ArticlePDF Available

Response to Geomorphology of Selected Massifs On the Plains of Cydonia, Mars by David Pieri

Authors:
["Response to Geomorphology of Selected Massifs On the Plains of Cydonia, Mars by David Pieri," Journal
of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1999.]
Response to Geomorphology of Selected Massifs On the Plains of
Cydonia, Mars by David Pieri
Mark J. Carlotto, Horace W. Crater, James L. Erjavec, and Stanley V. McDaniel
Society for Planetary SETI Research (SPSR)
1. General Response
We regret that Pieri does not choose to address the data concerning the Cydonia mounds raised in
our paper (Crater and McDaniel, 1999). We also regret his not having referenced several peer-
reviewed papers relevant to the present discussion (Carlotto 1988, O’Leary 1990, Carlotto and
Stein 1990, DiPietro, Molenaar, and Brandenberg 1991, Carlotto 1997). Our paper on the mound
distribution at Cydonia does not refer in any way to the "Face" located in the same general area.
However since Pieri has brought up the "Face" in a context of ridicule and because this object has
also been studied in depth by SPSR scientists, we take this opportunity to rebut his comments,
following which we will discuss the geological analysis he provides.
Pieri gives the impression that the facial appearance of the object is known to be an illusion of
lighting. This interpretation was long ago refuted in a peer-reviewed article in which a three-
dimensional model was derived and shown to produce the appearance of a face over a wide range
of lighting and viewing conditions (Carlotto 1988). (We note that none of the Viking image team
scientists or other critics of the Mars anomaly research have ever responded to this article in kind,
that is, in a peer-reviewed journal, or elsewhere.) Furthermore, the appearance of the object as
shown in the photo taken in April 1998 by Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) was accurately predicted
in advance on the basis of this same 3-D model. Subsequent analyses of the recent image show
numerous points of correlation between this and the earlier image, despite different lighting
conditions. (Details are summarized in the next section.) Even Carl Sagan in his 1995 book The
Demon-Haunted World admits “There was an unfortunate dismissal of the feature by a project
official as a trick of light and shadow” (Sagan 1995).
Pieri calls attention once again to the “nostril dot” or bit error that gives the unprocessed image a
more face-like appearance. Actually from the very beginning of serious study of the object, this was
ruled out as irrelevant (DiPietro and Molenaar 1982, Pozos 1986). The “nostril” was automatically
removed in the normal course of cleaning up the image. No hypotheses have been put forward by
any researchers based on a mistaken interpretation of such pixel errors.
Pieri also concatenates perception of the object as having facial features with fancies of the
imagination, such as seeing “letters...or whatever else comes to mind.” But the fact that such
Please address correspondence to: Horace W. Crater, The University of Tennessee Space Institute, Tullahoma,
Tennessee 37388 (spsr@utsi.edu)
fancies do (in general) occur fails to take into account the specific features of the object in question,
and has no argumentative force. Were we to dismiss any potential SETI discovery on the surface of
a planet, no matter how provocative and intriguing, by such facile explanations and absurd
comparisons (e.g. with “The Man on the Moon”), we would be doing science a serious disservice.
As for Pieri’s strangely out of place comments on “cottage industries” and “conspiracy theories,”
we do not understand the relevance of these to any scientifically motivated search for possible SETI
artifacts on the surfaces of planets in the solar system. Associating legitimate inquiry with
irrelevant topics does not seem a productive way to pursue the investigation. It certainly has no
bearing on the distribution analysis of the Cydonia mounds or to the twenty year long study of the
region by SPSR scientists.
2. Analysis of MGS Imagery
The original Viking images of the "Face" (frames 35A72 and 70A13) were taken almost directly
overhead in the late afternoon, during the Martian summer, under clear atmospheric conditions at a
resolution of about 50 meters/pixel. In the April 1998 image, MGS photographed the "Face" from a
45 degree angle, in mid morning, through a hazy winter atmosphere at about 4 meters/pixel (narrow
angle camera). Haze reduces the ratio of direct to indirect sunlight which produces a low contrast
image lacking strong shadows. Portions of the image appear to be partially obscured by thin clouds
(clearly seen in the lower resolution wide angle image taken at the same time). Also evident are
variations in surface albedo (possibly frost). Together these effects make the raw MGS image
difficult to interpret. As a result it is necessary to alter the contrast to improve the appearance of
the image (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Original JPL contrast enhanced image (left). Extreme high-pass filtering removes tonal
variations giving the impression that the "Face" is flat and featureless. Our restored image (right)
gives a more accurate representation of the topography and surface detail.
How do the images in Figure 1 compare with the original Viking data? Since the Viking and MGS
images were acquired under different lighting conditions and imaging geometries we used a
photoclinometrically-derived 3-D elevation model of the "Face" (Carlotto 1988) computed from
Viking frame 70A13 to generate simulated perspective views (Figure 2). The first view predicts the
appearance of the "Face" for the April 1998 MGS lighting and imaging conditions. That it is more
like our restored MGS image (Figure 1) suggests our enhancement is a more accurate photometric
representation of the "Face" than the one produced by JPL. In the second view in Figure 2, we have
projected 70A13 to match the geometry of the new MGS image. Even though the Viking and MGS
images are very different in appearance due to the differences in lighting (Viking is directly lit from
the upper left and MGS indirectly lit from the bottom right), many points of correspondence are
evident.
Figure 2 Predicted MGS based on Viking-derived elevation model (left). Viking image reprojected
using this model to match MGS view of the "Face" (right).
The off-nadir (oblique) MGS imaging geometry distorts the true shape of the "Face" and obscures
much of the right (east) side. In an attempt to correct for this distortion, JPL produced a
geometrically stretched version of the original image that simulates what the "Face" would look
like from above. Orthorectification is a process by which an image that is acquired obliquely is
reprojected to appear as if it was taken from directly overhead. However a key point to be made is
that only if the terrain is flat can orthorectification be done by simply stretching the image to
compensate for the foreshortening in the direction of the observer.
We utilized the Viking derived elevation model used earlier to generate the predictions in Figure 2
as a terrain model for orthorectifying the Viking and MGS images. Figure 3 (top) shows the
orthorectified Viking image of the "Face" next to JPL's geometrical stretch. In their image the
internal structure of the object is pushed to the right making it look less symmetrical and face-like.
Shown below in Figure 3 is the Viking image beside our orthorectified MGS image. Vertical lines
indicate the approximate left and right edges of the platform (i.e., the base of the "massif") and the
lateral center of the object. (We note that because much of the right side is obscured by the central
"nose ridge", most pixel values on that side in the orthorectified image have been interpolated. As a
result the right side of the image lacks detail. However the lack of detail in the image should not be
interpreted to mean that the right side of the object lacks detail as well. A good image showing the
right side of the "Face" has yet to be taken.) Measurements derived from orthorectified Viking and
MGS images indicate a high degree of lateral symmetry with the left side of the object being about
1.4% wider than the right. Again the similarity between our orthorectified MGS and Viking images
suggests these images are a more accurate geometrical representation of the "Face" than JPL's
geometric stretch.
Figure 3 Orthorectified 70A13 (top left) and JPL's geometrically stretched MGS image of the
"Face" (top right). Orthorectified 70A13 (bottom left) and MGS image (bottom right) with reference
lines drawn to illustrate lateral symmetry.
The higher resolution MGS image provides evidence supporting earlier claims (Carlotto 1997)
concerning the symmetry of the "Face", the apparent straightness and regularity of the its platform,
the presence of linear features on the head above the eyes, and provides new indications concerning
the existence of secondary facial characteristics (Figure 4) including “nostrils” at the end of the
“nose”.
Based on the above observations it is our contention that this "massif" is quite remarkable and is
unlike any other in Cydonia.
Figure 4 Top view of head showing linear features (left). "Nostrils" and lip-like features (right). If
these features are natural why are they located near the lateral centerline of the Face?
3. Geological Considerations
It would appear from Pieri’s paper that Mars anomaly researchers (SPSR in particular) hold only
one position on the evolution of Cydonia and that Pieri holds an antithetical position. But in reality,
SPSR geologists have, for some time, considered the Cydonia area to display evidence of lacustrine
and marine landforms and erosional features (Torun 1993). In fact our studies were prompted, in
part, by earlier work co-authored by Pieri (Parker et al, 1993; and Parker et al, 1987).
SPSR developed a detailed geomorphic feature map of this area (Erjavec, 1994), on which much
subsequent interpretive analysis of Cydonia has been based. That map not only depicts a complex
geology in Cydonia, but includes marked evidence for lacustrine, marine and fluviatile processes.
The map flatly contradicted the leading thought of that time which stated that Cydonia landforms
were primarily the result of differential erosion. Furthermore, MGS images have corroborated the
findings of the Cydonia map, showing that this area is the result of many geologic processes with
complex interrelationships.
Since 1993, based solely on Viking images at first, publications by SPSR geologists have supported
a complex geologic history for Cydonia as well as a lacustrine or marine setting (Erjavec and Nicks
1997, Erjavec, 1997, Erjavec 1998, Moore et al 1999). Pieri states "Such image data suggest a
complex formation history, and a complex post-formation depositional and erosional history." It
thus appears that there is little disagreement between SPSR and Pieri on this issue.
In their analysis of the April 1998 MGS imagery, Erjavec and Brandenburg (1999) come to
basically the same conclusions as those voiced by Pieri in his article: strong evidence for marine or
lacustrine processes, delineation of the "Face" massif into two structural zones, including a
lowermost "shelf-forming" unit, and the suggestion that the layering morphology is indicative of
marine sandstones.
A key difference between the two interpretations is that Pieri uses a lack of rilling on the massifs as
indication that the primary morphologies were developed in a submarine or lacustrine environment;
i.e., the evolution of the "Face" massif occurred underwater. Erjavec and Brandenburg (1999)
found what appear to be rills on several Cydonian landforms. This is strong evidence that this area
was aerially exposed and erosion occurred through the actions of both precipitation and surface
runoff. In combination with the lacustrine or marine signature of this area, it strongly suggests that
the morphologies of the Cydonian massifs are polygenetic in origin. This is an important point as it
implies that the "Face" was exposed during a time when Mars still had a hydrogeologic cycle.
Finally, it should be noted that discussion of the “Face” massif in terms of general geological
characteristics, without reference to the specifically enigmatic details of the object, has no bearing
on the question of possible artificiality. It is not inconceivable that in the low gravity of Mars, a
large feature may have been artificially modified. The particular structural details of the “Face”
massif that raise questions of origin have yet to be adequately investigated (Crater 1998).
Acknowledgement
The authors wish to thank MSSS and JPL for the use of their imagery.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Carlotto, Mark J., “Digital Imagery Analysis of Unusual Martian Surface Features.” Applied
Optics, Vol. 27, No. 10 (1988).
Carlotto, Mark J. And Stein, M. C., “A Method for Searching for Artificial Objects on Planetary
Surfaces.” Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, Vol. 43 No. 5 (May, 1990).
Carlotto, Mark J., “Evidence in Support of the Hypothesis that Certain Objects on Mars are
Artificial in Origin.” Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 11, No. 2 (Summer, 1997).
Crater, Horace W. and McDaniel , “ Mound Configurations on the Cydonia Plain,” Journal of
Scientific Exploration, Vol. 13, No. 3 (Fall, 1999).
Crater, Horace W. The MGS Cydonia Images: Preliminary Report to NASA (July 1998). (Copy
may be down-loaded from http://www.mcdanielreport.com/nasarpt.htm.)
DiPietro and G. Molenaar, Unusual Martian Surface Features, First Edition 1982, Fourth Edition,
1988.
Brandenburg, J.E., DiPietro, V., and Molenaar, G., "The Cydonian hypothesis," Journal of
Scientific Exploration, Vol. 5, No. 1 (1991).
Erjavec, J., "Cydonia Geology: Enigmas With An Ocean View?," in The Case for the Face,
McDaniel, S. V. and Paxson, M. R. (Eds.), Adventures Unlimited Press, Kempton IL, p. 219-227
(1998).
Erjavec, J., Cydonia: Some Issue, Some Answers?, in Quest for Knowledge Magazine, Top Events
and Publications Ltd, Chester England, p. 25-27 (1997).
Erjavec, J., Cydonia Region: Geomorphic Feature Map, unpublished map (1994).
Erjavec, J. and Brandenburg, J., "Evidence for a Paleo-Ocean Shoreline, Sedimentary Features and
Water Erosion in Cydonia Mensae," AGU Spring Meeting, June 1-4, Boston MA, Abstract, P42A-
10 (1999).
Erjavec, J. and Nicks, R., "Geological Analysis of Enigmatic Landforms in Cydonia," in The
Martian Enigmas, A Closer Look, North Atlantic Books, Berkeley CA, p. 67-86 (1997).
McDaniel, S. V. The McDaniel Report. North Atlantic Books (1993).
McDaniel, S. V. and Paxson, M., Eds. The Case for the Face. Adventures Unlimited Press (1998).
Moore, H., Brandenburg, J., Corrick, S., and Sirisena, A., "Ice Found in Crater in Cydonia," AGU
Spring Meeting, June 1-4, Boston MA, Abstract, P42A-15 (1999).
O'Leary, Brian., “Analysis of Images of the Face on Mars and Possible Intelligent Origin.” Journal
of the British Interplanetary Society, Vol. 43 No. 5 (May 1990).
Parker, T., Gorsline, D., Saunders, R., Pieri, D. and Schneeberger, D., "Coastal Geomorphology of
the Martian Northern Plains," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 98, No. E6, p. 11061-11078
(1993).
Parker, T., Schneeberger, D., Pieri, D., and Saunders, R., "Curvilinear Ridges and Related Features
in Southwest Cydonia Mensae, Mars," Reports of the Planetary Geology Program, NASA TM
89810, pp. 502-504 (1987).
Pozos, Randolfo R., Ed. The Face on Mars. Chicago Review Press (1986).
Sagan, Carl The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark. Random House, NY, pg.
53 (1995).
Torun, E., Personal communication (1993).
... Contrary to claims of natural origins made by individual scientists at NASA (Morrison, 1998) and at JPL (Pieri, 1999), the MGS images supported the earlier claims (Carlotto, 1997) concerning the unusual symmetry of the ''Face'', the unusual regularity of its platform (Carlotto, 1999), and new indications of the existence of secondary facial features not seen in the Viking images but expected if the ''Face'' was indeed an intentional construction. Further analyses involving both statistical and newly applied image enhancement procedures that were not previously available supported the artificiality hypothesis (Van Flandern, 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
We describe aspects of a skull-like feature found in Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) image AB108403. The skull-like feature becomes face-like when one recognizes the presence of component facial features of appropriate size and shape, features such as cheek, chin and neck. Further component features of the image including eyes, nose, and mouth combine to give the impression of a human-like face. A special analysis of the eyes is undertaken, one involving two independent eye specialists. We then undertake a critical analysis including a comparison of natural head or face-like features on earth as well as a probability analysis of the possibility that the features could have appeared randomly. Our analysis suggests that natural and/or random pro-cesses fail to provide a satisfactory explanation for its formation. Among others, we also describe a flat facial profile found in a statistical survey for other eye-like features on Mars. The Profile has an identifiable eye, nose, lips, chin, cheek, and neck. Unlike natural head-like features found on earth, which tend to be grotesque and quite angular, both the Skullface image and the Profile image have relatively smooth and proportionate facial features.
Article
Full-text available
Evidence suggesting a past humanoid civilization has been found at several sites on Mars. In particular, what appear to be large carved faces, with similar details, have been found at two separate sites. Together with geochemical and geological evidence that suggests Mars was once more Earth-like in climate, the images of the objects support the Cydonian Hy-pothesis: That Mars once lived as the Earth now lives, and that it was once the home of an indigenous humanoid intelligence.
Article
Full-text available
The focus of the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence has been to detect radio frequencies emanating from outside the solar system for signs of intelligent life. This strategy is consistent with current information which suggests it is unlikely that intelligent life has evolved on the other planets in the solar system. However, the possibility that extra-terrestrials or their probes may have reached this solar system cannot be ruled out. If so, they may have altered planetary surfaces in ways detectable by remote sensing. An alternative strategy is proposed for a systematic search for anomalous, i.e., possible non-natural objects on planetary surfaces. An approach for detecting anomalous objects in planetary imagery based on the fractal modeling of planetary terrain is described. Viking orbiter imagery suggests that certain objects on the Martian surface currently under investigation may not be natural.
Article
Full-text available
Findings from a series of independent investigations are summarized and presented as evidence in support of the hypothesis that certain features on the Martian surface are artificial in origin. The discussion focuses on the Cydonia region in Mars' northern hemisphere. The features under investigation include a formation approximately 2.5 by 2 km in size that resembles a humanoid face staring up into space from the surface and a number of nearby objects. One set of objects located 10-20 km southwest of the Face which has been termed the "City" contains several unusual structures comparable in size to the Face and a number of smaller structures which together with the larger objects in the City appear to be arranged in an organized pattern. Several other anomalous features in the area are also examined. Three types of evidence are presented which support the hypothesis that the objects in question are artificial. The first is based on a detailed examination of the objects themselves, the second concerns spatial and angular relationships, and the third involves a comparative analysis of the shape of certain objects. Using a Bayesian inference model and assuming the above sources of evidence are mutually independent we show that the above evidence strongly supports the hypothesis that these objects may be artificial in origin.
Article
Full-text available
Examined is a region on Mars in southwest Cydonia Mensae (32 deg lat., 17 deg long.) just northwest of the lowland/upland boundary escarpment. The dominant morphological features in this region are the clusters of large massifs and plateau outliers (PI), knobby material (K), and smooth lowland plains (Ps). Surrounding the clusters and linking many isolated knobs is a system of curvilinear ridges and arcuate terrain boundaries which tend to separate the massifs and knobs from the smooth plains. Curvilinear ridges are arcuate to nearly linear and smoother in plan than wrinkle ridges and show no apparent correlation with regional structural grain. They are typically 5 to 10 km long but can range from as little as 2 or 3 km to greater than 50 km long. The widths vary from about 100 m to as much as 2 km. Curvilinear ridges are most numerous within 100 km of the lowland/upland boundary escarpment and are associated with massifs and knobby terrain. Arcuate terrain boundaries appear between units of different apparent albedo or arcuate breaks in slope.
Article
An empirical cross-check confirms that Carlotto's three-dimensional maps of the face of Mars, photographed at two sun angles, are valid representations. Simulated views from the ground suggest that if intelligence were to have created or modified the features of Cydonia, they were more likely meant to be viewed from above. The face exhibits a striking degree of facelike qualities as viewed from above in all three dimensions, in contrast to natural features on the earth. Critics of the intelligent origin hypothesis assert that the face is natural by analogy to the Old Man of the Mountain in New Hampshire, which is also natural. But the Old Man is rendered in only one dimension. Also, Carlotto's more recent results showing a non-fractal face argue for possible non-natural origin. Higher resolution images, taken under diverse lighting conditions, will need to be obtained before the possible role of extraterrestrial intelligence can be conclusively addressed.
Article
The paper considers the question of the formation of the outflow channels and valley networks discovered on the Martian northern plains during the Mariner 9 mission. Parker and Saunders (1987) and Parker et al. (1987, 1989) data are used to describe key features common both in the lower reaches of the outflow channels and within and along the margins of the entire northern plains. It is suggested, that of the geological processes capable of producing similar morphologies on earth, lacustrine or marine deposition and subsequent periglacial modification offer the simplest and most consistent explanation for the suit of features found on Mars.
Evidence for a Paleo-Ocean Shoreline, Sedimentary Features and Water Erosion in Cydonia Mensae
  • J Erjavec
  • J Brandenburg
Erjavec, J. and Brandenburg, J., "Evidence for a Paleo-Ocean Shoreline, Sedimentary Features and Water Erosion in Cydonia Mensae," AGU Spring Meeting, June 1-4, Boston MA, Abstract, P42A-10 (1999).
Carl The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark
  • Sagan
Sagan, Carl The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark. Random House, NY, pg. 53 (1995).
Mound Configurations on the Cydonia Plain
  • Horace W Crater
  • Mcdaniel
Crater, Horace W. and McDaniel, " Mound Configurations on the Cydonia Plain, " Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 13, No. 3 (Fall, 1999).