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Magnesium and Osteoporosis: Current State of Knowledge and Future Research Directions

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A tight control of magnesium homeostasis seems to be crucial for bone health. On the basis of experimental and epidemiological studies, both low and high magnesium have harmful effects on the bones. Magnesium deficiency contributes to osteoporosis directly by acting on crystal formation and on bone cells and indirectly by impacting on the secretion and the activity of parathyroid hormone and by promoting low grade inflammation. Less is known about the mechanisms responsible for the mineralization defects observed when magnesium is elevated. Overall, controlling and maintaining magnesium homeostasis represents a helpful intervention to maintain bone integrity.
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Nutrients 2013, 5, 3022-3033; doi:10.3390/nu5083022
nutrients
ISSN 2072-6643
www.mdpi.com/journal/nutrients
Review
Magnesium and Osteoporosis: Current State of Knowledge and
Future Research Directions
Sara Castiglioni
1
, Alessandra Cazzaniga
1
, Walter Albisetti
2
and Jeanette A. M. Maier
1,
*
1
Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences L. Sacco, University of Milan, Via GB Grassi 74,
Milan I-20157, Italy; E-Mails: sara.castiglioni@unimi.it (S.C.); alessandra.cazzaniga@unimi.it (A.C.)
2
Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, University of Milan, Via Commenda 10,
Milan I-20157, Italy; E-Mail: walter.albisetti@unimi.it
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: jeanette.maier@unimi.it;
Tel.: +39-02-5031-9648; Fax: +39-02-5031-9659.
Received: 18 June 2013; in revised form: 14 July 2013 / Accepted: 22 July 2013 /
Published: 31 July 2013
Abstract: A tight control of magnesium homeostasis seems to be crucial for bone health.
On the basis of experimental and epidemiological studies, both low and high magnesium
have harmful effects on the bones. Magnesium deficiency contributes to osteoporosis
directly by acting on crystal formation and on bone cells and indirectly by impacting on the
secretion and the activity of parathyroid hormone and by promoting low grade
inflammation. Less is known about the mechanisms responsible for the mineralization
defects observed when magnesium is elevated. Overall, controlling and maintaining
magnesium homeostasis represents a helpful intervention to maintain bone integrity.
Keywords: osteoporosis; magnesium; osteoblast; osteoclast
1. Introduction
Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease characterized by loss of bone mass due to a marked bone
microarchitecture deterioration [1]. Physiologically, bone is constantly remodeled by concerted and
coordinated interactions between osteoclasts, the cells primarily involved in bone resorption, and
osteoblasts, which ensure bone formation and mineralization. Osteoporosis results from an imbalance
between bone deposition and resorption. The consequent decline of bone mass increases the risk of
OPEN ACCESS
Nutrients 2013, 5 3023
fractures, in particular hip and spine fractures, which are associated with substantial pain and suffering,
disability, and even death [1].
Osteoporosis affects millions people worldwide, predominantly postmenopausal women. In the
United States low bone mass is a threat for more than 40 million people [2]. In Europe, the prevalence
of osteoporosis is expected to affect more than 30 million people by the year 2050 [3]. Frequently
associated with aging, osteoporosis is a major health concern since the aging population will double
over the next decade with enormous cost burden on the healthcare systems. Osteoporosis therapies are
available and fall into two classes, anabolic drugs, which induce bone formation, and anti-resorptive
drugs, which retard bone resorption. In addition, modifications of lifestyle, i.e., regular physical activity,
no alcohol, no smoke, balanced diet, are highly recommended in patients with osteoporosis [1]. In
general, because osteoporosis reflects peak bone mass determined by factors preceding skeletal
maturity [4], there is a growing interest in preventive strategies for decreasing the incidence of
osteoporosis in future decades. Dietary interventions are among them. Indeed, nutritional factors are of
particular importance to bone health and they are modifiable by providing food-based
recommendations. A correct diet is particularly important in the young, before skeletal maturity is
reached. While calcium and vitamin D have been the master focus of nutritional prevention of
osteoporosis, several additional food constituentssuch as phytoestrogens, flavonoids, vitamins A, B,
C, E, folateand minerals among which copper, zinc, selenium, iron fluoride and magnesium (Mg),
are known to be important [5]. In particular, a significant association has been found between bone
density and the intake of Mg, an essential micronutrient with a wide range of metabolic, structural and
regulatory functions [6].
2. Magnesium and the Bone: Molecular, Biochemical and Cellular Insights
About 60% of total Mg is stored in the bone. One third of skeletal Mg resides on cortical bone
either on the surface of hydroxyapatite or in the hydration shell around the crystal [7]. It serves as a
reservoir of exchangeable Mg useful to maintain physiological extracellular concentrations of the
cation [6]. Bone surface Mg levels are related to serum Mg. Accordingly, surface bone Mg increases
with Mg loading, as described in chronic renal disease [8]. The larger fraction of bone Mg is probably
deposited as an integral part of the apatite crystal and its release follows the resorption of bone. Apart
from a structural role in the crystals, Mg is essential to all living cells, including osteoblasts and
osteoclasts. Intracellularly, Mg is vital for numerous physiological functions. First of all, Mg is
fundamental for ATP, the main source of energy in the cells. Moreover, Mg is cofactor of hundreds of
enzymes involved in lipid, protein and nucleic acid synthesis. Because of its positive charge, Mg
stabilizes cell membranes. It also antagonizes calcium [9] and functions as a signal transducer [10]. It
is therefore not surprising that alterations of Mg homeostasis impact on cell and tissue functions.
3. Low Magnesium and Osteoporosis: Experimental Evidence
In several studies on different species, dietary Mg restriction promotes osteoporosis [11]. Bones of
Mg deficient animals are brittle and fragile, microfractures of the trabeculae can be detected and
mechanical properties are severely impaired [12]. Consequently, it is not surprising that a Mg deficient
Nutrients 2013, 5 3024
diet has a negative effect on the peri-implant cortical bone markedly decreasing tibial cortical
thickness [13].
Several direct and indirect mechanisms contribute to the effects of low Mg on bone density
(Figure 1). Mg deficiency rapidly leads to hypomagnesemia, which is in part buffered through the
mobilization of surface Mg from the bone. In addition, the newly formed crystals of apatite are larger
and better structured in Mg deficient animals than controls, and this affects bone stiffness [14]. It
should also be recalled that low Mg intake retards cartilage and bone differentiation as well as matrix
calcification [15]. In experimental Mg deficiency in rodents, decreased bone formation is partly due
to reduced osteoblastic activity [16]. Accordingly, the number of osteoblasts detected by
histomorphometry is reduced [17,18] and the levels of two markers of osteoblastic function, namely
alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin, are decreased [14]. Moreover, an increase in the number of
osteoclasts has been described [11]. It is noteworthy that these results in vivo have been confirmed by
in vitro studies and some molecular pathways involved have been unraveled. Indeed, low extracellular
Mg inhibits osteoblast growth by increasing the release of nitric oxide through the upregulation of
inducible nitric oxide synthase [19], while it increases the number of osteoclasts generated from bone
marrow precursors [20].
Figure 1. Present knowledge about the mechanisms involved in linking Mg deficiency and
osteoporosis. Remarkably, similar events are implicated in experimental models and in
humans. Because the vasculature plays an important role in bone remodeling, we also
hypothesize that low Mg induced-endothelial dysfunction contributes to the decline of
bone mass.
Apart from direct effects on the structure and the cells of the skeleton, Mg deficiency impacts on the
bone also indirectly by affecting the homeostasis of the two master regulators of calcium homeostasis,
i.e., parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25(OH)
2
-vitamin D thus leading to hypocalcemia. In most
species, hypomagnesemia impairs secretion of PTH and renders target organs refractory to PTH.
Because PTH signaling implies the increase of cyclic AMP through the activation of adenylate cyclase,
which requires Mg as a cofactor, resistance to PTH might be due, in part, to the decreased activity of
this enzyme [21]. Reduced secretion of PTH or impaired peripheral response to the hormone lead to
Nutrients 2013, 5 3025
low serum concentrations of 1,25(OH)
2
-vitamin D [11,18]. To this purpose it is noteworthy that
25-hydroxycholecalciferol-1-hydroxylase requires Mg [22] and consequently Mg deficiency reduces
the activity of the enzyme.
Hypomagnesemia also promotes inflammation [23] and a relation exists between inflammation and
bone loss [24]. In Mg deficient rodents, TNFα, IL-1s and IL-6 are increased both in serum and in the
bone marrow microenvironment [23]. These cytokines not only amplify osteoclast while inhibiting
osteoblast function but also perpetuate inflammation. Besides, substance P is released at high levels in
Mg deficiency [18]. In addition to enhancing pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, substance P
released on nerve ending in bone stimulates the activity of the osteoclasts [18].
It is also relevant that Mg restriction promotes oxidative stress, partly as a consequence of
inflammation partly because of the reduced anti-oxidant defenses which occur upon Mg
restriction [25]. The increased amounts of free radicals potentiate the activity of osteoclasts and
depress that of osteoblasts [26].
A last issue that is overlooked in experimental models is about the vasculature in the bone of Mg
deficient animals. An adequate blood supply is necessary for bone health. Interestingly, decreased
intraosseous blood vessel volume and number seems to be relevant in the development of
post-nerve-injury osteoporosis [27] and in old-age associated osteoporosis [28]. Overall, all
experimental data from animal studies indicate that reduced dietary intake of Mg is a risk factor for
osteoporosis through a constellation of different mechanisms.
4. Low Magnesium and Osteoporosis: Studies in Humans
Nutritional monitoring programs have shown an inadequate dietary Mg intake in Europe and North
America [29] which leads to subclinical Mg deficiency. This is mainly due to the features of the
western diet, rich in processed foods and relatively poor in micronutrients. How can Mg intake be
optimized? Since the center of chlorophyll contains Mg, green vegetables are excellent sources of the
metal. Also, nuts, seeds, unprocessed grains and some legumes contain large amounts of Mg.
However, diet is not the only determinant. For a long time, the existence of differences in Mg handling
on a genetic basis has been suspected. Only recently some light has been shed on this issue. In the last
decade, rare cases of hypomagnesemia have been linked to hereditary single-gene mutations [30]
(Table 1). These uncommon disorders lead to the identification and characterization of some molecular
players in Mg homeostasis. These findings fostered studies on the genome and, by single nucleotide
polymorphisms, six different genomic regions were individuated that contain variants reproducibly
associated with low serum Mg levels [31]. Interestingly, only one of the loci described, namely TRPM6,
had a known role in influencing Mg concentrations in humans [32]. These results open new perspectives
in our understanding of the complex mechanisms involved in regulating Mg absorption and distribution
and should be taken into account when the outcomes of interventional studies are evaluated.
Nutrients 2013, 5 3026
Table 1. Inherited disorders leading to hypomagnesemia. The function of the wild type
protein is briefly described.
Disease
* Omim
®
Reference
Gene
Protein
recessive familial
hypomagnesemia with
hypercalciuria and
nephrocalcinosis
248250
248190
CLDN16
CLDN19
Claudin-16 and Claudin-19
Function: tight junction proteins
Localization: thick ascending limb of Henle’s loop and
convolute distal tubule in the kidney
Involved in paracellular epithelial transport
recessive
hypomagnesemia with
secondary
hypolcalcemia
602074
TRPM6
TRPM6
Function: cation channel and α-kinase
Localization: intestine and distal convolute tubule in the kidney
Involved in transcellular Mg reabsorption in epithelial cells
dominant renal
hypomagnesemia
154020
FXYD2
FXYD2
Function: γ-subunit of the Na
+
/K
+
ATPase
Localization: basolateral membrane of proximal and distal
tubules in the kidney
Involved in transcellular Mg reabsorption
recessive renal
hypomagnesemia
131530
EGF
EGF
Function: growth factor and magnesiotropic hormone
Involved in stimulating magnesium reabsorption in the renal
distal convoluted tubule via activation of TRPM6
dominant
hypomagnesemia
607803
CNNM2
CNNM2
Function: metal trasporter
Localization: ubiquitous; thick ascending limb of Henle’s loop
and basolateral membrane of distal tubule in the kidney
Involved in renal Mg reabsorption
autosomal dominant
myokymia with
hypomagnesemia
176260
KCNA1
Kv1.1
Function: voltage-gated K
+
channel
Localization: ubiquitous; distal convolute tubule in the kidney
Involved in renal Mg reabsorption
* Omim: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man.
Because Mg homeostasis is regulated through a complex network of transporters in the intestine
and in the kidney, it is not surprising that Mg deficiency is associated with chronic gastrointestinal and
renal diseases [32]. It also complicates diabetes mellitus, sickle cell anemia, therapies with some
classes of diuretics, antibiotics or anti-neoplastic drugs [33,34]. In addition, it is very common in the
elderly and in alcoholists. Some of these conditions share elevated C-reactive protein, a marker of
systemic inflammation, as a common denominator and an inverse correlation exists between Mg intake
and C-reactive protein [35].
Nutrients 2013, 5 3027
Also in humans Mg deficiency contributes to osteoporosis. Low serum Mg is a co-contributing
factor to osteopenia in adults with sickle cell anemia [36]. Moreover, an association between serum
Mg and bone density has been reported in pre and post menopausal women [4,37]. Mg intake was
positively associated with bone mass density in surviving members of the Framingham study [38]. The
same result was obtained in white but not in black males and females (age 7079), thereby raising the
possibility of racial differences in Mg handling [39] which might be explained in the light of the
aforementioned genetic variants of genes implicated in Mg homeostasis [31]. In agreement with the
aforementioned results, Mg supplementation is beneficial in osteoporotic women [40,41].
Building healthy bone throughout life is a strategy to prevent osteoporosis. To this purpose it is
interesting to note that pre-adolescent dietary intake of Mg positively relates to bone mass density in
young adulthood as detected by quantitative ultrasound determination of the calcaneus [42] and that
Mg supplementation for 12 months has a positive effect on the accrual of bone mass in the hip of
peripuberal Caucasian girls [43]. Mg supplementation is therefore important in the periadolescent group,
given the suboptimal dietary Mg intake documented in food surveys in western countries. It is also
interesting that Mg intake is an independent predictor of bone density in young elite swimmers [44].
The mechanisms explaining the effects of Mg deficiency on the bone in humans are similar to what
has been described in experimental models:
(i) low Mg can directly affect the bone by altering the structure of apatite crystals and by acting on
bone cells. Indeed, osteoporotic women with demonstrated Mg deficiency have larger and better
organized crystals in trabecular bone than controls, while in women undergoing hormone replacement
therapy bone Mg is increased and associates with low cristallinity index [45]. We here recall that when
crystals are large bones do not bear a normal load.
(ii) Mg deficiency associates with the reduction of the levels of PTH, the induction of end-organ
resistance to PTH and the decrease of vitamin D [11,46]. Interestingly, many osteoporotic
post-menopausal women who are vitamin D deficient and have low PTH levels are also Mg deficient
and Mg supplementation corrects these biochemical abnormalities [47]. Moreover hypomagnesemic
diabetic children normalize their levels of 1,25(OH)
2
-vitamin D upon supplementation with Mg [48].
(iii) Mg deficiency associates with low grade inflammation [4,34] and, as mentioned above,
inflammatory cytokines stimulate bone remodelling and osteopenia [23].
(iv) Mg deficiency promotes endothelial dysfunction [49] and it is known that endothelial health is
important for bone health [50]. On these bases, it is tempting to speculate about the possibility that
osteoporosis might be considered a vascular disease of the bone.
(v) Another aspect to consider is the evidence that adults on a western diet develop a low-grade
acidosis which is intensified by aging. Recently, the acid load imposed by this diet has been suggested
to play a role in the pathophysiology of osteoporosis. Indeed, metabolic acidosis has been shown to
lead to calcium loss from bone, to inhibit osteoblast function and stimulate osteoclast activity, and to
impair bone mineralization [51]. Accordingly, a neutralizing diet improves bone micro-architecture
and bone mineral density [52]. It is therefore feasible that part of the effects of Mg on the skeleton is
due to its capability to act as a buffer for the acid produced by the typical western diet [53].
In spite of the evidence showing that Mg is beneficial for the skeleton, warning results were
reported in the Women’s Health Initiative Study where it is shown that postmenopausal women with
the highest quintile of Mg intake have the highest incidence of wrist fracture [5]. These results are in
Nutrients 2013, 5 3028
keeping with some data showing that elevated Mg might have harmful effects on osseous metabolism
and parathyroid gland function, leading to mineralization defects. Indeed, high bone Mg inhibits the
formation of hydroxyapatite crystals by competing with calcium and by binding to pyrophosphate
forming an insoluble salt, not degraded by the enzymes [54]. These events contribute also to
osteomalacic renal osteodystrophy and adynamic bone disease [54]. In patients with chronic renal
failure or in individuals undergoing dialysis, serum Mg concentrations are frequently elevated and
correlate with mineralization defects [54]. Additional intriguing studies were performed on premature
infants with osteopenia secondary to MgSO
4
maternal administration for preterm labor [55,56]. Since
Mg is a calcium antagonist [9], it is feasible to propose that high concentrations of Mg alter
calcium/Mg ratio, thus leading to dysregulated cell functions. Accordingly, an in vitro inhibitory effect
of high Mg on osteoblast differentiation and mineralizing activity has been shown [57].
Overall, an optimal range of Mg concentrations might be required to ensure bone homeostasis.
More studies are required in vitro and in vivo about the effects of high Mg concentrations on bone
metabolism and structure not only to provide correct nutritional guidelines but also because of the use
of Mg as an orthopedic implant material.
5. Critical Issues and Future Perspective
Mg has been defined the forgotten electrolyte. Indeed, while a lot of literature is available on
calcium, not as much is known about Mg in biomedicine and, specifically, in bone homeostasis. In
addition, the measurement of serum Mg is seldom requested in spite of the evidence that
hypomagnesemia is very common in industrialized countries. Because Mg (i) interferes with
calciotropic hormones and (ii) has been proposed as a natural calcium antagonist, an evaluation of
Mg/calcium balance seems to be pivotal in general, and in particular in the case of bone physiology
and pathology. To our knowledge, there is only one study showing that the ratio of serum and hair
calcium to Mg is a significant indicator of bone mass density [58]. Recent advancement in our
knowledge of bone physiology has shown the complexity of the network of molecules involved in
maintaining skeletal health. The canonical Wnt pathway is emerging as fundamental for the
maintenance of bone homeostasis [59]. Briefly, Wnts are essential in determining the fate of
mesenchymal precursors and in regulating osteoblast proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and
function [59]. Accordingly, Wnt antagonist sclerostin is involved in osteoporosis and inflammatory
bone loss [60]. No data are available at the moment on this pathway in Mg deficiency. Another hot
area of research relates to the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for regenerative medicine in
different fields including orthopaedic surgery. To our knowledge nothing is known about the effects of
different concentrations of Mg on MSC survival, growth and differentiation both in vivo and in vitro,
apart from the studies performed with MSC on biodegradable Mg alloys [61]. Also osteocytes have not
been studied in relation to Mg. Far from being passive by-standers in the bone, the osteocytes are
emerging as mechanotransducers and orchestrators of bone remodelling [62]. Many other challenging
questions about Mg and the bone are still unanswered.
Nutrients 2013, 5 3029
6. Conclusions
Although the evidence is still fragmentary, most of the experimental and clinical data available in
the literature point to Mg as a contributor factor to bone health. Consequently, optimizing Mg intake
might represent an effective and low-cost preventive measure against osteoporosis in individuals with
documented Mg deficiency, while doubts remain about supplementing the general population with the
mineral since too much Mg seems to have detrimental effects on the bone [5,57].
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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© 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article
distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).
... Magnesium (Mg), the second most abundant intracellular cation, stabilizes DNA and RNA structures and cell membranes and plays an essential role in maintaining the function of many enzymes as co-factors [76,188]. In skeletal bone, Mg deficiency contributes to impaired bone growth, disrupted mineral metabolism, decreased osteoblast, increased osteoclast cell number, and osteoporosis in young animals, with promoted inflammation [105][106][107][108][109]. Mg 2+ is found to enhance the expression of the osteogenesis-related genes, production of extracellular matrix, and deposition of apatite crystal in undifferentiated MSCs and osteoblastic MSCs in vitro, possibly through the upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α), respectively [110][111][112]. ...
... In vivo studies also showed enhanced bone regeneration with overexpressed osteogenic markers, OCN, Runx2, and IGF-I, around the implant in vivo [110][111][112]. Nevertheless, Mg 2+ (up to 5 mM) competes with Ca 2+ as an antagonist and forms an insoluble salt with pyrophosphate, causing mineralization defect and cell dysfunction [108,113,114]. ...
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Bone is capable of adjusting size, shape, and quality to maintain its strength, toughness, and stiffness and to meet different needs of the body through continuous remodeling. The balance of bone homeostasis is orchestrated by interactions among different types of cells (mainly osteoblasts and osteoclasts), extracellular matrix, the surrounding biological milieus, and waste products from cell metabolisms. Inorganic ions liberated into the localized microenvironment during bone matrix degradation not only form apatite crystals as components or enter blood circulation to meet other bodily needs but also alter cellular activities as molecular modulators. The osteoinductive potential of inorganic motifs of bone has been gradually understood since the last century. Still, few have considered the naturally generated ionic microenvironment’s biological roles in bone remodeling. It is believed that a better understanding of the naturally balanced ionic microenvironment during bone remodeling can facilitate future biomaterial design for bone tissue engineering in terms of the modulatory roles of the ionic environment in the regenerative process.
... Several direct and indirect mechanisms contribute to the effects of low magnesium on bone density: Low magnesium can directly affect the bone by altering the structure of apatite crystals; magnesium deficiency is also associated with reduction of PTH and 1,25(OH2) D levels and low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, with a wellknown relation between inflammation and bone loss [16,33]. ...
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In this first chapter, we describe different Osteopathies of degenerative or inflammatory nature related to the ageing of people. We are going to give a brief description of the pathogenic processes responsible for bone diseases, with a particular focus on osteoporosis and we will present various options and proposals for the prevention and treatment of changes in bone metabolism with medicines and food supplements. We are going to devote particular attention to the effects of Silicon in these pathologies, until now poorly considered, and we will propose our own formulation composed of Organic Silicon plus trace elements. We have treated a large number of patients, osteopenics or osteoporotics and we have obtained good and encouraging results with this innovative formulation. We therefore consider the proposal presented here to be a valid alternative to traditional pharmacological treatment, with respect to which it has the double advantage of equal effectiveness and absolute absence of side effects.
... Таким образом, можно сказать, что исход беременности в группе «Фактор I «-1» не благоприятен, и это связано с повышенным содержанием таких элементов, как магний и медь у матери и ребенка, что вызывает отравление этими металлами. Данное утверждение основывается на исследованиях, в которых приводится основной диапазон физиологической нормы магния в сыворотке крови -около 0,76-1,15 ммоль/л (18,5-28,0 мг/л) (Swaminathan, 2003;Castiglioni et al., 2013). Причем в норме происходит резкая стимуляция экскреции магния при концентрации магния в сыворотке выше 0,8 ммоль/л (19,4 мг/л) для предотвращения отравления. ...
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... Nevertheless, the quantity is around 2 wt% in the bone tissue and cartilage throughout the commencement of the osteogenesis but tends to diminish in the mature tissues [38]. It has been reported that osteoporosis is straightforwardly related to Mg deficiency, inhibition of skeletal metabolism stages, inhibition of osteoblastic and osteoclastic processes, bone growth, osteopenia and enhanced bone brittleness [217]. ...
... Our study showed that dietary rye inclusion has no effect on the mineral composition of the bone from hens at the end of the laying period, while enzyme supplementation positively influenced not only Ca content, crucial for eggshell formation, but also the content of numerous key microminerals. Bones are the main reservoir of Mg, which is a cofactor for numerous enzymes and in bones it also plays a role in hydroxyapatite crystal formation, preventing osteoporosis [58]. Mn stimulates the synthesis of the bone matrix and improves bone regeneration [59]. ...
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... BGs containing magnesium have the potential to generate a framework that is conducive to the proliferation and activity of human osteoblast-like cells (Balamurugan et al. 2007). Magnesium is a co-factor in a variety of enzymes that are connected to healthy bones and teeth, but it can also inhibit the formation of apatite crystals (Castiglioni et al. 2013). In addition, many Bioverit glass-ceramics, the bioavailability of which has been demonstrated in clinical tests, include substantial quantities of magnesium oxide (Höland et al. 1991). ...
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The introduction of bioactive glasses (BGs) precipitated a paradigm shift in the medical industry and opened the path for the development of contemporary regenerative medicine driven by biomaterials. This composition can bond to live bone and can induce osteogenesis by the release of physiologically active ions. 45S5 BG products have been transplanted effectively into millions of patients around the world, primarily to repair bone and dental defects. Over the years, many other BG compositions have been introduced as innovative biomaterials for repairing soft tissue and delivering drugs. When research first started, many of the accomplishments that have been made today were unimaginable. It appears that the true capacity of BGs has not yet been realized. Because of this, research involving BGs is extremely fascinating. However, to be successful, it requires interdisciplinary cooperation between physicians, glass chemists, and bioengineers. The present paper gives a picture of the existing clinical uses of BGs and illustrates key difficulties deserving to be faced in the future. The challenges range from the potential for BGs to be used in a wide variety of applications. We have high hopes that this paper will be of use to both novice researchers, who are just beginning their journey into the world of BGs, as well as seasoned scientists, in that it will promote conversation regarding potential additional investigation and lead to the discovery of innovative medical applications for BGs.
... Magnesium deficiency adversely affects all metabolic stages of skeleton formation, inhibits bone growth, reduces the activity of osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells, and promotes bone fragility [4]. Moreover, magnesium deficiency influences osteoporosis because it promotes the production of hydroxyapatite, as well as the secretion and activity of parathyroid hormone [5]. On the other hand, an insignificant role of magnesium on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) differentiation to the osteogenic line was found in Mg-Ca alloy extracts with a higher concentration of ions than in pure Mg alloy, but the synergistic effect of both elements on cell activity was showed [6]. ...
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Chapter
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Magnesium, potassium, and sodium, cations commonly measured in serum, are involved in many physiological processes including energy metabolism, nerve and muscle function, signal transduction, and fluid and blood pressure regulation. To evaluate the contribution of common genetic variation to normal physiologic variation in serum concentrations of these cations, we conducted genome-wide association studies of serum magnesium, potassium, and sodium concentrations using ~2.5 million genotyped and imputed common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 15,366 participants of European descent from the international CHARGE Consortium. Study-specific results were combined using fixed-effects inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. SNPs demonstrating genome-wide significant (p
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Magnesium (Mg) deficiency has been associated with bone disorders. Physical activity is also crucial for bone mineralization. Bone mass loss has been observed to be accelerated in subjects with low Mg intake. We aim to understand if Mg intake mediates the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and lean soft tissue (LST) in elite swimmers. Seventeen elite swimmers (eight males; nine females) were evaluated. Bone mineral content, BMD, LST, and fat mass were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Energy and nutrient intake were assessed during a seven-day period and analyzed with Food Processor SQL. Males presented lower values than the normative data for BMD. Mg, phosphorus (P) and vitamin D intake were significantly lower than the recommended daily allowance. A linear regression model demonstrated a significant association between LST and BMD. When Mg intake was included, we observed that this was a significant, independent predictor of BMD, with a significant increase of 24% in the R(2) of the initial predictive model. When adjusted for energy, vitamin D, calcium, and P intake, Mg remained a significant predictor of BMD. In conclusion, young athletes engaged in low impact sports, should pay special attention to Mg intake, given its potential role in bone mineral mass acquisition during growth.
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Context: The acid load imposed by a modern diet may play an important role in the pathophysiology of osteoporosis. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the skeletal efficacy and safety and the effect on fracture prediction of K-citrate to neutralize diet-induced acid loads. Design and setting: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at a teaching hospital. Subjects: Subjects included 201 elderly (>65 yr old) healthy men and women (t-score of -0.6 at lumbar spine). Intervention: Intervention was 60 mEq of K-citrate daily or placebo by mouth. All subjects received calcium and vitamin D. Outcome measures: The primary outcome was change in areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the lumbar spine by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry after 24 months. Secondary endpoints included changes in volumetric density and microarchitectural parameters by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography in both radii and both tibiae and fracture risk assessment by FRAX (Switzerland). Results: K-citrate increased aBMD at lumbar spine from baseline by 1.7 ± 1.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-2.3, P < 0.001] net of placebo after 24 months. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography-measured trabecular densities increased at nondominant tibia (1.3 ± 1.3%, CI = 0.7-1.9, P < 0.001) and nondominant radius (2.0 ± 2.0%, CI = 1.4-2.7, P < 0.001). At nondominant radius, trabecular bone volume/tissue volume increased by 0.9 ± 0.8%, (CI = 0.1-1.7), trabecular thickness by 1.5 ± 1.6% (CI = 0.7-2.3), and trabecular number by 1.9 ± 1.8% (CI = 0.7-3.1, for all, P < 0.05). K-citrate diminished fracture prediction score by FRAX significantly in both sexes. Conclusions: Among a group of healthy elderly persons without osteoporosis, treatment with K-citrate for 24 months resulted in a significant increase in aBMD and volumetric BMD at several sites tested, while also improving bone microarchitecture. Based on the effect on fracture prediction, an effect on future fractures by K-citrate is possible.
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There is a need to understand the role of nutrition, beyond calcium and vitamin D, in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis in adults. Results regarding soy compounds on bone density and bone turnover are inconclusive perhaps due to differences in dose and composition or in study population characteristics. The skeletal benefit of black cohosh and red clover are unknown. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) use may benefit elderly individuals with low serum dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels, but even in this group, there are inconsistent benefits to bone density (BMD). Higher fruit and vegetable intakes may relate to higher BMD. The skeletal benefit of flavonoids, carotenoids, omega-3-fatty acids, and vitamins A, C, E and K are limited to observational data or a few clinical trials, in some cases investigating pharmacologic doses. Given limited data, it would be better to get these nutrients from fruits and vegetables. Potassium bicarbonate may improve calcium homeostasis but with little impact on bone loss. High homocysteine may relate to fracture risk, but the skeletal benefit of each B vitamin is unclear. Magnesium supplementation is likely only required in persons with low magnesium levels. Data are very limited for the role of nutritional levels of boron, strontium, silicon and phosphorus in bone health. A nutrient rich diet with adequate fruits and vegetables will generally meet skeletal needs in healthy individuals. For most healthy adults, supplementation with nutrients other than calcium and vitamin D may not be required, except in those with chronic disease and the frail elderly.