate
with and this makes for unpredictable social intercourse. These are enduring themes, provoking
personal fear in others and threatening to upset the status quo (Hayward and Bright 1997;
Eminson 2004).
Explanations for the stigmatization of the mentally ill include the following ideas.
From a biological perspective, a person suffering from mental illness may be viewed as a poor
genetic choice in relation to reproductive potential and as a possible threat to the safety of
the individual.
The need to share understanding in order to survive as an individual and as a species means
that when a persons way of perceiving the world is unfamiliar to us we can feel threatened
and uncertain as to how to respond to them (Eminson 2004).
Media, mental illness and stigma
There is a dearth of research which focuses specically on how mental illness is depicted in the
childrens and young persons media (Wahl 2002). This is despite suggestions that such media
12 Nursing in child and adolescent mental health
provide the means by which young people will derive a preliminary understanding of mental
illness. Participants in a small-scale local study identied some positive and accurate represen-
tations in the media. These included the Jacqueline Wilson books, the lm A Beautiful Mind and
Channel 4 documentaries (Leighton 2006). Byrne (2003) discusses examples in soap operas
when television can perform a major public service where care is taken over how mental illness
is portrayed. One suspects that the converse is also true that when care is not taken the
damage done to those suffering with mental illness can be immense.
Two large-scale literature reviews have suggested that the media can be regarded as an
important inuence on community attitudes towards mental illness. It is considered that
there is a complex and circular relationship between mass media representation of mental
illness and public understanding, with negative media images promoting negative attitudes
and resultant media coverage feeding off an already negative public perception. It is also
thought that negative images will have a greater effect on public attitudes than positive por-
trayals (Francis et al. 2001; Edney 2004). Work by Wahl (2003) suggests that this is equally
applicable to children.
Consequences of stigma
Stigmatization of the mentally ill is understood to be prejudicial to them, injurious to all aspects
of their treatment in mental health services and damaging to their role as members of society
(Hinshaw 2005). Stigmatization leads to individual and social discrimination against the stig-
matized person. Several authors identify that the discriminatory behaviour displayed can be
hostile or avoidant and that it operates throughout personal and social relationships, pervading
the home, workplace, local community, health and social welfare systems. This can result in
increased feelings of shame, increased personal and social impairment and isolation, perpetu-
ation and worsening of an illness, reluctance to access health care and infringement of human
rights (Link and Phelan 2001; Crisp 2004; Hinshaw 2005).
Children, mental illness and stigma
There is also a scarcity of research examining the issue of stigma in relation to children and
mental illness (Wahl 2002; Hinshaw 2005). As described previously, the high prevalence of
mental health problems in young people and their reluctance to access specialist services gives
cause for concern. The indications are that children develop negative attitudes towards those
with mental illness early on (Gale 2007). Additionally, adolescents are the adults of the future
and therefore their beliefs and attitudes regarding mental health and illness will affect service
development, the quality of life of those experiencing mental health problems and the help-
seeking behaviour of individuals (Armstrong et al. 2000; Hinshaw 2005).
Box 1.2 highlights themes identied from work which focused on adolescents, mental illness
and stigma, albeit to varying degrees and using different methods.
Box 1.2 Themes associated with mental illness and stigma identied
by adolescents
Negative attitudes towards groups described as deviant for example, the mentally
ill were apparent by kindergarten and increased with age (Weiss 1986, 1994;
Wahl 2002).
Dening mental health and mental illness 13
Words and phrases used to describe people with mental health problems or
mental illness were largely derogatory, with the most common labels being
retarded, psycho(path), spastic, mental, crazy and nutter (Bailey 1999;
Pinfold et al. 2003).
The most frequently cited causes of mental illness were stress, genetics and bad
childhood experiences (Bailey 1999).
Young people with experience of mental health problems described being met
with negative attitudes and reactions from other people, including professionals
(Scottish Executive 2005).
Although adolescents stigmatized peers with both physical and mental illness,
they had a greater tendency to stigmatize those experiencing a mental illness
(Sessa 2005a, 2005b).
Adolescents presenting in school with either a physical or mental illness were
likely to be socially excluded, itself a risk factor for developing mental health
problems (Sessa 2005a, 2005b).
Providing mental health education could lead to a positive change in reported
attitudes in the short term, especially among females and those reporting personal
contact with someone who had a mental illness (Pinfold et al. 2003).
Although adolescents with less knowledge about mental health and illness had
more negative attitudes towards mental illness, this did not inuence the willing-
ness to seek help for mental health problems as much as other factors for
example, level of psychological distress, number of barriers to overcome in order
to access help, or adaptability (Shefeld et al. 2004).
From the sparse literature available, it would appear that adolescents attitudes towards
mental illness tend to be negative and stigmatizing. The need for education among the public,
and adolescents in particular, in order to combat the stigma of mental illness is highlighted
in the literature (Davidson and Manion 1996; Armstrong et al. 1998; Esters et al. 1998;
Bailey 1999; Secker et al. 1999; Taylor 2001; Naylor et al. 2002; Pow 2003; Hinshaw 2005;
Sessa 2005b).
Early indicators from our own work in Nigeria are that such attitudes transcend culture
(Dogra 2009). However, there is evidence that stigma can be tackled. We will now examine
some of the interventions undertaken to reduce stigma among children.
Interventions to reduce stigma
Large-scale interventions, such as high prole campaigns, are often difcult to evaluate. In the
UK there have been several such campaigns for example, The Royal College of Psychiatrists
campaign, Every Family in the Land (Crisp 2004) and the WHO Dare to Care campaign
(WHO 2001). There is little evidence available to indicate that these have successfully changed
public or personal attitudes, although there is evidence that more targeted initiatives may reap
benets (WHO 2005a). While much of the work to date has focused on adults, there are increas-
ing efforts to address the issue among younger populations.
There is scope for joint working between schools and child and adolescent mental health
services (CAMHS) in order to provide mental health promotion and reduce stigma. However,
it is important that we do not attempt to reduce stigma by just changing the terminology used,
as there is no evidence that such strategies work.
One small-scale local study found that young people thought they might be helped by
14 Nursing in child and adolescent mental health
having more basic information about local services (Dogra et al. 2007). In another such study,
adolescents who lived with parental mental illness suggested that the best ways of providing
adolescents with information about mental health included real experience and focusing on
the issue in schools i.e. existing sources of (mis)information. It was thought that those speak-
ing out should be adolescents who were condent to talk about their situation, but they should
not talk to people they knew for fear of being bullied and they should be pupils at other schools
(Leighton 2006).
Two school-based interventions reported promising results. Rahman et al. (1998) concluded
that the school programme they undertook was successful in improving mental health aware-
ness in the children and their community. Unfortunately, the intervention is only briey
described and it is difcult to be clear whether attitudes towards mental health (and issues
about stigma) were addressed, or whether awareness of mental health (and therefore knowledge
and understanding) informed the intervention. More recently, Pinfold et al. (2003) undertook
short educational workshops with 472 secondary school children in the UK. Changes were
most marked for female students and those who had personal contact with people with mental
health problems. Further analysis of the labels used to stigmatize people with mental illness
found that of the 472 students sampled, 400 of them provided 250 words to describe a person
with mental illness. Nearly half were derogatory (Rose et al. 2007). The authors conclude that
there need to be interventions which address factual information about mental illness and
that reduce the strong negative emotional reactions to people with mental illness. Effective
evaluation is unlikely to be possible if there is no clarity about the purpose of the intervention
or too many aspects covered in one evaluation (Naylor et al. 2002).
Considerable terminological confusion exists in relation to issues associated with mental health
generally and among children and young people specically. Furthermore, stigmatizing atti-
tudes towards mental illness and related issues continue to pose a challenge. Children, young
people and adults display similar negative attitudes towards both mental illness and individuals
experiencing mental health problems or illness. However, there is some evidence that these
might be amenable to interventions such as education.
You may now wish to reect on the issues discussed in this chapter by returning to the
exercise in Box 1.1.
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16 Nursing in child and adolescent mental health
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18 Nursing in child and adolescent mental health
... As for the concept of wellbeing, it is regarded as "the individuals" subjective and global judgment whether the individual is facing the relative positive emotions occurrence, the relative negative emotions nonexistence, and having the life which is satisfactory for them (Diener 1984) [37]. As for the work, the wellbeing is represented by several proxies such as "job satisfaction, work engagement, subjective wellbeing, and work stress" (Orsila et al. 2011) [38]. So, the definition of the employee wellbeing refers to the state of the mental, social, and physical health of employees resulting from dynamics within (and sometimes outside) the workplace. ...
... Accordingly, this health definition refers to " a well-being state in which the individual has the ability to work productively and fruitfully and is able to make a contribution to the community in which he or she exists". (Dogra & Leighton, 2009) [39]. ...
... One such problem is adverse mental health issues (Choudhry et al., 2016;Ahmad et al., 2015, Treanor, 2012 with the issue a growing concern within the Klang Valley area (Mayan & Nor, 2020;Rashid, 2017;Yeap & Low, 2009) A. Mental Health Among Malaysian Urban Poor Children "Mental health is the state of well-being in which the individual realises his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community" (World Health Organisation, 2004) "Mental health is the capacity of the individual, the group and environment to interact with one another to promote subjective well-being and optimal functioning, and the use of cognitive, affective, and relational abilities, towards the achievement of individual and collective goals consistent with justice" (Malaysia Ministry of Health, 1997) The definitions stipulated by the World Health Organisation and Malaysia Ministry of Health indicate that mental health concerns with individual's ability to function well cognitively, emotionally, and relationally whilst also being productive to others around them in achieving collective goals. This means poor mental health can affect a person's mood, thinking, and behavior (Leighton & Dogra, 2009). Prolonged and untreated mental health would negatively affect social relationships, making existing problems worse and worst of all, feeling suicidal (Ibrahim et al., 2017). ...
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In recent years, Malaysia’s urban poverty has been seen as increasingly apparent because of urbanization. Children under the age of 18 are some of the most affected groups in urban poor communities facing a variety of daily problems and challenges. Growing up in this environment ultimately affects their mental health. This study was conducted to investigate children’s mental health problems in the urban poverty community of the Klang Valley area. Based on the desk research conducted, we have found children are vulnerable to mental health issues and more susceptible if coming from an urban poverty background. Available intervention systems are insufficient and non-accessible. The main objective of this study is to adapt the soft system methodology for Community IT-Based project. The method involved using action research. Postgraduate students in Information Technology from a public university in Malaysia taking the problem-solving course for information technology had applied the soft system methodology in their group project. Using Soft System Methodology (SSM), the phenomenon is studied to explore the issues systematically, untie hidden relationships of involved stakeholders and suggest an ideal solution. We propose the Public Mental Health Booth with telehealth and online tips services, bridging the gap between children in need of professional help to the professionals themselves. The conceived solution integrates social wellbeing by design, which promotes security and empowerment for a possible positive behavioral change. The main contribution and motivation for this study are in the form of adaptation of SSM to the local context as a case study in guiding future research and application for Community IT-Based Projects. This research supports Sustainable Development Goals on Quality Education and Good Health and Well-Being.
... Moreover, it is a state of wellbeing by which an individual can measure the ability of coping up with the normal stress of daily life, work life and the contribution to their society. Moreover, there is interconnection between mental, physical, and social functioning and therefore, we should not count mental health and physical separately [12]. Customer Service: Customer service can be defined as the activities of retailers by which value can be increased to the customers. ...
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This paper illustrates Covid-19 pandemic impact and post-pandemic influence on purchase intention of consumers towards online shopping. 203 Bangladeshi respondents participated in the survey conducted through online for primary data to carry out a comparative study, however secondary data has also been collected. The result of this study unfolded that product price, quality, delivery or shipping service, customer service, and mental health has a significant impact on consumers’ purchasing intention during pandemic with the boom of online businesses while escalating buying intention from online for post pandemic state. Therefore, the study can be beneficial for e-commerce sectors or online businessperson to improve their service or to understand their customer’s viewpoints for customer retention and sustainability in the upcoming competitive marketplace.
... Searching and discovering problems, exploring and explaining the day and night keep a researcher in a state of constant turmoil, stress and strain, anxiety and other unwanted psychological fears. 4 A research may feel at times broken down and depressed. Such a situation may take him/her out of routine making him ill or uneasy. ...
... On the other hand, the young people's help-seeking for mental health problems and various terms, including psychological distress, issues, and mental disorder. Thus all variation and mood changes, thinking, and behavior are associated with pain or diminished functioning across various domains (Leighton & Dogra, 2009). Eventually, a mentally healthy youth can further contribute to society's development in numerous facets of the life sphere, such as participation in political and economic activities, community development, decision-making, and promoting society's entire governance. ...
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Islam is a significant religion globally, followed by a massive population. It encompasses all exclusive universal fundamental human values, which are considered essential sources of human advancement. The research study examines Islamic teaching and its effect on educated youth mental health toward good governance. The study has adopted a questionnaire survey method for data collection that contained 149 respondents from different cities in Pakistan. The data were analyzed through the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) and interpreted according to the analysis result. The study's findings indicate that Islamic teaching positively affects the educated youth's mental health and promotes good governance in society. Prominent scholars and leaders who incorporate Islamic values in their governance also encourage the subordinates and general followers to accomplish their established goal among each segment of society to fulfill responsibility and rights through religious values and norms.
... Mental health and mental illness are two separate, yet related, issues dependent on the researcher's perspective and context. Any research into mental health and illness is further complicated given the huge variation in how these terms are used, including in child mental health (Leighton & Dogra, 2009). In recent years there has been an increase in literature that aims to identify how children and young people stigmatize mental illness. ...
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Purpose - Mental health of children and young people is often discussed in terms of mental illness, however such an approach is limited. This paper explores young people’s views of what mental health is and how to stay mentally healthy. Design/methodology/approach - We investigated young people’s views on these two issues through a series of workshops. In total 218, 13-year-old schoolchildren produced posters with their impressions of the issues. Themes that young people identified were then discussed with them in terms of the existing Bright Futures definition of mental health. Poster responses were subsequently transcribed and thematically analysed. Findings - We identified a number of themes for each question. Mental health was viewed in terms of personal attributes of an individual, illness, ability for personal management and establishing social relations. Young people saw mental health maintained through a combination of lifestyle choices, personal attributes, management of self and environment, social support and relationships, as well as treatment of illness. These themes corresponded to the ones identified by the Bright Futures. Research limitations/implications - This study highlights the complexity of young people’s views on the meaning of mental health. They were also more positive, open, and competent in discussing mental health than previously suggested. However, a more systematic investigation of views and attitudes is necessary, including younger children. Additionally, health care professionals are likely to benefit from young people’s engagement in planning and implementing strategies for better mental health. Originality/value - This paper is one of the few to investigate the positive meaning of mental health with young people.
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Pembelajaran di dalam ruang kelas sejatinya harus menjadi aktivitas dan kegiatan yang menyenangkan dengan suasana yang saling menghormati dan menghargai antara satu dengan yang lainnya baik pengajar ataupun peserta didik itu sendiri. Namun sangat disayangkan bahwa saat ini dunia pendidikan telah banyak mengalami pergeseran. Pengajar yang seharusnya melindungi peserta didik malah melakukan tindakan yang sebaliknya. Peserta didik yang seharusnya bisa saling bekerja sama dalam mencapai tujuan yang sama malah saling menyakiti dan menjatuhkan. Lebih mirisnya lagi, pendidik yang harusnya menggantikan peran orang tua malah menjadi pelaku kekerasan. Perilaku-perilaku tersebut tidak hanya menjatuhkan secara fisik namun banyak juga yang menyakiti dan melukai psikis/mental peserta didik lain. Hal ini sudah selayaknya menjadi perhatian serius dari semua pihak guna keberhasilan pendidikan di Indonesia. Selanjutnya, bagaimana peran pihak-pihak terkait terhadap permasalahan pendidikan ini guna menciptakan pembelajaran yang asyik tanpa mengusik? Artikel ini akan memberikan jawabannya.
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The mental health and well-being of pupils have been regarded as one of the growing concerns of Twenty-first-century life. The year 2020 has witnessed how the Covid-19 pandemic can make huge changes in our lifestyle, be it academic, professional, social, or even personal life. The principal goal of this research is to study the mental health of secondary school pupils during the covid19 pandemic in relation to the usage of mobile phones. This is a descriptive survey study that attempts to understand the association between the frequencies of mobile phone usage and the mental health of the pupils during the pandemic situation. 100 students of 9th standard from two schools of West Bengal are selected as the samples of the study. Research information are gathered through a Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale and Mental Health – Checklist. The findings of the study uncover that there is no huge distinction in the mean score of psychological well-being of students on the basis of gender. Results likewise proclaim that there is no critical contrast in the mean score of psychological wellness or mental health between pupils from metropolitan regions and pupils from the provincial region.
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Globally, there has been an emphasis on the importance and value of involving people with lived experience of mental health conditions in service delivery, development and leadership. Such individuals have taken on various roles, from peer support specialists and other specialised professions to leadership in mainstream industries. There are, however, still obstacles to overcome before it is possible to fully include people with lived experience at all levels in the mental health and related sectors. This article discusses the benefits, both to the individual and to the public, of involving persons with lived experience in service delivery, development and leadership.
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Cultural competence has been defined as a set of congruent attitudes, behaviours, and policies that are part of an agency, system or professional group, and that enable these groups to work effectively in cross-cultural situations. For individual practitioners to achieve competence they must be aware of their own culture, refrain from judging differences as necessarily deviant and understand the dynamics of working class cultures. They must develop a base of knowledge about the child’s culture, and adapt their skills to fit the child or young person’s cultural context. The discipline of psychiatry, which dominates child and adolescent mental health provision, has resisted any significant influence by systems of culture that were not specifically European. The development of psychiatry and theories of human growth and development constructed in the 18th and 19th centuries were based on white ethnocentric beliefs and assumptions about normality. The Western model of illness regards the mind as distinct from the body and defines mental illness or mental health according to negative, deficit characteristics. In non-western cultures such as Chinese, Indian and African, mental health is often perceived as a harmonious balance between a person’s internal and external influences. Thus a person is intrinsically linked to their environment and vice versa.
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Objective- To introduce the context of cultural diversity teaching in medical education and to compare the concepts of cultural expertise and cultural sensibility with regard to four characteristics: educational philosophy, educational process, educational contents and outcomes as these are integral to course design and delivery. Method- The methodology uses Weber's ideal types and is briefly described before the comparisons are undertaken. Design- It was designed to capture empirical reality by arriving at the analytical accentuation of certain aspects of society by providing a lens through which that aspect of society can be viewed. Results- Student preference for the expertise model may dissuade educators from trying alternative approaches despite the fact that the lack of any evidence that training to date has met this target. To improve the quality of cultural diversity teaching we must understand how those involved in teaching this issue conceptualise and understand the issues around cultural diversity as this so clearly influences the teaching developed. Conclusion- In an environment, which demands increasing evidence based approaches, it may be time to develop tighter teaching models that have clear conceptual frameworks and can more effectively evaluate whether the teaching delivers what it sets out to do.
Social science research on stigma has grown dramatically over the past two decades, particularly in social psychology, where researchers have elucidated the ways in which people construct cognitive categories and link those categories to stereotyped beliefs. In the midst of this growth, the stigma concept has been criticized as being too vaguely defined and individually focused. In response to these criticisms, we define stigma as the co-occurrence of its components-labeling, stereotyping, separation, status loss, and discrimination-and further indicate that for stigmatization to occur, power must be exercised. The stigma concept we construct has implications for understanding several core issues in stigma research, ranging from the definition of the concept to the reasons stigma sometimes represents a very persistent predicament in the lives of persons affected by it. Finally, because there are so many stigmatized circumstances and because stigmatizing processes can affect multiple domains of people's lives, stigmatization probably has a dramatic bearing on the distribution of life chances in such areas as earnings, housing, criminal involvement, health, and life itself. It follows that social scientists who are interested in understanding the distribution of such life chances should also be interested in stigma.
This collection of over 80 learned articles, personal perspectives and commentaries is designed to shed light on the most common mental disorders in the hope of dispelling some of the stigma which attaches to them. Produced as part of the Royal College of Psychiatrists' anti-stigma campaign ‘
Aspects of print, broadcast, film and 'new media' are related to their interactions with psychiatry. Frequent representations of mental health issues are paralleled by the adoption of psychological theories into media studies. Key areas are covered where psychiatric items diverge from other medical specialities, such as the depiction of suicide, the dominance of 'human interest' stories and negative representation of people with mental illness. Although the language of mental disorders is important, the power of the image needs to be examined. Media items also have implications for public mental health (children as vulnerable viewers) and the clinical practice of psychiatry that are not uniformly negative. Television has limitations and clinicians are encouraged to participate in radio and other media. Resources and practical advice for media contact are provided.
This book was produced as part of Changing Minds , the Royal College of Psychiatrist’s anti-stigma campaign, which was endorsed by the RCN. It contains a wealth of information, views and personal experiences of the effects of stigma and is a readable and rich resource for information and understanding about issues of stigma and mental illness. It is expensive but when one considers the rich diversity of topics covered, which include a history of the stigmatisation of people with mental illness, the experiences of users and carers, spirituality, and strategies to tackle discrimination – and more besides – it is good value. Stigmatisation frequently hampers recovery and places obstacles across the path to social inclusion.
A model for primary care child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) services is presented, the overall goal of which is to reduce population burden of CAMH problems. The theoretical orientation of the model is based on ecological systems theories. Features of the model include: local population outcome measures; small area service focus; primary-care-based CAMH specialists; a locally comprehensive service framework based in primary care (schools and general practices); and an explicit process of community engagement. The model is illustrated by reference to a primary care CAMH service (currently the subject of a controlled trial) in Flintshire, North Wales.