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Commercial Fisheries of Alaska

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... By the 1950s, fewer than 10 boats were participating in the PWS reduction fishery and the continued decline in herring abundance, combined with less expensive foreign alternatives, such as Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens, Engraulidae), led to the closure of the fishery in the late 1960s (Funk, 1994). Declines of herring in Russia and Japan (Carlson, 2005;Woodby et al., 2005) prompted increased demand for Alaskan herring roe and a fishery emerged in the early 1970s. New gillnet and seine roe fisheries in PWS and other major herring spawning grounds ushered in a lucrative era of commercial herring fisheries throughout Alaska. ...
... Prices and harvest in PWS declined through the 1990s, and the fishery has remained closed since 1999 due to low biomass (Muradian, Branch, Moffitt, & Hulson, 2017 Bay and Togiak (Woodby et al., 2005). An exception to these declining trends is Sitka Sound in Southeast Alaska, which produced consistent high biomass and harvest post-1990 (Thynes, Gordon, Harris, & Walker, 2016;Woodby et al., 2005). ...
... Prices and harvest in PWS declined through the 1990s, and the fishery has remained closed since 1999 due to low biomass (Muradian, Branch, Moffitt, & Hulson, 2017 Bay and Togiak (Woodby et al., 2005). An exception to these declining trends is Sitka Sound in Southeast Alaska, which produced consistent high biomass and harvest post-1990 (Thynes, Gordon, Harris, & Walker, 2016;Woodby et al., 2005). ...
Article
Heterogeneity in human responses and decision‐making can contribute to the resilience of social–ecological systems in the face of environmental, political and economic pressures. In fishery systems worldwide, the ability of harvesters to maintain a diverse portfolio of fishing strategies is important for building adaptive capacity. We used a case‐study approach to examine the complexity of factors that inhibit or promote diversification in fisheries of Alaska, one of the major fishing regions of the world. Through a combination of harvest records and literature review, we explored shifts in participation and portfolio diversity in Alaskan fisheries over three decades. The four case‐studies examined the responses of fishers, fleets and communities to multiple, intersecting pressures, including biological declines, market and price dynamics, fishery privatization and the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. These cases illustrate how stressors acting at multiple scales can encourage or constrain opportunities for diversification, and that these opportunities may be spread inequitably across participants. Overall, we found evidence for reduced participation and increasing specialization in Alaskan commercial fisheries. While numerous factors explain these trends, policies like individual quota systems and the increasing cost of entry into fisheries are forcing consolidation at local to regional scales. A portfolio approach to managing fisheries that reduces barriers to diversification and includes broad representation of resource users and communities in management may help to maintain opportunity and choice for fishers.
... Although some host species of marine nematodes have been well studied (i.e., Oncorhynchus spp., Hippoglossus stenolepis; [6,7]), the distribution and abundance of nematodes in other known hosts have received less attention. Pacific rockfish, in particular, represent an important fishery resource in the northeast Pacific [8,9]. Although there are many studies that have specifically focused on rockfish [8], few quantitative studies of nematode parasites of rockfish [10,11] and cod are available in recent times and from one geographic location, and none are available from the southwestern Gulf of Alaska near Kodiak Island [1]. ...
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Distribution and abundance of common parasitic nematodes in marine fishes is not well documented in many geographic regions. Understanding the influence of large-scale environmental changes on infection rates of fish by nematodes requires quantitative assessments of parasite abundance for multiple host species. We collected samples of two species of cod and eight species of rockfish (total of 232 specimens) from waters near Kodiak Island, Alaska, USA during Spring and Summer of 2015, and dissected and recorded all internal nematode parasites. We quantified the prevalence and intensity of nematode parasites in the ten host species, and tested for differences in prevalence among host species. We found three species of nematode: Anisakis simplex, sensu lato (Van Thiel), Pseudoterranova decipiens, sensu lato (Krabbe), and Hysterothylacium sp. (Ward and Magath). Eighty-two percent of the examined fish were infected with at least one parasitic nematode. The overall prevalence of P. decipiens, A. simplex, and Hysterothylacium sp. was 56%, 62%, and 2%, respectively. Anisakis simplex and P. decipiens were abundant and present in all ten species of host fish examined, whereas Hysterothylacium sp. was rare and found in only five of the host fish species. Prevalence and mean intensity of P. decipiens and A. simplex varied across the ten host species, and the number of parasites varied substantially among individual hosts within host species. The mean intensity of P. terranova and A. simplex in our study was substantially higher than the mean intensity for these same species from multiple other locations in a recent meta-analysis. This study provides a baseline of nematode parasite abundance in long-lived fish in waters near Kodiak Island, AK, and fills an important gap in our quantitative understanding of patterns of occurrence and abundance of these common and widespread parasites of marine fish.
... Stocks of most major crab species in the North Pacific (red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus; blue king crab, P. platypus; snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio, and Tanner crab, Chionoecetes bairdi) have been in decline for the last three decades Orensanz et al. 1998;Woodby et al. 2005). Declining snow crab stocks have resulted in major fisheries reductions with a 50% drop in the total allowable catch for 2017, making this the lowest value for snow crab since 1982 (NPFMC 2018). ...
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The decline of eastern Bering Sea snow (Chionoecetes opilio) and Tanner (Chionoecetes bairdi) crab has coincided with loss of spring sea ice extent and northward contraction of the ‘cold pool,’ a layer of cold (< 2 °C) summer bottom water. We measured temperature-associated growth and lipid storage of lab-reared Tanner crab, as well as the fatty acid content of field-collected juvenile Chionoecetes spp. Field collections occurred during a cold, high sea ice year (2012) and a warm, low ice year (2014), representative of cold and warm climate stanzas in the southeastern Bering Sea. Lab-reared Tanner crab maintained the lowest growth rates but highest lipids under cold conditions (2 °C). In the field, crabs contained higher fatty acids per wet weight (mg g⁻¹) during 2012 than during 2014. Water column-integrated chlorophyll a (chla, an indicator of phytoplankton biomass) from large particles (> 10 µm) such as diatoms was elevated in the colder year particularly over the central middle shelf. During the cold year, crab storage of diatom-sourced fatty acids (16:1n-7 to 16:0, r² = 0.72) as well as a station-specific relationship between large size-fraction integrated chla and crab total fatty acids (r² = 0.5) points to the potential importance of diatoms to juvenile crab nutrition. Our results suggest that continued warming and loss of sea ice across the Bering Sea may reduce juvenile crab lipid storage through both direct thermal effects as well as through the reduction of large-size phytoplankton delivered to the benthos.
... Los stocks del Pacífico Norte de los cangrejos snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) y southern tanner crab (C. bairdi), también experimentaron declives en las últimas 3 décadas, que se asociaron a la sobrepesca y posiblemente al cambio climático Woodby et al., 2005). Finalmente, Otto (2014), concluye que ya se han constituido todas las posibles pesquerías de litódidos y que las mismas se encuentran en plena explotación; el autor propone su clasificación en "maduras" que todavía pueden proporcionar capturas considerables, "senescentes" (pocos signos de recuperación) o "extintas". ...
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The southern king crab Lithodes santolla is a commercially very valuable decapod of the family Lithodidae. Although it is widely distributed on the Argentinian continental shelf, individuals are mainly grouped into a few sectors. The most productive argentine king crab fishery in the country has been developed since 2004 on the Patagonian Central Sector (PCS), which comprises the San Jorge Gulf and the continental shelf region between 44º and 48 ° S. In the present study the evolution of catches and fishing effort are investigated, abundance indices are estimated, and the spatial distribution, the population structure, and the main events of the king crab life cycle are characterized, based on data collected by scientific observers onboard the crab commercial fleet and those obtained during research surveys. From the beginning of the fishery, the management has been based on the so-called “3S principle” (size, sex, and season). Only males above 110 mm can be landed during the fishing season, and the definition of such a season was modified as the knowledge about the life cycle increased over time. The exclusive use of traps to catch this species and the full coverage of the fleet by observer program agents were also established, essential to properly monitor and assess this commercial activity. In fact, between October 2004 and June 2016, direct records were obtained on 85% of the fishing hauls, making this marine fishery one with the highest coverage in the country. Until the 2009-2010 season, the only licensed crabber vessel landed an average of 700 tons, whereas during the period 2010-2011 to 2015-2016 since four vessels were authorized and catches increased until reaching a peak of 3,700 tons. Null catches were very scarce, demonstrating the efficiency of the traps to catch these crustaceans. As a result of changes that occurred over time in the number of authorized vessels, new jurisdictions opened to fishing, and resource abundance, variations in the spatial distribution of fishing effort were verified. It was mainly concentrated on the Southern Sector of the shelf (46º-48º S), but the North Sector (44º-46º S) and Chubut within the San Jorge Gulf, were important fishing grounds during the last period. Abundance indices on both Total Catch and Legal-sized Males were estimated from fishing data using a General Linear Model (GLM). Declining trends in the indices along the last four fishing seasons were determined, and a drop of 28% for the legal males was found. Considering the spatial dispersion of the fishery since the 2011-2012 season, these indices seemed to properly reflect the actual variations in population abundance. In order to understand the population dynamics of this species, different aspects of its live cycle were studied. The catch retained in the traps was characterized by a predominance of males, although in recent seasons a decreasing trend in the proportion of specimens of this sex, mainly those of commercial legal size, and a reduction in the average carapace length were observed. These changes are possibly associated with the selective nature of this fishing. The sex ratio varies during a fishing season, because the catchability decreases during the carapace molt, therefore the proportion of mature females is lower in November-December, while those of males decreases in autumn. The mandatory use of three escape rings in the trap since the 2014-2015 season markedly reduced the capture of females and non-legal males. An estimate of the carapace length at which 50% of individuals are retained by these traps (LC50%) was performed. In addition, the proportions of mature, non-ovigerous females, as an indicator of the lack of available male mates, were analyzed and the length of the first maturity was estimated. The temporal variability associated with the beginning of both the molting and mating processes was considered to be negligible. The carapace wear and the color of the ventral surface of the carapace were used to determine the aging of the carapace and to describe the inter-molt period. The crab spatial distribution covered nearly all the Patagonian Central Sector, and it was characterized by stable aggregations over time. During systematic research surveys using traps, the highest densities of males were identified on the San Jorge Gulf, mainly within Santa Cruz jurisdiction, and also two other important aggregations were located on the shelf to the north and south 46ºS parallel. These results were consistent with the estimated abundance indices, and the areas where fishing effort is concentrated, as well as where king crab catches occurred during the trawl surveys to evaluate shrimp and hake carried out. A possibly linking, transitional zone showing very low abundances were identified among the above-mentioned shelf aggregations. The size distribution of both sexes was similar and remained stable. The average sizes increased towards the central region of the San Jorge Gulf and towards the east on the shelf. The evaluation surveys carried out with fishing vessels allowed to obtain highly accurate data over a short period of time. The first data on southern king crab in the PCS came from research surveys targeting hake and prawn by using trawling nets. The hake surveys covered the period 1997-2014 and a wide sector. On the other hand, five shrimp cruises including an area of interest for southern king crab studies which was restricted to the San Jorge Gulf were selected. The presence of southern king crab increased over the years due to a gradual expansion on the shelf. The 8ºC and 10ºC isolines generally delimited the sectors where maximal catches were taken, whereas they were scarce or even null between Camarones and Rawson, where bottom temperatures exceed 11ºC in summer. The estimated densities in both of the mentioned surveys were consistent, having a maximum in 2011, without correlation in the following years, for this reason, this event would be associated with changes in catchability. The increase in southern king catches determined the appearance of the first signs of overexploitation, such as the reduction in the abundance indices over the main fishing sectors, and decreases in both the proportion of males as well as their average length. In order to monitor the fishery, four population indicators are proposed to be annually analyzed: percentage of males, the average carapace length of males, the percentage of non-ovigerous mature females (≥ 70 mm), and the percentage of females having a full clutch. This work provides a baseline analysis on key biological-fishing issues aspects of southern king crab in PCS, which were studied since the very beginning of targeted fishing of this species, with the aim of achieving sustainable exploitation and adaptive ecosystem management.
... In Alaska, the exploitation rate (catch/biomass) is capped at 20% of the long-term exploitable biomass, which is a lower threshold than is usually used for species with this life history (Funk and Rowell 1995;Woodby et al. 2005). The fishery management is based on quotas that are area specific. ...
Technical Report
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The report reviews the ecological role of forage fish globally and in Canada, and the policy directed at their management, with a focus on the consumption requirements of predators. The report is intended for policy makers, managers and biologists who are engaged in providing advice or making decisions concerning the management of forage species.
... Alaska salmon fisheries are managed with two goals: (1) ensure adequate numbers of salmon are allowed to spawn or escape and (2) simultaneously allocate fish to different user groups based on Board of Fisheries (BOF) management guidelines (see AAC Title 5) (Woodby et al., 2005;AAC, 2016). Alaska fisheries managers predominantly use S-R models to establish escapement goals (Piccolo et al., 2009). ...
Article
Informing fishery management decisions using coupled socio-ecological systems (CSES) models requires model construction that captures the systems interactions with high precision. Ecological uncertainty in fishery models is easily reduced using existing scientific literature, but social drivers are often poorly defined or understood. The lack of knowledge about fishermen behavior results in inaccurate models of questionable utility for fishery managers. We designed and constructed a high fidelity agent based model (ABM) using the socio-ecological framework that reduces social system uncertainty by capturing complex behaviors using data-driven bounded rationality and feedback. The resulting generalized ABM of CSES dynamics was instantiated to Pacific salmon fisheries at Kenai river in Upper Cook Inlet, Alaska. The data-driven model construction fuses multiple data-sets for classification of social and ecological fishery regimes into stochastic distributions; the agent behaviors were generalized by evolving parametrized equations using data-driven machine learning; multiple non-trivial metrics on multiple scales verified model's accuracy and predictive capacity. The verified model of CSES dynamics at the Kenai river revealed recent instability in the dipnet fishery coupled dynamics, historic instability in the drift gillnet fishery coupled dynamics due to a compensatory and aggressive fishing strategy, and in the future the model will be used for scenario-based studies to understand the outcomes of alternative management strategies.
... • In Alaska (USA), targeting E. dofleini is only allowed with a Commissioner's permit, and only issued for the Alaskan peninsula and other gulf waters excluding Cook Inlet and Southeast Alaska (Woodby, et al., 2005). Specimens may also be collected by scientific permit. ...
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Dedication: This work is dedicated to the memory of Roland C. Anderson, who passed away suddenly before its completion. No one person is more responsible for advancing and elevating the state of husbandry of this species, and we hope his lifelong body of work will inspire the next generation of aquarists towards the same ideals.
... Participants in these fisheries are based both in Alaska and in Seattle, Washington, with vessels ranging from small, owner operated boats to large industrial atsea processing vessels owned by multinational integrated seafood companies. Commercial fisheries are closely monitored and regulated in both Alaskan ecosystems through catch limits at the individual species level (Clark and Hare, 2006;DiCosimo et al., 2010;Witherell and Pautzke, 1997;Woodby et al., 2005). ...
Article
The Eastern Bering Sea (EBS) and Gulf of Alaska (GOA) continental shelf ecosystems show some similar and some distinctive groundfish biomass dynamics. Given that similar species occupy these regions and fisheries management is also comparable, similarities might be expected, but to what can we attribute the differences? Different types of ecosystem structure and control (e.g. top-down, bottom-up, mixed) can imply different ecosystem dynamics and climate interactions. Further, the structural type identified for a given ecosystem may suggest optimal management for sustainable fishing. Here, we use information on the current system state derived from food web models of both the EBS and the GOA combined with dynamic ecosystem models incorporating uncertainty to classify each ecosystem by its structural type. We then suggest how this structure might be generally related to dynamics and predictability. We find that the EBS and GOA have fundamentally different food web structures both overall, and when viewed from the perspective of the same commercially and ecologically important species in each system, walleye pollock (. Gadus chalcogrammus). EBS food web structure centers on a large mass of pollock, which appears to contribute to relative system stability and predictability. In contrast, GOA food web structure features high predator biomass, which contributes to a more dynamic, less predictable ecosystem. Mechanisms for climate influence on pollock production in the EBS are increasingly understood, while climate forcing mechanisms contributing to the potentially destabilizing high predator biomass in the GOA remain enigmatic. We present results of identical pollock fishing and climate-driven pollock recruitment simulations in the EBS and GOA which show different system responses, again with less predictable response in the GOA. Overall, our results suggest that identifying structural properties of fished food webs is as important for sustainable fisheries management as attempting to predict climate and fisheries effects within each ecosystem.
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Primary producers are the foundation of marine food webs and require reliable nutrient sources to maintain their important role with ecosystems. While marine mammals and seabirds can play critical roles in marine nutrient cycling, their contributions are often overlooked. Southeast Alaska’s marine environment supports abundant marine mammal and seabird populations in addition to valuable fisheries. Nonetheless, there is still relatively little known about nutrient sources and fluxes in this region which is a critical component of fisheries management. The goal of our study was to advance knowledge of the role of mammals and seabirds in marine nutrient cycling and to understand how changing marine mammal and seabird populations may alter ecosystem dynamics. We utilized qualitative network models (QNMs) to examine how a simulated Southeast Alaska ecosystem would respond to an increase in marine mammals, seabirds, and nutrients. Researchers are increasingly utilizing QNMs as a first step in the development of ecosystem-based fisheries management plans as their adaptable nature is well suited to address rapidly changing climatic conditions. Our results indicate that marine mammals and seabirds make important contributions to marine nutrient concentrations in the region and that these valuable ecosystem services should not be overlooked.
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This paper examines the ratio of the weight of the herring catch to the total weight of the ground fish catch in observer records from Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) and pollock (Theregra chalcogramma) bottom trawl tows, in order to define an index of herring abundance. The index is used to determine the timing and location of herring stocks during their annual migration . This index would be expected to fluctuate with ground fish density as well as with herring density. However, because the herring migration is a relatively distinct phenomenon, the index is sufficient to delineate the general movements of herring during the annual migration . Also, over the 1983 through 1988 period, the abundance of both herring and groundfish stocks was relatively constant.
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Southwest stock of sea otters Enhydra lutris has been declining over the last two decades. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is currently reviewing the status of sea otters and contemplating listing the species under the Endangered Species Act. This purpose of this report is to provide background information to the FWS about the potential for interactions of commercial fisheries and sea otters, both during the period of sea otter decline and for future projections. This report addresses potential interactions in commercial fisheries managed by the State of Alaska, including those for which federal agencies delegate management authority to the State. Potential interactions between fisheries and sea otters include direct entanglement in fishing gear leading to direct mortality and/or serious injury, and competition for prey species. Fisheries with potential for entanglement are considered separately from fisheries with potential for competition in this report. With a few exceptions, fisheries that have potential for competition with sea otters do not use gear that has potential for entanglement. The National Marine Fisheries Service has determined that the set gillnet fishery for salmon, trawl fisheries for groundfish, and pot fisheries for Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus, king crab Paralithodes camtshaticus, and Tanner crab Chionecetes bairdi have the potential to entangle sea otters. To evaluate the potential for entanglement in state-managed fisheries, an analysis of trends in fishing effort in state-managed fisheries that use set gillnets, trawls, and pots, and occur in the range of the Southwest stock of sea otters, was conducted over the period 1970 to present. The FWS has determined that sea otters feed primarily on benthic invertebrates in shallow water (<100 m). Fisheries for benthic invertebrates in the range of the Southwest stock of sea otters include those for Dungeness crab, shrimps, razor and other clams, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, sea urchins, scallops, and octopus. To evaluate the potential for competitive interactions of fisheries and sea otters, narrative descriptions of the fisheries for these benthic invertebrates which occur within the range of the Southwest stock of sea otters are included in this report, along with summaries of catch and effort data. The range of the Southwest stock of sea otters is defined by FWS as including the coastal areas of the Aleutian Islands, the north side of the Alaska Peninsula from False Pass to the Kvichak River, the south side of the Alaska Peninsula from False Pass to Cape Douglas, the Kodiak Archipelago, the Barren Islands and Kamishak Bay in Cook Inlet, and the Pribilof Islands. The State of Alaska generally manages those waters which occur within 3 miles of shore. In some instances, usually where there was a management history that predated the Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976, the federal government has delegated management authority to the State. For some other “parallel” fisheries, management regulations are coordinated between state and federal waters so that the same seasons, gear restrictions, quotas nd other regulations apply. There are very few recorded instances of sea otter take in Alaskan fisheries, and entanglement risk is thought to be very low. Some gears, such as salmon gillnets, theoretically have the potential to entangle sea otters, but are usually fished outside of sea otter habitat or in other ways such that the reported instances of sea otter entanglement is very low. No fishery records or observations suggest that fishing gear encounters contributed to the decline of sea otters. Most commercial fisheries in the area of the Southwest stock of sea otters that take benthic invertebrates occur offshore, well outside the foraging range of sea otters. Exceptions to this include fisheries for Dungeness crabs, sea cucumbers, and sea urchins. There is a long history of competitive interactions between Dungeness crab fishermen and sea otters in other locations. Sea otters are usually able to forage far more efficiently and persist at lower crab densities than is feasible for commercial fishermen or allowed under fishing regulations. Alaskan crab fisheries are restricted by seasons, sex, and size limits, leaving the females and undersized males unharvested. A very small fishery for green sea urchins exists along the west side of Kodiak Island, with a few landings recorded from Unalaska Island as well. While there is potential for overlap with sea otter diets, fishery quotas are thought to be low enough so as to not cause local depletion, and removals have occurred only in limited areas. Red sea cucumber fisheries occur around Kodiak Island, and to a lesser extent in several areas off of the Alaska Peninsula. The fisheries are regulated by area-specific guideline harvest levels which are thought to be conservative and not result in localized depletion. Sea cucumber fishers are present in the nearshore areas for a very limited number of days each year, so disturbance is not thought to be a problem. In addition, a significant proportion of the sea cucumber resource occurs below practical diving limits and is not harvested, although it is well withing sea otter diving ranges. In many instances, state fishing regulations are in addition to, and more conservative than, associated federal fishing regulations. For instance, most state waters in the central and western Gulf of Alaska are closed permanently to trawling. The state waters Pacific cod fishery is restricted to fixed gear only. In addition, restrictions are placed on numbers of pots or jigs in an effort to provide for slow-paced fisheries that minimize effects on habitat and other species. State regulations prohibit directed fisheries for sharks and, with a few minor exceptions, no fisheries are permitted for forage fishes owing to their ecological role in the marine environment. Very strong resource conservation principles are embedded in a number of policies that guide the Alaska Board of Fisheries in their development of state fishing regulations, including the Sustainable Salmon Fishery Policy, Policy on King and Tanner Crab Resource Management, and the Guiding Principles for Groundfish Fishery Management.
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Frank Rue -Commissioner Robert D. Mecum -Director, Commercial Fisheries 1 The Regional lnformation Report Series was established in 1987 to provide an information access system for all unpublished divisional reports. These reports frequently serve diverse ad hoc informational purposes or archive basic uninterpreted data. To accommodate timely reporting of recently collected information, reports in this series may contain preliminary data; this information may be subsequently finalized and published in the formal literature. Consequently, these reports should not be cited without prior approval of the author or the Division of Commercial Fisheries.
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1 The Regional Information Report Series was established in 1987 to provide an information access system for all unpublished division reports. These reports frequently serve diverse ad hoc informational purposes or archive basic uninterpreted data. To accommodate timely reporting of recently collected information, reports in this series undergo only limited internal review and may contain preliminary data; this information may be subsequently finalized and published in the formal literature. Consequently, these reports should not be cited without prior approval of the author or the Division of Commercial Fisheries.
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Acknowledgments:Stephen Lawrie, owner of the F/V Jennie Leigh, and Gary Egerton, owner of the F/V Cameo — allowed me to accompany them on fishing trips. Harlen Christensen — provided vessel time to collect data on the shrinkage of iced lingcod. Tory O’Connell — guidance in data collection and reviewed manuscript. Barry Bracken and Jim Blackburn — reviewed an early draft of the manuscript. Lingcod Fishery and Fishery Monitoring in Southeast Alaska David A. Gordon ABSTRACT: Lingcod Ophiodon elongatus have ,recently become ,an important ,commercial ,fish species in Southeast Alaska. The fishery began in 1987 and occurs along the outer coast of northern Southeast Alaska. Dinglebar gear is the primary gear used in the directed fishery. Lingcod are also caught incidentally in significant amounts ,in the longline and salmon troll fisheries. The Alaska Department of Fish and Game has monitored the fishery through dockside samples, skipper interviews, and onboard observer trips since 1988. Catch per unit effort is lowest during the summer,months. Average length of lingcod caught in the directed dinglebar fishery from 1988–1992 was 81 cm, and lingcod caught in the longline fisheries while targeting other species averaged 91 cm. The largest male lingcod sampled from the directed fishery was 95 cm and the largest female was 127 cm. Male lingcod are caught at a higher rate than females from March through May. Peak spawning occurs in February. Size at which >50% of the female lingcod sampled were mature was 83 cm. Lingcod may shrink up to 8 cm when held in slush-ice. Alaska Fishery Research Bulletin 1(2):140–152. 1994. Copyright © 1994 by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game 140