Fenologia da floração e biologia floral de bromélias ornitófilas de uma área da Mata Atlântica do Sudeste brasileiro. Rev Bras Bot

Brazilian Journal of Botany (Impact Factor: 0.65). 03/2006; 29(1). DOI: 10.1590/S0100-84042006000100014


Flowering phenology and floral biology of some ornitophilous Bromeliaceae of an Atlantic forest area in southeastern Brazil). This study dealt with phenology and flower visitors of some Bromeliaceae species in an Atlantic Forest area at Parque Estadual Intervales, southeastern Brazil. The taxa studied belonged to the genera Tillandsia L. (3 spp.), Vriesea Lindl. (5 spp.), Aechmea Ruiz & Pav. (3 spp.), Billbergia Thunb. (1 sp.) and Nidularium Lem. (2 spp.). Sample transects were established in areas with different succession stages, where the bromeliads were localized and marked. Flowering phenology surveys were made monthly. The bromeliad community showed a sequential flowering all along the year and most species flowered during the rainy season. The floral visitors were recorded by naturalistic observations. Eight hummingbird species visited the bromeliads flowers. Among them, Phaethornis eurynome Lesson and Thalurania glaucopis Gmelin were the most frequent visitors. Bromeliads were divided in two groups by similarity analysis of floral visitors (hummingbirds): a group represented by species visited by Trochilinae hummingbirds and another visited by Phaethornis eurynome (subfamily Phaethornithinae). The competition among bromeliad species for pollinators is reduced due to their spatial distribution and the flowering periods. RESUMO - (Fenologia de floração e biologia floral de bromeliáceas ornitófilas de uma área da Mata Atlântica do Sudeste brasileiro). Foi investigada a fenologia e os visitantes florais de espécies da família Bromeliaceae em uma área de Mata Atlântica, no Parque Estadual Intervales, no Sudeste brasileiro. Os táxons estudados pertencem aos gêneros Tillandsia L. (3 spp.), Vriesea Lindl. (5 spp.), Aechmea Ruiz & Pav. (3 spp.), Billbergia Thunb. (1 sp.) e Nidularium Lem. (2 spp.). Foram estabelecidas transecções amostrais em áreas com diferentes estádios sucessionais, onde foi registrada a localização dos indivíduos nos estratos da vegetação e realizados censos mensais da fenologia de floração. As bromeliáceas apresentaram padrão de floração seqüencial ao longo do ano, com maior número de espécies floridas na estação chuvosa. Os visitantes florais foram registrados por observações naturalísticas. Oito espécies de beija-flores visitaram as flores das bromélias. Destas, Phaethornis eurynome Lesson e Thalurania glaucopis Gmelim foram os visitantes mais freqüentes. A análise da similaridade dos beija-flores visitantes florais indicou a existência de dois conjuntos de espécies de bromeliáceas: o primeiro polinizado principalmente por espécies da sub-família Trochilinae e outro por Phaethornis eurynome (sub-família Phaethornithinae). A distribuição espacial diversa e, sobretudo os diferentes picos de floração foram os principais fatores que minimizaram a competição por polinizadores entre as espécies de Bromeliaceae estudadas.

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    • "Further examples include pollination by hummingbirds (Canela 2006) and bats (Sazima et al. 1995) in Vriesea longicaulis Mez, and flowers of Aechmea nudicaulis (L.) Griseb. that were mainly pollinated by hummingbirds (Sazima et al. 1996; Buzato et al. 2000; Araujo et al. 2004; Canela 2006; Machado & Semir 2006; Piacentini & Varassin 2007), but were also visited by bees (Schmid et al. 2011). Indeed hummingbirds and bees was the most frequent combination (58.3%) of mixed pollination systems in Bromeliaceae, recorded in Aechmea nudicaulis (Schmid et al. "
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    ABSTRACT: Current phylogenetic hypotheses support that ancestral Poales were animal-pollinated and that subsequent shifts to wind pollination have occurred. Ten of the 16 Poales families are widely distributed in the Neotropics, however a comprehensive understanding of their pollination systems’ diversity is still lacking. Here we surveyed studies on pollination biology of Neotropical species of Poales. Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Juncaceae are predominantly wind-pollinated but insect pollination also occurs. Thurniaceae and Thyphaceae fit on anemophily but empirical data are missing. Pollen flowers with poricidal anthers have evolved independently in Mayacaeae and Rapateaceae. Pollen- and nectar-flowers occur in Xyridaceae, which are mainly pollinated by bees. Eriocaulaceae flowers secrete minute quantity of nectar and are pollinated by “diverse small insects”. Pollination of Bromeliaceae is carried out by a great variety of animal groups, mainly hummingbirds, and includes anemophily. The diversity in floral forms is very high within the order but more constant within the families. This trend indicates that many events of species diversification may have occurred without divergence in the pollination mode. Still, parallel shifts in pollination modes are found, including possible reversals to wind- or animal-pollination, changes in the type of pollinators (e.g. from hummingbirds to bee or bats) and the arising of ambophily.
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    • "Th e greater rate of hummingbird visits in the morning is likely to be due to the greater quality of the nectar at that time (Canela & Sazima 2003; Machado & Semir 2006). On the other hand, butterfl y visits were always associated with good climatic conditions (higher temperatures, no rain, pers. "
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    ABSTRACT: Reproductive biology, including phenology, flower biology, pollination, and the reproductive system in the bromeliad Aechmea distichantha were studied in an Araucaria forest in the state of Paraná. Phenology and reproduction in terricolous plants were followed in October 2006 and May - October of 2007. Flowering peaked from June to September and fruiting was from June to October. Flower anthesis lasted one day. Flowers were pollinated the most by the hummingbird Stephanoxis lalandi and the most common butterfly visitor was Lychnuchoides ozias ozias. Nectar concentration declined during anthesis, while nectar volume was constant. Aechmea distichantha is self-compatible with 30-45% fruit formation in self-pollination tests. Sunlight influences reproduction: when controlling for bromeliad and inflorescence size, plants in sunlight produced more seeds per fruit than plants in the shade. Reproduction was also associated with inflorescence size when controlling for bromeliad size. That is, larger inflorescences in similar sized plants produced more flowers and more seeds per fruit.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Acta Botanica Brasilica
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    • "L., Vriesea Lindl., Aechmea Ruiz & Pav., Billbergia Thunb. e Nidularium Lem., a floração coincide com a estação chuvosa (Machado e Semir, 2006 "
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