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Interesting Things and Curious People: Exploration and Engagement as Transient States and Enduring Strengths

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Abstract

Curiosity, interest, and intrinsic motivation are critical to the development of competence, knowl- edge, and expertise. Without a mechanism of intrinsic motivation, people would rarely explore new things, learn for its own sake, or engage with uncertain tasks despite feelings of confusion and anxiety. This article explores two sides of interest: momentary feelings (the emotion of inter- est) and enduring traits (the character strength of curiosity). Recent theories in emotion psychol- ogy can explain why and when people experience feelings of interest; recent research has illuminated the role of curiosity in cultivating knowledge, meaning in life, close relationships, and physical and mental resilience. The problem for future research - and for social and personality psychology more generally - is how to bridge the dynamics of everyday experience with stable, lifespan aspects of personality.

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... Behavioral inhibition system has been used to explain self-regulation and inhibition of prejudiced responses (Monteith, 1993) and differences in procedural learning under conditions of punishment and reward (Corr, Pickering, & Gray, 1997). Number of studies has tried to investigate the effect of curiosity and exploration on the levels of behavioral inhibition and activation.At the centre of curiosity is exploration in reaction to novelty and challenge and this suggests a link to fun seeking, which reflects a willingness to approach a potentially rewarding event and is one of the subscales linked to behavioral activation sensitivity Kashdan & Silvia, 2009, Leone et al., 2001. Curious individuals are also more likely to persist in tasks until their goals are met, suggesting a relationship with the drive subscale and reward responsiveness subscale of behavioral activation system (Carever & White,1994;Kashdan & Silvia, 2009). ...
... Number of studies has tried to investigate the effect of curiosity and exploration on the levels of behavioral inhibition and activation.At the centre of curiosity is exploration in reaction to novelty and challenge and this suggests a link to fun seeking, which reflects a willingness to approach a potentially rewarding event and is one of the subscales linked to behavioral activation sensitivity Kashdan & Silvia, 2009, Leone et al., 2001. Curious individuals are also more likely to persist in tasks until their goals are met, suggesting a relationship with the drive subscale and reward responsiveness subscale of behavioral activation system (Carever & White,1994;Kashdan & Silvia, 2009). Exploratory behavior is integral to feelings of curiosity and it implies a strong relationship to behavioral activation. ...
... This is indicative that exploratory behavior is related to activation of behavior, and being absorbed in activities inhibits one's behavior. , Kashdan & Silvia (2009) and Leone et al., (2001) stated that at the centre of curiosity is exploration in reaction to novelty and challenge and this suggests a link to fun seeking, which reflects a willingness to approach a potentially rewarding event and is one of the subscales linked to behavioral activation sensitivity. Curious individuals are also more likely to persist in tasks until their goals are met, suggesting a relationship with the drive subscale and reward responsiveness subscale of behavioral activation system , Kashdan & Silvia, 2009). ...
Article
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The present study was aimed at discerning the relationship between curiosity & exploration and behavioural inhibition or activation among young males. For the purpose, a sample of 30 males belonging to the age group of 18-25 years was taken. Each group was assessed for their curiosity & exploration index and behavioral inhibition or activation assessed quantitatively with the help of curiosity and exploration inventory by Kashdan, Rose and Fincham (2004) and behavioral inhibition or activation scale by Carver and White (2013). The results of the study indicated that there was a significant level of correlation between curiosity & exploration and behavioral activation (r=.441, p<.05). However, there was no significant correlation found between curiosity & exploration and behavioral inhibition (r =.143). This indicates that curiosity and exploration is related to activation of behavior, however no inferences regarding inhibition of behavior could be made on the basis of curiosity and exploration indices. Also, there was a significant level of correlation found between exploration and behavioral activation system (r=.436, p<.05), and a significant correlation between absorption and behavioral inhibition system (r=.475, p<.01). This is indicative that exploratory behavior is related to activation of behavior, and being absorbed in activities inhibits one's behavior.
... Behavioral inhibition system has been used to explain self-regulation and inhibition of prejudiced responses (Monteith, 1993) and differences in procedural learning under conditions of punishment and reward (Corr, Pickering, & Gray, 1997). Number of studies has tried to investigate the effect of curiosity and exploration on the levels of behavioral inhibition and activation.At the centre of curiosity is exploration in reaction to novelty and challenge and this suggests a link to fun seeking, which reflects a willingness to approach a potentially rewarding event and is one of the subscales linked to behavioral activation sensitivity Kashdan & Silvia, 2009, Leone et al., 2001. Curious individuals are also more likely to persist in tasks until their goals are met, suggesting a relationship with the drive subscale and reward responsiveness subscale of behavioral activation system (Carever & White,1994;Kashdan & Silvia, 2009). ...
... Number of studies has tried to investigate the effect of curiosity and exploration on the levels of behavioral inhibition and activation.At the centre of curiosity is exploration in reaction to novelty and challenge and this suggests a link to fun seeking, which reflects a willingness to approach a potentially rewarding event and is one of the subscales linked to behavioral activation sensitivity Kashdan & Silvia, 2009, Leone et al., 2001. Curious individuals are also more likely to persist in tasks until their goals are met, suggesting a relationship with the drive subscale and reward responsiveness subscale of behavioral activation system (Carever & White,1994;Kashdan & Silvia, 2009). Exploratory behavior is integral to feelings of curiosity and it implies a strong relationship to behavioral activation. ...
... This is indicative that exploratory behavior is related to activation of behavior, and being absorbed in activities inhibits one's behavior. , Kashdan & Silvia (2009) and Leone et al., (2001) stated that at the centre of curiosity is exploration in reaction to novelty and challenge and this suggests a link to fun seeking, which reflects a willingness to approach a potentially rewarding event and is one of the subscales linked to behavioral activation sensitivity. Curious individuals are also more likely to persist in tasks until their goals are met, suggesting a relationship with the drive subscale and reward responsiveness subscale of behavioral activation system , Kashdan & Silvia, 2009). ...
Article
The present study was aimed at discerning the relationship between curiosity & exploration and behavioural inhibition or activation among young males. For the purpose, a sample of 30 males belonging to the age group of 18-25 years was taken. Each group was assessed for their curiosity & exploration index and behavioral inhibition or activation assessed quantitatively with the help of curiosity and exploration inventory by Kashdan, Rose and Fincham (2004) and behavioral inhibition or activation scale by Carver and White (2013). The results of the study indicated that there was a significant level of correlation between curiosity & exploration and behavioral activation (r=.441, p<.05). However, there was no significant correlation found between curiosity & exploration and behavioral inhibition (r =.143). This indicates that curiosity and exploration is related to activation of behavior, however no inferences regarding inhibition of behavior could be made on the basis of curiosity and exploration indices. Also, there was a significant level of correlation found between exploration and behavioral activation system (r=.436, p<.05), and a significant correlation between absorption and behavioral inhibition system (r=.475, p<.01). This is indicative that exploratory behavior is related to activation of behavior, and being absorbed in activities inhibits one’s behavior. Key Words: Curiosity, Exploration, Male, Behavioral inhibition and Behavioral
... Yet, curiosity is a key motivational construct that includes both cognitive and affective elements, is prompted by an "urge to know more", and often manifests behaviorally in questioning or exploratory behavior (Engel, 2011, p.627;Grossnickle, 2016). Curiosity has been found to be integral for motivating an individual's attention, engagement, and learning (Ainley, 2012, Kashdan, 2004Silvia & Kashdan, 2009). ...
... Given extant research that has found curiosity to be an important motivational force (Kashdan, 2004;Silvia & Kashdan, 2009) and Freire's explicit positioning of critical curiosity as integral to the development of critical consciousness, this study sought to investigate how marginalized youths' dispositional curiosity relates to their sociopolitical development. By dispositional curiosity, we refer to an individual's more enduring and habitual tendency toward pursuing knowledge and new experiences as well as engaging in information seeking and exploratory behaviors (Silvia & Kashdan, 2009). ...
... Given extant research that has found curiosity to be an important motivational force (Kashdan, 2004;Silvia & Kashdan, 2009) and Freire's explicit positioning of critical curiosity as integral to the development of critical consciousness, this study sought to investigate how marginalized youths' dispositional curiosity relates to their sociopolitical development. By dispositional curiosity, we refer to an individual's more enduring and habitual tendency toward pursuing knowledge and new experiences as well as engaging in information seeking and exploratory behaviors (Silvia & Kashdan, 2009). Put another way, this study considered the relationship between young people's tendency toward curiosity -their "urge to know more" regarding a variety of subjects (Engel, 2011)-and the development of their social analysis skills and societal involvement commitments. ...
Article
Sociopolitical development, the process of coming to understand and take action against systems of oppression, is associated with key outcomes for youth. Although rooted in Paulo Freire's work on critical consciousness, sociopolitical development models overlook a motivational attribute—curiosity—that Freire characterized as a catalyst of such development. This longitudinal study investigated the relationship between curiosity and two aspects of sociopolitical development (social analysis, societal involvement) in a sample of Black and Latinx adolescents (N = 659). Longitudinal growth models demonstrated positive growth in all constructs over 4‐years of high school. Multivariate growth models revealed a positive correlation at baseline between curiosity and both constructs; growth in curiosity was also positively correlated with growth in social analysis and societal involvement.
... Second, creative thinking time was restricted due to an inclination to support proven safe ideas, denoting a risk-averse position of leadership . Third, a fear of standing out from others often associated with being more interested and curious when compared to others in the team or organization (Silvia & Kashdan, 2009). ...
... This scenario is illustrated in Figure 1 by the virtuous relationship between curiosity and contextual based questioning. Importantly, questioning is a prerequisite cognitive attribute of an enquiring mind associated with curiosity (Berlyne, 1960;Gino, 2018;Kashdan, 2015;Litman, 2005;Litman & Silvia, 2006;Silvia & Kashdan, 2009). Furthermore, the application of questioning in support of decision-making provides choices where the best options can lead to supporting the most relevant judgments and practical solutions (Golman & Loewenstein, 2012) -ultimately enabling leaders to discover novel outcomes in response to the identified problems (Bass, Avolio, Jung, & Berson, 2003). ...
Conference Paper
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In this conceptual paper, we use a paradoxical lens to explore the strategic contradictions of leaders who are required to make balanced paradoxical choices, for example, when decision-making requires the identification of novel and creative solutions to difficult problems. We develop our perspective based on two recent large scale studies that delve into how curiosity is viewed and applied in contemporary firms. The results from these studies suggest a limited level of leader support for curious and enquiring minds; instead, they posit a position of top down decision-making as a means of managing risk. We also review the impact of cognitive bias when leaders consider their choice of decision-making approaches, either to provide exploratory support for curious enquiring minds or to maintain an exploitation position conducive to risk mitigation. We then move on to discuss the importance and relevance of contextual questioning in support of “playfulness,” as a means of enhancing curiosity and encouraging exploration. With curiosity and exploration being essential to the identification of novel solutions, we suggest that contextual questions are integral to paradoxical frames associated with curiosity and risk. Our aim is to contribute to paradox theory by expanding theoretical insights supportive of an integrative approach to contextual questioning enhanced by serious play. In this way, enriching outcomes that are associated with curiosity; most notably when there are paradoxical tensions between curiosity and risk. Finally, we provide three questions as stimuli for further empirical research.
... Other theoretical domains provide a better answer in that direction. In the field of psychology, recent research on the topic views interest as an emotion (Silvia 2005a(Silvia , 2005b(Silvia , 2006(Silvia , 2008Silvia and Kashdan, 2009). In contrast to the behavioral tradition, which viewed interestingness as an objective property, the contemporary view of emotions is based on the appraisal of stimuli (Lazarus, 1991) and suggests that interestingness is a cognitive evaluation of a context. ...
... To test the framework in Figure 1, it is important to recognize that interest and appraisals vary within subjects (Silvia, 2005b;Silvia and Kashdan, 2009). The insights from the exploratory Study 1 and 2 also revealed substantial variability in BI across different brands. ...
Article
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Purpose Despite the common understanding of what interestingness is, few people can explain what makes something interesting. The purpose of this paper is to explore the theoretical foundation of interestingness and test if it has merit in the branding context. It aims to help practitioners understand how to make a brand interesting and what outcomes to expect from it. Design/methodology/approach Three preliminary studies (Studies 1, 2 and 3) provide proof of concept. Study 4 tests the antecedences and outcomes of brand interestingness (BI) across 66 brands by accounting for individual and brand variations. Study 5 examines the moderating effects of brand use and brand familiarity on BI and its outcomes. Findings A broad literature review reveals that interestingness is an emotion and is, therefore, an affective state. The findings from two exploratory studies show that customers naturally associate interestingness with specific brands and interesting brands are associated with novelty. Study 3 demonstrates that from all affective states arising from the evaluation of a brand (i.e. easiness, pleasantness, interestingness, challenge and difficulty), BI has the highest effect on purchase intention (PI). Study 4 demonstrates that the antecedents of BI are the novelty associated with the symbolic and functional aspects of a brand, and also the ability to cope with those novelty components. Two positive outcomes of BI are PI and word of mouth (WOM). Study 5 demonstrates that brand familiarity and brand use moderate the effect of BI on purchase intent and WOM. The research concludes with an operational definition of the BI concept and future research suggestions. Originality/value The research introduces the interesting concept in the brand context. Based on a broad literature review and several studies, it identifies the antecedents and outcomes of BI. It helps practitioners understand how they can increase the interestingness of brands and what outcomes to expect.
... Such theoretical scholarship aligns with related psychological scholarship that considers how states may influence related traits. For example, Silvia and Kashdan (2009) argued that Tomkins' (1987) script theory is most likely the best explanation for how state curiosity develops into dispositional, enduring curiosity. This theory argues that a particular state emotion, such as curiosity, makes an individual particularly aware of emotional moments; this awareness helps to guide an individual's future behavior towards similar moments. ...
... This theory argues that a particular state emotion, such as curiosity, makes an individual particularly aware of emotional moments; this awareness helps to guide an individual's future behavior towards similar moments. If enough similar moments are encountered, the individual develops a schema, or mental model, regarding how to interact in particular situations, which becomes their disposition (Silvia & Kashdan, 2009;Tomkins, 1987). Scholarship by Narvaez and Lapsley (2005;Lapsley, 2016) on moral disposition development echoes these theories, arguing that it is through "repeated experience, instruction, intentional coaching, and socialization" (Lapsley, 2016, p.46) that students develop their dispositional schemas so that they can act by habit and intuition. ...
Article
Introduction: High adolescent curiosity is associated with several positive outcomes, yet questioning, a common behavioral manifestation of curiosity, declines once children enter formal schooling. The present quasi-experimental study empirically investigated whether directly teaching students to question helps to foster students' more enduring, dispositional tendency towards curiosity. Method: The study explored the impact of a direct-instruction student-brainstorming intervention, the Question Formulation Technique (QFT), on adolescents' curiosity. The study's sample included adolescents (N = 3173) in four public high schools in the United States nested within 43 educators' English/Language Arts classrooms. Teachers (N = 43) were randomly assigned to two groups, one of which received professional development in the QFT in fall 2015 and the other in the winter of 2016. The study utilized student self-report questionnaires and teacher fidelity checks at three time points (fall, winter, and spring) to consider the impact of the QFT on participating adolescents' curiosity. Results: Multilevel modeling results indicated a positive treatment effect of the QFT on adolescents' curiosity, a positive adherence effect on adolescents' curiosity growth, and a positive dosage effect on adolescents' curiosity growth. Conclusions: The study suggests that adolescent dispositional curiosity can be significantly increased by directly teaching students to question.
... Múltiples son las definiciones de curiosidad intelectual (cf. Noordewier & van Dijk, 2017), pero es posible definirle como el deseo de saber (Silvia & Kashdan, 2009), como un apetito (Berlyne, 1954) o un deseo de conocer el mundo, de sentir placer al realizar esta actividad y proyectar ese deseo en el futuro, que refleja un estado en el que las personas carecen de información y están motivadas para descubrir qué es. ...
... Esta noción ha sido identificada como una de las disposiciones clave para el pensamiento crítico en donde la búsqueda de estos nuevos conocimientos va más allá de una búsqueda pragmática o utilitarista (Demirdag, 2015;Powell, Nettelbeck, & Burns, 2016;Watson, 2017). La curiosidad, el interés y la motivación intrínseca son elementos clave en el desarrollo de la competencia, el conocimiento y el expertise (Silvia & Kashdan, 2009). ...
Article
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Recent research shows significant motivational changes during teacher training including a significant drop in the intellectual curiosity of teachers in training. Given the relevance of this observation and its possible impact on the quality of the training of future teachers, this study aims to describe and analyze student-attributed caused to declined intellectual curiosity during initial teacher training. From a general sample of future primary teacher (n=295) who were evaluated across motivational variables, students who showed a significant drop in this variable were selected for interview (posttest-pretest delta ≥-1z). Students were interviewed in depth (n=10) to explore possible causes behind motivational decline. Causes attributed to low motivation focus on factors within teacher training: expectations/reality discrepancy, lowdemanding or non-challenging environments, and technical conceptions of the teaching profession. Self-reported attributions to reasons behind declining motivation are consistent with previous studies. A generalized perception of low quality, lack of challenge, and the eminently technical character of the profession conspire against student commitment to solid academic formation. Given that intellectual curiosity is key in learning and can provide teachers the opportunity to model the desire to learn in their students, widespread perception of low quality and demand is a wake-up call for training institutions.
... Múltiples son las definiciones de curiosidad intelectual (cf. Noordewier & van Dijk, 2017), pero es posible definirle como el deseo de saber (Silvia & Kashdan, 2009), como un apetito (Berlyne, 1954) o un deseo de conocer el mundo, de sentir placer al realizar esta actividad y proyectar ese deseo en el futuro, que refleja un estado en el que las personas carecen de información y están motivadas para descubrir qué es. ...
... Esta noción ha sido identificada como una de las disposiciones clave para el pensamiento crítico en donde la búsqueda de estos nuevos conocimientos va más allá de una búsqueda pragmática o utilitarista (Demirdag, 2015;Powell, Nettelbeck, & Burns, 2016;Watson, 2017). La curiosidad, el interés y la motivación intrínseca son elementos clave en el desarrollo de la competencia, el conocimiento y el expertise (Silvia & Kashdan, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
... Múltiples son las definiciones de curiosidad intelectual (cf. Noordewier & van Dijk, 2017), pero es posible definirle como el deseo de saber (Silvia & Kashdan, 2009), como un apetito (Berlyne, 1954) o un deseo de conocer el mundo, de sentir placer al realizar esta actividad y proyectar ese deseo en el futuro, que refleja un estado en el que las personas carecen de información y están motivadas para descubrir qué es. ...
... Esta noción ha sido identificada como una de las disposiciones clave para el pensamiento crítico en donde la búsqueda de estos nuevos conocimientos va más allá de una búsqueda pragmática o utilitarista (Demirdag, 2015;Powell, Nettelbeck, & Burns, 2016;Watson, 2017). La curiosidad, el interés y la motivación intrínseca son elementos clave en el desarrollo de la competencia, el conocimiento y el expertise (Silvia & Kashdan, 2009). ...
Article
Investigaciones recientes muestran procesos de desmotivación durante la formación profesional, entre ellos una baja en la curiosidad intelectual. Dada la relevancia de esta constatación el presente estudio tiene por objetivo describir y analizar las causas atribuidas por los estudiantes a este fenómeno. A partir de una muestra general de futuros profesores de primaria (n=295), se seleccionaron estudiantes que evidenciaron una caída significativa en esta variable (deltapost-pretest ≥-1z). A estos estudiantes les fueron realizadas entrevistas en profundidad (n=10) para explorar las eventuales causas que explicarían esta baja motivacional. Los resultados muestran que las causas atribuidas a esta baja motivacional se focalizan en factores al interior de la formación docente: discordancia expectativa/realidad, ambientes de baja exigencia y poco desafiantes y a una concepción técnica de la profesión docente. La percepción generalizada de baja calidad y exigencia y el caráctereminentemente técnico de la profesión conspiran contra el compromiso de los estudiantes por una formación académica sólida. Dado que la curiosidad intelectual es clave en el aprendizaje y en el profesor puede significar la oportunidad de modelar ese deseode saber en sus estudiantes, esta percepción generalizada de baja calidad y exigencia es un llamado de alerta a las instituciones formadoras
... Kang et al. 2009 The level of curiosity when reading trivia questions correlated with activity in brain regions involved in anticipated reward. Kashdan and Silvia 2009;Kashdan and Steger 2007;Silvia 2008;Silvia and Kashdan 2009 Curiosity induction was rewarding and involved positive feelings of interest. ...
... Our research suggests that doing so has the additional benefit of making the audience feel happier. We further speculate that if teachers routinely create uncertainty about some knowledge and later resolve the uncertainty, students will learn to enjoy the process (Csikszentmihalyi 1990;Kapp 2012), develop long-lasting habits of knowledge seeking Silvia 2008;Silvia and Kashdan 2009), and live a happier life for years to come (Kashdan and Steger 2007). ...
Article
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Seven studies covering diverse contexts show an underappreciated benefit of teasing in information acquisition: first creating and then resolving an uncertainty can generate a net positive experience, yet laypeople do not seek out this process. For example, trivia readers report better hedonic experiences if they are first teased with some missing information and then given that information than if they receive all the information at the same time; however, when given a choice, readers prefer to receive all information at the same time. The authors further show that teasing is hedonically beneficial because uncertainty engenders curiosity and thereby builds a potential for a positive experience, whereas uncertainty resolution satisfies the curiosity and thereby realizes that potential. This research yields practical implications by demonstrating that imbuing an ad with an uncertainty creation-resolution process improves the viewer's attitude toward and increases the viewer's willingness to try the advertised product.
... It has also been found that professional training can dampen curiosity (Dyche & Epstein 2011) placing the project management profession at risk of decreased benefits seen through leveraging curiosity. Curiosity is correlated to competence and expertise (Silvia & Kashdan 2009) and is now recognised as a key trait that employers seek in job applicants (Fifer 2013). ...
... A culture of curiosity can be fostered through continuous learning and supporting educational growth (Eason 2010). There are many studies looking at correlations between curiosity and personality traits (Silvia & Kashdan 2009). However there are fewer empirical studies that explore the effectiveness of mechanisms to increase curiosity especially in the project management context. ...
Conference Paper
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As project managers we are good at decomposing scope to create work breakdown structures, we unpack and prioritise hard requirements. Yet we constantly face the near inevitable budget blow out and schedule overrun, even worse our projects may become insignificant prior to or just after implementation. With changing environments and shifting expectations how does the project manager stay relevant? What skills do we strengthen? Technical skills will get you shortlisted, demonstrating highly developed interpersonal skills may get you an interview, presentation and stealth self-marketing may get you hired. But what gets you rehired and provides better project outcomes? Curiosity killed the cat but can it keep you relevant and competitive? Unrestrained curiosity becomes an annoying time waster, however, if targeted it can become the project managers' superpower. Best of all we all have it, we just have to harness it. Project managers can harness curiosity as a valuable addition to their project management toolkit. Embracing productive curiosity can lead to better project outcomes for customers and renewed contracts for the project manager. Through an exploration of the extant literature, this paper aims to investigate the linkage of curiosity to both the technical and interpersonal skills required by the contemporary project manager.
... Curiosity and acceptance are important elements for one person to gain creativity, fulfillment and views [1][2][3][4]. A child's tendency to ask a question shall be an initial step of building human relations and learning various things. ...
... The coefficients, β 0 , β 1 , β 2 , β 3 , β 4 , are parameters to be estimated and ε i is a disturbance term. In Eq 2, parameters β 1 and β 2 are of particular interest to statistically test question (2). The median regression is used to statistically analyze the determinants of generativity and happiness in place of parametric mean-based regressions, when observations of generativity and happiness in the sample are considered to be non-normally distributed and/or skewed. ...
Article
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Inquisitiveness (curiosity & acceptance to something and someone different) is the main engine for one person to initiate some relation, and the literature has established that maintaining nice relationships with friends, family and general others contributes to generativity and happiness. However, little is known about how generativity and happiness are characterized by inquisitiveness. We hypothesize that inquisitiveness is a fundamental determinant for generativity and happiness, empirically examining the relationships along with cognitive, noncognitive and sociodemographic factors. We conduct questionnaire surveys with 400 Japanese subjects, applying quantile regression and structural equation modeling to the data. First, the analysis identifies the importance of inquisitiveness in characterizing generativity in that people with high inquisitiveness tend to be generative. Second, people are identified to be happy as they have high generativity and inquisitiveness, demonstrating two influential roles of inquisitiveness as direct and indirect determinants through a mediator of generativity. Overall, the results suggest that inquisitiveness shall be a key element of people’s happiness through intergenerational and intragenerational communications or relations.
... Merak kişinin çevresini tanımasında ve ortama uyum sağlamasında kullandığı bir özelliğidir ve bireysel farklılıklar göstermektedir (Silvia ve Kashdan 2009). Meraklı kişiler etrafımızda gerçekleşen bizce sıradan birçok şey hakkından derinlemesine araştırma isteği duyabilen kişilerdir. ...
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ABSTRACT: In this study, the Science Curiosity in Learning Environments (SCILE) scale, which was developed by Weible and Zimmerman (2016) to measure the scientific curiosity of young students in learning environments such as school, home, museum and society, was adapted into Turkish and its validity and reliability study was conducted. For a language validity study, the scale was translated into Turkish by the language and field experts. The Turkish form was translated into English again by a language specialist, compared to the original structure, and the scale was finalized. The data were collected from 284 students studying at two different high schools in a city in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. The data were analyzed by Exploratory Factor Analysis. The exploratory factor analysis results demonstrated that the Turkish questionnaire has a two-dimensional structure and ten items. Cronbach Alpha internal consistency coefficient of the scale was found in ,799. As a result, it was concluded that the scale adapted to Turkish is a valid and reliable measurement tool that can be used to measure high school students' scientific curiosity in learning environments such as schoola, homes, museums, and society in Turkey.
... A possible extension of the value aspects Analysing the documents for connections between curiosity and the established value fields of ECEC shows that, with a few exceptions, curiosity is given a prominent instrumental competence value with regard to learning and gaining knowledge. On the other hand, several psychologists from the field of positive psychology suggest a correlation between curiosity and well-being, defining curiosity as one of the ingredients of a fulfilled life (Kashdan, 2010;Silvia & Kashdan, 2009). Therefore, in the last section of this discussion, I would like to mention a possible alternative value aspect of curiosity in the field of early childhood education: curiosity as an intrinsic value of existential importance. ...
Article
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Several have challenged the idea that the act of educating is a neutral endeavour. Following this line of thought, this article intends to examine a common concept often taken for granted: curiosity. The aim of this article is to explore the notion of curiosity in an early-childhood-education-and-care (ECEC) context in Norway in order to provide new perspectives on how value aspects of curiosity are communicated in official documents. Four ECEC documents from different organisational levels will be analysed. Informed by qualitative content analysis with a concept-driven strategy, this document analysis seeks to explore connections between the notion of curiosity and prominent value fields in ECEC, such as competence, democracy and care. Analysis of the documents suggests that curiosity is a value-loaded notion here, one which often has a competence-related value and which is frequently understood as a tool for gaining knowledge, especially in natural science and mathematics. Other value aspects, such as nurturing democracy, are represented to a minor degree. At the same time, the documents do not include possible ethical aspects of curiosity, such as connections to interpersonal caring, nor do they mention any existential or intrinsic value. In the final discussion, the article therefore explores these possible alternatives.
... As pointed out by Silvia and Kashdan (2009), curiosity is among the first five personality traits most closely associated with general life satisfaction, job satisfaction, and living a pleasurable, involved and meaningful life. It is a factor that supports the individual's striving for personal growth and fulfillment. ...
Article
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This study is a continuation of the work of Professor Kazimierz Wrześniewski. It concerns the role of curiositytrait in the dynamics of changes in coping and quality of life after a heart attack. The study was attended by 222 people after a heart attack (73% men), of whom 140 participated in the three stages of the study: at the beginning and at the end of cardiac rehabilitation and a year after leaving the resort. The participants aged 24-64 years (M = 54.19; SD = 6.51). Curiosity-trait was measured by Spielberger and Wrześniewski’s STPI questionnaire. To assess coping strategies a modified version of the COPE by Carver et al., was used. The specific and general quality of life were measured by the Polish adaptations of MacNew and NHP questionnaires. The level of curiosity-trait significantly differentiated changes in the dynamics of positive reinterpretation, problem solving and resignation, but did not affect the change in quality of life within the year after a heart attack.
... It is therefore peculiar that empirical research has almost exclusively operationalized curiosity either as a stable trait or as the product of inherent qualities (e.g. novelty, complexity or perceptual ambiguity) that make a stimulus interesting to most people [35,36,33,[37][38][39]. While some individuals are generally more curious than others [40], and some stimuli generally more curiosity eliciting than others, it also seems clear that a topic can fail to capture our interest one day, yet send us down the proverbial rabbit hole the next. ...
Article
Curiosity—the desire to know—is a powerful motivator for learning and behavior. Theoretical and anecdotal discussions have also linked curiosity to creativity and innovation, but there is little empirical evidence for this connection, aside from a handful of recent studies. We review the existing evidence and discuss potential mechanisms through which curiosity may facilitate the creative process. We further discuss important methodological issues that have limited past research on the relationship between curiosity and creativity. One limitation is the lack of studies investigating curiosity as a psychological state that fluctuates over time and with changing contexts rather than only as a trait. Another limitation is the scarcity of behavioral measures of exploration and curiosity. We discuss the few existing behavioral measures that have been used and introduce a new measure relying on real effort.
... Research on situational interest showed that making a lesson more interesting can improve students' learning outcomes and students tend to perform better on learning materials that interest them (35). Furthermore, researchers studied how learners appraised the "interestingness" of learning materials, particularly textbased reading materials (36)(37)(38)(39). They found three components in the "interestingness" appraisal model: novelty, complexity, and coping potential. ...
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Background: Ample research evidence has demonstrated that Community Health Worker (CHW) programs are a cost-effective, culturally integrated, and impactful way to improve community health. Although most existing CHW programs recruit adults as CHWs, high school students, with their intellectual readiness and intimate community knowledge, also have great potential to be engaged as CHWs that impact community health. With this potential in mind, the High School Community Health Worker Curriculum (HSCHW), for face-to-face training, was created in 2016 at Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM) as an innovative solution to improve community health in underserved, urban neighborhoods. Sixteen Metro Atlanta high school students participated in the program's first cohort. The face-to-face HSCHW training program received very positive feedback from the students and community partners involved. Additionally, during the inaugural training, the program received more than 150 nationwide inquiries about an opportunity to either participate in the program or replicate its curriculum. Hence, in 2018, a corresponding online curriculum was created to meet these needs. The online HSCHW curriculum covers the roles and competencies described in the CHW Core Consensus (C3) Project and focuses on developing high school students' critical thinking, decision-making, and communication skills. As of February 2021, 346 high school community health workers have participated in this online curriculum. Purpose: This paper reports on the research study of the critical processes and strategies of transforming, engaging, and implementing the online HSCHW curriculum. Method: The project team conducted the research study to identify the key strategies to transform the face-to-face HSCHW curriculum, the engagement strategies embedded in the online curriculum's content development, and, ultimately, the curriculum's outcomes. Altogether, this mixed-method study analyzed and reported on the learning outcomes of 265 students', in tandem with 17 high school students' focused-group interviews and responses to online surveys. Results: The results showed that integrating instructional design processes is critical for the online curriculum's success. “Interestingness,” the latent concept embedded in the online HSCHW curriculum, engages high school students in learning about complex CHW skills, through digital content and activities. Furthermore, the successful implementation of the program and its student learning outcomes was assured by integrating the online curriculum with local schools and community resources, training the local community and school “trainers” to facilitate the curriculum online, and providing ongoing coaching support from the program team. Impacts: This paper provides a research report on the key strategies and processes of creating and implementing an online CHW curriculum for high school students. Its findings will inform future endeavors to develop an online CHW curriculum for lifelong learners and increase training effectiveness. The online HSCHW curriculum increases the national capacity of community health workers, whose work will increase community engagement and health equity. The curriculum also empowers high school students to acquire health knowledge that can bridge the educational gap between health knowledge acquisition and health knowledge application. Additionally, the online HSCHW curriculum presents a concrete example of leveraging digital platforms to teach complex public health competencies to young adults who can positively impact community health.
... Interest also impels growth-oriented behaviours such as exploration, learning and creativity, increasing the likelihood for successful adaptation and survival (Izard, 1991;Izard & Ackerman, 2000;Piaget, 1981). Silvia and Kashdan (2009) found that initial momentary interest sometimes can lead to lasting hobbies or passions, providing people with a renewable source of engagement and meaning. Interested youngsters are reported to be more optimistic and they look forward to the future with greater confidence, enthusiasm and power (Hunter & Csikszentmihalyi, 2003). ...
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This phenomenological study examined the ways in which self-exploration manifested in Hong Kong adolescents’ leisure experiences. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 75 secondary school students on the choice of and engagement in their most important and interesting leisure activities. Seven themes emerged from data analysis that formed the essences of the adolescents’ leisure experiences: investment, positive affect, negative affect, obstacles to activity pursuit, recognition of own character, personal gains, and desires. These themes revealed adolescents’ self-exploration, which is an ongoing dynamic exploration process comprising constant appraisal, self-discovery and self-construction embedded in students’ social context and driven by their interests, needs, beliefs, and potentials. The study demonstrated the developmental significance of adolescents’ engagement in activities of personal interest and importance. Through a contextualized investigation on leisure experiences and reflections among Hong Kong teenagers, this study also added to the knowledge of leisure pursuit and meaning-making in non-Western contexts.
... Curiosity motivates us to seek out information and it facilitates knowledge acquisition 398 (Loewenstein, 1994;Litman, 2005;Silvia and Kashdan, 2009;Gottlieb and Oudeyer, 2018). ...
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Across the lifespan, curiosity motivates us to learn, yet curiosity varies strikingly between individuals. Such individual differences have been shown for two distinct dimensions of curiosity: epistemic curiosity (EC), the desire to acquire knowledge about facts, and perceptual curiosity (PC), the desire for sensory information. It is not known, however, whether both dimensions of curiosity depend on different brain networks and whether inter-individual differences in curiosity depend on variation in anatomical connectivity within these networks. Here, we investigated the neuroanatomical connections underpinning individual variation in trait curiosity. Fifty-one female participants underwent a two-shell diffusion MRI sequence and completed questionnaires measuring EC and PC. Using deterministic spherical deconvolution tractography we extracted microstructural metrics (fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD)) from two key white matter tracts: the fornix (implicated in novelty processing, exploration, information seeking and episodic memory) and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) (implicated in semantic learning and memory). In line with our predictions, we found that EC - but not PC - correlated with ILF microstructure. Fornix microstructure, in contrast, correlated with both EC and PC with posterior hippocampal fornix fibres - associated with posterior hippocampal network connectivity - linked to PC specifically. These findings suggest that differences in distinct dimensions of curiosity map systematically onto specific white matter tracts underlying well characterized brain networks. Furthermore, the results pave the way to study the anatomical substrates of inter-individual differences in dimensions of trait curiosity that motivate the learning of distinct forms of knowledge and skills.
... Although students might express feelings of curiosity through questioning, little research has explored whether more enduring tendencies towards curiosity might be developed by teaching students to question. In other words, you might feel curious and therefore ask a question about something relevant to you at a particular moment, but in order to be a curious person one has to know how to question (Silvia & Kashdan, 2009;Watson, 2018). Several scholars acknowledge that student curiosity might be cultivated through the direct teaching questioning (Baehr, 2015;Engel, 2015;Watson, 2018). ...
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Research has found that directly teaching students to question positively affects academic outcomes. Although theoretically questioning is believed to foster numerous “noncognitive” outcomes, relatively few studies have considered the impact of direct instruction in questioning on students’ curiosity and related motivational constructs. The present quasi-experimental study investigated the impact of a student question-brainstorming intervention (the Question Formulation Technique; QFT) on adolescents’ curiosity, cognitive school engagement, and self-efficacy (achievement efficacy and self-regulatory school efficacy) over one school year. Multiple-group structural equation path modeling was utilized to consider the impact of the intervention on these constructs, while accounting for the interrelationships among the variables. Results indicated a positive impact of the QFT on students’ curiosity, but a negative impact on students’ self-regulatory for self-efficacy learning and cognitive engagement. Limitations and implications for educators are discussed.
... Moreover, a study showed that among the three dimensions of apathy, namely emotional blunting, lack of initiative, and lack of interest, only the latter one was predictive of cognitive decline (Robert et al., 2008), which suggests that diminished interest may possibly constitute a key symptom in the progression of cognitive difficulties. Likewise, some authors have stated that interest has a strong motivational and goal-orientated component, particularly for exploration, information seeking, and learning (Sansone & Smith, 2000;Silvia & Kashdan, 2009). Thus, it may be possible that apathetic manifestations, especially lack of interest, could compromise the execution of multitasking in patients with TBI. ...
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Objectives: Apathy is one of the most common behavioral symptoms encountered after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, very little is known about the longitudinal course and predictors of apathetic manifestations. The aims of the present study were to examine how apathy changes and the predictive value of cognitive factors (memory, attention/executive mechanisms, and multitasking) and personal identity factors (self-esteem and self-efficacy beliefs) for apathy over a period of 10 months. Method: To this end, 68 participants (32 patients with severe TBI matched with 36 control participants) living in the community were,enrolled. At Time 1, participants were given three questionnaires to assess self-esteem, self-efficacy beliefs, anxiety and depression symp-toms, and five tasks to assess cognitive processes. Simultaneously, a close relative of each participant completed a questionnaire that assessed lack of initiative/initiative. At Time 2, all questionnaires were re-administered to each patient and their relatives. Results: Patients displayed a significant lack of initiative/interest at all post-injury assessments. At the individual level, the results revealed that a majority of patients had no change in their apathetic symptoms over the 10-month follow-up, whereas in the others, apathetic symptoms mostly increased. Furthermore, impaired memory was the only mechanism that significantly predicted later apathetic manifestations. Complementary profile analyses indicated that patients with worsening symptoms over the follow-up period showed higher inaccurate memory at Time 1 than patients with stable symptoms. Conclusions: These results provide valuable insight into the longitudinal evolution and predictors of apathy after TBI, which opens interesting prospects for psychological interventions.
... The unidimensional conceptualization of involvement, as described by Zaichkowsky (1985), is the level of interest in a product category which acts as a major driver of the communication behavior of customers. The interest of a customer in a product category motivates them to be informed about the brand like discussing about it in their communities and social groups and to be engaged in brand experiences (Silvia and Kashdan, 2009). For example, the customer who follows fashion trends is likely to have high interest in the apparel category and will be engaged with the brands of that category. ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the different dimensions of involvement and customer engagement (CE) and analyze the influence of CE on loyalty in an online retail context. The study also tests the mediation of CE between the facets of involvement and loyalty. Design/methodology/approach The study employed a survey for data collection from online retail website users and analyzed the data with partial least squares – structural equation modeling. Findings The results reveal that the dimensions of involvement drive engagement differently. The risk importance and risk probability do not influence CE whereas the sign, interest, and pleasure are positively associated with CE. Furthermore, CE mediates the link between sign, interest, and pleasure dimensions of involvement and loyalty. Practical implications This study provides insights for the managers that the perception of value from a brand starts at its product category level and values like sign, interest, and pleasure can be provided to the customers by not only brand consumption but also by engaging them with the brand. Originality/value This is among the first studies to have empirically tested the effect of dimensions of involvement on CE and explain the role of engagement as a means for the customers to achieve expected values. It also contributes to the extant CE literature by testing its mediating role between involvement dimensions and loyalty, thus augmenting the studies, which have explored the antecedents and consequences of CE.
... We do not aim to provide an exhaustive review of this voluminous literature on curiosity in these various domains of psychology. Several reviews (Grossnickle, 2016;Litman, 2019;Shin & Kim, 2019;Silvia & Kashdan, 2009) have already synthesized that literature, and we leverage these reviews to provide a definitional springboard and conceptual foundation for reviewing and discussing curiosity at work. ...
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Since the origins of psychology, curiosity has occupied a pivotal position in the study of motivation, emotion, and cognition; and disciplines as far-ranging as biology, economics, robotics, and leadership. Theorists have disagreed about the basic tenets of curiosity; some researchers contend that the rewards arise when resolving ambiguity and uncertainty whereas others argue that being curious is an intrinsically pleasurable experience. Three studies were conducted to consolidate competing theories and isolated bodies of research. Using data from a community survey of 508 adults (Study 1), 403 adults on MTurk (Study 2), and a nationally representative household survey of 3,000 adults (Study 3), we found evidence for five distinct factors: Joyous Exploration, Deprivation Sensitivity, Stress Tolerance, Social Curiosity, and Thrill Seeking - forming The Five-Dimensional Curiosity Scale (5DC). Each factor had substantive relations with a battery of personality, emotion, and well-being measures. Taking advantage of this multidimensional model, we found evidence for four distinct types of curious people in Study 3 referred to as The Fascinated (28% of sample), Problem Solvers (28%), Empathizers (25%), and Avoiders (19%). Subgroups differed in their passionate interests, areas of expertise, consumer behavior, and social media use; challenging an assumption that there is a homogenous population to be discriminated on a single dimension from incurious to very curious. With greater bandwidth and predictive power, the 5DC offers new opportunities for research on origins, consequences, life outcomes, and intervention strategies to enhance curiosity.
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Curiosity is an intrinsic motivation for learning, but is highly dynamic and changes moment to moment in response to environmental stimuli. In spite of the prevalence of small group learning in and outside of modern classrooms, little is known about the social nature of curiosity. In this paper, we present a model that predicts the temporal and social dynamics of curiosity based on sequences of behaviors exhibited by individuals engaged in group learning. This model reveals distinct sequential behavior patterns that predict increase and decrease of curiosity in individuals, and convergence to high and low curiosity among group members. In particular, convergence of the entire group to a state of high curiosity is highly correlated with sequences of behaviors that involve the most social of group behaviors - such as questions and answers, arguments and sharing findings, as well as scientific reasoning behaviors such as hypothesis generation and justification. The implications of these findings are discussed for educational systems that intend to evoke and scaffold curiosity in group learning contexts.
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Kitabın bu bölümünde genel hatlatıyla travmayla nasıl başa çıkarız, bu süreçte farklı stratejiler var mıdır ya da koruyucu faktörler neler olabilir sorularına cevap aranmıştır. Travma sonrası başa çıkmayı destekleyen ya da kolaylaştıran koruyucu faktörlerden sosyal destek, aidiyet duygusu, bağlanma stilleri, psikolojik sağlamlık/ psikolojik dayanıklılık/ kendini toparlama gücü/ yılmazlık, öz şefkat, düşünce kontrol becerileri (dkb), metabiliş, üst biliş, yürütücü biliş, bilinçli/farkındalık, doğa ile ilişkililik, atılganlık ve girişkenlik faktörleri kısaca açıklanarak travmayla baş etmeyi neden kolaylaştırdığına değinilmiştir. Bölümün sonunda ise geçmişten günümüze sıklıkla kullanılan travmanın etkilerini önleme ve müdahale süreçlerinden bahsedilmiştir. Özellikle EMDR, şema terapi, doğa terapi, bilinçli farkındalık terapisi gibi günümüz popüler yöntemlerinden travma sonrası nasıl yararlınabileceği ile ilgili bilgiler sunulmuştur.
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Adaptive acquisition of information is critical for goal-directed behavior. Popular theories posit that information acquisition is driven by intrinsic motives (curiosity or exploration bonus) and mediated by valuation system. However, they are insufficient when agents need to evaluate instrumental benefit of new information in a forward-looking manner. We tested whether human brain computes value of information (VOI) on a scale common with more basic rewards to acquire information. In an fMRI task, subjects purchased information for choices on monetary lotteries. Behaviorally, subjective VOI was largely driven by instrumental benefit, as normatively predicted, but additionally affected by non-instrumental motive, particularly the utility of anticipation. Neurally, VOI was represented in striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Cross-categorical decoding revealed that these regions use a common scale for VOI and another type of value, expected utility of the lotteries. These provide new insight on neurocognitive mechanism of forward-looking, value-based information acquisition.
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Positive organizational behavior is a natural resulf of positive psychologhy.Organizations may able to have high psychological organizational capital by means of positive psychologhy.This cause an optimistic perspective for future in organizations. The perception of curiosity and exploration is a motivational factor just like high organization psychological capital.The organizations working with people who have high curiosity and exploration perception may able to go forward than others in terms of solving problems and building future.Therefore in this paper we tried to identify the relationship between organizational psychological capital and curious and exploration.At the end of research,findings showed that there is positive relationship between self-efficacy dimension of organizational psychological capital and the perception of curious and exploration.There is also positive relationship between optimism dimension of organizational psychological capital and the perception of curiosity and exploration. Key Words: Organizational psychological capital, curiosity and exploration, hope, resilience, optimism, self-efficacy.
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The aim of this research is to determine the effects of teaching the "Solar System and Beyond" unit with learning technique-based activities at stations enriched with science toys on the academic achievement, motivational strategies for learning, reflective thinking, curiosity and interest levels about space sciences, and their views on scientific toys. The study group of this research consists of 72 students studying at the 7th grade level in a public secondary school in Istanbul in the 2019-2020 academic year. Quantitative data collection tools used in this study are "Solar System and Beyond Achievement Test", "Motivational Strategies for Learning Scale", "Reflective Thinking Scale", "Space Sciences Curiosity and Interest Scale" and "Science Toys Opinion Scale". The qualitative data collection tool used in this study is interview data. The application lasted for 12 lesson. As a result of this study, the teaching of the "Solar System and Beyond" unit with learning technique-based activities at stations enriched with science toys; It has been found that secondary school seventh grade students have a positive effect on academic achievement, motivational strategies for learning, reflective thinking, curiosity and interest levels about space sciences, and their views on science toys. In addition to this, it was determined that the qualitative data supported the quantitative data.
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English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers in Japan and across the world are often faced with the problem of how to engage their students. One potential control lever to increase student engagement is through stimulating curiosity & interest. This study analyzed Likert-scale questionnaire data from 285 students at an all boys high school in Japan. It first examined through principal components analysis how a construct developed by Smith (2019a), labelled 'Curiosity in English Studies' (CiES), could be parsimoniously separated from Yashima's (2009) construct of 'International Posture’ (IP), with which it had overlapping variance. CiES was reduced from ten scale items down to seven. Then, through multiple regression analyses, CiES and IP were analyzed to see how much of their respective variances could be attributed to dimensions of trait curiosity from an adapted version of Kashdan, Disabato, Goodman, & Mcknight’s (2020) multi-dimensional curiosity scale, the 5DCR, which for CiES was 23% and for IP 29%. In a final regression model IP & CiES were assessed as to how much explanatory variance they provided together to an ‘intended learning effort’ scale, for which just over a majority of the variance was accounted for at 51%. These relationships suggest that both the CiES and IP constructs can be useful conceptual tools for setting up the conditions in EFL classrooms for the growth and flourishing of student curiosity, interest and engagement. http://hdl.handle.net/2065/00080672
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Curiosity is associated with a number of beneficial outcomes, such as greater life satisfaction, more work engagement and better academic performance. The connection between curiosity and beneficial outcomes supports the importance of examining whether it is possible to increase curiosity and to investigate what approaches may be effective in facilitating curiosity. This meta-analysis consolidated the effects of curiosity-enhancing interventions. Across 41 randomized controlled trials, with a total of 4,496 participants, interventions significantly increased curiosity. The weighted effect size was Hedges' g = 0.57 [0.44, 0.70]. These results indicated that interventions were effective across a variety of intervention principles used, with participants in various age groups, across various measures, and over different time periods. Interventions aiming to increase general curiosity showed larger effect sizes than interventions aiming to increase realm-specific curiosity. Interventions incorporating mystery or game playing had especially high effect sizes. Because higher levels of curiosity tend to be associated with various beneficial outcomes, the finding that across studies interventions are effective in increasing curiosity holds promise for future efforts to increase curiosity to bring about additional benefits.
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Epistemic curiosity—the desire for knowledge—is typically thought to benefit learning. In four preregistered studies, we show that interest curiosity, a facet of epistemic curiosity characterized by joyful exploration, is indeed associated with traits and abilities that benefit learning. These include general knowledge, intellectual humility, and discernment of the quality of information. In contrast, deprivation curiosity, a facet motivated by uncertainty reduction, is associated with errors and confusion. Individuals high in deprivation curiosity claim familiarity with new information (Studies 1 & 3) and made-up concepts (Studies 1, 2 & 4). They find meaning in “bullshit” (Studies 3 & 4), believe disinformation (Study 4), and lack intellectually humility (Studies 1, 3 and 4). We theorize that deprivation curiosity is characterized by an indiscriminate openness to information.
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Phygital retail experiences connect physical and digital worlds together to create unique experiences among customers. Despite the widespread uses and applications of phygital retailing, the involvement-patronage link remains unexplored. This paper thus aims to make up this gap by examining the effects of customer involvement on their patronage intentions in the phygital retail context. More specifically, building on the social exchange theory, this paper mainly addresses the effects of five dimensions of involvement on customer engagement; and the influence of customer engagement on their patronage intentions in the phygital retailing. The role of customer innovativeness as a boundary condition is also explored. Data were collected from 237 customers who experienced phygital retail stores and analyzed through structural equation modeling. The results show that five facets of involvement (i.e., risk importance, risk probability, sign, interest, and pleasure) affect customer engagement, which eventually affects customers’ patronage intentions of phygital products. This study further identifies that the effects of each dimension of involvement on customer engagement are higher (lower) among the customers with high (low) innovativeness. The findings of the study offer significant theoretical and managerial implications.
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Este trabalho discute a importância de aspectos relativos ao domínio afetivo/motivacional, como crenças, atitudes, emoções, expectativa de reviver emoções positivas, entre outros, no processo de escolha da carreira de professor de Física. Essa investigação foi desenvolvida com licenciandos dos quatro primeiros períodos da graduação em Física em duas universidades públicas brasileiras. Na análise das entrevistas, buscamos elementos relativos às crenças de autoeficácia dos acadêmicos; a experiências emocionais positivas e de interesse que possam ter tido pela Física ou pela docência; a suas relações com a profissão de professor e com seus professores durante o período escolar; e às atribuições que fazem para terem optado pela licenciatura em Física. Os resultados apontam que crenças de autoeficácia e as expectativas em reviver emoções positivas foram fatores importantes na escolha da carreira de professor de Física por parte desses licenciandos.
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Despite the significant strides made in the customer engagement literature, the need to understand any marketing actor’s engagement (vs. merely the customer’s) is increasingly recognized. Therefore, the budding actor engagement (AE) concept, which is commonly grounded in S-D logic, describes any marketing actor’s engagement, including that of customers, firms, employees, suppliers, and so on. However, while S-D logic-informed AE offers important insight into actors’ mutual value creation, it largely overlooks the sociopolitical notions that (a) actors’ potentially diverging goals may see them act against (vs. pro) focal others’ interests and (b) different actors may extract differing levels of value from interactions, as advanced in stakeholder theory. Based on these gaps, we extend existing AE research by developing integrative stakeholder theory/S-D logic-informed stakeholder engagement (SE). We deduce five core SE tenets, from which we conceptualize SE as a stakeholder’s state-based, boundedly volitional resource endowment in his/her role-related interactions, activities, and/or relationships. We conclude this article by discussing important implications that arise from our analyses and by identifying avenues for further research.
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We present an assessment of curiosity measures used in organizational and social psychology literature published since the start of this century. We focus on: a) the validity and reliability of existing measures; b) the main dimensions tapping the operationalization of the constructs; and c) the use of each measure in organizational settings. We identify implications of the use of each of these measures for theory and practice in the field of human resource development. Our study concludes with an assessment of the contexts in which the available measures of curiosity may be used and potential challenges in the application of these measures to further the field of human resource development. We find that curiosity measures may be most useful in organizational contexts where learning occurs, including training, socialization, collaboration, research and development, selection, global management, innovation, creativity, and career change.
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Curiosity is evoked when people experience an information-gap between what they know and what they do not (yet) know. Curious people are motivated to find the information they are missing. This motivation has different components: People want to reduce the uncertainty of not knowing something (deprivation motive) and they want to discover new information to expand their knowledge (discovery motive). We discuss recent research that shows that the affective experience of curiosity is the result of the relative strength of the deprivation and discovery motives. This, in turn, is contingent on individual differences, anticipated features of the actual target, and features of the information-gap.
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Background: Curiosity is a personality characteristic, which fits with wellbeing and positive functioning. The objective of this study was to assess the construct validity of the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory II (CEI-II) in Indonesia. Design and Methods: The study included 256 undergraduate students who lived in Indonesia, mean age 19.8 years old. The CEI-II measures stretching and embracing using 11 items. The English version of CEI-II was translated into Bahasa. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were addressed to examine internal consistency reliability and the test-retest reliability. To evaluate construct validity, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to assess factor structure and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate the structural model fit of the CEI-II Indonesia version. Results: The study showed Cronbach's alpha for the internal consistency of the overall CEI-II Indonesia version was 0.77. The ICC for the test-retest reliability ranged between 0.753-0.829. EFA showed adequate with the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin value of 0.86 and the Bartlett's test of sphericity was statistically significant. CFA tested the second-order model with two-order factors and showed a model fit. Conclusions: The CEI-II Indonesia version indicated acceptable construct validity to evaluate curiosity in Indonesia.
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Based on the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, this diary study investigated the mediator role of academic resources in the relationship between personal resources and variables of well-being. The study postulates that the perceived level of academic support received by students during the day mediates the relationship between the levels of self-efficacy and curiosity, measured early in the day, and the level of academic engagement measured at the end of the day. Ninety-four undergraduates filled in a general questionnaire and subsequently completed a daily questionnaire, for 5 consecutive academic days (470 diary entries). The multilevel analysis showed a positive relationship between self-efficacy and curiosity and academic engagement. In addition, the results revealed a positive relationship between academic support and academic engagement. Finally, the results showed partial mediation of academic support in the relationship between self-efficacy and academic engagement and in the relationship between curiosity and academic engagement. The results can be used to improve teaching and learning programs in colleges and universities.
Experiment Findings
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Abstract: One issue that has been identified in classrooms teaching English in Japan is that for many students learning the language often has little meaning other than preparing them for sections of their university entrance exams. It seems an intuitive proposition that the more curiosity and interest one feels toward studying a language, one would have corresponding greater associations with positive attitudes, affect and intended learning effort toward it. This exploratory research found support for this supposition through regression analyses of Likert scale questionnaire data from 269 Japanese high school students. Dimensions of Kashdan et al's (2018) Five-Dimensional Curiosity Scale (5DC) were found to relate to second language acquisition (SLA) constructs at differing levels of explanatory variance: 26% of a measure of language anxiety's variance being explained by stress tolerance; 40% of international posture's variance being primarily accounted for by joyous exploration; 52% of the variance in a new construct labelled 'curiosity in English studies' (CiES), again explained by joyous exploration. International posture and CiES were then found to subsequently relate to a measure of intended learning effort toward studying English, accounting for a high amount of explanatory variance at 72%, with CiES acting as the much more substantial predictor. The results found here suggest that curiosity, as measured by the 5DC, should be further probed as to how its associations and potential causal relations with language acquisition constructs may be leveraged to help students in Japan and beyond form meaningful connections to their English studies. (Changes from original submission: university ethics documentation & data declaration removed; error in Appendix 3 edited).
Chapter
Concepts related to interest, curiosity, and learning motivation appear in a wide swath of scholarship. This chapter develops a perspective on curiosity that is grounded in modern models of motivation and emotion. A functional approach seeks to understand human curiosity in terms of the functions it serves for near-term adaptation and long-term human development. I suggest that curiosity serves three related functions: (1) it motivates people to learn for its own sake; (2) it serves as a counterweight to anxiety, which motivates avoiding new things; and (3) it serves as a counterweight to enjoyment, which motivates sticking with tried-and-true sources of reward. The chapter ends by considering some definitional issues (such as whether “interest” and “curiosity” are different states), exploring relationships between curiosity and other emotional states (e.g., surprise, confusion, and awe), and examining individual differences related to curiosity.
Article
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Since Berlyne's seminal research, the study of experimental aesthetics has examined interest as a response to art. The present research explores the implications of appraisal theories of emotion for the study of interest as an emotion relevant to aesthetics. Participants viewed pictures of modern experimental visual art and rated each picture for interest and for appraisals of complexity and comprehensibility. Multilevel modeling assessed the within-person effects of appraisals on interest. As predicted by appraisal theories, both appraisals significantly and strongly predicted interest at the within-person level. The within-person relationships were not moderated by individual-differences relevant to interest in art (e.g., trait curiosity). Theories of "aesthetic response" should capitalize on modern theories and findings in emotion psychology. In the decades following Berlyne's (1971, 1974) seminal research on "the new experimental aesthetics," a large literature has accumulated on people's subjec- tive reactions to art. Much of this research has been guided by Berlyne's theor- izing about the role of collative variables and arousal in determining the reward value of artistic stimuli. The collative-arousal theory of motivation that underlies Berlyne's research has proved surprisingly resilient, given that psychology has moved away from arousal models of reward and from the concept of "arousal" itself (e.g., Neiss, 1988). Modern research on experimental aesthetics still takes inspiration from Berlyne's ideas about how collative variables affect arousal, interest, and preference. The influence of the Berlyne tradition may be best seen in
Article
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Art experts find art more interesting, particularly when it is abstract or complex. These findings are explored in light of a model of aesthetic emotions rooted in appraisal theories (Silvia, 2005b, 2005d). This model attributes emotional responses to art to cognitive appraisal processes (as opposed to collative motivation, prototypicality, or processing fluency). Two experiments examined whether art experts and novices differed in the appraisals that make art interesting. In Experiment 1, people with art training found complex pictures more interesting, and they appraised them as easier to understand. Using multilevel modeling, Experiment 2 explored whether art training involved a qualitative shift in the appraisals that cause interest. Within-person effects of appraisals on emotions were essentially independent of between-person differences in training. People high and low in training make the same emotional appraisals of art, but they reach different answers to the appraisal questions.
Article
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How does personality influence the relationship between appraisals and emotions? Recent research suggests individual differences in appraisal structures: people may differ in an emotion's appraisal pattern. We explored individual differences in interest's appraisal structure, assessed as the within-person covariance of appraisals with interest. People viewed images of abstract visual art and provided ratings of interest and of interest's appraisals (novelty–complexity and coping potential) for each picture. A multilevel mixture model found two between-person classes that reflected distinct within-person appraisal styles. For people in the larger class (68%), the novelty–complexity appraisal had a stronger effect on interest; for people in the smaller class (32%), the coping potential appraisal had a stronger effect. People in the larger class were significantly higher in appetitive traits related to novelty seeking (e.g., sensation seeking, openness to experience, and trait curiosity), suggesting that the appraisal classes have substantive meaning. We conclude by discussing the value of within-person mixture models for the study of personality and appraisal.
Article
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This article introduces some applications of multilevel modeling for research on art and creativity. Researchers often collect nested, hierarchical data— such as multiple assessments per person—but they typically ignore the nested data structure by averaging across a level of data. Multilevel modeling, also known as hierarchical linear modeling and random coefficient modeling, enables researchers to test old hypotheses more powerfully and to ask new research questions. After describing the logic of multilevel analysis, the article illustrates three practical uses of multilevel modeling: (1) estimating within-person relationships, (2) examining between-person differences in within-person processes, and (3) comparing people's judgments to a criterion. The breadth, flexibility, and power of multilevel modeling make it a useful analytic tool for the multilevel data that researchers have been collecting all along. Statistical methods can open new doors by enabling new kinds of hypotheses to be developed and tested. This article describes the usefulness of multilevel modeling—sometimes known as hierarchical linear modeling or random coeffi- cient modeling—for empirical research on art and creativity (Hox, 2002; Luke, 2004). Although it sounds exotic, multilevel modeling is a straightforward exten- sion of conventional regression analyses. Because it is more general, multilevel modeling enables researchers to test hypotheses that cannot be tested with conventional regression or ANOVA models.
Article
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Individual differences related to emotions are typically represented as emotion traits. Although important, these descriptive models often do not address the psychological dynamics that underlie the trait. Appraisal theories of emotion assume that individual differences in emotions can be traced to differences in patterns of appraisal, but this hypothesis has largely gone untested. The present research explored whether individual differences in the emotion of interest, known as trait curiosity, consist of patterns of appraisal. After completing several measures of trait curiosity, participants read complex poems (Experiment 1) or viewed simple and complex pictures (Experiment 2) and then gave ratings of interest and interest's appraisal components. The effect of trait curiosity on interest was fully mediated by appraisals. Multilevel analyses suggested that curious people differ in the amount of appraisal rather than in the kinds of appraisals relevant to interest. Appraisal theories can offer a process-oriented explanation of emotion traits that bridges state and trait emotional experience.
Article
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Pleasant experience appears to be less emotionally differentiated than unpleasant experience. For instance, theories of emotion typically posit the existence of six or seven unpleasant emotions but often posit only one or two pleasant emotions. The present study is an attempt to systematically examine the differentiation of pleasant emotional experience. Subjects were asked to recall pleasant experiences that were associated with particular situational appraisals—appraisals of effort, agency, and certainty were systematically manipulated—and to describe their appraisals and emotions during these experiences. The results indicated that positive emotions, and their associated appraisals, are somewhat less differentiated than negative emotions, but nonetheless provided evidence of considerable differentiation among six pleasantly toned emotions (interest, hope/confidence, challenge, tranquillity, playfulness, and love). Each of these latter emotions was experienced differentially across the appraisal conditions, and was characterised by a distinct pattern of appraisal.
Article
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According to appraisal theory, emotions result from an individual's meaning analysis of the implications of his/her circumstances for personal well-being, and individual differences in emotion arise when individuals appraise similar situations differently. Relational models of appraisal attempt to describe the situational and dispositional antecedents of appraisals, and should allow one to predict such individual differences. In this article, we review three examples of our efforts toward developing relational appraisal models. In two, we start with a particular appraisal component, motivational relevance and problem-focused coping potential (Smith & Lazarus, 1990), respectively, and describe and test the relational model proposed for that component. In the third, as a precursor to developing a true relational model, we examine another appraisal component, emotion-focused coping potential, from a more dispositional perspective. We conclude by considering both the potential value of relational appraisal models, and future directions in the development of these models.
Article
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The research presented in this article integrates 3 theoretical perspectives in the field of motivation: expectancy-value, achievement goals, and interest. The authors examined the antecedents (initial interest, achievement goals) and consequences (interest, performance) of task value judgments in 2 learning contexts: a college classroom and a high school sports camp. The pattern of findings was consistent across both learning contexts. Initial interest and mastery goals predicted subsequent interest, and task values mediated these relationships. Performance-approach goals and utility value predicted actual performance as indexed by final course grade (classroom) and coach ratings of performance (sports camp). Implications for theories of motivation are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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In this study, I investigated some of the cognitive and affective causes of interest and liking. In Experiment 1, 240 undergraduates read stories with endings that varied in the degree of surprise, outcome valence (i.e., goodness or badness of outcome), and incongruity resolution. The results did not support the hypothesis that degree of surprise per se causes interest (Schank, 1979). Instead, as suggested by Kintsch (1980), subjects rated high-surprise story endings as more interesting than low-surprise story endings for those conditions in which the postsurprise incongruity was resolved ( p 
Article
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A developmental trajectory describes the course of a behavior over age or time. A group-based method for identifying distinctive groups of individual trajectories within the population and for profiling the characteristics of group members is demonstrated. Such clusters might include groups of "increasers," "decreasers," and "no changers." Suitably defined probability distributions are used to handle 3 data types—count, binary, and psychometric scale data. Four capabilities are demonstrated: (a) the capability to identify rather than assume distinctive groups of trajectories, (b) the capability to estimate the proportion of the population following each such trajectory group, (c) the capability to relate group membership probability to individual characteristics and circumstances, and (d) the capability to use the group membership probabilities for various other purposes such as creating profiles of group members. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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Concreteness was investigated as a text feature that engaged readers' comprehension, interest, and learning in 4 text types: persuasion, exposition, literary stories, and narratives. Three concrete and 3 abstract texts were selected in each text type. Concrete and abstract titles served as recall cues and to investigate title concreteness effects. In 2 experiments, undergraduates read the texts and either provided written recalls or rated them for familiarity, concreteness, interestingness, and comprehensibility. Concrete texts were recalled better than abstract texts, although the magnitude of the advantage varied across text types. Concreteness was overwhelmingly the best predictor of overall comprehensibility, interest, and recall. Effects of title concreteness varied across text types. Results extend the findings of M. Sadoski, E. T. Goetz, and J. B. Fritz (see records 1993-36182-001 and 1993-32227-001) and are consistent with dual coding theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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Research on curiosity has undergone 2 waves of intense activity. The 1st, in the 1960s, focused mainly on curiosity's psychological underpinnings. The 2nd, in the 1970s and 1980s, was characterized by attempts to measure curiosity and assess its dimensionality. This article reviews these contributions with a concentration on the 1st wave. It is argued that theoretical accounts of curiosity proposed during the 1st period fell short in 2 areas: They did not offer an adequate explanation for why people voluntarily seek out curiosity, and they failed to delineate situational determinants of curiosity. Furthermore, these accounts did not draw attention to, and thus did not explain, certain salient characteristics of curiosity: its intensity, transience, association with impulsivity, and tendency to disappoint when satisfied. A new account of curiosity is offered that attempts to address these shortcomings. The new account interprets curiosity as a form of cognitively induced deprivation that arises from the perception of a gap in knowledge or understanding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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Multilevel modeling is a technique that has numerous potential applications for social and personality psychology. To help realize this potential, this article provides an introduction to multilevel modeling with an emphasis on some of its applications in social and personality psychology. This introduction includes a description of multilevel modeling, a rationale for this technique, and a discussion of applications of multilevel modeling in social and personality psychological research. Some of the subtleties of setting up multilevel analyses and interpreting results are presented, and software options are discussed.
Article
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Within the last few years, researchers have shown a renewed interest in "interest". Especially in the field of educational psychology many studies have been conducted to analyze how learning and achievement are influenced by motivational and cognitive factors, which are connected with individual and/or situational interests. In this paper, results from empirical research will be presented besides theoretical considerations concerning the interest-construct. Interest has typically been studied as an independent variable. Dependent variables have been either some aspects of learning outcome (knowledge structure, academic achievement) or hypothetical mediators, which probably can be used to explain the interest effects (e.g., learning strategies, attention, emotional experiences). There is also a growing number of studies which try to explore the conditions of interest development within educational settings. Future lines of research will be discussed in light of the demands of educational theory and practice.
Article
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This paper reviews research suggesting that interest and importance are separate constructs mediated by concreteness and mental imagery, especially in expository text or other genres where concreteness and importance often diverge. Important expository material can be relatively more interesting or less interesting. If important expository material is concrete it tends to be interesting and well recalled. If important expository material is abstract and not well linked to concrete elaboration or examples it tends to be less interesting and less well recalled. Concrete elaboration of abstract ideas tends to improve students' recall. There appears to be no harm in adding concrete detail to well structured, coherent text to promote interest unless enough is added so that a new text with a different coherence emerges. Making already concrete text more emotionally interesting may have little effect. Using a coherent text structure that adequately implies or signals importance and supporting important information with concrete explanation are key text design implications. Dual Coding Theory provides a systematic theoretical account of the findings in this area.
Article
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The aim of the present study was to identify and account for individual differences in the contextual experience of anger and its appraisals and in the associations between both. Participants (N = 832) engaged in a directed imagery task of descriptions of unpleasant situations and reported on their appraisal and anger experience. Additionally, they filled out several dispositional questionnaires. The results demonstrated that at the basis of the experience of anger lies an externally induced disadvantage, which for many people elicits frustration. For some individuals, the latter is sufficient for becoming angered. Yet, for others, the thwarting has to be characterised by norm violation and has to be appraised as unfair and deliberate in order for them to experience anger. Individuals also differed as to whether threat to self-esteem was experienced along with frustration in situations that involved negative evaluative self-relevant information. Combined, the findings demonstrated that anger can occur in combination with different patterns of appraisals, varying as a function of situation and person characteristics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)
Conference Paper
The objective was to study the associations between participation in different types of mentally stimulating leisure activities and status as Alzheimer's disease (AD) case or normal control. Research suggests that participation in leisure activities, especially mentally stimulating activities, is associated with a lower risk for AD. However, no study has yet evaluated associations between AD and different types of mental leisure activities, especially those involving "novelty seeking." The authors used a case-control design to compare participation in activities across the life span in persons with AD and normal controls. Cases (n = 264) were recruited from clinical settings and from the community. Controls were drawn from 2 populations. Control group A members (n = 364) were the friends or neighbors of the cases or members of the same organizations to which the cases belonged. Control group B members (n = 181) were randomly drawn from the community. The 2 control groups did not differ in their responses to most activity questions, so they were combined. Factor analysis of activity questions identified 3 activity factors: (1) novelty seeking; (2) exchange of ideas; and (3) social. Logistic regression analysis indicated that, adjusting for control variables, greater participation in novelty-seeking and exchange-of-ideas activities was significantly associated with decreased odds of AD. The odds of AD were lower among those who more often participated in activities involving exchange of ideas and were lower yet for those who more frequently participated in novelty-seeking activities. We conclude that participation in a variety of mental activities across the life span may lower one's chances of developing AD.
Article
A theoretical framework is outlined in which the key construct is the need for(nonspecific) cognitive closure. The need for closure is a desire for definite knowledge on some issue. It represents a dimension of stable individual differences as well as a situationally evocable state. The need for closure has widely ramifying consequences for social-cognitive phenomena at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and group levels of analysis. Those consequences derive from 2 general tendencies, those of urgency and permanence. The urgency tendency represents an individual's inclination to attain closure as soon as possible, and the permanence tendency represents an individual's inclination to maintain it for as long as possible. Empirical evidence for present theory attests to diverse need for closure effects on fundamental social psychological phenomena, including impression formation, stereotyping, attribution, persuasion, group decision making, and language use in intergroup contexts.
Book
Psychologists have always been intrigued in interest, and modern research on interest can be found in nearly every area of the field: researchers studying emotions, cognition, development, education, aesthetics, personality, motivation, and vocations have developed intriguing ideas about what interest is and how it works. This book presents an integrated picture of how interest has been studied in all of the wide-ranging areas of psychology. Using modern theories of cognition and emotion as an integrative framework, it examines the nature of interest, what makes things interesting, the role of interest in personality, and the development of people's idiosyncratic interests, hobbies, and avocations. The examination reveals deep similarities between seemingly different fields of psychology and illustrates the profound importance of interest, curiosity, and intrinsic motivation for understanding why people do what they do. A comprehensive work devoted to interest, this book reviews the history of psychological thought on interest, presents classic and modern research, and suggests fruitful directions for future work.
Article
Three feature articles from popular magazines were read by 54 college students. Each article was rated by paragraph according to the degree of mental imagery evoked, the degree of affect evoked, or the degree of importance to the article as a whole, in a methodology comparable to that used by Sadoski, Goetz, and Kangiser (1988). Sixteen days later, readers were given a surprise recall task in which they were asked to write recalls of the most memorable parts of the texts (titles were used as cues). The structure of reader response and relations between imagery, affect, and importance in feature journalism were found to be different from those found previously for stories, although imagery and affect were persistently and significantly correlated as with stories. Imagery ratings, affect ratings, and paragraph length were significant overall predictors for long-term paragraph recall, whereas importance was not. Imagery was consistently the highest rating for the six most frequently recalled paragraphs, closely followed by affect. Students spontaneously mentioned affect as the predominant subjective reason for their recall. The authors interpret these findings as suggesting that readers may be more likely to remember content that is subjectively important (reflected in imagery and affect ratings) than content viewed as objectively important (reflected in importance ratings). /// [French] Trois articles de faits divers extraits de magasines populaires ont été lus par 54 étudiants de niveau collégial. En appliquant la méthode de Sadoski, Goetz et Kangiser (1988), chaque paragraphe de chacun des articles ont été cotés selon le degré d'imagerie mentale évoquée, le degré d'affectivité suscitée ou le degré d'importance par rapport à l'ensemble du texte. Seize jours plus tard, sans que les lecteurs ne s'y attendent, on leur demanda de produire un rappel des éléments les plus importants du texte en s'appuyant sur les titres comme indices. Les relations entre la structure des rappels, le degré d'imagerie, le degré d'affectivité et l'importance relative sont apparues différentes pour les faits divers que pour les récits bien que l'on ait retrouvé, comme dans les récits, des corrélations significatives entre les rappels, le degré d'imagerie et le degré d'émotion. Le degré d'imagerie et d'émotion ainsi que la longueur des paragraphes sont ressortis comme de bons prédicteurs de la mémoire à long terme mais pas l'importance relative des informations. Le facteur imagerie obtint les coefficients les plus élevés pour les six paragraphes les mieux rappelés, suivi de près par le facteur émotion. Spontanément, les étudiants ont identifié le facteur affectivité comme le facteur subjectif le plus important pour le rappel. Dans la discussion, les auteurs élaborent sur le rôle de l'imagerie, de l'affectivité et de l'importance relative sur le rappel de textes informatifs. /// [Spanish] Tres artículos centrales de revistas populares fueron leídos por 54 estudiantes universitarios. Cada artículo fue calificado por párrafo: de acuerdo al grado de imaginación mental evocado, el grado de emoción evocada, o el grado de importancia asignado al artículo en general; en una metodología comparable a la de Sadoski, Goetz, y Kangiser (1988). Despues de 16 días, se les dió a los lectores una tarea de reconocimiento, administrada por sorpresa, en la que se les pidió que escribieran lo que recordaban de las partes más memorables de los textos (se usaron los títulos como claves de recuperación). Se encontró que la estructura de la respuesta del lector y las relaciones entre imaginación, emoción e importancia en los artículos periodísticos era diferente a los encontrados en historias; aún cuando se encontró que la imaginación y la emoción estaban correlacionadas significativamente al igual que en las historias. Se encontró que las calificaciones de imaginación y emoción, y la longitud del párrafo fueron predictores generales de una manera significativa para el recuerdo de los párrafos a largo plazo; mientras que la importancia no fue significativa. La imaginación obtuvo consistentemente las calificaciones más altas como responsable de los seis párrafos mas frecuentemente recordados, seguida muy cercanamente de la emoción. Los estudiantes mencionaron de una manera espontánea, la emoción como la razón subjetiva predominante para su recuerdo. Se discute el papel que juegan la imaginación, la emoción y la importancia en la manera en que afectan las calificaciones de los textos expositorios y el recuerdo de esos textos. /// [German] Drei besondere Textbeiträge aus populären Zeitschriften wurden von 54 Studenten gelesen. Jeder Beitrag wurde Abschnitt für Abschnitt ausgewertet und entsprechend einer der folgenden Kriterien eingestuft: Grad der hervorgerufenen geistigen Bilder, Grad des hervorgerufenen Affekts und Grad der Wichtigkeit des Abschnitts zum gesamten Beitrag. Diese Einstufung entspricht methodologisch der von Sadoski, Goetz und Kangiser (1988). Sechzehn Tage später wurde den Lesern eine überraschende Nacherzählungsaufgabe gegeben, wobei sie gebeten wurden, Nacherzählungen von den bedeutendsten Teilen der Texte zu schreiben (Titel wurden als Hilfestellung gegeben). Es stellte sich dabei heraus, daß die Struktur der Leserreaktionen und die Beziehungen zwischen geistigen Bildern, Affekt und Wichtigkeit bei diesen journalistischen Sonderbeiträgen sich von denen bei Geschichten unterschieden, obwohl geistige Bilder und Affekt nachhaltig und statistisch erheblich mit denen von Geschichten übereinstimmten. Gleichzeitig erwies sich, daß die Einstufungen für die geistigen Bilder, die Affekteinstufungen und die Länge der Abschnitte insgesamt bedeutende Vorhersagen in bezug auf langfristig versetzte Nacherzählungen der Abschnitte machen konnten, wobei Wichtigkeit jedoch nichts vorhersagen konnte. Der Faktor geistige Bilder zeigte fortlaufend die höchste Einstufung für die sechs Abschnitte, die von den meisten nacherzählt wurden, wobei die Einstufung des Affekts nur wesentlich geringer war. Die Studenten gaben spontan an, daß Affekt der ausschlaggebende subjektive Grund für die Nacherzählung gewesen war. Die abschließende Diskussion befaßt sich u. a. damit, auf welche Weise die Rollen von geistigen Bildern, Affekt und Wichtigkeit die Einstufungen der Erörterungstexte und die Erinnerung an diese Texte beeinflussen.
Article
Building on and extending existing research, this article proposes a 4-phase model of interest development. The model describes 4 phases in the development and deepening of learner interest: triggered situational interest, maintained situational interest, emerging (less-developed) individual interest, and well-developed individual interest. Affective as well as cognitive factors are considered. Educational implications of the proposed model are identified.
Article
Cognitive aging is often characterized as a process in which two competing forces determine individual development: a genetically driven senescence process that engenders declines in mental mechanics; and an accumulation of life experience that augments cultural, pragmatic, and knowledge-based competence. The considerable variability in the level and rate of change in complex intellectual activities (e.g., language understanding) is often accounted for in terms of individual differences in abilities associated with these forces. I argue that choice in how effort is allocated may be an essential determinant of cognitive change over the life span—both directly, in the form of attentional engagement, and indirectly, as it sculpts neural substrates that give rise to component abilities.
Article
We examined the roles of curiosity, social anxiety, and positive affect (PA) and neg- ative affect (NA) in the development of interpersonal closeness. A reciprocal self-disclosure task was used wherein participants and trained confederates asked and answered questions escalating in personal and emotional depth (mimicking closeness-development). Relationships between curiosity and relationship out- comes were examined using regression analyses. Controlling for trait measures of social anxiety, PA, and NA, trait curiosity predicted greater partner ratings of attrac- tion and closeness. Social anxiety moderated the relationship between trait curios- ity and self-ratings of attraction such that curiosity was associated with greater attraction among those low in social anxiety compared to those high in social anxi- ety. In contrast, trait PA was related to greater self-ratings of attraction but had no relationship with partners' ratings. Trait curiosity predicted positive relationship outcomes as a function of state curiosity generated during the interaction, even after controlling for state PA.
Article
We investigated the relationship between various character strengths and life satisfaction among 5,299 adults from three Internet samples using the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths. Consistently and robustly associated with life satisfaction were hope, zest, gratitude, love, and curiosity. Only weakly associated with life satisfaction, in contrast, were modesty and the intellectual strengths of appreciation of beauty, creativity, judgment, and love of learning. In general, the relationship between character strengths and life satisfaction was monotonic, indicating that excess on any one character strength does not diminish life satisfaction.
Article
Includes 14 papers which review and present new findings on reactions to art and the psychological processes which operate in aesthetic appreciation. Topics include verbal and exploratory responses to visual and auditory patterns varying in uncertainty level; the measurement of novelty, complexity, and interestingness; hedonic tone and reward value of exposure to paintings; and correlates of humor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Because coping with uncertainty is an important aspect of close relationships and is critical to issues of trust, the authors expected individual differences in uncertainty orientation to play a central role in shaping people's representations of their relationships. For a 3-week period, 77 couples completed a series of questionnaires and kept diaries on their interactions. As expected, certainty-oriented persons' need for cognitive closure resulted in either high or low trust for their partners, whereas uncertainty-oriented persons typically attained only a moderate level of trust. Several other measures indicated that certainty-oriented partners found their relationships most aversive under moderate trust. Memory data indicated that certainty-oriented individuals, but not uncertainty-oriented individuals, used conclusions about trust as a heuristic for reconstructing the past in ways that maintained cognitive clarity. Uncertainty orientation also combined with gender in many interesting ways. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
What makes something confusing? Confusion is a common response to challenging, abstract, and complex works, but it has received little attention in psychology. On the basis of appraisal theories of emotion, I suggest that confusion and interest have different positions in a 2-dimensional appraisal space: Interesting things stem from appraisals of high novelty and high comprehensibility, and confusing things stem from appraisals of high novelty and low comprehensibility. Two studies—a multilevel correlational study and an experiment that manipulated comprehensibility—found support for this appraisal model. Confusion and interest are thus close relatives in the family of knowledge emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
AN ATTEMPT TO ARRIVE AT A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF REINFORCEMENT BY STUDYING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AROUSAL AND REINFORCEMENT. EFFECTS OF AROUSAL LEVEL AND THE INTERACTION OF AROUSAL LEVEL AND AROUSAL POTENTIAL ARE DISCUSSED USING FINDINGS FROM HUMAN AND ANIMAL, VERBAL LEARNING, AND NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES. PSYCHOPHYSICAL, ECOLOGICAL, AND COLLATIVE STIMULUS PROPERTIES ARE FOUND TO "AFFECT REWARD VALUE AND, MORE GENERALLY, REINFORCEMENT VALUE IN SIMILAR WAYS." AROUSAL REDUCTION IS REJECTED AS NECESSARY FOR PRODUCING REINFORCEMENT. (322 REF.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The topics that are to be treated in this book were unduly neglected by psychology for many years but are now beginning to come to the fore. My own researches into attention and exploratory behavior began in 1947, and at about the same time several other psychologists became independently impressed with the importance of these matters and started to study them experimentally. It is interesting that those were also the years when information theory was making its appearance and when the reticular formation of the brain stem was first attracting the notice of neurophysiologists. During the last ten years, the tempo of research into exploratory behavior and related phenomena has been steadily quickening. The book is prompted by the feeling that it is now time to pause and take stock: to review relevant data contributed by several different specialties, to consider what conclusions, whether firm or tentative, are justified at the present juncture, and to clarify what remains to be done. The primary aim of the book is, in fact, to raise problems. The book is intended as a contribution to behavior theory, i.e., to psychology conceived as a branch of science with the circumscribed objective of explaining and predicting behavior. But interest in attention and exploratory behavior and in other topics indissociably bound up with them, such as art, humor and thinking, has by no means been confined to professional psychologists. The book has two features that would have surprised me when I first set out to plan it. One is that it ends up sketching a highly modified form of drive-reduction theory. Drive-reduction theory has appeared more and more to be full of shortcomings, even for the phenomena that it was originally designed to handle. The second surprising feature is the prominence of neurophysiology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Despite their interest in why people do what they do, psychologists typically overlook interest itself as a facet of human motivation and emotion. In recent years, however, researchers from diverse areas of psychology have turned their attention to the role of interest in learning, motivation, and development. This article reviews the emerging body of work on the psychology of interest, with an emphasis on what contemporary emotion research has learned about the subject. After considering four central questions—Is interest like other emotions? What functions does interest serve? What makes something interesting? Is interest merely another label for happiness?—the article considers unanswered questions and fruitful applications. Given interest's central role in cultivating knowledge and expertise, psychologists should apply research on interest to practical problems of learning, education, and motivation.
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In recent years, there has been a growing interest among researchers in the use of latent class and growth mixture modeling techniques for applications in the social and psychological sciences, in part due to advances in and availability of computer software designed for this purpose (e.g., Mplus and SAS Proc Traj). Latent growth modeling approaches, such as latent class growth analysis (LCGA) and growth mixture modeling (GMM), have been increasingly recognized for their usefulness for identifying homogeneous subpopulations within the larger heterogeneous population and for the identification of meaningful groups or classes of individuals. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of LCGA and GMM, compare the different techniques of latent growth modeling, discuss current debates and issues, and provide readers with a practical guide for conducting LCGA and GMM using the Mplus software.
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This paper reviews theoretical and empirical research on situational interest. A distinction is made between situational and personal interest. The former is spontaneous and context-specific, whereas the latter is enduring and context-general. We summarize historical perspectives and recent empirical findings on situational interest. Five emergent themes are identified that focus on relationships among situational interest, information processing, and affective engagement. We also discuss important topics for future research.
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This study examined curiosity as a mechanism for achieving and maintaining high levels of well-being and meaning in life. Of primary interest was whether people high in trait curiosity derive greater well-being on days when they are more curious. We also tested whether trait and daily curiosity led to greater, sustainable well-being. Predictions were tested using trait measures and 21 daily diary reports from 97 college students. We found that on days when they are more curious, people high in trait curiosity reported more frequent growth-oriented behaviors, and greater presence of meaning, search for meaning, and life satisfaction. Greater trait curiosity and greater curiosity on a given day also predicted greater persistence of meaning in life from one day into the next. People with greater trait curiosity reported more frequent hedonistic events but they were associated with less pleasure compared to the experiences of people with less trait curiosity. The benefits of hedonistic events did not last beyond the day of their occurrence. As evidence of construct specificity, curiosity effects were not attributable to Big Five personality traits or daily positive or negative mood. Our results provide support for curiosity as an ingredient in the development of well-being and meaning in life. The pattern of findings casts doubt on some distinctions drawn between eudaimonia and hedonic well-being traditions.
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After a brief historical overview of how interest and its role in learning had been conceptualized, the focus of the paper shifts to the specific relationship between interest and reading. The issues considered are the effect of interest on readers' comprehension and learning, the variables that determine readers' interests, and the specific processes such as attention that may mediate the effect of interest on learning. It is suggested that to allow researchers a better understanding of the mediating variables, dynamic measures of interest are needed in addition to the more traditional self-reports and questionnaires. In the final section of the paper the author discusses the importance of utilizing students' interest in classrooms.
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Research has found that interest is related to attention, deeper processing, the use of effortful strategies, feelings of enjoyment, and learning. However, some strategies for creating interest in text materials may interfere with the learning of important information. In this paper, I describe results of a study that used qualitative verbal report measures to identify text characteristics that are most positively and most negatively associated with interest, as well as quantitative measures to investigate how those characteristics are related to learning. Results have implications for curriculum development by contributing to our understanding of how writers of informational text can make important information interesting. The paper concludes with suggestions for pedagogical practice and for future research that may further our understanding of interest and how it might be enhanced in classrooms.
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We examined the roles of trait curiosity and social anxiety (and the contributions of the behavioral inhibition and activation systems; BIS, BAS) in predicting positive and negative affect (PA; NA) during social interactions. In Study 1, individuals interacted with same-sex confederates on topics that gradually escalated in emotional self-disclosure. In Study 2, cross-sex pairs of students were randomly assigned to a closeness-generating or small-talk interaction. There were several consistent findings across studies. Higher curiosity uniquely predicted greater interpersonally generated PA. Higher social anxiety uniquely predicted greater interpersonally generated NA in Study 1, and in Study 2, this relationship varied by social context. Specifically, high compared to low socially anxious individuals reported greater NA during small-talk, with no differences during intimate interactions. Furthermore, Study 2 demonstrated that individuals with stronger BAS’s experienced greater PA in the intimate compared to small-talk condition. There appear to be important traits that differentially contribute to appetitive and aversive interpersonal experiences.
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Self-determination theory (SDT) maintains that an understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. We discuss the SDT concept of needs as it relates to previous need theories, emphasizing that needs specify the necessary conditions for psychological growth, integrity, and well-being. This concept of needs leads to the hypotheses that different regulatory processes underlying goal pursuits are differentially associated with effective functioning and well-being and also that different goal contents have different relations to the quality of behavior and mental health, specifically because different regulatory processes and different goal contents are associated with differing degrees of need satisfaction. Social contexts and individual differences that support satisfaction of the basic needs facilitate natural growth processes including intrinsically motivated behavior and integration of extrinsic motivations, whereas those that forestall autonomy, competence, or relatedness are associated with poorer motivation, performance, and well-being. We also discuss the relation of the psychological needs to cultural values, evolutionary processes, and other contemporary motivation theories.