Conference Paper

Could cultured meat reduce environmental impact of agriculture in Europe?

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Abstract

This paper assesses the potential of cultured meat to reduce environmental impacts of livestock production in Europe. Cultured meat (i.e. in vitro meat or lab-grown meat) is produced by cultivating livestock muscle cells in a growth media. The environmental impacts of hypothetical large-scale production of cultured meat were compared to the impacts of livestock production in the EU-27. The results showed that if all meat produced in the EU-27 was replaced by cultured meat, the GHG emissions, land use and water use would be reduced by two orders of magnitude compared to current meat production practices. When the opportunity costs of land use were included, the environmental benefits were even higher. More research and development is required before the product can be commercialised. Further effort is needed to gain public acceptance for this technology.

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... On the other hand, IVM production requires 99% less land, 45% less energy, and 96% less greenhouse gas emissions compared to traditional meat industry [20]. Consumers are aware that IVM is environmentally sustainable, as it reduces the emission of greenhouse gases [14,20,28,32]. For these reasons, consumers have expressed their willingness to engage with IVM [2,20,33]. ...
... Despite the initial scepticism about health and nutritional impacts of IVM, some consumers still believed that IVM has potential health and safety benefits such as higher safety, higher quality standards, and reduced risk of bovine diseases and zoonotic infections such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella infections, which are commonly found with traditional meat consumption [14,20,23,28]. Consumers believed that IVM was healthy because it had minimal fat content [19,32,37], unlike traditional fatty meats, which are linked to cardiovascular diseases. On this note, the majority of consumers felt that IVM was entirely safe [38]. ...
Article
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In vitro meat (IVM) is a recent development in the production of sustainable food. The consumer perception of IVM has a strong impact on the commercial success of IVM. Hence this review examines existing studies related to consumer concerns, acceptance and uncertainty of IVM. This will help create better marketing strategies for IVM-producing companies in the future. In addition, IVM production is described in terms of the types of cells and culture conditions employed. The applications of self-organising, scaffolding, and 3D printing techniques to produce IVM are also discussed. As the conditions for IVM production are controlled and can be manipulated, it will be feasible to produce a chemically safe and disease-free meat with improved consumer acceptance on a sustainable basis.
... The results highlighted higher impacts for climate change (lab-grown meat and gluten-based and mycoprotein-based meat analogues), land use (gluten-based Fig. 6 Single-score alternative FU (3.75 MJ of food energy) product comparison (from cradle to plate) meat), and energy use (mycoprotein-based meat and chicken meat) comparing to available data in literature. Such differentiations could be explained with the inclusion of additional stages and resources (transportation, frying, and cooling at consumer) comparing to the other studies (Blonk et al. 2008;Tuomisto and de Mattos 2011;Tuomisto and Roy 2012;Deng et al. 2013), as results of contribution analysis indicated that frying at consumer was responsible for about 33 % of impact on average. It is accounted for the larger portion of environmental impacts for low-impacting meat substitutes (50 % for insect based and 58 % for soybean based) and for minor influence of highly impacting alternatives (6 % for labgrown meat). ...
... System boundaries of other studies were based on approaches from cradle to gate: as unprocessed weight at farm 60.07-76.8 38.0 (Blonk et al. 2008) gate (Nemecek et al. 2001;Pelletier 2008;Cederberg et al. 2009;Alig et al. 2012;Oonincx and de Boer 2012), dead weight at slaughterhouse (Williams et al. 2006a, b), product at processor gate (Ellingsen and Aanondsen 2006;Blonk et al. 2008;Dalgaard et al. 2008;Tuomisto and de Mattos 2011;Tuomisto and Roy 2012;Wiedemann et al. 2012;Deng et al. 2013), product at retail (Katajajuuri et al. 2008;Head et al. 2011), or further processed product at processing gate (Van Huis et al. 2013). Moreover, environmental performance data of meat substitutes were varying very considerably in literature, which made the comparison not reliable. ...
Article
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Open available: http://rdcu.be/tDjj Purpose Food production is among the highest human environmental impacting activities. Agriculture itself accounts for 70–85 % of the water footprint and 30 % of world greenhouse gas emissions (2.5 times more than global transport). Food production’s projected increase in 70 % by 2050 highlights the importance of environmental impacts connected with meat production. The production of various meat substitutes (plant-based, mycoprotein-based, dairy-based, and animal-based substitutes) aims to reduce the environmental impact caused by livestock. This article outlined the comparative analysis of meat substitutes’ environmental performance in order to estimate the most promising options. Methods The study considered “cradle-to-plate” meal life cycle with the application of ReCiPe and IMPACT 2002+ methods. Inventory was based on literature and field data. Functional unit (FU) was 1 kg of a ready-to-eat meal at a consumer. The study evaluated alternative FU (the equivalent of 3.75 MJ energy content of fried chicken lean meat and 0.3 kg of digested dry matter protein content) as a part of sensitivity analysis. Results and discussion Results showed the highest impacts for lab-grown meat and mycoprotein-based analogues (high demand for energy for medium cultivation), medium impacts for chicken (local feed), and dairy-based and gluten-based meat substitutes, and the lowest impact for insect-based and soy meal-based substitutes (by-products allocated). Alternative FU confirmed the worst performance of lab-grown and mycoprotein-based analogues. The best performing products were insect-based and soy meal-based substitutes and chicken. The other substitutes had medium level impacts. The results were very sensitive to the changes of FU. Midpoint impact category results were the same order of magnitude as a previously published work, although wide ranges of possible results and system boundaries made the comparison with literature data not reliable. Conclusions and recommendations The results of the comparison were highly dependable on selected FU. Therefore, the proposed comparison with different integrative FU indicated the lowest impact of soy meal-based and insect-based substitutes (with given technology level development). Insect-based meat substitute has a potential to be more sustainable with the use of more advanced cultivation and processing techniques. The same is applicable to lab-grown meat and in a minor degree to gluten, dairy, and mycoprotein-based substitutes.
... In 2014, Tuomisto et al amended the previous study by considering alternative production scenarios in Spain, in which the cyanobacteria-based feedstock was substituted with wheat and corn as energy and nutrient source Moreover, instead of stirred-tank bioreactors, hollowfiber reactors were assumed. The analysis stated the results of worst-case and best-case scenarios, depending on parameters like initial cell density and theoretical cell yield Smetana et al (2015) compared six meat analogues among others including chicken, in-vitro meat and insects The study included the production of in-vitro meat, which relied on the data of Tuomisto and Mattos (2011) and Tuomisto et al (2012) It has to be mentioned that the cyanobacteria cultivation was modified with data from Smetana and Sandmann (2017), which according to the authors seemed to be more reliable and accurate The goal was an evaluation of ready-to-eat meal at the consumer level and therefore amended the previously mentioned studies by further downstream processes like meat processing, distribution of product and final preparation at the consumer's home ...
... The lab-grown meat of Smetana is based on data of Tuomisto (2011) and Tuomisto et al (2012), the inventory data will not be discussed in this chapter All analyzed studies are based on hypothetical production processes and simulation models as currently no largescale production facility of clean meat exists Hence, all studies heavily rely on assumptions, literature and calculations based on mathematical formulas The key assumptions of the cell cultivation of the three studies and additional data considered are stated in Table 3 Mattick: ...
Technical Report
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The study first provides an overview of methodological specifics of the analyzed studies. Furthermore, the underlying data as well as assumptions made in the studies are analyzed and gaps are identified. The environmental impacts and the hotspots of the individual processes are reviewed The report concludes with a discussion of the earlier described methodologies, data and findings, which leads to recommendations (e.g. goal and scope, functional unit, system boundaries) for a future LCA study of cultured meat
... The set of factors to be considered include the use of optimized input materials and fuels, generation of feedstockand cultivation of muscle cells. The stem cells were isolatedfrom animal embryo and suitably induced to differentiate into the muscle cells by the engineered E.coli system [Tuomisto and Roy, 2012]. Under land use category, the requisite on feedstock cultivation holds significance. ...
... Based on consumer requirements, the manufacturing could be streamlined with controlled operations by addition and removal of the ingredients at any stage to enhance the formation of final product. For example, quality and time of fatty acid incorporation determines the fat content of meat [Tuomisto and Roy, 2012]. The first processed cultured meat product commercialized is hamburgers or sausages. ...
Chapter
This chapter described about the role of electric pulse in seeds germination and the term noted as Electro- Culture. Methodology and results of simple screening test was reported about the electro culture. The results clearly described electro culture method boosts the seed germination rate.
... The large scale adoption of in-vitro meat in Europe has been projected to decrease GHGs emission by 2 folds. Most of the land at present under crop or fodder production reverting back to wild, leading to reforestation resulting in improving ecological balance, increasing availability of biofuels, saving natural resources for future, etc. [48]. Harvesting a large number of stem cells from small group of high-yielding animals would increase the profitability and returns per animal and prove a better alternative to intensive farming systems. ...
Article
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Abstract The in-vitro meat is a novel concept in food biotechnology comprising field of tissue engineering and cellular agriculture. It involves production of edible biomass by in-vitro culture of stem cells harvested from the muscle of live animals by self-organizing or scaffolding methodology. It is considered as efficient, environmental friendly, better ensuring public safety and nutritional security, as well as ethical way of producing meat. Source of stem cells, media ingredients, supply of large size bioreactors, skilled manpower, sanitary requirements, production of products with similar sensory and textural attributes as of conventional meat, consumer acceptance, and proper set up of regulatory framework are challenges faced in commercialization and consumer acceptance of in-vitro meat. To realize any perceivable change in various socio-economic and environmental spheres, the technology should be commercialized and should be cost-effective as conventional meat and widely accepted among consumers. The new challenges of increasing demand of meat with the increasing population could be fulfill by the establishment of in-vitro meat production at large scale and its popularization. The adoption of in-vitro meat production at an industrial scale will lead to self-sufficiency in the developed world.
... The system boundaries included the processes from input production up to the farm or factory gate. The conversion factors used for converting a ton of carcass dead weight to a ton of edible meat was 0.3847, 0.4555 and 0.4455 for beef, lamb and pork, respectively (Tuomisto and Roy 2012). The energy and protein contents of the products are presented in Table 2 (FSA 2002). ...
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To deal with concerns in China about environmental degradation and a growth in population accompanied by increased consumption of livestock products, a meat alternative is required. This study compared the environmental impacts of producing different protein sources for nutrition, including crops, livestock products, and cultured meat. The results showed that cultured meat has the lowest land use per unit of protein and unit of human digestible energy. China's crops have the lowest energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of energy and protein. The energy use in cultured meat production is slightly higher than that of current pork production in China, whereas GHG emissions are lower. It is concluded that the overall impact of replacing livestock products with cultured meat would be beneficial for China's environment and would potentially improve food security because less land is needed to produce the same amount of protein and energy.
... Organic food is indeed perceived as the best way (or the only way) to lower the carbon footprint of food. In this context, artificial meat may hold promise because an initial study claimed that if all meat produced in the EU-27 was replaced by artificial meat, "the GHG emissions, land use and water use would be reduced by two orders of magnitude compared to the current meat production practices" (Tuomisto and Roy, 2012). This is a strong argument used by promoters of artificial meat. ...
Article
The production of in vitro meat regularly generates media interest because of the contribution it could, at first glance, make to the issue of feeding humankind while also protecting the environment and respecting animals. However, the majority of experts consider that there are still numerous technological obstacles that have to be overcome to produce in vitro meat. In addition, even if in vitro meat could eliminate the supposed lack of well-being of livestock and has the potential to free up cultivable land, other supposed advantages are questionable and not always agreed upon by the scientific community. However, another major problem for the commercialisation of in vitro meat would be its acceptance by consumers, even if some consumers are ready to taste it at least once. In particular, the artificial nature of the product goes against the growing demand for natural products in many countries. The consumption of in vitro meat will depend on a conflict of values at an individual or collective level. The reality is that a range of other complementary solutions already exist which meet the challenges of food supply in our society, but which are less saleable to the media.
... Organic food is indeed perceived as the best way (or the only way) to lower the carbon footprint of food. In this context, artificial meat may hold promise because an initial study claimed that if all meat produced in the EU-27 was replaced by artificial meat, " the GHG emissions, land use and water use would be reduced by two orders of magnitude compared to the current meat production practices " (Tuomisto and Roy, 2012). This is a strong argument used by promoters of artificial meat. ...
... This journal is a member of and subscribes to the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) menurunkan kadar pencemaran GHG (78-96%), penggunaan tanah (99%) dan air (82-96%)(H. L. Tuomisto & de Mattos, 2011;H. Tuomisto & Roy, 2012 , 2004). Kandungan gizi daging kultur boleh dikawal dengan memanipulasi komposisi bahan dan lemak yang digunakan sebagai medium pembiakan. Nisbah antara lemak tepu (saturated fatty acids) dan tidak tepu (poly-unsaturated fatty acids) boleh dikawal dengan baik. Lemak tepu pula boleh digantikan dengan lemak lain yang lebih baik seperti om ...
Article
The advancement of science and technology has provided various facilities to mankind in various aspects of life. This includes the production of meat without involving conventional cattle breeding known as cultured meat. The meat is produced in the laboratory by expanding the stem cells until the meat becomes cultured. This meat has the potential to be marketed but it has to adhere to the Islamic principles if we wish to market it to Muslim consumers, which are known to be some of the largest consumers in the meat market. This study will look into the concept of cultured meat in general, the history also the technique applied. Next, researcher will look into the halal status of the cutured meat based on the stem cells resources from Embryo Stem Cell (ESCs) because it is the best resource in culturing meat. The study outcome finds that if the stem cells are taken from cows slaughtered according to the method predetermined by Islam, the cultured meat would be halal to eat.
... Some of the impacts include the greenhouse effect (Greenhouse Gas-GHG) 9.1% and land effect 12.8% (Weiss and Leip 2012). Based on these statistics, if this cultured meat manages to widely penetrate the market across Europe, it is expected to reduce the pollution rate of GHG, land use and water by 78-96, 99% and 82-96%, respectively (Tuomisto and de Mattos 2011;Tuomisto and Roy 2012). ...
Article
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Cultured meat is a promising product that is derived through biotechnology that partially circumvents animal physiology, thereby being potentially more sustainable, environmentally friendly and animal friendly than traditional livestock meat. Such a novel technology that can impact many consumers evokes ethical, philosophical and religious discussions. For the Islamic community, the crucial question is whether cultured meat is halal, meaning compliant with Islamic laws. Since the culturing of meat is a new discovery, invention and innovation by scientists that has never been discussed by classical jurists (fuqaha'), an ijtihad by contemporary jurists must look for and provide answers for every technology introduced, whether it comply the requirements of Islamic law or not. So, this article will discuss an Islamic perspective on cultured meat based on the original scripture in the Qur'an and interpretations by authoritative Islamic jurists. The halal status of cultured meat can be resolve through identifying the source cell and culture medium used in culturing the meat. The halal cultured meat can be obtained if the stem cell is extracted from a (Halal) slaughtered animal, and no blood or serum is used in the process. The impact of this innovation will give positive results in the environmental and sustain the livestock industry.
... Such technologies may take a while to disperse globally though, and the results of this study further stress the necessity to innovate in agriculture. And finally, more resource-efficient foods may become more prevalent in the future, such as insects (Van Huis et al., 2013) or cultured meat (Tuomisto and Roy, 2012). Total fertilizer consumption has been growing steadily, from 31Mtonne in 1961 to 141Mtonne in 2002 (FAOSTAT, 2012). ...
Article
Do we have the natural resource base to feed future populations? This study gives a quantification of global land use, water use and fertilizer use for the year 2050, for a complete diet and four different futures. Agriculture will need to develop substantially to feed future populations. It is shown that there is a negative correlation between fertilizer use and land use, which makes the necessity of incorporating both in such assessments clear. Water use increases relative to total production and this is going to be a problem unless drastic measures are taken. The high wastage and high consumption of animal products in the developed regions are major contributors to the total global demand. Developing countries' aspirations to such practices are a major factor in increases in diet demand, as are population increases in those regions. In creating a more sustainable food system, a one-solution approach will not do and solutions should combine supply-side and demand-side options. Demand-side solutions should target wastage and animal product consumption. On the supply side, technological development and better feeding efficiency will increase yields. Feeding the future global population, which is necessary to increase living standards worldwide, will require a concerted effort.
... The energy use of large-scale bioreactors tends to be another problem (Mattick, Landis, Allenby, Genovese, & technology, 2015;Tuomisto & de Mattos, 2011;Tuomisto & Roy, 2012). Up until now, it seems that the energy use of producing cultured meat is substantially higher than producing conventional meat, whereas, environmental impacts like water usage or CO2 emissions are lower for cultured meat (Mattick et al., 2015). ...
Conference Paper
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... Antaranya kesan rumah hijau (Greenhouse Gas -GHG) 9.1% dan tanah 12.8% (Franz dan Adrian, 2012). Berdasarkan perangkaan yang dibuat, jika daging kultur ini berjaya dipasarkan dengan meluas di seluruh Eropah, kadar pencemaran GHG akan berjaya dikurangkan sehingga 78-96%, penggunaan tanah (99%) dan air (82-96%) (Hanna et al., 2011;Hanna et al., 2012 1982-2008(Mark Post, 2012. Jadi, terdapat sebahagian aktivis haiwan yang sudah boleh menerima konsep daging kultur, malah sebahagian dari mereka telah menggunakan istilah victimless meat bagi daging kultur ini ( Zuhaib et al., 2014b). ...
Article
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Cultured meat is one of the latest innovations in food processing that are environmentally friendly, highly demanded and meeting market requirements. The meat is no longer produced organically through conventional means of livestock farming but it is harvested in laboratories and factories. In fact it benefits consumer. This study discusses the concept and history of cultured meat, the production and the techniques used in its production. In addition, the analysis of the Islamic ruling is carried out by assessing the current fatwas dealing with meat culture. To complete this study, qualitative methods were employed by referring to journals, books and fatwas. The results showed that cultured meat that derived from slaughtered cattle is Halal whereas the cultured meat using the source of stem Abstrak Daging kultur adalah salah satu inovasi terbaru dalam penghasilan produk makanan yang bersifat mesra alam selain menerima permintaan tinggi serta memenuhi keperluan pasaran. Daging ini tidak lagi dihasilkan secara alami melalui penternakan di ladang, sebaliknya dihasilkan di makmal dan kilang. Bahkan daging kultur boleh mendatangkan manfaat yang banyak kepada pengguna. Kajian ini akan membincangkan konsep dan sejarah daging kultur, faktor penghasilan dan teknik yang digunakan dalam menghasilkan daging kultur. Di samping itu, analisis hukum dijalankan dengan menilai fatwa semasa berkaitan status daging kultur. Kajian menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan merujuk kepada jurnal, buku dan fatwa semasa bagi melengkapkan kajian. Hasil kajian mendapati bahawa daging kultur yang dihasilkan bersumberkan lembu yang disembelih adalah Halal dimakan manakala daging kultur yang menggunakan sumber
... This can be reflected in meat alternatives such as plantbased meat and lab-grown meat. Both types of meat are presently more expensive than traditionally-farmed meat, despite having lower GWP ( Heller andKeoleiank, 2018 , Tuomisto andRoy, 2012 ), and therefore may not be considered an appealing alternative to the regular consumer. However, given expectations of dropping prices of these alternatives to make them more price-competitive against traditional meat ( Vegan News, 2019 ), there may be potential for consumers to incorporate these meat alternatives into their diets over time. ...
Article
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Singapore imports more than 90% of the food consumed with the remaining being produced in farms locally. With Singapore's commitment to achieving the United Nations’ sustainable development goals and the recently announced “30 by 30” goal of raising the current food production levels from the current 10–30% of the nation's food needs by 2030, there is an emphasis to raise productivity, strengthen climate resilience and also tackle resource constraints. This work presents the current trend analysis of Singapore's food supply and consumption through the lens of life cycle environmental impacts. With this as a baseline, multiple future scenarios are presented based on different anticipated shifts as a comparison. Based on the “30 by 30” goal, these future scenario analyses describe shifts towards optimal health diet and plant-based diet through alternative plant-based meats, and will be further discussed to derive insights on how they may affect future outcomes in terms of environmental impacts and what they mean for decision-making or policy-making.
... Therefore, it is highly inadvisable to waste food under the premise that there are 815 million people in a state of food shortage today [52]. Artificial meat is expected to produce meat in a highly effective way to solve the estimated increase in meat demand [53]. Chinese people would be willing to make a contribution to the world hunger issues by eating artificial meat. ...
Article
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The interest for artificial meat has recently expanded. However, from the literature, perception of artificial meat in China is not well known. A survey was thus carried out to investigate Chinese attitudes toward artificial meat. The answers of 4666 respondents concluded that 19.9% and 9.6% of them were definitely willing and unwilling to try artificial meat respectively, whereas 47.2% were not willing to eat it regularly, and 87.2% were willing to pay less for it compared to conventional meat. Finally, 52.9% of them will accept artificial meat as an alternative to conventional meat. Emotional resistance such as the perception of “absurdity or disgusting” would lead to no willingness to eat artificial meat regularly. The main concerns were related to safety and unnaturalness, but less to ethical and environmental issues as inWestern countries. Nearly half of the respondents would like artificial meat to be safe, tasty, and nutritional. Whereas these expectations have low effects on willingness to try, they may induce consumers’ rejection to eat artificial meat regularly, underlying the weak relationship between wishes to try and to eat regularly. Thus, potential acceptance of artificial meat in China depends on Chinese catering culture, perception of food and traditional philosophy.
Chapter
Substitution of food out of alternative biomass sources is aimed to supply consumers with food products similar in nutrition and with lower environmental impact compared to conventional products. At current state of development, meat substitutes are not competitive with chicken meat, except for plant based meat analogs (although they have weaker nutritional profile). Upscaling, further technological development and use of agri-food waste as main source substrate can assure the environmental benefits of insects (2 kW h of energy, 1 kg CO2 eq., 1.5 m² of land and 0.1 m³ of water) and single cell products (10 kW h, 2–4 kg CO2 eq., 0.5 m² of land and 0.25 m³ of water), making them more competitive compared to industrial chicken production. The results of the current research are preliminary and further studies are required to assure the industrial applicability of agri-food wastes use for food production.
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Defined as meat cultured in a laboratory within a bioreactor under controlled artificial conditions, in vitro meat is a relatively recent area which has opened a whole universe of possibilities and opportunities for the meat sector. With improved chemical and microbial safety and varied options, in vitro meat has been proposed as a green, healthy, environmentally friendly and nutritionally better product that is free from animal suffering and death. Cell culture and tissue culture are the most probable technologies for the development of this futuristic muscle product. However, there are many challenges in the production of a suitable product at an industrial scale under a sustainable production system and a great body of research is required to fill the gaps in our knowledge. Many materials used in the product development are novel and untested within the food industry and demand urgent regulatory and safety assessment systems capable of managing any risks associated with the development of cultured meat. The future of this product will depend on the actions of governments and regulatory agencies. This article highlights emerging biotechnological options for the development of cultured meat and suggests ways to integrate these emerging technologies into meat research. It considers the problems and possibilities of developing cultured meat, opportunities, ethical issues as well as emerging safety and regulatory issues in this area.
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The advancement of science and technology has provided various facilities to mankind in various aspects of life. This includes the production of meat without involving conventional cattle breeding known as cultured meat. The meat is produced in the laboratory by expanding the stem cells until the meat becomes cultured. This meat has the potential to be marketed but it has to adhere to the Islamic principles if we wish to market it to Muslim consumers, which are known to be some of the largest consumers in the meat market. This study will look into the concept of cultured meat in general, the history also the technique applied. Next, researcher will look into the halal status of the cutured meat based on the stem cells resources from Embryo Stem Cell (ESCs) because it is the best resource in culturing meat. The study outcome finds that if the stem cells are taken from cows slaughtered according to the method predetermined by Islam, the cultured meat would be halal to eat.
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The production of artificial meat by cell culture is suggested by some scientists as one solution to address the major challenges facing our society: (i) reducing potential discomfort of animals on modern farms or avoiding killing animals to eat them (ii) reducing potential environmental degradation by livestock and (iii) reducing world hunger by increasing protein resources. Artificial meat would indeed eliminate any animal "suffering" in farming systems and would avoid the slaughtering of animals to eat them. The environmental impact of artificial meat is difficult to evaluate due to the absence of references on production units. However, it may have a moderate interest in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and pollution by nitrates, a limited interest for decreasing fossil fuel use or a very limited interest concerning water use, but it would make more land available. It may result in the presence of organic molecule residues in water. Nevertheless, many experts believe that the causes of the current malnutrition of some human populations are diverse, and not directly related to a lack of food resources. Although cell culture can be usually performed in laboratories, there are significant major technical difficulties to move towards a large-scale production as the prohibitive cost of current technologies and the lack of similarity of the obtained product with meat from animals. From a nutritional point of view, artificial meat has no particular advantage compared to another type of food made from all nutrients necessary for its production. The criteria for acceptability of artificial meat refer, first, to moral or ethical concerns about the technology and the worries it raises, and secondly, to usual food product concerns (price, quality, naturality, etc.). In the past, attempts to substitute animal proteins with similar products have failed due to economic constraints, the time required for potential product acceptance by consumers and permission to place the products on the market by public authorities. In conclusion, given the important challenges facing livestock, production of artificial meat does not present any major advantage compared to natural meat or to other options such as balancing human food supply by more diverse sources of plant and animal proteins, or developing friendly farming systems for animals and the environment. Technical, economic and social constraints, including uncertain acceptance by consumers of artificial foods, are indeed major limitations to the development of artificial meat.
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Due to the nutritional importance and the sustained popularity of meat as a foodstuff, the livestock production sector has been expanding incessantly. This exponential growth of livestock meat sector poses a gigantic challenge to the sustainability of food production system. A new technological breakthrough is being contemplated to develop a substitute for livestock meat. The idea is to grow meat in a culture in the lab and manipulate its composition selectively. This paper aims to discuss the concept of In Vitro Meat production system, articulate the underlying technology and analyse the context of its implications, as proposed by several scientists and stakeholders. The challenges facing this emerging technology have also been discussed.
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Abstrak Perkembangan sains dan teknologi kini telah mencetuskan inovasi dan penemuan baharu dalam pelbagai bidang. Khususnya dalam penghasilan produk makanan, terdapat trend pemprosesan yang bersifat mesra alam selain daripada permintaan tinggi serta keperluan pasaran terhadap produk terlibat. Antara produk berkenaan adalah penghasilan daging kultur atau daging makmal. Daging ini tidak lagi dihasilkan secara alami melalui penternakan di ladang-ladang, sebaliknya ia dihasilkan di makmal dan kilang. Bahkan ia boleh mendatangkan manfaat yang banyak kepada pengguna. Selain bersifat mesra alam, proses penghasilannya juga ekonomik serta boleh dipelbagaikan gizinya. Biasanya dalam proses pengkulturan daging, terdapat beberapa teknik yang digunakan seperti scaffold structure, organ printing dan tissue culture. Justeru dalam kajian ini, pengkaji hanya akan menfokuskan terhadap penggunaan stem sel berasaskan teknik scaffold structure sahaja. Pengkaji akan meneliti teknik yang digunapakai serta sumber stem sel yang diambil dalam pengkulturan daging. Berasaskan data-data yang dikumpulkan, pengkaji akan menganalisis pandangan ulama terhadap teknik dan produk akhir yang dihasilkan. Ini kerana proses pengkulturan daging berhubungkait dengan pengubahan ciptaan Allah SWT serta sumber stem sel akan memberi implikasi terhadap hukum memakan daging kultur tersebut. Justeru, satu panduan hukum Islam akan dihasilkan berdasarkan penelitian terhadap pengkulturan daging. Kata kunci: pengkulturan daging, daging kultur, hukum Islam, halal dan haram, sains dan teknologi 3 rd Postgraduate Conference on Science and Technology Studies 2014 (22 nd – 23 rd December 2014) Organized by
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Cultured meat (i.e., meat produced in vitro using tissue engineering techniques) is being developed as a potentially healthier and more efficient alternative to conventional meat. Life cycle assessment (LCA) research method was used for assessing environmental impacts of large-scale cultured meat production. Cyanobacteria hydrolysate was assumed to be used as the nutrient and energy source for muscle cell growth. The results showed that production of 1000 kg cultured meat requires 26-33 GJ energy, 367-521 m(3) water, 190-230 m(2) land, and emits 1900-2240 kg CO(2)-eq GHG emissions. In comparison to conventionally produced European meat, cultured meat involves approximately 7-45% lower energy use (only poultry has lower energy use), 78-96% lower GHG emissions, 99% lower land use, and 82-96% lower water use depending on the product compared. Despite high uncertainty, it is concluded that the overall environmental impacts of cultured meat production are substantially lower than those of conventionally produced meat.
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In 2008 heeft Blonk Milieu Advies in samenwerking met de vegetariërsbond en het LEI een onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de milieueffecten van een verschuiving van consumptie van dierlijke naar plantaardige eiwitten in de Nederlandse voeding. Daarbij is vooral de focus gelegd op het broeikaseffect en het ruimtebeslag en de mogelijke biodiversiteitseffecten daarvan. Daarnaast is er meer kwalitatief aandacht besteed aan andere effecten zoals dierenwelzijn en de effecten van een consumptiestop van dierlijke producten op de productiekolom van dierlijke producten in Nederland
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