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Overeducation and depressive symptoms: Diminishing mental health returns to education

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Abstract

In general, well-educated people enjoy better mental health than those with less education. As a result, some wonder whether there are limits to the mental health benefits of education. Inspired by the literature on the expansion of tertiary education, this article explores marginal mental health returns to education and studies the mental health status of overeducated people. To enhance the validity of the findings we use two indicators of educational attainment - years of education and ISCED97 categories - and two objective indicators of overeducation (the realised matches method and the job analyst method) in a sample of the working population of 25 European countries (unweighted sample N = 19,089). Depression is measured using an eight-item version of the CES-D scale. We find diminishing mental health returns to education. In addition, overeducated people report more depression symptoms. Both findings hold irrespective of the indicators used. The results must be interpreted in the light of the enduring expansion of education, as our findings show that the discussion of the relevance of the human capital perspective, and the diploma disease view on the relationship between education and modern society, is not obsolete.

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... The local score for each anatomical area is generated by multiplying the given factor by the points of the most severe lesion within an area. The local scores are summed to obtain the total GAGS score, which categorizes acne severity into no acne (0 points), mild acne (1-18), moderate acne (19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30), severe acne (31)(32)(33)(34)(35)(36)(37)(38), and very severe acne (≥39). 11 ...
... Mental health outcome is remarkably influenced by educational level. 30,31 Evidently, a wide body of research indicates that the higher the educational level, the less likely an individual will develop depressive symptoms, imposing a beneficial protective influence of educational attainment against depression, whereas under-education might negatively impact mental well-being, placing individuals at high risk of depression. 31,32 Alternatively, other authors advocate that higher educational attainment is inversely related to mental status, which in turn is in accordance with this study finding. ...
... This can be explained by the expansion of education with discrepancy in educational level and occupation. 30 In addition, the goal of educational attainment with the desired benefits from the rewards given according to educational degrees earned will have consequences on personal life, family, and well-being. [33][34][35] In this study, we used the HADS in both the screening and diagnosis of anxiety and depression. ...
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Purpose: Acne vulgaris is a common dermatological disease in adolescents that show high prevalence rates of anxiety and depression that may lead to consequences that affect quality of life. This study aimed to assess and compare anxiety and depression in patients with acne and a control group and to determine their correlation with other demographic data. Patients and methods: This was a case-control study conducted in 2019 for 3 months at the derma-tology department of Ohud Hospital and two other private clinics in the Medina region of Saudi Arabia. For this study, 296 consecutive patients in the age group of 12 to 60 years who were diagnosed as having acne vulgaris were enrolled and matched with a control group. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire, including sociodemographic data and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores. Results: We found no significant differences between the two groups regarding sex, age group, nationality, and educational level, but found a significant difference in marital status (p < 0.001). Most (62.5%) of the acne cases were moderate in severity. The overall anxiety score in the acne group was 7.68 ± 4.90, with a significant difference with the control group (p = 0.031), whereas the anxiety level and depression score showed no significant difference (p = 0.082 and p = 0.656, respectively). Moreover, a strong correlation was found between anxiety and depression in the acne group (r = 0.732, p < 0.001). Conclusion: A positive correlation was found between the anxiety and depression scores in the patients with acne, which was not related to age group or educational level. However, the anxiety scores of the patients with acne showed a significant relationship with sex.
... Throughout the twentieth century, significant social changes have occurred in many countries around the world, especially in developing countries like China. Due to dramatic social changes that shape cohort differences, both the 'rising importance hypothesis' [17], and the 'diminishing health returns hypothesis' [18][19][20] have been tested. The rising importance hypothesis suggests the positive education effect on health increases across birth cohorts, whereas the diminishing health returns hypothesis suggests the education effect diminishes across birth cohorts. ...
... Subsequent findings on gender difference and cohort variation reveals both gender and cohort-specific social context shapes education gradient in health. However, these findings are based on the Western democratic contextusing data from the U.S. and Europe [17][18][19][20][21][22]. Empirical work on gender and cohort effect and the education-health gradient are often absent in the Chinese context, especially after the educational expansion therein. ...
... In U.S., the positive relationship between education and income had intensified over the years [23], and growing income difference due to education further increased the health gaps in recent cohorts [21]. In Europe, from 1960s onward, participation in higher education had increased, however, the massive growth in tertiary education has not been accompanied by an equivalent growth in the labor market [18,19]. Unlike their Western capitalist counterparts, China prior to the marketization reform in 1979 was a collective economy where the government assigned salaries and occupations to individuals, making educational attainment irrelevant for job acquisition [24]. ...
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Background: Variation in the relationship between education and health has been studied intensely over the past few decades. Although there is research on gender disparity and cohort variations in educational effect on health using samples from the U.S. and Europe, research about China's is limited. Given the specific social changes in China, our study is designed to analyze the gender and cohort patterns in the education-health gradient. Method: The latent growth-curve modeling was used to analyze the gender and cohort variations in the education gradient in self-rated health among Chinese respondents. The study employed longitudinal and nationally representative data from the Chinese Family Panel Studies from the years 2010 to 2016. Each cohort is specified according to their distinct periods of social change in China. Following the analysis, we used latent growth-curve model to illustrate gender and cohort differences in the age-graded education and health trajectories. Results: Although Chinese men have reported to have better health than women in general, women reported 1.6 percentage points higher in self-reported health for each additional year of schooling compared to that of men (P < 0.001). The latent growth curve model showed women's extra education benefits were persistent overtime. Compared to the people born during the "Old China" (1908-1938), the education gradient in self-rated health did not change for cohorts born before 1955 and after 1977, but the education-health gap changed significantly in the 1956-1960 (O.R. = 1.038, P < 0.05), 1967-1976 (O.R. = 1.058, P < 0.001), and 1977-1983 (O.R. = 1.063, P < 0.001) cohorts. There was a gender difference for the cohort variations in the education-health gradient. For women, the education effect in the 1956-1960 (O.R. = 1.063, P < 0.05), 1967-1976 (O.R. = 1.088, P < 0.001) and 1977-1983 (O.R. = 1.102, P < 0.001) cohorts was significantly higher than that of the 1908-1938 cohort. On the contrary, the education-health gradient remained the same across all cohorts for men. Conclusion: Our study suggests that the education-health gradient varies across cohorts for women, but the size of education effect remains consistent for men across cohorts. The findings support the resource-substitution hypothesis and not the rising-importance hypothesis in China. We discussed the potential influences of the unique, social transformation and educational expansion in China.
... Similar findings were reported in individuals who had higher education, but were shown to experience lower levels of depression [21,22]. However, diminishing mental health status secondary to educational level has been reported [23]. Consequently, overeducated people are expected to experience more episodes of depression [23]. ...
... However, diminishing mental health status secondary to educational level has been reported [23]. Consequently, overeducated people are expected to experience more episodes of depression [23]. Some authors did not find any association between education and depression among African Americans [24,25]. ...
... A couple of authors [10,11,14,15] from different parts of the world have reported progressive increase in depression scores as the level of education increases in university students. Consistent with the works of these authors [23,[44][45][46], our findings revealed that depression scores increased with year of education in the university. Surprisingly, however, this association was confirmed for the total sample and for the female population, but not for the males. ...
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Background: Depression among university students is fairly prevalent and a common problem in the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sex, physical defect on body, acne on face and education on depression in Nigerian university students. Methods: A total of 298 Nigerian university students were involved in the study. Participants were 105 men and 193 women who were 17 years-25 years of age. The Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) 20 adapted from WHO was used to screen for depression. Results: Depression score was higher in female than in male subjects (t=2.75, p=0.01). Subjects with physical defect and acne had higher depression scores than subjects without physical defect and acne (t=2.76, p=0.01 and t=2.12, p=0.04, respectively). There was a positive relationship between depression scores and years of education (F=4.53, p=0.00). Conclusions: Sex, university education and health related problems such as physical defect and acne are associated with depression scores in university students.
... From this perspective, it is difficult to see how someone could have too much education, given that the positive relationship between education and mental health is one of the most consistent findings in the field of social epidemiology (Mirowsky and Ross, 2003). Nevertheless, there are clear indications that overeducation imposes limits to the mental-health returns on education, as it has been linked to lower well-being (Chen et al., 2010;Dean and Wilson, 2009) and a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms (Bracke et al., 2013Johnson and Johnson, 1999;Tarvid, 2017). The majority of research in this areas consists of single-country studies (Chen et al., 2010;Dean and Wilson, 2009;Friedland and Price, 2003;Johnson and Johnson, 1999), but recent efforts have been made to expand the focus to include samples covering a broad range of European countries (Bracke et al., 2013Tarvid, 2017). ...
... Nevertheless, there are clear indications that overeducation imposes limits to the mental-health returns on education, as it has been linked to lower well-being (Chen et al., 2010;Dean and Wilson, 2009) and a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms (Bracke et al., 2013Johnson and Johnson, 1999;Tarvid, 2017). The majority of research in this areas consists of single-country studies (Chen et al., 2010;Dean and Wilson, 2009;Friedland and Price, 2003;Johnson and Johnson, 1999), but recent efforts have been made to expand the focus to include samples covering a broad range of European countries (Bracke et al., 2013Tarvid, 2017). Notwithstanding their important contributions to the field, the advantages of these samples merit further exploration, given that an important implicit assumption of such research is homogeneity in the relationship between overeducation and depressive symptoms across countries. ...
... For example, it has been reported that countries vary in terms of the upward mobility of overeducated people and their ability to find properly matched jobs (Baert et al., 2013). This finding implies that, in some countries, the status of being overeducated is prolonged, with the potential for increased negative consequences, including shame and alienation, which are seen as important mediators in the relationship between overeducation and mental health (Bracke et al., 2013). ...
... In addition, the highest prevalence rate of lifetime MDE was among adults with some college education. Although some may argue for the protective effect of higher education against major depression, this effect is known to vary across subgroups of the population (Bauldry, 2015;Bracke et al., 2013). One plausible explanation is that the higher prevalence rate of a lifetime MDE among adults with some college education is the consequence of having to pay the price of higher academic achievement at the expense of personal time, family, and welfare. ...
... One plausible explanation is that the higher prevalence rate of a lifetime MDE among adults with some college education is the consequence of having to pay the price of higher academic achievement at the expense of personal time, family, and welfare. This explanation is supported by past research demonstrating that overeducation has consequences for well-being and general mental health (Bracke et al., 2013;Vaisey, 2006;Verhaest and Omey, 2009). Another finding is that lifetime MDE prevalence rates were the highest among unmarried adults. ...
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Using the 2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, this study examined the US national prevalence rates of suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempts (SA) among four demographic adult groups (race-sex, age, education, and marital status) with and without major depressive episode (MDE). The highest prevalence rates of SI for those with and without MDE occurred among adults 18 to 25 years, with some college education, White females and males, and unmarried and never been married. Among the same demographic groups, proportions of SA were also the highest for those with MDE. A Pearson chi-square test confirmed significant associations between MDE and SI and between MDE and SA. The model fit results showed that the four variables were significant predictors of SI and SA (p < 0.05). Serious mental health needs are unmet, especially among adults with depression. Population-based clinical interventions are needed to reduce rates of depression, SI, and SA.
... 3 In a Western context, a growing body of research has begun to explore potential consequences for overeducated individuals, including their income and well-being (see e.g. Bracke et al., 2013;Haisken-DeNew and Kleibrink, 2013;Piper, 2015;Frank and Hou, 2018). ...
... Additionally, in a study that uses ESS data from the working population of 25 European countries (N=19,089), overeducated workers (measured using both objective methods) seem to be more depressed than the workers with a matched educational level for their occupation (Bracke et al., 2013). Using both the realised matches and the job analysis method, the authors observed higher levels of depressive symptoms for overeducated individuals. ...
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One reason often put forward for South Korea’s rapid economic growth has been the rising level of educational attainment of its workforce. Correspondingly, the proportion of Koreans who complete tertiary education has also rapidly increased (and is also considerably higher than the OECD average). Such increases raise the possibility of overeducation if the amount of jobs which require such education do not increase at a similar pace. Among the consequences of overeducation are reduced life satisfaction and underutilised human capital. Given that Korean females are better educated than males, and they also face more discrimination in the labour market, the consequences of overeducation are likely to differ by gender. Using Korean panel data and both a subjective and objective measure of overeducation, the results are consistent with females having lower aspirations despite their high levels of education, and indicate that a more female friendly labour market could address the country’s currently underutilised human capital, for the benefit of the females themselves, as well as males, and the Korean economy.
... Additionally, the highest rate of major depression was among adults with some college education. Although some may argue for the protective effect of higher education against major depression, this effect is known to vary across subgroups of the population (Bauldry, 2015;Bracke et al., 2013). One plausible explanation is that the higher rate of major depression among adults with some college education is the consequence of having to pay the price of higher academic achievement at the expense of personal time, family, and welfare. ...
... One plausible explanation is that the higher rate of major depression among adults with some college education is the consequence of having to pay the price of higher academic achievement at the expense of personal time, family, and welfare. This explanation is supported by past research demonstrating that overeducation has consequences for wellbeing and general mental health (Bracke et al., 2013;Vaisey, 2006;Verhaest & Omey, 2009). Another finding is that depression rates were the highest among unmarried adults. ...
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Background: This study examines the national prevalence rates of suicidal ideation and attempts among adults with and without major depressive episode (MDE) in five demographic groups –race, sex, age, education, and marital status – in the United States. Methods: Data extracted from the 2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) were analyzed, producing 42,551 records. Wald chi-square diagnostic examination was conducted on the multinomial logistic regression (MLR) model with five demographic predictor variables. Results: The highest rates of suicidal ideation for those with MDE occurred in White females (40.6%), adults 18-25 years old (36.4%), individuals with some college education (40.4%), and unmarried adults (57.1%). For those without MDE, the highest rates of suicidal ideation occurred among White males (31.9%), adults 18-25 years old (31.9%), individuals with some college education (38.7%), and unmarried adults (49.6%). Among the same demographic groups, proportions of suicide attempts were highest for those with MDE. A chi-square test indicated significant differences across adults with and without MDE in all demographic groups. The MLR model fitting results showed that the five demographic variables were significant predictors of suicidal ideation and attempts in both populations (p<0.05). Conclusions: serious mental health needs are unmet for many demographic groups, especially among individuals with depression. Population-based clinical interventions are needed to reduce rates of depression, suicidal ideation, and attempts.
... Throughout the twentieth century, significant social changes have occurred in many countries around the world, especially in developing countries like China. Due to dramatic social changes that shape cohort differences, both the 'rising importance hypothesis ' [17], and the 'diminishing health returns hypothesis' [18][19][20] have been tested. The rising importance hypothesis suggests the positive education effect on health increases across birth cohorts, whereas the diminishing health returns hypothesis suggests the education effect diminishes across birth cohorts. ...
... Subsequent findings on gender difference and cohort variation reveals both gender and cohort-specific social context shapes education gradient in health. However, these findings are based on the Western democratic context -using data from the U.S. and Europe [17][18][19][20][21][22]. Empirical work on gender and cohort effect and the education-health gradient are often absent in the Chinese context, especially after the educational expansion therein. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Variation in the relationship between education and health has been studied intensely over the past few decades. Although there is research on gender disparity and cohort variations in educational effect on health using samples from the U.S. and Europe, research about China’s is limited. Given the specific social changes in China, our study is designed to analyze the gender and cohort patterns in the education-health gradient. Method: The latent growth-curve modeling was used to analyze the gender and cohort variations in the education gradient in self-rated health among Chinese respondents. The study employed longitudinal and nationally representative data from the Chinese Family Panel Studies from the years 2010 to 2016. Each cohort is specified according to their distinct periods of social change in China. Following the analysis, we used latent growth-curve model to illustrate gender and cohort differences in the age-graded education and health trajectories. Results: Although Chinese men have reported to have better health than women in general, women reported 1.6 percentage points higher in self-reported health for each additional year of schooling compared to that of men (P
... In sum, the research field is diverse, with little consensus around definitions and measures of status incongruence. Status incongruence has in later years been measured in several different ways in relation to health outcomes, and the general finding is that negative status incongruence is associated with an increased risk of adverse health outcomes (12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17). ...
... The effect of status incongruence on mild-to-severe depressive symptoms and depression was evident also after excluding cases of the respective outcome at baseline. The present study supports the results of several previous ones of various more traditional measures of status incongruence, reporting associations with outcomes such as mental well-being (17), depression symptoms (13,16), poor self-rated health (15), and risk of cardiovascular disease (14). In the present study, the odds of sickness absence ≥ 31 days for each standard deviation increase in negative status incongruence is particularly high among men. ...
Article
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Objective This study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that negative status incongruence may contribute to explain higher risk of mental ill-health and sickness absence in human service occupations (HSO). Methods Participants from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health who responded to questionnaires in both 2014 and 2016 (N=11 814; 42% men, 58% women) were included. Status incongruence between register-based educational level and subjective social status was assessed. The association between employment in a HSO and status incongruence was estimated in linear regression analyses adjusted for age, income, work hours, sickness absence, childcare, and job qualification match. The prospective associations between status incongruence and mild-to-severe depressive symptoms and register-based sickness absence ≥31 days respectively were estimated with logistic regression analyses in models adjusted for age and outcomes at baseline. All analyses were stratified by gender. Results Employment in a HSO was associated with more negative status incongruence in both genders [standardized coefficient men 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02-0.07; women 0.06, 95% CI 0.04-0.09]. More negative status incongruence was furthermore associated with higher odds of mild-to-severe depressive symptoms (men OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.08-1.29; women OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.09-1.26) and sickness absence ≥31 days (men OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.23-1.59; women OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.07-1.28) two years later. Conclusion Status incongruence is somewhat higher among HSO than other occupations and associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms and sickness absence.
... In addition, recent research has suggested that there is a 'diminishing return to education' in terms of well-being (Bracke, Pattyn, andvon dem Knesebeck 2013: Chevalier andFeinstein 2006). For example, the benefits of moving from secondary to tertiary education are substantial, but the additional benefits of acquiring a postgraduate degree are less clear (Ross and Mirowsky 1999). ...
... Thus, even if higher enrolment partly postpones the point of social selection to higher rungs on the educational ladder, it nevertheless has an equalising effect on well-being, as the 'postponement' is subject to diminishing returns in terms of well-being. This trend towards diminishing returns is amplified in contexts in which over-education is common (Bracke, Pattyn, and von dem Knesebeck 2013), and if higher enrolment levels contribute to over-education, we could assume that higher levels of enrolment reduce the differences in well-being between individuals with high and low levels of education. Thus, higher levels of enrolment will equalise well-being across social background by redistributing the well-being benefits of higher education to new entrants. ...
Article
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Inequalities in health and well-being are important contemporary public health issues. This article is the first to investigate the institutional causes of inequality in well-being among youth in a comparative perspective. Data from the European Social Survey are used to analyse how educational policies moderate the association between social background and well-being. Multilevel techniques are used to investigate cross-level interactions between social background and educational policies on life satisfaction. Four indicators of inclusive educational policies are analysed: age of tracking, costs of education, enrolment rates, and second-chance opportunities in the educational system. The results show that educational policies indeed moderate the association between social background and well-being: inequalities as measured by the father’s social class are smaller in countries where educational policies are more inclusive. Moreover, the analysis shows that the moderating impact of education policies is mediated by individual-level education, activity status, and income.
... These may provide the individual "a kit" of tools and capabilities to cope with problems in the workplace and in daily life. Another aspect, individuals with higher education, compared with those with less education, have more opportunities to create and maintain social networks that can be supportive and contributing to better mental health (Bracke, Pattyn & von dem Knesebeck, 2013). Among the Arab population in the research, this fi nding was not signifi cant. ...
... The association between the education level and depression is supported by previous scientifi c evidences (Blazer et al., 1994;Kaplan et al., 2010). Higher education may provide the individual high socioeconomic status and "a kit" of tools for coping with problems in work and in daily life, including emotional distress (Bracke et al., 2013). Among the Jews only, interviewees that live alone or have low education level had increased likelihood for depression. ...
... However, more recent evidence shows a significantly negative effect of education on satisfaction with life directly, but also a significantly positive influence when considering the indirect effect involving other factors (e.g., income; Powdthavee et al., 2015). Other evidence that could enrich this framework is the one concerning over-education, that was associated with higher levels of depression, feelings of alienation, and lower job satisfaction (Johnson and Johnson, 2000;Fleming and Kler, 2008;Bracke et al., 2013), and, also in this case, highlighted the importance of considering the income variable, which was found to mediate the negative relationship between over-education and satisfaction with life (Frank and Hou, 2018). Therefore, more studies that include additional variables (e.g., income, over-education, etc.) are needed to investigate in-depth the results of the present study. ...
Article
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Satisfaction with life is a core dimension of well-being that can be of great importance in the workplace, in light of the close link between worker health and organizational success highlighted by the perspective of healthy organizations. This study aimed at analyzing the factors associated with satisfaction with life, focusing on the role of resilience, career adaptability, self-efficacy, and years of education. A sample of 315 workers (67% women; Mage = 34.84 years, SD = 12.39) filled out the Satisfaction with Life Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale, Career Adapt-Abilities Scale, the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and a demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed by implementing a chained mediation model. Results showed a significant and positive relationship between resilience and satisfaction with life, partially moderated by the chained effect of career adaptability and self-efficacy, controlling for education. When inserted as a covariate, education showed a significant and negative association with satisfaction with life. Such findings contribute to enriching the field of research on the factors that contribute to the well-being of workers and may have important practical implications for interventions in organizations.
... Research on the political consequences of overeducation is relatively scant, at least in comparison with the huge amount of effort that has been invested in studying its effects on other, non-political variables, such as job satisfaction and work attitudes (e.g., Verhaest and Omey 2008;Peiró et al. 2010;Steffy 2017;Ueno and Krause 2018;Erdogan et al. 2018;Mateos-Romero and Salinas-Jiménez 2018;Sloane and Mavromaras 2020;García-Mainar and Montuenga-Gómez 2020;Bodemariam and Ramos 2021) or different facets of subjective well-being (e.g., Bracke et al. 2013;Artés et al. 2014;Piper 2015;Salinas-Jiménez et al. 2016;Zhu and Chen 2016;Frank and Hou 2017;Erdogan et al. 2018;Ilieva-Trichkova and Boyadjieva 2021). However, research that sought to empirically evaluate the political effects of status inconsistency has sometimes included education and employment along with other status dimensions, and there are also specific references to the political dimension in research assessing the consequences of overeducation in different domains. ...
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This article examines the impact of overeducation on attitudes towards the political system and political participation. Using survey data from Spain, diagonal reference models were estimated to contrast hypotheses based on the theory of status inconsistency. The evidence links overeducation to political attitudes (lower satisfaction with the functioning of democracy, lower external political efficacy) and political participation (greater participation in protests, higher membership in associations). Most of these effects are modest and some of them are moderated by age. Overall, the findings indicate that overeducation has relevant political consequences, mainly among young, university-educated workers doing jobs with low educational requirements. However, overeducation does not pose a major threat to political stability.
... According to a 2017 PhD survey report published by Science, 45% of PhD candidates reported experiencing depression (Woolston, 2017). The same research found that people with higher education reported more depressive symptoms (Bracke et al., 2013), and that graduate students are six times more likely to suffer from depression and anxiety than the general population (Evans et al., 2018). At the same time, studies have also shown that a higher level of education can reduce the risk of depression (Cho et al., 1998;Bauldry, 2015), and a meta-analysis of 37 studies on education and depression has confirmed the linear nature of the relationship between years of education and the prevalence of major depression (Lorant et al., 2003). ...
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This study aimed to investigate the factor structure and measurement invariance of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) among Chinese adults. A sample comprising 1,839 adults from four cities in Shaanxi province completed the BSI-18 and background information. The best-fitting factor structure model of the BSI-18 was verified by confirmatory factor analyses, and multigroup confirmatory factor analyses were performed to test the measurement invariance. The results indicated that the three-factor bi-factor model fitted the current data best (χ2 = 468.861, df = 117, CFI = 0.939, TLI = 0.920, RMSEA = 0.040, BIC = 47044.977). The configural, metric, scalar, and strict invariance models all had acceptable model fit indexes across genders, and the configural, metric, scalar invariance models with different living areas and educational levels were all acceptable. Overall, the three-factor bi-factor model of the BSI-18 shows a good fit for use with Chinese adults, making it a viable tool for effectively measuring the mental health of Chinese adults.
... Our study results suggest that younger adults with high-middle income or higher, never been married, and divorced/separated diagnosed with MDE are at increased risk of developing BAU (Bracke et al., 2013;Bulloch et al., 2017;Kanny et al., 2018). Results suggest that other groups, including 50 years old or older, married, earn less than a college degree education, and less than high-middle income with MDE are at decreased risk of developing BAU. ...
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Identifying sociodemographic populations with a major depressive episode (MDE) who are at increased risk for binge alcohol use (BAU) is critical for developing focused prevention programs to meet the needs of each population. Thus, the goal of the current exploratory retrospective study is to examine if sex, race, age, education, marital status, and income can significantly predict the risk for BAU among adults with MDE and if the association between MDE and BAU changes after adjusting for demographic variables in question while holding sex, race, and age as constant variables. Data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's 2018 National Survey for Drug Use and Health were extracted and analyzed to achieve the study goal. The unweighted sample included 6,999 adults representing a weighted population size of 33,900,452.122 in the USA. Results revealed that age and marital status significantly predicted BAU in the past month among adults with MDE. Adults under the age of 50, with a college degree, never married, divorced/separated, and with a high-middle income level or higher were at higher risk for BAU. The study's clinical implications are that understanding demographics of individuals with MDE at increased risk for BAU can inform improved tailored assessment and treatment of alcohol abuse and MDE among at-risk populations. Future research should consider examining additional potential risk factors for BAU among adults with MDE.
... On the other hand, the variable referring to university master's degree (D Education 5) was not found to be significant. This could point to the phenomenon called "overeducation" whose concept is that if people pursue more education than needed, the benefit can be very small or even negative (Bracke, Pattyn, & Knesebeck, 2013). ...
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This article investigates the effect of the Covid-19 pandemic on the structure of factors of life satisfaction in the city of Usti nad Labem, Czech Republic. The dataset is based on a questionnaire survey conducted in Usti nad Labem, Czech Republic. Subsequent data analysis is conducted using ordinal logistic regression models. The results show that the emergence of the pandemic had a significant impact on life satisfaction factors. Firstly, the importance of family came to the fore: being in a relationship or being married proved to be a significant factor of life satisfaction during the pandemic but not before the pandemic. Secondly, a negative association between drinking alcohol and life satisfaction emerged during the pandemic. Alcohol probably started to be the tool for stress relief. Thirdly, sport became a significant positive factor of women’s life satisfaction. Sport most likely became an effective way of keeping oneself in balance. Results indicate that during a difficult time period there are different ways of how to deal with it. In this way doing sports and drinking alcohol seem to be substitute activities.
... Surprisingly, here we show that the combination of mother's high education and ELSD is the most detrimental to cognitive ability in adolescence. It has been described that a mis-match between the achieved level of education and corresponding socioeconomic status negatively affect one's mental health (Bracke et al., 2013;Wolbers, 2013) and that poor mental health of mothers is linked to worse mental health and accelerated brain ageing of their offspring (Mareckova et al., 2020a). Our study shows that this may hold for cognitive ability of the offspring as well. ...
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In 54 participants (41% women) from the Czech arm of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood, a national birth cohort with prospectively collected data from their birth until young adulthood, we aimed to study the association between early-life socioeconomic deprivation, cognitive ability in adolescence, trait anxiety and resting state functional connectivity of the lateral prefrontal cortex in young adulthood. We found that early-life socioeconomic deprivation was associated with lower cognitive ability in adolescence (at age 13) as well as higher trait anxiety in young adulthood (at age 23/24). Higher cognitive ability in adolescence predicted lower trait anxiety in young adulthood. Resting state functional connectivity between the right lateral prefrontal cortex and a cluster of voxels including left precentral gyrus, left postcentral gyrus and superior frontal gyrus mediated the relationship between lower cognitive ability in adolescence and higher trait anxiety in young adulthood. These findings indicate that lower cognitive ability and higher trait anxiety may be both consequences of socioeconomic deprivation in early life. The recruitment of the right lateral prefrontal cortex may be the underlying mechanism, through which higher cognitive ability may ameliorate trait anxiety.
... Further, many unemployed participants held high-level educational qualifications; 76% held their highest qualification at ANZSCO's skill level 1, commensurate with a bachelor's degree or higher. In the general population, higher levels of educational qualifications are associated with increased earnings, lower unemployment, higher job satisfaction (Schudde & Bernell, 2019), and better mental health outcomes (Bracke et al., 2013). The high educational qualifications of many autistic adults should objectively place this group in a favorable position in the workforce. ...
Article
Autistic adults experience a high number of job changes, reduced working hours, minimal workplace supports, and overrepresentation in entry-level and low paid positions. This study adds to the existing evidence base to guide clinical decisions and interventions for this population. This study utilized baseline data collected between 2015 and 2017 from the Autism CRC's Australian Longitudinal Study of Autism in Adulthood. The aim was to describe the employment profiles and explore factors related to employment for Australian autistic adults aged 25 and older (N = 149). Comparisons between participants and the Australian workforce were made using Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) data. Two logistic regression models were conducted to explore the association between underemployment and underutilisation with personal and environmental factors. In comparison to the Australian workforce, autistic adults were more likely to work part-time, work reduced hours and be employed at skill levels lower than their qualifications warranted. Logistic regressions reported that more autistic traits, more social supports and having workplace adjustments implemented were significantly associated with a higher odds of autistic adults being appropriately employed and/or utilized in the workforce. Results suggest that interventions implementing appropriate workplace adjustments, a supportive workplace environment, and adequate social supports may improve employment outcomes for autistic adults. All employees may benefit from workplace resources targeted toward fostering an inclusive workplace environment. Lay summary This study aimed to describe the employment profiles and explore factors related to employment for Australian autistic adults. We compared this with the Australian workforce using data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Autistic adults with more autistic traits and more social and workplace supports were more likely to be employed and have jobs that were better suited to them. Autistic adults might have better employment outcomes if they have the appropriate workplace adjustments, a supportive workplace and adequate social supports.
... Lundberg, Kristenson, and Starrin (2009) found that individuals with a higher education than their occupational position required were more at risk of negative emotional outcomes, while those with a lower education than their occupational position demanded had the lowest risk. Other studies have also found a negative association between over-education and mental health (Aronsson and Göransson 1999;Cassidy and Wright 2008;Bracke, Pattyn, and von dem Knesebeck 2013), while two studies failed to find such an association (Friedland and Price 2003;Hultin et al. 2016). ...
Article
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In this study, we explore whether education–occupation mismatch in the form of over-education and under-education affects the risk of long-term sickness absence. We use register data covering the Norwegian population in the period 2003–2013, containing 13,628,079 person-year observations (2,059,989 persons). To account for selection, we controlled for unobserved occupational and individual heterogeneity. This has been lacking in previous studies of mismatch and health outcomes. Our results show that over-education increases, and under-education reduces, the probability of long-term sickness absence. Controlling for selection reduces the associations substantially. The associations also diminish with experience. These results hold across two different measures of mismatch. Furthermore, both time spent in a mismatched status and specifications of mismatch alter the probability of LTSA. We conclude that education–occupation mismatch is associated with long-term sickness absence but underscore the need for adequate controls for selection.
... Our study results suggest that younger adults with high income, never been married, and divorced/separated diagnosed with MDE are at increased risk of developing BAU (Bracke et al., 2013;Bulloch et al., 2017;Kanny et al., 2018). Results suggest that other groups, including those who are 50 years old or older, married, earn less than a college degree education, and less than high-middle income are at decreased risk of developing BAU. ...
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Identifying sociodemographic populations with a major depressive episode (MDE) who are at increased risk for binge alcohol use (BAU) is critical for developing focused prevention programs to meet the particular needs of each population. Thus, the goal of the current exploratory retrospective study is to examine sex, race, age, education, marital status, and income as risk predictors for BAU among adults with MDE; and if the risk for BAU changes after adjusting for demographic confounders. To achieve the study goal, data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's 2018 National Survey for Drug Use and Health were extracted and analyzed. The unweighted sample included 6,999 adults representing a weighted population size of 33,900,452.122 in the US. Results revealed that age and marital status significantly predicted BAU in the past month among adults with MDE. Adults under the age of 50, with a college degree, never married, divorced/separated, and with a high-middle income level or higher were at higher risk for BAU. The study's clinical implications are that understanding demographics of individuals with MDE at increased risk for BAU can inform improved tailored assessment and treatment of alcohol abuse and MDE among at-risk populations. Future research should consider examining additional potential risk factors for BAU among adults with MDE.
... According to literature of the most common mental symptoms in the general population, are related to symptoms of depression. The traits that are of interest for the current the pandemic include being a woman, young age, being a student, a low level of education or even "overeducation" (30,31). Overeducation is defined as having a level of education higher than what is required for a specific job (32). ...
Article
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After a lockdown, particularly one where human life is at risk, there are expected to be psychological consequences. The examination of personality traits, where different adaptative and non-adaptative behaviors in the face of adversity are expected, is our interest. The aim of this research was to analyze the role fear of personal death played during the Covid-19 outbreak in relation to personality and anxiety. The main results can be described as follows: women displayed higher scores on anxiety and fear of personal death; gender, fear of personal death, neuroticism, and extraversion predicted anxiety; in men, the fear of personal death mediated the relationship between neuroticism and anxiety.
... Previous evidence has shown that the protective effect of education against depression varies across subgroups of the population. 53,54 It is possible that education is less effective in protecting against unmet needs for people with depression than for those without depression, just as education has less of a protective effect against depression for this population. Our results revealed that being currently married was not a protective factor for those who were depressed. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived unmet needs for community-based long-term care services among older urban adults in China. We analyzed the cross-sectional data of 5,201 urban community respondents ≥65 years of age from the seventh wave of the 2018 Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). The chi-squared automatic interaction detection technique was used to examine the variables associated with older adults’ unmet needs for four common types of community-based services: personal care, grocery shopping, home visits, and psychological consulting. We found that the majority of the older adults perceived that they needed the four services, but only 9%–27.4% of the respondents reported that their perceived needs were met. There was a high prevalence of unmet community-based service needs (51.3%–55.5%) among urban older adults in China. Factors associated with unmet needs included depression status, ADL (activities of daily living) limitations, self-rated health, number of surviving children, educational attainment, and marital status. The results suggest that policy makers should develop services targeting specific segments of the older population, increasing the adequacy of services provided.
... Overqualification is having employment that does not fully use a worker's skills, experiences, knowledge, and education. Overqualification positively relates to negative affect, emotional exhaustion, stress, and depression, and negatively relates to life satisfaction, meaningful work, and positive affect (Allan, Rolniak, & Bouchard, 2018;Bracke & von dem Knesebeck, 2013;Johnson & Johnson, 1996;Navarro, Mas, & Jime´nez, 2010;Wassermann & Hoppe, 2019). Moreover, longitudinal studies show a temporal relationship between overqualification and poorer well-being. ...
... In addition, there is a recent body of evidence to suggest that academic pressures in schools are particularly damaging for mental health (Shankar and Park, 2016) and this would confirm a similar hypothesis as suggested by Lim et al. (2018) that higher expectations in more developed societies can lead to more mental health problems. Further, it is possible that measuring of school performance perpetuates this (Hutchings, Merryn;Kazmi, 2016) and it may even be down to an underestimation of the studies that have found that 'over' education resulted in a higher frequency of depressive symptoms (Bracke, Pattyn and von dem Knesebeck, 2013). As we will see, there is also the potential that the determinant of education is overpowered by the influence of other determinants, although this appears unlikely given that higher HDI scoring countries tend to perform well in these too. ...
... It is widely accepted that higher levels of education relate to higher levels of psychological wellbeing and better health (e.g. Ryff, 2014), nevertheless some studies show that over-education (very high levels of education) is linked with depressive symptoms which, in turn, are associated with lower levels of well-being (Bracke, Pattyn & Knesebeck, 2013). These findings demonstrate that the links between education and well-being are not apparent. ...
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The aim of the study is to explore links between happiness, optimism, resilience and meaningfulness, and socio-demographic factors in 25 European countries.Research methods. Experts-generated single-item questions from European Social Survey round 6 were used to assess happiness, optimism, resilience, meaningfulness in life.Results. Greater number of years of completed education relates to higher scores of happiness, optimism, meaningfulness and resilience in most European countries. However, in Western Europe and Scandinavian countries age does not relate or positively relates with psychological aspects of well-being, however in most Post-Soviet countries this relationship is negative.Conclusions. Happiness, optimism, meaningfulness and resilience in most European countries were related to age and years of completed education with no specific differences between regions. Keywords: optimism; resilience; happiness; meaningfulness; demographics
... The research done in Spain and elsewhere to test this possible negative effect has yielded mixed results. Some studies have found negative effects on life satisfaction, feelings of happiness and other related indicators (Bracke et al. 2013;Artés et al. 2014;Piper 2015;Salinas-Jiménez et al. 2016;Frank and Hou 2017;Erdogan et al. 2018), while others reported no effects (King and Hautaluoma 1987;Burke 1997;Friedland and Price 2003;Gobernado 2009;Zhu and Chen 2016). ...
Article
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In this article, we aim to study the effects of the experience of overeducation, understood as a specific form of status inconsistency, in three areas: job satisfaction, subjective well-being, and the image of social stratification and the economic achievement process. For this, we use survey data from Spain and employ analytical procedures that have not previously been applied to this field (diagonal reference models). Thus, we make an empirical contribution (we test hypotheses concerning the impact of overeducation on specific types of attitudes) and a methodological contribution (we show the fruitfulness of applying to the study of overeducation a standard procedure for analysing the effects of social mobility and status inconsistency). We conclude that the experience of overeducation has some negative effects, but they are mostly confined to the sphere of work. The education/employment inconsistency reduces job and economic satisfaction, but does not affect overall subjective well-being or the image of social stratification.
... The findings of this retrospective research study confirm that age and marital status significantly predicted the risk for BAU in the past month among adults with MDE in the past 12 months. Adults with MDE in the past 12 months who were at increased risk for BAU included adults under the age of 50, those who have never married, and divorced/separated adults [32,33,6]. Some studies show that in the past decade, there has been a shift in the peak of binge drinking age and that the cohort of binge drinkers is getting slightly older, yet it is still considered within the years of early to middle adulthood [34,35]. ...
Article
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This study aims to examine if age and marital status can predict the risk for binge alcohol use (BAU) among adults with a major depressive episode (MDE). To achieve this goal, data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) 2018 National Survey for Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) were extracted and analyzed. The unweighted sample included 6,999 adults with MDE representing a weighted population size of 33,900,452.122 in the US. The findings of this retrospective research confirmed that age and marital status significantly predict BAU in the past month among adults with an MDE. Adults with an MDE at higher risk for BAU were adults under the age of 50, adults who were never married, and adults who were divorced/separated. Special attention must be paid to those in age groups under 50, never married, and have been separated/divorced who are particularly at-risk for future alcohol abuse. Future research should consider examining additional potential confounders for BAU among other at-risk populations.
... First, there may be a threshold, above which additional educational attainment offers no extra protection against mental illness. Bracke et al. [39] suggest that mental health returns related to education diminishes among people with highest education if they are not able to use their expertise in the workplace, with detrimental consequences on depressive symptoms. Second, even though the instrument M.I.N.I. does not operationalize the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, individuals affected by it are likely to be included among those classified with affective disorders. ...
Article
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PurposeWe aimed to study the association of educational attainment with occurrence of mental disorders in the Czech Republic.Methods Data were derived from the CZEch Mental health Study (CZEMS), a cross-sectional study of community-dwelling individuals. Mental disorders were assessed with Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.), and information on completed education was acquired as a part of a paper and pencil interview. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of educational attainment with all mental disorders as well as with specific groups (affective, anxiety, alcohol use and substance use disorders), stepwise adjusting for socio-demographic, social and health-related characteristics.ResultsWe studied 3175 individuals (average age 50 years, range 18–96 years; 54% women). Compared to individuals with higher education, those educated below high school graduation had higher odds of mental disorders (OR 2.07; 95% CI 1.58–1.71), even after adjustment for all covariates (OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.21–2.23). Education showed the strongest association with alcohol use disorders, even when covariates were adjusted for, but was not related to anxiety disorders. The association of education with affective as well as substance use disorders was explained by covariates.Conclusions Interventions aimed at reducing the burden of mental disorders should target individuals with low education. Strategies to improve population mental health need to go hand in hand with policies to enhance education as well as reduce alcohol consumption in the Czech Republic.
... Several studies within the occupational health literature have supported this argumentation. For example, learning opportunities at work have been found to be one of the most important predictors of job-related well-being (Axelrod & Gavin, 1980;Kets de Vries, 2001;O'Brien 1980;Proost et al., 2012), while a lack of learning opportunities has been found to lead to job-related depression (Bracke, Pattyn, & von dem Knesebeck, 2013;Morrison et al., 2005). The relationship between learning opportunities at school and adolescents' mental health, however, has been underexplored. ...
Article
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Based on the Job Demands-Resources model, this study examined the association of learning opportunities of adolescents at school and work with their mental health, operationalized in terms of life satisfaction and depression. Intrinsic motivation at school and at work were studied as potential mediators. Within a representative sample of adolescents (n = 474), the results supported within domain relationships in the sense that learning opportunities at school and at work were positively related to intrinsic motivation at school and at work, respectively, which in turn were related to higher levels of life satisfaction and lower levels of depression. Cross-domain relationships were not significant, except for a negative relationship between learning opportunities at work and intrinsic motivation at school, suggesting that having a good job can pull students away from school.
... Bjelland et al (2008) found a significant association between lower education levels and anxiety and depression, and Thurston et al (2006) found that receiving less than high-school level education was significantly associated with higher levels of these conditions. Thus, level of education plays a significant role in mental health (Bjelland et al, 2008;Bracke et al, 2013) and is a factor underlying mental health inequalities (Pampel, 2009). It is important for PAWEs to emphasise educational activities to level up members' knowledge and confidence and provide continuous social support to those who are less educated. ...
Article
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With the older population increasing worldwide, depressive disorder in this cohort is a serious public health problem that contributes to increased healthcare costs and mortality. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression among older adults in Malaysia who attended a daycare centre and to identify the relationship between depression and demographic factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 159 older adults recruited following screening for mental capacity. The Malay Geriatric Depression Scale questionnaire was distributed among the participants to obtain descriptive data on the symptoms of depression. Some 59.1% of the participants experienced depression. The most common factors associated with depression were being divorced, low education levels and low income. The findings indicate the need to revise and re-evaluate the activities and programmes in daycare centres for older adults in order to objectively cater to their physical and emotional needs.
... Consistent with this, adverse or traumatic experience in childhood has been found as a strong risk factor for developing depression in adulthood [62][63][64] , and this relationship has been suggested to be reflected in disturbances in the neuroendocrine and autoimmune stress response system 65,66 . The link between education level and depression is less well established, with some studies reporting a decreased risk and others reporting an increased risk of depression with a higher education level [67][68][69] . Moreover, the identification of depressive symptoms as key predictors of MDD supports the idea that individual symptoms are associated with different risk factors, and that they are not interchangeable as assumed by the current diagnostic approach, in which symptoms are added together 70,71 . ...
Article
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Individuals with subthreshold depression have an increased risk of developing major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model to predict the probability of MDD onset in subthreshold individuals, based on their proteomic, sociodemographic and clinical data. To this end, we analysed 198 features (146 peptides representing 77 serum proteins (measured using MRM-MS), 22 sociodemographic factors and 30 clinical features) in 86 first-episode MDD patients (training set patient group), 37 subthreshold individuals who developed MDD within two or four years (extrapolation test set patient group), and 86 subthreshold individuals who did not develop MDD within four years (shared reference group). To ensure the development of a robust and reproducible model, we applied feature extraction and model averaging across a set of 100 models obtained from repeated application of group LASSO regression with ten-fold cross-validation on the training set. This resulted in a 12-feature prediction model consisting of six serum proteins (AACT, APOE, APOH, FETUA, HBA and PHLD), three sociodemographic factors (body mass index, childhood trauma and education level) and three depressive symptoms (sadness, fatigue and leaden paralysis). Importantly, the model demonstrated a fair performance in predicting future MDD diagnosis of subthreshold individuals in the extrapolation test set (AUC = 0.75), which involved going beyond the scope of the model. These findings suggest that it may be possible to detect disease indications in subthreshold individuals up to four years prior to diagnosis, which has important clinical implications regarding the identification and treatment of high-risk individuals.
... In recent publications, OECD (2017) highlights the importance of taking well-being into account when evaluating education systems, and stresses the need for more research on this topic. Similar calls for a broader agenda for education policy, in which well-being is put on an equal footing with academic or employment outcomes, have been made by academics (Montt and Borgonovi, 2018), and recent studies looked at various "soft" outcomes of education policies, including mental illness (Bracke et al., 2013) and sense of belonging (Montt and Borgonovi, 2018). This study suggests that the role of education policies for non-academic outcomes, through spillover effects, might extend beyond actual students. ...
Article
This article aims to investigate if education policies moderate the association between unemployment and well-being among young adults. Based on the capability approach, we argue that education policies mitigate the negative effects of unemployment by providing opportunities for education and thus ways to exit unemployment. Education policies can strengthen capabilities, enhance the control that individuals have over their situation, and thereby reduce the stress associated with unemployment. We estimated cross-level interactions between education policies and unemployment status using multilevel methods and data from the European Social Survey. Results showed that policies that increase educational opportunities—such as generous second chance opportunities—were associated with smaller negative effects of unemployment on well-being and that this moderating impact was stronger for young adults with low education. Further analyses show that education policies are also associated with perceived capabilities among unemployed, supporting the proposed mechanism.
... The job dissatisfaction may create counter-productive behaviors, such as high rates of International Journal of Manpower absenteeism and turnover, which can harm firm productivity and subsequently economic growth (Tsang and Levin, 1985). Additionally, the lack of pleasure in the job, may deteriorate the workers' mental health and make them depressed (Kornhauser, 1965;Gal et al., 2008;Bracke et al., 2013;Artés et al., 2014). Hence, this may also provoke negative effects on the country's development. ...
Article
Purpose Education-job mismatches, especially overeducation or vertical mismatch, are generally found to lower the worker’s job satisfaction, which may generate the counter-productive behaviors, such as high rates of absenteeism and turnover in developed countries. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impacts of educational mismatches from their both forms and dimensions (match, overeducation, horizontal mismatch and double mismatch) on the job satisfaction among university graduates in Cambodia. Design/methodology/approach To deal with the sample selection bias owing to the unobserved job satisfaction of unemployed graduates, this paper applies the Heckman probit model on a survey conducted with 19 higher education institutions in Cambodia. Findings Results indicate that a half of graduates suffer at least one type of educational mismatch and the both forms of mismatches adversely affect the job satisfaction with the strongest impact from the double mismatch case. Research limitations/implications The authors take into account the sample selection bias, but are not able to deal with the unobserved heterogeneity, such as individual competences and preferences. With the panel data, it would be possible to isolate those individual fixed effects. Practical implications The findings underline the importance of improvement in the quality of higher education in Cambodia that seems to play a main role in this education-job mismatch problem. Creating the occupational counseling for the high school students would be also helpful to orientate students to the majors strongly needed by the labor market. Originality/value This paper focuses on all forms and dimensions of mismatches and takes into account the sample selection bias in the context of a low-income country where the increasing rate of enrollment in higher education seems to be accompanied by an increasing rate of education-job mismatches. Previous research works focused mostly on overeducation and in developed countries.
... Additionally, the lack of pleasure in the job, may deteriorate the workers' mental health and make them depressed, thus all higher educated workers will not necessarily have better health if they cannot use well their abilities in their jobs (Kornhauser, 1965 ;Gal et al., 2008 ;Bracke et al., 2013 ;Artés et al., 2014). ...
Thesis
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The enrollment rate in higher education in Cambodia has risen rapidly in the last two decades. Nevertheless, concerns on the graduates' employability exist: University graduates seem to be more and more struggled to find jobs corresponding to their level and field of education, the so-called vertical and horizontal mismatches.This thesis aims at examining the impacts of educational mismatches among graduates in developing countries with a special attention to the Cambodia's case.Chapter 1 examines the relation between education-job mismatches and unemployment duration among graduates in Cambodia. Theoretically, by assuming that job seekers can only access to limited information about the available job opportunities, they face two alternative choices between accepting the first job offer that can be mismatched to their qualification and staying unemployed to wait for a better suitable job. In contrast, if workers are heterogeneous and the job opportunities are limited, it is possible that some workers may fail to find a matched position and stay unemployed for a longer duration.This chapter contributes to the literature in three points. First, we extend the research into the developing country. Second, we take into account the endogeneity of educational mismatches and consider them in their both forms and all dimensions: Vertical or horizontal, single or double mismatch. Third, we propose an analysis from two angles: A theoretical model and an empirical model applied on a survey data in 2011 from nineteen higher education institutions (HEI) in Cambodia. The results underline that unemployment duration increases with the risks of mismatches.Chapter 2 examines whether education-job mismatches lower individual wages. There exists a theoretical consensus on the negative impact of mismatches on wages. Indeed, working in a mismatched job would not allow workers to exploit their potential skills, and consequently they would be less productive and earn less than if they were employed in a matched occupation. Yet, some limits remain in empirical studies.Hence, this chapter contributes to the literature in three points. First, it analyzes another case of developing country, while the existing studies focus on relatively more advanced countries. Second, it analyzes the combination effects of vertical and horizontal mismatches. Third, we take into account the selection bias problem by proposing an ordered Heckman model applied on a survey data from eight HEI in Cambodia in 2014. The econometric results allow us concluding that wages decrease with the level of mismatches.Chapter 3 examines the impacts of overeducation on economics growth in thirty-eight developing countries. Two theoretical approaches confront each another. First, a worker's productivity depends on both job attributes and individual characteristics. Thus, overeducated workers are more productive than their counterparts in the same job, which is good for the economic growth. In contrast, overeducated workers may be dissatisfied with their jobs, which induces to counterproductive behaviors, such as high rates of absenteeism and turnover, that is bad for the growth outcome.Hence, this chapter contributes to the literature in two points. First, this chapter contributes in terms of data, allowing to analyze the impacts of overeducation on economic growth in developing countries. Second, this chapter deals with unobserved heterogeneity and endogeneity of overeducation by employing two-stage least squares regression with country fixed-effects. The results show that overeducation has a negative impact on economic growth
... For women, the additional years of schooling were not associated with an upgrading of their position in the labour market, potentially creating a job-education mismatch detrimental for mental health. 37 The discrepancy between the expectations created by the reform and the actual long-term benefits might have been particularly harmful for women's mental health as research suggests that women have smaller economic returns on education. 38 A second hypothesis is that the health effects of education for women operated partly through the marriage market and not exclusively through employment and wages. ...
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Background Longer schooling is associated with better physical, mental and cognitive functioning, but there is controversy as to whether these associations are causal. We examine the long-term health impact of a policy that increased compulsory schooling by 2 years in France for cohorts born on or after January 1953, offering a natural experiment. Methods Data came from Constances, a randomly selected cohort of the French population assessed for cognition, depressive symptoms and physical functioning at ages 45 and older (n=18 929). We use a Regression Discontinuity Design to estimate the impact of increased schooling duration on health. Cognition was measured based on five validated neuropsychological tests and combined into an overall score. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale was used to assess depressive symptoms levels. Physical functioning was included as finger tapping, hand grip strength and walking speed. Results The reform increased average schooling, particularly among participants from disadvantaged families. Estimates suggest that for men, this reform improved cognitive scores (β=0.15, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.27), but had no impact on physical functioning. Among women, the reform did not increase cognitive scores or physical functioning but led to higher levels of depressive symptoms (β=1.52, 95% CI 0.32 to 2.72). Results were robust to a range of sensitivity analyses. Conclusion These findings highlight the need to carefully consider the potential limits of policies that increase the length of compulsory schooling as strategies to improve population health.
... Supporting our first hypothesis, underemployment was associated with lower life satisfaction and positive affect and greater negative affect, stress, and depression. This is consistent with previous research linking underemployment to poorer well-being and greater psychological distress (Bracke & von dem Knesebeck, 2013;Cassidy & Wright, 2008;Friedland & Price, 2003;Lobene & Meade, 2013;Roh et al., 2014) and restates the potential negative effects of underemployment on par or on a continuum with unemployment (Dooley, 2003). Also supporting hypotheses, underemployment had a large, negative relation with meaningful work, which is consistent with theory (Jahoda, 1981). ...
Article
The goals of this study were to examine the relations between underemployment, meaningful work, and well-being and evaluate whether the relation between underemployment and well-being was moderated by meaningful work. In a diverse sample of working adults, meaningful work significantly moderated the relation between underemployment and positive affect, negative affect, depression, and stress. However, contrary to expectations, having meaningful work did not protect against the negative relation between underemployment and well-being. Rather, having meaningful work was associated with a positive relation between underemployment and negative affect, stress, and depression. Additionally, people low in meaningful work had a positive relation between underemployment and positive affect. This unexpected finding may point to a potential “dark side” of meaningful work. Specifically, people with meaningful work who are unable to fully employ their skills and abilities may be at particular risk for poorer well-being.
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In Africa, homosexuality has been considered morally wrong and against the African culture. Globally, studies have shown negative attitude towards the same gender relationship among the university students. However, there is lack of similar studies with among university students in Kenya and therefore, the objective this study was to establish the influence of demographic variables of age, gender, and level of education on the attitude towards the same gender relationship among university students in Nairobi County, Kenya. The study employed correlational design. Through simple random sampling the study utilized a sample size of 294 participants. The data was collected using the demographic details of the participants and attitude towards homosexuality scale. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and one WAY ANOVA. The results showed that all the demographic variables (age, gender and education level) had insignificant predictive relationship with attitude towards homosexuality, p≤ 0.05.
Article
The aims of the study were 1). to investigate the association between the potential risk factors including socio-demographic, lifestyle and DNA methylation and mental disorders in middle-aged women from a large population-based follow-up study, and 2). to estimate the risk score by combining the potential risk factors to examine the mental disorder's incidence. A total of 6461 women, aged 50–65 years, were included in the study. After a median follow-up of 17 years, 2026 (31%) women were diagnosed with mental disorders. The association between these factors and the risk of mental disorders was analyzed using Cox regression models. Harrell's concordance index (C-index) was used to quantify models' predictive performance for future mental disorders. Blood-based global DNA methylation was assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that smoking (HR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.24–1.54), less physical activity (HR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.10–1.60), being single (HR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.04–1.29) and unemployment (HR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.33–1.70) were independently associated with an increased risk of overall mental disorders. Risk score models combining all these observed factors showed an increased risk, but the prediction ability was low, except for the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUD) and drug use disorders (DUD) (C-index = 0.8). Finally, women who developed MDD/anxiety during follow-up had significantly higher global DNA methylation at baseline than women who did not develop MDD/anxiety (p = 0.005). In conclusion, our results indicate that the studied risk factors were associated with mental disorders in a type-specific manner. The predictive model showed that smoking, alcohol consumption, education and physical activity may predict future AUD/DUD. Global DNA methylation may be a potential risk factor for MDD/anxiety incidence.
Article
As doenças mentais têm sido cada vez mais diagnosticadas e evidenciadas como propulsoras de diversos empecilhos na qualidade de vida dos indivíduos. Elas são capazes de afetar distintos aspectos, tais como interações sociais e acumulação de capital humano. Diante disso, o presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar o efeito do transtorno depressivo sobre o acesso ao ensino superior por parte das mulheres no Brasil, que possuem prevalência mais elevada para esse tipo de doença em relação aos homens, particularmente em função de aspectos biológicos e neuroendocrinológicos. Para tal, utilizou-se como metodologia a estimação de um modelo Probit Bivariado, com dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD) para o ano de 2008, considerando mulheres com idade entre 16 e 25 anos. Os resultados encontrados apontam que mulheres com depressão têm redução de aproximadamente 24,28% na probabilidade de acesso ao ensino superior, enfatizando a relação inversa entre a doença e o nível de escolaridade.
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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh kepuasan kerja terhadap kesejahteraan psikologis pada karyawan yang mengalami job mismatch. Penelitian ini melibatkan 70 partisipan yang bekerja tidak sesuai latar belakang pendidikan. Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan kuisioner dengan skala kepuasan kerja dan kesejahteraan psikologis. Teknik analisis menggunakan uji regresi dengan simple linear regression dengan bantuan program Jamovi 1.6.23. Hasil analisis dalam penelitian memiliki nilai signifikansi (p) sebesar <.001 dengan koefisien regresi (R2) sebesar 0.289. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa kepuasan kerja memiliki pengaruh signifikan terhadap kesejahteraan psikologis pada karyawan yang mengalami job mismatch.
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This article examines the influence of diversity and culture in the understanding and treatment of psychopathology. Key terms are defined, followed by a brief review of several theoretical models outlining the impact of minority status on psychological outcomes and identity formation. The article then summarizes what is currently known about how diversity factors influence diagnosis and prevalence of specific psychological disorders based on Western diagnostic systems, and then reviews the influence of specific identity markers (religious affiliation, sexual orientation, age, education, and income level) and cultural factors (individualism/collectivism, self-construals, and stigma) on mental health symptoms and experience. This is followed by a description of the 10 most commonly occurring culture-bound syndromes, immediately followed by a brief review of how diversity considerations may impact evidence-based treatments and clinical research on psychological disorders. The article concludes with a discussion on the rationale for areas not covered herein, and outlines specific areas in need of future investigation in the realm of diversity and cultural considerations in mental health.
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Background: Mild behavioral impairment (MBI) describes persistent behavioral changes in later life as an at-risk state for dementia. While cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) are linked to dementia, it is uncertain how CVRFs are associated with MBI. Objective: To determine the prevalence of MBI and its association with CVRFs among cognitively normal (CN) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) individuals in Singapore. Methods: 172 individuals (79 CN and 93 MCI) completed the MBI-checklist (MBI-C). The prevalence of MBI and MBI-C sub-domain characteristics among CN and MCI were examined. Regression models evaluated the relationships between MBI-C sub-domain scores with CVRFs. Results: The prevalence of MBI and mean MBI-C total score were significantly higher among MCI than CN (34.4%versus 20.3%, p = 0.022 and 7.01 versus 4.12, p = 0.04). The highest and lowest-rated sub-domains among CN and MCI were impulse dyscontrol and abnormal thoughts and perception respectively. Within the MCI cohort, a higher proportion of individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) had MBI compared to individuals without DM (28.1%versus 10.4%, p = 0.025). The interaction of DM and MCI cohort resulted in significantly higher mean MBI-C total, decreased motivation, emotional dysregulation, impulse dyscontrol, and abnormal thoughts and perception sub-domain scores. Conclusion: The prevalence of MBI is higher among a Singapore cohort compared to Caucasian cohorts. The associations of DM with both the presence and severity of MBI among MCI suggest that DM may be a risk factor for MBI. The optimization of DM may be a potential therapeutic approach to improve clinical outcomes among MCI with MBI.
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Using the 2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, this study examined the US national prevalence rates of suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempts (SA) among four demographic adult groups (race-sex, age, education, and marital status) with and without major depressive episode (MDE). The highest prevalence rates of SI for those with and without MDE occurred among adults 18 to 25 years, with some college education, White females and males, and unmarried and never been married. Among the same demographic groups, proportions of SA were also the highest for those with MDE. A Pearson chi-square test confirmed significant associations between MDE and SI and between MDE and SA. The model fit results showed that the four variables were significant predictors of SI and SA (p < 0.05). Serious mental health needs are unmet, especially among adults with depression. Population-based clinical interventions are needed to reduce rates of depression, SI, and SA.
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Background Increasing educational attainment (EA) could decrease the occurrence of depression. We investigated the relationship between EA and depressive symptoms in older individuals across four European regions. Methods We studied 108,315 Europeans (54% women, median age 63 years old) from the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe assessing EA (seven educational levels based on International Standard Classification of Education [ISCED] classification) and depressive symptoms (≥4 points on EURO-D scale). Logistic regression estimated the association between EA and depressive symptoms, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related factors, testing for sex/age/region and education interactions. Results Higher EA was associated with lower odds of depressive symptoms, independent of sociodemographic and health-related factors. A threshold of the lowest odds of depressive symptoms was detected at the first stage of tertiary education (OR 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55–0.65; p < 0.001; relative to no education). Central and Eastern Europe showed the strongest association (OR for high vs. low education 0.37; 95% CI 0.33–0.40; p < 0.001) and Scandinavia the weakest (OR for high vs. low education 0.69; 95% CI 0.60–0.80; p < 0.001). The association was strongest among younger individuals. There was a sex and education interaction only within Central and Eastern Europe. Conclusions Level of EA is reflected in later-life depressive symptoms, suggesting that supporting individuals in achieving EA, and considering those with lower EA at increased risk for depression, could lead to decreased burden of depression across the life course. Further educational support in Central and Eastern Europe may decrease the higher burden of depressive symptoms in women.
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In Germany, retraining is an important measure in active labour market policy, providing unemployed individuals with extensive vocational training. Using administrative data, we show that retraining participants are more likely to take up jobs that require their educational degree and are more often employed in those occupations for which they have received vocational training. Moreover, retraining leads to higher earnings. As these effects may be driven by the positive impact of retraining on employment, we additionally try to isolate the direct effect by restricting our analyses to those formerly unemployed who find employment irrespective of participation in retraining.
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This paper analyzes whether education has a protective effect on mental health. To estimate causal effects, we employ an instrumental variable (IV) technique that exploits a reform extending compulsory schooling by one year implemented between 1949 and 1969 in West Germany. We complement analyses on the Mental Component Summary (MCS) score as a generic measure of overall mental health with an MCS-based indicator for risk of developing symptoms of mental health disorder and a continuous measure of subjective well-being. Results support existing evidence of a positive relationship between completed years of secondary schooling and mental health in standard OLS estimations. In contrast, the IV estimations reveal no such causal protective effect and negative effects cannot be ruled out.
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This article examines the effects of discrimination based on race, ethnic background, nationality, religion, sex, age, disability and sexual orientation on skill underutilization and under-skilling in 30 European countries. People who experienced a variety of forms of workplace discrimination were more likely to report over-skilling, defined as having skills for more demanding roles than required for their job. Paradoxically, some forms of labour market discrimination were also linked to under-skilling, where people report requiring more training to fulfil their job role. The findings are explained in terms of how discrimination in the labour market can have differential impacts on access to career progression and training opportunities across organizations. Differences between self-report and statistical estimates of discrimination are observed. Broader implications for the interpretation of statistical models in discrimination research are discussed.
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Overeducation of university graduates is currently an important subject in the social sciences. Determinants and consequences, in personal and social terms, of this situation are analyzed by reference literature. Within the framework of the labor market dynamics, we will explore in an exploratory reading the incidence of over-education in Portugal during the recent past and at the level of graduates of the University of Porto in 2014, about five years after obtaining their degree
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Past research has operationalized the notions of overeducation, overtraining, occupational mismatch, and the like in terms of the deviation of a worker's attained schooling from the estimated mean or "required" schooling of the worker's occupation. The prevailing theoretical assumption has been that overeducation, so defined, is a valid indicator of whether a worker has acquired and is endowed with productive skills and abilities that his or her job fails to utilize. The theoretical and empirical analyses of this article suggest that this assumption is highly problematic.
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Crosscountry differences in graduate overeducation and its persistence ** We investigate the factors that contribute to the crosscountry variation in graduate overeducation and its persistence by means of multi-level analysis. Our analysis is based on data from representative surveys among graduates in thirteen European countries and Japan and focuses on the jobs six months and five years after graduation. Major factors to explain the crosscountry variation in overeducation and its persistence are found to be differences in the structural imbalance between the overall demand and supply of skilled workers, differences in the imbalance between the demanded and supplied fields of study and differences in the business cycle at the time of graduation. Also the quality and orientation (general versus vocational) of the educational program are important, but particularly to explain within-country differences. Finally, labour market institutions such as the strictness of the employment protection legislation are found to be less important.
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The concept of human capital implies that education improves health because it increases effective agency. We propose that education's positive effects extend beyond jobs and earnings. Through education, individuals gain the ability to be effective agents in their own lives. Education improves physical functioning and self-reported health because it enhances a sense of personal control that encourages and enables a healthy lifestyle. We test three specific variants of the human-capital and learned-effectiveness hypothesis: (1) education enables people to coalesce health-producing behaviors into a coherent lifestyle, (2) a sense of control over outcomes in one's own life encourages a healthy lifestyle and conveys much of education's effect, and (3) educated parents inspire a healthy lifestyle in their children. Using data from a 1995 national telephone probability sample of U.S. households with 2,592 respondents, ages 18 to 95, a covariance structure model produces results consistent with the three hypotheses.
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Meritocratic attitudes are defined as general beliefs that education and its correlates should determine personal economic outcomes. Using the International Social Survey Project (ISSP): Social Inequality Module (1992), we examine both individual-level and country-level determinants of pro-meritocratic attitudes. According to self-interest and rational-action theories, individuals with high educational attainment and high personal income are expected to have strong meritocratic beliefs because meritocracy is in their best interest—they would gain under such a system. At the same time, both modernization and post-industrial theories imply that persons living in countries with a high degree of societal meritocracy hold stronger meritocratic beliefs than persons living in countries with low degree of societal meritocracy. Results of the Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analysis on a data set including 7,972 persons from 14 countries indicate that the impact of individuals’ education and income on meritocratic attitudes occurred as theoretically predicted. We also demonstrate that the relationship between the degree of societal meritocracy and the degree of support for such a system is statistically significant even if national wealth and educational stock (as well as individual-level variables) are controlled. In addition, we discovered that at the beginning of the 1990s a post-communist regime had a negative effect on support for meritocracy.
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Social surveys collect information on socio-demogra phic characteristics of respondents eligible for the interview. Among ot hers, the highest attained level of education is one of the variables explaining the respondent's social and political comportment, the interviewee's human values and orientations, the transition from school to work, the position in the labor force and its segments, the social and ec onomic behavior of the individual actor and structural inequalities in mod ern societies. Manifold strategies to operationalize the qualification and education variables during interviews can be observed in social surveys. They differ in the underlying latent concept captured, the ranking and classifyin g of levels into categories and clusters, the degree of classification and meas urement details and finally the capabilities of comparison across time and across nations and cultures. The measurement of education for comparative resear ch across countries is a complex task. The national systems of educatio n and schooling are differently organized across the nations. Altogethe r four different types of school and training systems can be identified in Eu rope. In this paper we will sort the national certificates from general an d vocational schools into one matrix, the newly developed Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik/Warner-matrix of education. This matrix allows us to compare the hig hest level of education a person has reached, as a combination of general and vocational education and useable for a person to obtain a starting posit ion on the labor market. This article discusses those measurement instrument s normally used in international comparative surveys and introduces th e Hoffmeyer- Zlotnik/Warner-matrix of education, contrasting thi s matrix with the other established measurement instruments. To demonstrate the validity of our matrix, we show the advantages of our matrix exempl ified in one case from nations out of the four types of different educatio nal systems: Germany, Luxembourg, Denmark, and France.
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We present a revision of the 1978 reformulated theory of helplessness and depression and call it the hopelessness theory of depression. Although the 1978 reformulation has generated a vast amount of empirical work on depression over the past 10 years and recently has been evaluated as a model of depression, we do not think that it presents a clearly articulated theory of depression. We build on the skeletal logic of the 1978 statement and (a) propose a hypothesized subtype of depression— hopelessness depression, (b) introduce hopelessness as a proximal sufficient cause of the symptoms of hopelessness depression, (c) deemphasize causal attributions because inferred negative consequences and inferred negative characteristics about the self are also postulated to contribute to the formation of hopelessness and, in turn, the symptoms of hopelessness depression, and (d) clarify the diathesis—stress and causal mediation components implied, but not explicitly articulated, in the 1978 statement. We report promising findings for the hopelessness theory and outline the aspects that still need to be tested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Educational attainment is a core social background variable covered in each and every single social survey. Cross-national surveys are particularly vulnerable to sub-optimal measurement of education. In this paper, the cross-national measurement of educational attainment is evaluated using data of the European Social Survey (ESS). After discussing some theoretical background of cross-national measurement of education generally, the most commonly used comparable measures are introduced. A brief overview over previous evaluations is given. In the main part of the paper, the implementation of a simplified version of the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 (ISCED–97) in the ESS is discussed and evaluated in several ways: By looking at the consistency of the reclassification of national education variables into the comparable variable; at how the comparable variable is distributed, how much explanatory power of educational attainment is lost by harmonising the national variables (using occupational status as the criterion), and which steps of the harmonisation process affect the results most strongly in the single countries. Finally, an alternative way of simplifying the ISCED–97 is * Paper presented at the EDUC Research Group Workshop of the EQUALSOC network in Dijon, France, 22nd-24th of November 2007. Previous versions of this paper were presented at the 2007 Spring Meeting of the Research Committee on Social Stratification and Mobility (RC28) of the International Sociological Association (ISA), Brno, Czech Republic, May 24-27 and at the 8th conference of the European Sociological Association (ESA) in Glasgow, 3-6 September 2007. This paper is largely inspired by the research team "Evaluation of ISCED 1997 for Comparative Research" of the EQUALSOC network (see www.equalsoc.org). I would like to thank all members of the group for their support.
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We have used longitudinal test data on various aspects of people's cognitive abilities to analyze whether overeducated workers are more vulnerable to a decline in their cognitive abilities, and undereducated workers are less vulnerable. We found that a job-worker mismatch induces a cognitive decline with respect to immediate and delayed recall abilities, cognitive flexibility and verbal fluency. Our findings indicate that, to some extent, it is the adjustment of the ability level of the overeducated and undereducated workers that adjusts initial job-worker mismatch. This adds to the relevance of preventing overeducation, and shows that being employed in a challenging job contributes to workers' cognitive resilience.
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This paper, based on data from Survey of Family Income and Expenditure of Taiwan, shows that the recent trends of job match in Taiwan labor market have been marked by increasing proportion of overeducated workers due to the higher education expansion policy, while the incidence of undereducation continues to decline. Furthermore, workers¡¯ economic position is not completely determined by their educational levels. Working experience also plays an important role in workers¡¯ job placement and their wages. Workers with relatively less working experience are more likely to be overeducated, while workers with relatively more working experience are more likely to be undereducated. Overeducated (Undereducated) workers would earn more (less) than their co-workers with adequate education but less (more) than the workers having the same educational level with adequate education for jobs. However, the rewards (penalties) to adequate education and overeducation (undereducation) decline as more experience accumulated. Evidence also shows effect of bumping down from overeducation on the wages and employment of lower educated workers.
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The theory that happiness is relative is based on three postulates: (1) happiness results from comparison, (2) standards of comparison adjust, (3) standards of comparison are arbitrary constructs. On the basis of these postulates the theory predicts: (a) happiness does not depend on real quality of life, (b) changes in living-conditions to the good or the bad have only a shortlived effect on happiness, (c) people are happier after hard times, (d) people are typically neutral about their life. Together these inferences imply that happiness is both an evasive and an inconsequential matter, which is at odds with corebeliefs in present-day welfare society.Recent investigations on happiness (in the sense of life-satisfaction) claim support for this old theory. Happiness is reported to be as high in poor countries as it is in rich countries (Easterlin), no less among paralyzed accident victims than it is among lottery winners (Brickman) and unrelated to stable livingconditions (Inglehart and Rabier). These sensational claims are inspected but found to be untrue. It is shown that: (a) people tend to be unhappy under adverse conditions such as poverty, war and isolation, (b) improvement or deterioration of at least some conditions does effect happiness lastingly, (c) earlier hardship does not favour later happiness, (d) people are typically positive about their life rather than neutral.It is argued that the theory happiness-is-relative mixes up overall happiness with contentment. Contentment is indeed largely a matter of comparing life-as-it-is to standards of how-life-should-be. Yet overall hapiness does not entirely depend on comparison. The overall evaluation of life depends also on how one feels affectively and hedonic level of affect draws on its turn on the gratification of basic bio-psychological needs. Contrary to acquired standards of comparison these innate needs do not adjust to any and all conditions: they mark in fact the limits of human adaptability. To the extend that it depends on need-gratification, happiness is not relative.
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The economic returns to schooling are estimated using comparable microdata in 28 countries, worldwide. Considerable variation in rates of return is found across countries. There is no evidence for a worldwide rising rate of return to education from 1985 through 1995. Indeed, the worldwide rate of return declines slightly over this period. In general, instrumental-variable estimates (using spouse's and parents' schooling as determinants of schooling) are over 20% higher than ordinary-least-squares estimates.
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Data gathered from a recent national sample of workers on educational requirements and attainments are used to examine the extent and economic effects of overeducation. Nearly 40 percent of the U.S. work force-and about 50 percent of black males-have more education than their jobs require. But we also find that “surplus” education does have economic value. The individual return to an additional year of surplus education was positive and significant for all major demographic groups. The estimated return is, however, only about half the size of the return to an additional year of required education.
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Previous research in the United States suggests that depression related to economic hardship decreases with age. We test whether this pattern can be generalized to other developed nations. Based on data from 23 countries in the European Social Survey (2006--2007), multilevel analyses show that the moderating role of age depends on the socio-political context. While the hardship--depression link is not significantly different across the life course in Nordic and Bismarckian regimes, the hardship--depression link increases with age in Southern and Eastern European countries and decreases with age in strength in Anglo-Saxon welfare states. Our findings suggest that welfare state regimes play a significant role in attenuating, boosting, or even reversing the health effects of social experiences such as economic hardship on aging. Health knowledge gained through research that ignores the socio-political context may be limited in terms of generalization.
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This is the first book to demonstrate how to use the multilevel and longitudinal modeling techniques available in IBM SPSS Version 18. The authors tap the power of SPSS's Mixed Models routine to provide an elegant and accessible approach to these models. Readers who have learned statistics using this software will no longer have to adapt to a new program to conduct quality multilevel and longitudinal analyses. Annotated screen shots with all of the key output provide readers with a step-by-step understanding of each technique as they are shown how to navigate through the program. Diagnostic tools, data management issues, and related graphics are introduced throughout. SPSS commands show the flow of the menu structure and how to facilitate model building. Annotated syntax is also available for those who prefer this approach. Most chapters feature an extended example illustrating the logic of model development. These examples show readers the context and rationale of the research questions and the steps around which the analyses are structured. The data used in the text and syntax examples are available at http://www.psypress.com/multilevel-modeling-techniques/.
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Education is usually seen as affecting society by socializing individuals. Recently this view has been attacked with the argument that education is a system of allocation, conferring success on some and failure on others. The polemic has obscured some of the interesing implications of allocation theory for socialization theory and for research on the effects of education. But allocation theory, too, focuses on educational effects on individuals being processed. It turns out to be a special case of a more general macrosociological theory of the effects of education as a system of legitimation. Education restructures whole populations, creating and expanding elites and redefining the rights and obligations of members. The institutional effects of education as a legitimation system are explored. Comparative and experimental studies are suggested.
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This paper provides operational procedures for coding internationally comparable measures of occupational status from the recently published International Standard Classification of Occupation 1988 (ISCO88) of the International Labor Office (ILO, 1990). We first discuss the nature of the ISCO88 classification and its relationship to national classifications used around the world and also to its predecessor, ISCO68 (ILO, 1969), which has been widely utilized in comparative research. We argue that comparative research would gain much from adopting ISCO88 as the standard tool of classification and provide guidance on how to do this. We then outline the procedures we have used to generate new standard recodes for three internationally comparable measures of occupational status: Treiman's Standard International Occupational Prestige Scale (SIOPS), Ganzeboom et al.'s International Socio-Economic Index of Occupational Status (ISEI), and Erikson and Goldthorpe's class categories (EGP). To update the SIOPS prestige scores we have directly matched the occupational titles in the SIOPS scale to the categories of the ISCO88 classification. For ISEI scores we have replicated the procedure used to create scores for the ISCO68 categories, employing the same data but using newly developed matches between the underlying national occupational classifications and ISCO88. To construct the EGP class codes we have mapped the ISCO88 occupation categories into a 10-category classification developed by the CASMIN project for a 12-country analysis. To validate these scales, we estimated parameters of a basic status-attainment model from an independent source of data: the pooled file from the International Social Justice Project (a large international data file that combines data from sample surveys in 14 countries). Estimates based on occupational status scales derived from ISCO88 and ISCO68 are highly similar.
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This revised edition, first published in 1977, contains a new introductory section by Tibor Scitovsky. It sets out to analyze the inherent defects of the market economy as an instrument of human improvement. Since publication, it is believed to have been very influential in the ecological movement and hence is considered to be relevant today. The book tries to give an economist's answer to three questions: Why has economic development become and remained so compelling a goal even though it gives disappointing results? Why has modern society become so concerned with distributional processes when the great majority of people can raise their living standards through increased production? Why has the 20th century seen a universal predominant trend toward collective provision and state regulation in economic areas at a time when individual freedom of action is widely extolled and is given unprecedented reign in non-economic areas? The book suggests that the current impasse on a number of key issues in the political economy of advanced nations is attributable, in part, to an outmoded perspective on the nature, and therefore, the promise of economic growth. The critique has some important implications for policy and opens up a range of policy issues. -after Author
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We examine the social distribution of exposure to stress to test the hypothesis that differences in stress exposure are one factor in sociodemographic variations in mental health. We make a more comprehensive effort to estimate stress exposure than has been typical, and present data that challenge the prevailing view that differences in exposure to stress are of only minimal significance for understanding variations in mental health. We report several findings, principal among which are: Differences in exposure to stress account for substantially more variability in depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder than previous reports have suggested; the distributions of stress exposure across sex, age, marital status, and occupational status precisely correspond to the distributions of depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder across the same factors; and differences in exposure to stress alone account for between 23 and 50 percent of observed differences in mental health by sex, marital status, and occupation. These findings contrast with the prevailing view that differences in vulnerability to stress across social statuses account for social status variations in mental health.
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The positive association between education and health is well established, but explanations for this association are not. Our explanations fall into three categories: (1) work and economic conditions, (2) social-psychological resources, and (3) health lifestyle. We replicate analyses with two samples, cross-sectionally and over time, using two health measures (self-reported health and physical functioning). The first data set comes from a national probability sample of U.S. households in which respondents were interviewed by telephone in 1990 (2,031 respondents, ages 18 to 90). The second data set comes from a national probability sample of U.S. households in which respondents ages 20 to 64 were interviewed by telephone first in 1979 (3,025 respondents), and then again in 1980 (2,436 respondents). Results demonstrate a positive association between education and health and help explain why the association exists. (1) Compared to the poorly educated, well educated respondents are less likely to be unemployed, are more likely to work full-time, to have fulfilling, subjectively rewarding jobs, high incomes, and low economic hardship. Full-time work, fulfilling work, high income, and low economic hardship in turn significantly improve health in all analyses. (2) The well educated report a greater sense of control over their lives and their health, and they have higher levels of social support. The sense of control, and to a lesser extent support, are associated with good health. (3) The well educated are less likely to smoke, are more likely to exercise, to get health check-ups, and to drink moderately, all of which, except check-ups, are associated with good health. We conclude that high educational attainment improves health directly, and it improves health indirectly through work and economic conditions, social-psychological resources, and health lifestyle.
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Research on inequality in America shows evidence of a growing social and economic divide between college graduates and people without college degrees. This article examines whether disparities in health between education groups have also recently increased. Pooled cross-sectional regression analyses of data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) show that educational disparities in self-reported health status increased from 1982 to 2004 among older adults but held relatively steady or narrowed among younger adults. Sensitivity analyses show that the trends do not totally or primarily reflect change in the demographic composition of education groups. The trend of increasing disparities among older adults might reflect large and growing educational disparities in economic resources, health-promoting behaviors, or the use of health services and medical technology.
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Two theories are considered in accounting for the increased schooling required for employment in advanced industrial society: (a) a technical-function theory, stating that educational requirements reflect the demands for greater skills on the job due to technological change; and (b) a conflict theory, stating that employment requirements reflect the efforts of competing status groups to monopolize or dominate jobs by imposing their cultural standards on the selection process. A review of the evidence indicates that the conflict theory is more strongly supported. The main dynamic of rising educational requirements in the United States has been primarily the expansion of mobility opportunities through the school system, rather than autonomous changes in the structure of employment. It is argued that the effort to build a comprehensive theory of stratification is best advanced by viewing those effects of technological change on educational requirements that are substantiated within the basic context of a conflict theory of stratification.
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This article proposes a social causation explanation for the association between SES and depression/distress. The model links SES, occupational direction, control, and planning (DCP), personality factors, and depression/distress in a causal sequence. The data to test the social causation model against alternative, social selection models are derived from samples of psychiatric patients and community residents in Washington Heights, New York City. The key factor of DCP is operationalized using ratings from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The results support the social causation model and cannot be accounted for by several tests derived from social selection models. Thus the results increase the plausibility of the social causation model and suggest the need for further research on the links between occupational conditions and mental disorder.
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Formal education not only educates individuals, it reconstitutes the very foundations of society through a pervasive culture of education with a legitimate capacity to reconstruct work and its central components such as ideas about human productive abilities, new organisations and management, widespread professionalism and expertise, and the emerging educated workplace. The ubiquitous massive growth and spread of education has transformed the world into a schooled society, and in turn the schooled society has transformed work. The implications of the educational revolution and empirical findings from a range of recent research studies are applied to – the narrow version of human capital theory and education‐as‐myth sociological theory – two widely employed theories of education and work over the past 40 years. And a new theoretical synthesis that takes into account the empirical realities of the schooled society is proposed.
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The CES-D scale is a short self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptomatology in the general population. The items of the scale are symptoms associated with depression which have been used in previously validated longer scales. The new scale was tested in household interview surveys and in psychiatric settings. It was found to have very high internal consistency and adequate test- retest repeatability. Validity was established by pat terns of correlations with other self-report measures, by correlations with clinical ratings of depression, and by relationships with other variables which support its construct validity. Reliability, validity, and factor structure were similar across a wide variety of demographic characteristics in the general population samples tested. The scale should be a useful tool for epidemiologic studies of de pression.
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More and more workers in the United States are unable to use their educational background on the job. Such underemployment has been documented but not fully explored or analyzed. This paper examines the effects of underemployment on 32 low-level clerical workers, comparing their educational backgrounds with their attitudes and behaviors. Higher education produces increased job dissatisfaction, higher turnover rates, reduced job involvement, impaired co-worker relations, and more emphasis on future aspirations. However, clerical workers of all educational backgrounds are prone to feelings of overqualification and complaints about the nature of workplace control. I relate these findings to existing theories on underemployment.
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Research on inequality in America shows evidence of a growing social and economic divide between college graduates and people without college degrees. This article examines whether disparities in health between education groups have also recently increased. Pooled cross- sectional regression analyses of data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) show that educational disparities in self-reported health status increased from 1982 to 2004 among older adults but held relatively steady or narrowed among younger adults. Sensitivity analyses show that the trends do not totally or primarily reflect change in the demographic composition of education groups. The trend of increasing disparities among older adults might reflect large and growing educational disparities in economic resources, health-promoting behaviors, or the use of health services and medical technology.
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The study of education-occupation mismatch, once central to the sociological investigation of the labor market, has been largely abandoned. While labor economists and scholars in other nations continue to investigate overqualification, it has been more than two decades since its last sociological assessment in the United States. Drawing on previous work and guided by Bourdieu's concept of habitus, I hypothesize that workers who have more educational attainments than needed for their jobs will be less satisfied with their jobs, be more politically liberal, and be less likely to endorse an effort-based achievement ideology. Using the 1972-2002 General Social Survey, I find that overqualification has increased substantially, that the expected effects are generally found, and that these effects remain relatively stable over time. I discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the persistence of existing stratification hierarchies.
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This chapter differentiates the stressful consequences of social organization from the stressful antecedents of psychological disorder. The pivotal distinction concerns whether the occurrence of stressors is viewed as socially determined, or as independent of social placement. Recent research is evaluated concerning both the social distribution of stress and social variation in response to stress. Two particularly productive areas of inquiry are also reviewed: self-efficacy as a mediator between social position and stress; and the intersection of macro- and micro-stress processes in economic and occupational spheres, with emphasis upon gender stratification. This review concludes that the occurrence of systemic stressors is not necessarily an indication of a social system run amok but may reflect instead the system functioning precisely as it is supposed to function.
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This paper reviews survey research explaining the social patterns of distress. There are four basic patterns: (a) The higher one's social status the lower one's distress; (b) women are more distressed than men; (c) married persons are less distressed than unmarried persons, and; (d) the greater the number of undesirable events in one's life the greater one's distress. The major forms of distress are malaise (such as lethargy, headaches, and trembling hands), anxiety (such as feeling afraid, worried, or irritable), and depression (such as feeling sad, worthless, or hopeless). Sociological theory suggests that alienation, authoritarianism, and inequity produce distress. The research indicates that distress is reduced by control, commitment, support, meaning, normality, flexibility, trust, and equity. The presence or absence of these accounts for the social patterns of distress.
Article
The 1982 job market for college graduates and future prospects are considered and the current conditions are compared to the economic rewards of the 1970s. A moderate improvement in the relative earnings and occupational attainment of college graduates began in the mid-1970s and continued through the early 1980s, but did not equal the pre-1970's level. Paralleling a relative income drop of college graduates is a deterioration of employment opportunities for college graduates. Humanities and social science majors experienced a loss in real starting pay of 20 percent from 1969 to 1975 and 9 percent from 1975 to 1982. Accountants and general business graduates did somewhat less poorly, while chemists and mathematicians gained in the later period. Engineers fared the best from 1970 to 1975. Longitudinal comparisons of income of the same persons or cohorts indicate that both 1966-1981 and 1971-1976 college graduates experienced an improvement in their income as they aged 5 years. However, graduates appear to have had slower increases in earnings relative to high school graduates than has historically been the case. (SW)
Article
We surveyed three distinct samples of employees (Ns of 238, 102, and 981) in order to examine relations among various types of underemployment, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intentions. Each dimension of underemployment is explored as a case of poor person-job fit, and the fit literature is used to produce hypotheses about these relations. We also developed and validated the 9-item Scale of Perceived Overqualification (SPOQ) to tap employee perceptions of surplus education, experience, and KSAs (knowledge, skills, and abilities). In general, perceptions of underemployment were associated with poor job satisfaction, particularly for facets with a direct causal relationship with the specific dimension of underemployment, such as overqualification and satisfaction with work. Perceived overqualification was also related to lower affective commitment, and higher intentions to turnover. For part-time work, negative attitudes were only found when employees expressed a preference for full-time work; a similar trend was not found for temporary workers, however. Implications for theory, research, and practice are delineated. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The authors analyze the rapid worldwide expansion of higher educational enrollments over the twentieth century using pooled panel regressions. Expansion is higher in economically developed countries (in some but not all analyses) as classic theories would have it. Growth is greater where secondary enrollments are high and where state control over education is low, consistent with conflict and competition theories. Institutional theories get strong support: growth patterns are similar in all types of countries, are especially high in countries more linked to world society, and sharply accelerate in virtually all countries after 1960. The authors theorize and operationalize the institutional processes involved, which include scientization, democratization and the expansion of human rights, the rise of development planning, and the structuration of the world polity. With these changes, a new model of society became institutionalized globally-one in which schooled knowledge and personnel were seen as appropriate for a wide variety of social positions, and in which many more young people were seen as appropriate candidates for higher education. An older vision of education as contributing to a more closed society and occupational system—with associated fears of “over-education”—was replaced by an open-system picture of education as useful “human capital” for unlimited progress. The global trends are so strong that developing countries now have higher enrollment rates than European countries did only a few decades ago, and currently about one-fifth of the world cohort is now enrolled in higher education.
Article
Using data for seven European countries we analyse trends among women in class differences in educational attainment over the first two-thirds of the 20th century. We also compare educational attainment between men and women; we ask whether class differences among the two sexes are similar or not; and whether trends in class differences over birth cohorts have differed between men and women. We find that, as expected, over the 20th century, inequalities between men and women in their educational attainment declined markedly. More importantly, changes in class inequalities in educational attainment have been similar for both men and women, although, in some countries, women displayed greater inequality at the start of the 20th century and have shown a somewhat greater rate of increase in equality. Patterns of class inequality were also largely similar for both sexes, though in some countries daughters of farmers and the petty-bourgeoisie did relatively better than their brothers. While some of these results reinforce what has long been believed, our central finding of a decline in class inequality in educational attainment for both men and women contradicts the ‘persistent inequality’ in education that earlier scholars claimed existed.
Book
Social indicators are an important tool for evaluating a country's level of social development and for assessing the impact of policy. Such indicators are already in use in investigating poverty and social exclusion in several European countries and have begun to play a significant role in advancing the social dimension of the EU as a whole. The purpose of this book is to make a scientific contribution to the development of social indicators for the purposes of European policy‐making. It considers the principles underlying the construction of policy‐relevant indicators, the definition of indicators, and the issues that arise in their implementation, including that of the statistical data required. It seeks to bring together theoretical and methodological methods in the measurement of poverty/social exclusion with the empirical practice of social policy. The experience of member states is reviewed, including an assessment of the National Action Plans on Social Inclusion submitted for the first time in June 2001 by the 15 EU governments. The key areas covered by the book are poverty, including its intensity and persistence, income inequality, non‐monetary deprivation, low educational attainment, unemployment, joblessness, poor health, poor housing and homelessness, functional illiteracy and innumeracy, and restricted social participation. In each case, the book assesses the strengths and weaknesses of different indicators relevant to social inclusion in the EU, and makes recommendations for the indicators to be employed. The book is based on a report prepared at the request of the Belgian government, as part of the Belgian presidency of the Council of the EU in the second half of 2001, and presented at a conference on ‘Indicators for Social Inclusion: Making Common EU Objectives Work’ held at Antwerp on 14–15 Sept 2001.
Article
This paper adds to the sparse literature on the consequences of education-occupation mismatches. It examines the income penalty for field of education-occupation mismatches for men and women with higher education degrees in Sweden and reveals that the penalty for such mismatches is large for both men and women. For mismatched men the income penalty is about twice as large as that found for US men, whereas for women the penalty is of about the same size as for US women. Controlling for cognitive ability further establishes that the income penalty is not caused by a sorting by ability, at least for Swedish men. The income penalty for men decreases with work experience, which is an indication that education-specific skills and work experience are substitutes to some extent.
Article
The central focus of this article is the influence of the applied measure when the impact of overeducation is analyzed. For a database of Flemish school leavers, four alternative measures of overeducation are related to job satisfaction, mobility, training participation and wages. The magnitude and significance of the effects diverge between these measures. When attained education is controlled for, overeducated workers are less satisfied, more mobile, participate less in training and earn less than adequately educated workers. When required education is controlled for, no robust results are found for job satisfaction and training participation. Overeducated workers earn more than adequately educated colleagues, but have a higher turnover rate. We have little clear results with respect to undereducation. Caution is thus recommended for the interpretation of empirical results with respect to the impact of over- and undereducation.
Article
This study replicates models developed by Verdugo and Verdugo (1989) and Sicherman (1991) to study the wage effects of overschooling. Using the 1985 wave of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, our results confirm earlier work showing that the rate of return to required schooling exceeds the rate of return to overschooling, and that the rate of return to underschooling is negative. At the same time, our results also confirm that, on the average, persons whose schooling exceeds (is less than) the required schooling for their occupation or job, respectively, receive lower (higher) wages than workers with similar levels of schooling in occupations or jobs having the required schooling. These results remain robust for alternative definitions of required, over- and underschooling, as well as for alternative specifications of the wage equations.
Article
Analyzing a large data set from the 1990s, this paper attempts to gain insights on the time horizon of overeducation. Overeducation could be a short-run phenomenon for individuals if it occurs as a temporary form of employment; perhaps allowing workers to develop career opportunities or gain experience. However, overeducation may be a way for workers to compensate for weaknesses in other areas of human capital (school quality, experience, etc.), thus a long-run phenomenon for other individuals. Currently one in five overeducated individuals are able to remain employed and exit the category within a year. Additionally, approximately 3% of just-educated individuals enter the overeducated category the following year. The findings are robust, occurring for a variety of demographic groups during different stages in the business cycle.
Article
This paper examines, for a sample of Flemish school leavers, the relation between objective over-education and job satisfaction by applying a shadow price approach. We differentiate between direct effects of over-education and indirect effects via other job characteristics that are associated with over-education. Additional fixed-effects estimates are executed to account for individual heterogeneity. The utility consequences of over-education are found to be large and cannot be compensated by a reasonable wage increase at the start of the first employment. These outcomes suggest that, at labour-market entry, over-education is largely involuntary, and is likely to induce negative productivity costs. The negative consequences of over-education are also found to diminish with years of work experience.