The real expansion of social work and social policy followed WWII. In the fifties, the Social and Christian Democratic coalition government increased state responsibilities for social welfare, which led to the shaping of a welfare state. Overall, the role of the government was mainly limited to the distribution of material compensation for the loss of income (e.g., unemployment, disability) and ... [Show full abstract] to the provision of a subsistence level. It subsidised efforts while Catholic, Protestant and socialist organisations implemented them. By the sixties, social policy and provision in the Netherlands had developed into a 'social democratic' welfare state (Esping-Anderson, 1993). Today, the implementation of social policy is a shared responsibility between local and provincial governments, employers, trade unions, NGO's and the market; a development that has led to differences in the area of social provision. Although general social provision laws and regulations are still based at the national level, they are put into practice at lower levels of government and have a significant impact on client groups.