Article

School Discipline: A Source or Salve for the Racial Achievement Gap?

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Abstract

Racial disparities in school discipline are believed to contribute to the persistent achievement gap between black and white students. In this article, I estimate the relationship between school discipline and achievement within a structural model, taking into account the spillover effects of disruptive behavior. I find that discipline has an overall positive influence on student performance and that the racial gap in discipline stemming from cross‐school variation in discipline policies is consistent with achievement maximization. Integrating schools can close both the discipline and achievement gaps; however, overall achievement is reduced since schools are less able to target their discipline policies.

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... This paper extends existing literature by employing panel data to implement student fixed effects and instrumental variable (IV) strategies to bound the effect of suspensions on the outcomes of suspended students. While a true causal estimate is difficult to obtain without experimental conditions, we leverage detailed panel data on individual students to eliminate many sources of potential bias present in existing correlational estimates that typically rely on cross-school variation in suspension rates (Perry & Morris, 2014;Rausch & Skiba, 2005) or cross-sectional variation in student behavior and outcomes (Kinsler, 2013). The student fixed effects approach, which relies on within-student variation in the receipt of suspension, conditions on time-invariant student characteristics that may be correlated with both the likelihood of committing a behavioral infraction resulting in a suspension and student outcomes, including academic achievement. ...
... A meta-analysis by Noltemeyer et al. (2015) includes 34 studies examining the relationship between suspensions and achievement, and finds overall negative correlations between in-school and out-of-school suspensions and academic outcomes. In contrast, Kinsler (2013) finds that suspensions do not negatively affect the achievement of middle-school students after controlling for each student's estimated risk of misbehavior. However, results from Kinsler (2013) rely on cross-sectional data and several assumptions about the degree of school-level control over discipline policies and student knowledge of discipline policies, calling into question the utility of the findings. ...
... The influence of peers may be particularly strong in middle school: Using the results of a lotterybased school selection mechanism, Deming (2011) finds that enrollment in a preferred school reduces crimes committed by students up to 7 years following assignment, and the gains among middle-school students are primarily due to less exposure to "crime-prone" peers. Another study finds that the level of minor infractions committed by middle-school peers, including rowdiness, disruptive behavior, and rule violations, is related to decreases in math test scores (Kinsler, 2013). Focusing on discipline, one study finds that greater school-level use of exclusionary discipline, such as suspension, is associated with declines in the achievement of nonsuspended students (Perry & Morris, 2014). ...
Article
Discipline reformers claim that suspensions negatively affect suspended students, while others suggest reforms have unintended consequences for peers. Using student panel data from the School District of Philadelphia, we implement student fixed effects and instrumental variable (IV) strategies to examine the consequences of suspensions for offending students and their peers. A suspension decreases math and reading achievement for suspended students. The effects are robust to IV estimates leveraging a district-wide policy change in suspension use. Suspensions are more salient for students who personally experience suspension than for their peers. Exposure to suspensions for more serious misconduct has very small, negative spillovers onto peer achievement, but does not change peer absences.
... Similarly, Eden (2017) argues that as New York City reformed its discipline policy to reduce suspensions, schools experienced deteriorations in climate, as well as more violence. Using a structural approach, Kinsler (2013) argues that discipline has a positive effect on student achievement, due to the negative spillover effects from uncontrolled disruptive behavior. ...
... Summary of students in self-contained classrooms in grades 3 through 5 in NorthCarolina Public Schools, 2008-2013 ...
... Summary of teachers in self-contained classrooms in grades 3 through 5 in North CarolinaPublic Schools, 2008-2013 ...
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While a growing body of literature has documented the negative impacts of exclusionary punishments, such as suspensions, on academic outcomes, less is known about how teachers vary in disciplinary behaviors and the attendant impacts on students. We use administrative data from North Carolina elementary schools to examine the extent to which teachers vary in their use of referrals and investigate the impact of more punitive teachers on student attendance and achievement. We also estimate the effect of teachers' racial bias in the use of referrals on student outcomes. We find more punitive teachers increase student absenteeism and reduce student achievement. Moreover, more punitive teachers negatively affect the achievement of students who do not receive disciplinary sanctions from the teacher. Similarly, while teachers with a racial bias in the use of referrals do not negatively affect academic outcomes for White students, they significantly increase absenteeism and reduce achievement for Black students. The results suggest punitive disciplinary measures do not aid teachers in productively managing classrooms; rather, teachers taking more punitive stances may undermine student engagement and learning. Moreover, bias in teachers' referral usage contributes to inequities in student outcomes. Abstract While a growing body of literature has documented the negative impacts of exclu-sionary punishments, such as suspensions, on academic outcomes, less is known about how teachers vary in disciplinary behaviors and the attendant impacts on students. We use administrative data from North Carolina elementary schools to examine the extent to which teachers vary in their use of referrals and investigate the impact of more punitive teachers on student attendance and achievement. We also estimate the effect of teachers' racial bias in the use of referrals on student outcomes. We find more punitive teachers increase student absenteeism and reduce student achievement. Moreover, more punitive teachers negatively affect the achievement of students who do not receive disciplinary sanctions from the teacher. Similarly, while teachers with a racial bias in the use of referrals do not negatively affect academic outcomes for White students, they significantly increase absenteeism and reduce achievement for Black students. The results suggest punitive disciplinary measures do not aid teachers in productively managing classrooms; rather, teachers taking more punitive stances may undermine student engagement and learning. Moreover, bias in teachers' referral usage contributes to inequities in student outcomes.
... Despite this extensive literature, "the racial gap in school discipline has yet to be fully explained" (Wright, Morgan, Coyne, Beaver, & Barnes, 2014, p. 257), and additional research is needed which focuses on the moderating influence that other factors might have on informing teachers' and administrators' decision-making, thereby aggravating or mitigating racial/ethnic disparities in school discipline. Specifically, despite clear theoretical connections between disciplinary outcomes and students' race/ethnicity, gender, and academic success (Gregory, Skiba, & Noguera, 2010;Kinsler, 2013;Morris & Perry, 2016), no prior study has explored whether school performance conditions the effects of race/ethnicity and gender on school discipline. By investigating this issue, research can illuminate whether unwarranted racial/ethnic and gender disparities in suspension are more pronounced among high-or low-performing students, which thereby can help inform how schools might confront inequalities in the application of school discipline. ...
... Morris & Perry, 2017;Raffaele Mendez & Knoff, 2003;Wallace, Goodkind, Wallace, & Bachman, 2008). Similarly, while scholars have found that academic achievement is negatively related to school discipline (Mizel et al., 2016;Morrison, Anthony, Storino, & Dillon, 2001) and that racial/ethnic disparities in school success mirror similar inequalities in school discipline (Gregory et al., 2010;Kinsler, 2013;Morris & Perry, 2016), the interactive relationship between race/ ethnicity and academic achievement, as well as variation in these effects by gender, has not yet been explored. ...
... Several scholars argue that racial/ethnic disparities in disciplinary outcomes are closely related to the racial "achievement gap" in school performance (Kinsler, 2013;Morris & Perry, 2016;Noguera, 2003), and it is possible that the theoretical processes underlying these relationships might be "two sides of the same coin" (Gregory et al., 2010). Indeed, due to the negative consequences of suspension and expulsion for short-term and long-term success in school, it is plausible that racial/ethnic disparities in school discipline might contribute to the gap in academic success between minority and White students. ...
Article
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A vast body of research demonstrates that the consequences of the “criminalization” of school discipline are not racially equitable, and Black and Hispanic students are more likely than White youth to experience exclusionary school punishments. However, limited prior work has examined the factors that might strengthen or weaken racial/ethnic inequalities in school discipline. Theoretically, academic achievement could moderate the effects of race and ethnicity, especially in conjunction with gender, though the expected direction of these interactive relationships is unclear. To explore these issues, the current study makes use of data from the 2018 Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey (N = 54,611). The analyses reveal that, while Black male youth are the most likely to be suspended, racial/ethnic disparities are greater among females than males. Additionally, racial differences in the likelihood of suspension are more prominent at higher levels of academic achievement, particularly among female students.
... None of these studies, however, cast light on the extent to which these associations can be interpreted as demonstrating causal relationships between suspension and educational attainment. 6 In contrast, Kinsler (2013) attempts to identify the causal impact of suspension on educational achievement, as measured by end-of-grade tests, for middle-school students in grades 6-8. He exploits a rich data set on test scores, behavioral infractions that lead to suspension, and suspension durations across three school districts in North Carolina to estimate a model for the joint determination of behavior, suspension, and achievement. ...
... He concludes that suspension does not have a negative causal impact on own achievement. 7 Our approach to the selection problem differs from that of Kinsler (2013). We estimate a series of models, increasing in controls, to gauge the stability of our results to omitted variables. ...
... By contrast, girls and those whose fathers have at least Year 12 education are less likely to have been suspended. These findings are similar to Kinsler's (2013) findings that students who have repeated a grade, who are male or who come from less educated families are more likely to commit infractions. Interestingly, whereas Kinsler (2013) finds that black students are more likely to commit infractions, this study finds that indigenous students are no more likely to be suspended, while those from a non-English speaking background are much less likely to have been subject to this sanction. ...
Article
Suspension from school is a commonly-used, yet controversial, school disciplinary measure. This paper uses unique survey data to estimate the impact of suspension on the educational outcomes of those suspended. It finds that while suspension is strongly associated with educational outcomes, the relationship is unlikely to be causal, but rather stems from differences in the characteristics of those suspended compared to those not suspended. Moreover, there is no evidence that suspension is associated with larger educational penalties for young people from disadvantaged family backgrounds compared to those from more advantaged family backgrounds. These results hold regardless of whether self-reported suspension or mother-reported suspension is considered. The absence of a negative causal impact of suspension on educational outcomes suggests that suspension may continue to play a role in school discipline without harming the educational prospects of those sanctioned.
... We know little about the causal effect of disciplinary consequences on student outcomes (Steinberg & Lacoe, 2016), yet a large body of evidence has documented correlations between exclusionary discipline (e.g., suspensions and expulsions) and negative student outcomes including lower academic achievement (Arcia, 2006;Beck & Muschkin, 2012;Cobb-Clark, Kassenboehmer, Le, McVicar, & Zhang, 2015;Kinsler, 2013;Noltemeyer, Ward, & Mcloughlin, 2015;Raffaele-Mendez, 2003), school drop-out and grade retention (Balfanz, Byrnes, & Fox, 2014;Carpenter & Ramirez, 2007;Fabelo et al., 2011;Suh & Suh, 2007;Swanson, Erickson, & Ritter, 2017), and involvement in the criminal or juvenile justice systems (Fabelo et al., 2011;Nicholson-Crotty, Birchmeier, & Valentine, 2009;Wolf & Kupchik, 2017). ...
... Several student-level studies have found a negative relationship between OSS and academic achievement conditional on demographic and contextual characteristics (Arcia, 2006;Cobb-Clark et al., 2015;Kinsler, 2013;Raffaele-Mendez, 2003). Yet these studies did not control for baseline achievement, leaving an important variable omitted. ...
Article
While numerous studies have demonstrated a correlation between exclusionary discipline and negative student outcomes, this relationship is likely confounded by other factors related to the underlying misbehavior or risk of disciplinary referral. Using 10 years of student-level demographic, achievement, and disciplinary data from all K–12 public schools in Arkansas, we find that exclusionary consequences are related to worse academic outcomes (e.g., test scores and grade retention) than less exclusionary consequences, controlling for type of behavioral infraction. However, despite controlling for a robust set of covariates, sensitivity checks demonstrate that the estimated relationships between consequences and academic outcomes may still be driven by selection bias into consequence type. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
... Therefore, the relationship between discipline gaps and achievement gaps is theoretically ambiguous. While there are some reasons to theorize that discipline gaps may exacerbate existing racial achievement gaps (Gregory, Skiba & Noguero, 2012); some studies that have used simulation analysis suggest that the causality may be reversed (Kinsler, 2013). Till date, very few studies (Morris & Perry, 2016) have empirically examined the impact of school discipline outcomes on achievement gaps. ...
... I use the pooled (across grades, years, and subjects) achievement gap measures available in the SEDA version 2.1 for all analyses. The achievement gap measures are derived from the U.S. Department of Education's EDFacts data system, which provides aggregated test score data (on over 200 million standardized tests in English/language arts (ELA) and math taken by students in grades 3-8 from AY 2008-2009to AY 2012-2013 from each state's standardized testing program. To make the achievement data comparable across states and years, they are linked to the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP; Reardon, Kalogrides, & Ho, 2019;Reardon et al., 2018). ...
Article
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This study estimates racial/ethnic discipline gaps, using multiple measures of school discipline outcomes, in nearly all school districts in the United States with data collected by the Office of Civil Rights between 2013 and 2014. Just like racial/ethnic achievement gaps, discipline gaps also vary substantially, ranging from negative to greater than two standard deviations, across districts. However, unlike the correlates of racial achievement gaps, the extensive set of district-level characteristics available in the Stanford Education Data Archive (SEDA) including economic, demographic, segregation, and school characteristics, explain roughly just one-fifth of the geographic variation in Black-white discipline gaps and one-third of the variation in Hispanic-white discipline gaps. This study also finds a modest, statistically significant, positive association between discipline gaps and achievement gaps, even after extensive covariate adjustment. The results of this analysis provide an important step forward in determining the relationship between two forms of persistent inequality that have long plagued the U.S. education system.
... In addition, using a sample of middle and high schools students from a large urban school district in Kentucky, Perry and Morris (2014), demonstrated that higher rates of out-of-school suspension had a negative impact on math and reading achievement for nonsuspended students-even when controlling for school-level behavior. Alternatively, using a cross-sectional sample of middle-school students in North Carolina, Kinsler (2013) found that the number of days students were suspended out of school deterred their future infractions, which ultimately increased the math achievement of their peers. Essentially, while being suspended entails a loss of instructional time for the suspended student, Kinsler's (2013) findings suggest that repeated exposure to a disruptive student may entail a greater "loss" of instructional time for his or her peers. ...
... Alternatively, using a cross-sectional sample of middle-school students in North Carolina, Kinsler (2013) found that the number of days students were suspended out of school deterred their future infractions, which ultimately increased the math achievement of their peers. Essentially, while being suspended entails a loss of instructional time for the suspended student, Kinsler's (2013) findings suggest that repeated exposure to a disruptive student may entail a greater "loss" of instructional time for his or her peers. ...
Article
Even the least severe forms of exclusionary discipline are associated with detrimental effects for students that attend schools that overuse them. With a nationally representative longitudinal study of high school students, we utilize propensity score weighting to limit selection bias associated with schools that issue high numbers of in-school suspensions. Accounting for school social order and individual suspensions, we find that high-suspension schools are negatively associated with students’ math achievement and college attendance. We also find that when we account for high and low-suspension schools, attending an urban schools is associated with an increase in both math achievement and college attendance.
... As the 'captain of the ship', school leaders play a vital role in behaviour of students through development of policies, procedures, rules and regulations but also by initiating and undertaking safe, collegial and caring environment in the schools and classroom settings (Spillane, 2012;Kinsler, 2013). In fact, research studies have demonstrated that school leadership plays a pivotal role in protecting the teachers from interruptions in their instructional time (Teddlie, 1994). ...
... In line with research on the role of school leaders to provide the collegial and caring environment (e.g. Teddlie, 1994;Spillane, 2012;Kinsler, 2013), the extent to which headmasters in Mauritian primary schools help teachers achieve instructional goals when classroom indiscipline behaviours arise needs to be further explored. ...
... And despite its intuitive appeal, there is at least some evidence to question the proposed magnitude and perhaps even the proposed direction of the association between discipline and achievement gaps. For instance, although discipline disparities between White and minority students have steadily grown over the past several decades (Losen, Hodson, Keith, 2 recent studies have demonstrated potentially positive impacts of suspension on the academic achievement of suspended students as well as their peers (Anderson, Ritter, & Zamarro, 2017;Kinsler, 2013). This counterargument to what many regard as conventional knowledge in matters of racial equity in schooling-that discipline gaps are part and parcel with achievement gaps-suggests the need for a rigorous evaluation of the relationship between racial disproportionality in suspension rates and the racial achievement gap at a scale sufficient to make generalized claims about any relation between them. ...
... As noted in the introduction, however, only recently have scholars begun to frame the two as related to one another, and there is not yet consensus on the expected direction or magnitude of the relationship (Anyon, Zhang, & Hazel, 2016;Hirschi, 1969;Hoffmann, Erickson, & Spence, 2013). Some research suggests that larger discipline gaps would be associated with larger achievement gaps (e.g., Anyon et al., 2016;Goodman, 2014;Hinze-Pifer & Sartain, 2018;McNeely, Nonnemaker, & Blum, 2002), whereas other research suggests that larger discipline gaps could be associated with smaller achievement gaps (e.g., Anderson et al., 2017;Carrell, Hoekstra, & Kuka, 2016;Imberman, Kugler, & Sacerdote, 2012;Kinsler, 2013;Losen et al., 2015;Morris & Perry, 2016;Reid, 2012;Zhang, Musu-Gillette, & Oudekerk, 2016). (See online Supplemental Appendix A for a full summary of this literature.) ...
Article
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There is growing interest in the relation between the racial achievement gap and the racial discipline gap. However, few studies have examined this relation at the national level. This study combines data from the Stanford Education Data Archive and the Civil Rights Data Collection and employs a district fixed effects analysis to examine whether and the extent to which racial discipline gaps are related to racial achievement gaps in Grades 3 through 8 in districts across the United States. In bivariate models, we find evidence that districts with larger racial discipline gaps have larger racial achievement gaps (and vice versa). Though other district-level differences account for the positive association between the Hispanic-White discipline gap and the Hispanic-White achievement gap, we find robust evidence that the positive association between the Black-White discipline gap and the Black-White achievement gap persists after controlling for a multitude of confounding factors. We also find evidence that the mechanisms connecting achievement to disciplinary outcomes are more salient for Black than White students.
... Relatedly, there is also a gap in discipline between ethnic minority and ethnic majority students such that ethnic minority students are overrepresented in discipline referrals (Gregory and Mosely 2004;Monroe 2005;Kinsler 2013). Hence, this gap in discipline has been transported to teacher expectations as well. ...
... However, other studies have not provided evidence that ethnic minority students would profit from an ethnic match with their teachers. Such research has reported that ethnic minority teachers do not contribute to reducing these disparities (Pigott and Cowen 2000;Downey and Pribesh 2004;Jordan and Anil 2009;Bradshaw et al. 2010;Rocque and Paternoster 2011;Kinsler 2013). More specifically, these studies have not found that benefits to ethnic minority students' academic achievement scores depended on teachers' own ethnic minority background (Howsen and Trawick 2007) or on ethnic minority teachers' perceptions of ethnic minority students (Anderson-Clark et al. 2008). ...
Article
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The ethnic match between teachers and students is widely believed to be beneficial for the achievement of ethnic minority students, who often lag behind their ethnic majority peers. In a quasi-experimental vignette study, we investigated whether preservice teachers who shared the same ethnic background as the student in the vignette had different judgments of the achievement, working and learning habits, and other social variables of the target student than ethnic majority preservice teachers and preservice teachers who had an ethnic minority background different from that of the student. Additionally, we asked about the causes of ethnic disparities. The preservice teachers who shared the same ethnic background as the target student more favorably judged the student’s language proficiency in his mother tongue and perceived the student as more proficient in mathematics, science, and general competence than the two other teacher groups. Moreover, the causal attributions showed that the preservice teachers with the same background as the target student generally perceived the causes of the student’s lower school success as multifaceted. The results reveal that simply having a teacher with an ethnic minority background is not sufficient for benefitting ethnic minority students. Only teachers who have the same ethnic background as the students might contribute to the reduction of ethnic disparities in school.
... Some studies find that suspension accomplishes these aims. Suspension removes disruptive students from schools temporarily (Cook, Gottfredson, & Na, 2010;Kinsler, 2013) and may improve school climate and by reducing peer influences to engage in deviant behavior (Zimmerman, 2014). One study of North Carolina middle school students found that suspended students are more likely to comply with school rules in the school year that they were suspended (Kinsler, 2013). ...
... Suspension removes disruptive students from schools temporarily (Cook, Gottfredson, & Na, 2010;Kinsler, 2013) and may improve school climate and by reducing peer influences to engage in deviant behavior (Zimmerman, 2014). One study of North Carolina middle school students found that suspended students are more likely to comply with school rules in the school year that they were suspended (Kinsler, 2013). ...
Article
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A third of U.S. students are suspended over a K-12 school career. Suspended youth have worse adult outcomes than nonsuspended students, but these outcomes could be due to selection bias: that is, suspended youth may have had worse outcomes even without suspension. This study compares the educational and criminal justice outcomes of 480 youth suspended for the first time with those of 1,193 matched nonsuspended youth from a nationally representative sample. Prior to suspension, the suspended and nonsuspended youth did not differ on 60 pre-suspension variables including students’ self-reported delinquency and risk behaviors, parents’ reports of socioeconomic status, and administrators’ reports of school disciplinary policies. Twelve years after suspension (ages 25-32), suspended youth were less likely than matched nonsuspended youth to have earned bachelor’s degrees or high school diplomas, and were more likely to have been arrested and on probation, suggesting that suspension rather than selection bias explains negative outcomes.
... One recent study attempted to address the endogeneity of schools' suspension rates by capitalizing on the variation in school-level disciplinary policy. Kinsler (2013) estimated the effects within three North Carolina school districts of the marked variability among middle schools in the length of suspensions relative to the severity of the offense and the number of prior offenses. He found that being subject to relatively harsh sanctioning reduced students' risk of future disciplinary incidents, even in models "without unobserved student heterogeneity" (Kinsler 2013, p. 73). ...
... The more discouraging findings from Kinsler (2013) and the teacher data in Sartain et al. (2015) are buttressed by anecdotal reports and surveys of teachers around the country bemoaning deteriorated student behavior in the wake of softened school disciplinary practices (Eden 2017). Hence, the evidence that harsher disciplinary responses to student misbehavior promote school safety merits serious consideration. ...
Article
This review focuses on recent advancements along two lines of criminological inquiry. The first examines how schools unintentionally influence off-campus delinquency, especially through their effects on social bonds and strain. The second examines the effects of intensified school punishment and policing on both school safety and off-campus offending. The key variables of interest to both fields of inquiry are fundamentally endogenous, which has led to some theoretical stagnation in the field. However, studies that employ quasi-experimental methods have improved causal inferences regarding the effects of additional schooling (especially in good schools) and the criminogenic effects of school exclusion. The effects of school failure and educational expectations are ripe for similar analyses. A rigorous interdisciplinary research agenda is proposed to assess the impact of decriminalizing school discipline and expanding therapeutic and restorative disciplinary alternatives to better inform the efforts underway across the United States to dismantle the school-to-prison-pipeline while maintaining school safety. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Criminology Volume 1 is January 13, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... Another issue is that the disproportionate sorting of minority students into more punitive school environments does not imply evidence of discrimination per se. Previous studies found that minority students are disproportionately exposed to punitive institutional environments (Gregory & Weinstein, 2008;Kinsler, 2013;Peguero & Shekarkhar, 2011;Skiba et al., 2014;Wu et al., 1982). Wu et al. (1982), Kinsler (2011), andSkiba et al. (2014) found that schoolbased disciplinary policies account for a substantial portion of the race-based discipline gap. ...
Article
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We explore the discipline gap between Black and White students and between Hispanic and White students using a statewide student-level panel data set on Indiana public school students attending prekindergarten through 12th grade from 2008–2009 through 2013–2014. We demonstrate that the Black-White disciplinary gaps, defined in a variety of ways and robust to a series of specification tests, emerge as early as in prekindergarten and widen with grade progression. The magnitude of these disciplinary gaps attenuates by about half when we control for many student- and school-level characteristics, but it persists within districts and schools. In contrast, we find that Hispanic-White gaps are initially null and statistically insignificant at the prekindergarten/kindergarten level and attenuate substantially after adjustment for cross-school (district) variation and other covariates. We further disentangle the discipline gap using a decomposition technique that provides empirical support for the hypothesis that Black students nonrandomly sort into more punitive disciplinary environments.
... However, before such punishments can take place, the school often tries to solve the problem along with the parents in a school conference (Booth & Dunn, 1996). Although students may experience removal from the classroom as punishment because the excluded student cannot interact with peers (Marzano et al., 2005), the excluded student misses valuable learning time, which might hinder academic achievement growth (Kinsler, 2013;Milner & Tenore, 2010). ...
... Male students are more likely to switch schools during the school year when discipline-related moves are included, especially in middle schools. The results imply that school discipline policies and practices play an important role in the within-year mobility patterns of male and low-achieving students and add to a growing body of research that dispels the notion that school discipline disparities are largely due to poor children behaving badly (Kinsler, 2013;Skiba, Chung, et al., 2014;Skiba, Shure, & Williams, 2011). In many ways, the findings of this study regarding discipline-related mobility are conservative as student mobility due to suspensions or other disciplinary outcomes are not identified. ...
Article
Student mobility and school discipline are two prominent challenges in urban school districts. The interaction of gender with school discipline in shaping patterns of student mobility has received little attention. This article examines student mobility patterns across gender and the timing of school changes in Clark County, Nevada. The findings draw attention to discipline-related mobility or the placement of students in alternative schools, especially during the school year. Male students are more likely to switch schools mid-year than female students, and the disproportionate rates of student mobility between male and female students can be explained by disciplinary incidents. Gender is a significant predictor of the destination school quality of discipline-related movers. Policy implications and areas for future research are discussed.
... However, before such punishments can take place, the school often tries to solve the problem along with the parents in a school conference (Booth & Dunn, 1996). Although students may experience removal from the classroom as punishment because the excluded student cannot interact with peers (Marzano et al., 2005), the excluded student misses valuable learning time, which might hinder academic achievement growth (Kinsler, 2013;Milner & Tenore, 2010). ...
Article
In a quasi-experimental study, we investigated whether preservice and inservice teachers differed in their responses to minor student misbehavior. The participants’ task was to estimate how likely they would be to apply various predefined intervention strategies, while we simultaneously assessed response latencies. Results indicated that preservice teachers were more likely to choose harsh interventions such as school suspension, whereas inservice teachers were more likely to use mild strategies such as ignoring and nonverbal responses. The response latencies showed that the application of mild strategies seemed to belong to the behavioral routines of inservice teachers and were less likely to belong to those of preservice teachers. However, neither the ratings nor the response latencies of the two groups of teachers differed when it came to the application of moderately harsh strategies. The results are discussed with respect to teacher development and teacher education.
... One study found that high levels of suspensions are also associated with lower achievement gains on non-suspended students (Perry & Morris, 2014). Others suggest that strict disciplinary policies could improve school achievement through the removal of disruptive students (Burke & Herbert, 1996;Kinsler, 2013). Nevertheless, these studies are also limited by the potential for reverse causality or confounding effects of factors that influences both school achievement and behavior. ...
... It is possible that friendship discontinuity after suspension is a result of weakened institutional attachment instead of the mechanisms I have described. Students may be less likely to maintain ties to conforming peers (and vice versa) not because of the stigma or separation associated with suspension but because of negative effects suspension may have on school engagement and achievement (Morris & Perry, 2016;Pyne, 2019; but see Kinsler, 2013). Lower achieving youth experience more peer exclusion and have fewer friends, although the evidence in rural schools is mixed (Austin & Draper, 1984;Flashman, 2012). ...
Article
School suspension is a common form of punishment in the United States that is disproportionately concentrated among racial minority and disadvantaged youth. In labeling theories, the implication is that such stigmatized sanctions may lead to interpersonal exclusion from normative others and to greater involvement with antisocial peers. I test this implication in the context of rural schools by 1) examining the association between suspension and discontinuity in same‐grade friendship ties, focusing on three mechanisms implied in labeling theories: rejection, withdrawal, and physical separation; 2) testing the association between suspension and increased involvement with antisocial peers; and (3) assessing whether these associations are stronger in smaller schools. Consistent with labeling theories, I find suspension associated with greater discontinuity in friendship ties, based on changes in the respondents’ friendship preferences and self‐reports of their peers. My findings are also consistent with changes in perceptual measures of exclusion. Additionally, I find suspension associated with greater involvement with substance‐using peers. Some but not all of these associations are stronger in smaller rural schools. Given the disproportionate distribution of suspension, my findings indicate that an excessive reliance on this exclusionary form of punishment may foster inequality among these youth.
... Research has shown that black students, on average, attend schools where certain behaviors are more likely to earn suspensions than the same behaviors would in other schools, and where suspensions last longer. 61 Although inter-school racial variation isn't always evident within individual school districts, which may operate under uniform disciplinary codes, vast differences prevail from district to district. 62 Analyzing data from 2009-10, one study found that the percentage of black students strongly predicts higher suspension/expulsion rates at both the district and school level. ...
... Even though elementary school teachers showed implicit negativity toward female ethnic minority students, they nevertheless had stronger positive associations with female ethnic minority students than they did with male ethnic minority students and than secondary school teachers had with female ethnic minority students. This result supported our hypothesis regarding implicit attitudes toward female ethnic minority students and might be due to the lower behavioral adjustment problems of female students (Kinsler, 2013;Raffaele Mendez & Knoff, 2003;Theriot & Dupper, 2010), which might also be true for female ethnic minority students (Raffaele Mendez & Knoff, 2003). However, this finding might also be explained by elementary school teachers' gender, as these teachers were predominantly female. ...
Article
Teachers’ attitudes toward ethnic minority students might differ by students’ gender and the type of school teachers are working in because of different motivations for teaching and different school practices. Hence, the aim of the current research was to investigate elementary (n = 82) and secondary school (n = 82) teachers’ implicit and explicit attitudes toward male and female ethnic minority students. Teachers worked on either a male or a female Implicit Association Test and filled out a gender-specific questionnaire for measuring explicit attitudes. The results showed that elementary and secondary school teachers had negative implicit attitudes toward ethnic minority students, independent of students’ gender. Whereas secondary school teachers were implicitly more positive toward boys, elementary school teachers were implicitly more positive toward girls. Elementary school teachers were more enthusiastic about teaching ethnic minority boys than girls. The findings provide the first insights into differences in attitudes between elementary and secondary school teachers.
... There is evidence that exposure to disruptive or aggressive behavior in class affects the students' own behavioral patterns, which in turn impedes learning (Osher, Bear, Sprague, & Doyle, 2010;Thomas, Bierman, & the Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group, 2006). Other studies stress the effect of disruptions on available learning time: By effectively shortening class, disruptions hinder the learning process for students regardless of their personal conduct (Dinkes et al., 2007;Hoxby, 2000;Kinsler, 2013). Neidell and Waldfogel (2010) employed value-added models with school fixed-effects and found that due to a spillover effect, only a handful of unruly students may be sufficient for disrupting the academic progress of their classmates. ...
Article
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Classroom disciplinary climate and its correlation to students’ performance is a widely debated issue. Policy reports tend to assume that classroom disruptions interfere with the learning experience. Empirical evidence for this assumption, however, which carefully distinguishes classroom climate from the school climate in general, is still wanting. This study examines the relation between student reports regarding disciplinary infractions to student achievement, with a special focus on classroom disruptions. Multilevel regressions were used to estimate the contribution of classroom and school disciplinary infractions on eighth-grade students’ test scores. Reports of disruptive behavior proved to correlate negatively with test scores, whereas the effect of other school and classroom characteristics, including teachers’ attitudes and school disciplinary policy, were insignificant (controlling for students’ prior achievements). We conclude that a disruptive classroom climate can hinder the learning process and lower the achievement of the entire class, regardless of the conduct of any particular student. Therefore, a special focus on disruptions in the classroom, in contradistinction with school disciplinary climate in general—which is lacking in most studies—emerges as instrumental to the understanding of how school climate relates to student achievement.
... Related work by Lacoe and Steinberg (2018) suggests that the same reform increased truancy rates, despite having little impact on the total suspension rate in Philadelphia schools. Kinsler (2013) takes a structural approach. Based on a model that accounts for potential spillovers from disruptive behavior, his calibration suggests that stricter discipline may have a positive effect on student performance through improvements in behavior. ...
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Does relaxing strict school discipline policies improve student achievement, or lead to classroom disorder? We study a 2012 reform in New York City public middle schools that eliminated suspensions for non-violent, disorderly behavior, replacing them with less disruptive interventions. Using a difference-in-differences framework , we exploit the sharp timing of the reform and natural variation in its impact to measure the effect of reducing suspensions on student achievement. Math scores of students in more-affected schools rose by 0.05 standard deviations relative to other schools over the three years after the policy change. Reading scores rose by 0.03 standard deviations. Only a small portion of these aggregate benefits can be explained by the direct impact of eliminating suspensions on students who would have been suspended under the old policy. Instead, test score gains are associated with improvements in school culture, as measured by the quality of student-teacher relationships and perceptions of safety at school. These improvements benefited students even if they were unlikely to be suspended themselves.
... School disciplinary events are often viewed as a linear function of student behavior in both research and practice. Kinsler (2013) postulated that the school disciplinary process can be described as a choice model in which principals create a set of disciplinary regulations at the beginning of each school year, and students make choices about whether to engage in disruptions that determine whether they are referred to the office for a disciplinary infraction. Likewise, Sheets (1996) found that school personnel appear to assume that inappropriate student behavior sets in motion a predictable and relatively invariant sequence of disciplinary reaction meant to address the problems that misbehavior causes. ...
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In the context of a national conversation about exclusionary discipline, we conducted a multilevel examination of the relative contributions of infraction, student, and school characteristics to rates of and racial disparities in out-of-school suspension and expulsion. Type of infraction; race, gender, and to a certain extent socioeconomic status at the individual level; and, at the school level, mean school achievement, percentage Black enrollment, and principal perspectives all contributed to the probability of out-of-school suspension or expulsion. For racial disparities, however, school-level variables, including principal perspectives on discipline, appear to be among the strongest predictors. Such a pattern suggests that schools and districts looking to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in discipline would do well to focus on school- and classroom-based interventions.
... Similarly, students who demonstrate academic achievement are less likely to be seen as having behavioral problems (Savage et al. 2017;Schneider et al., 1998), evaluated based on their behavior (Oakes 2005), or commit delinquent offenses (Maguin and Loeber 1996;Yun et al. 2014). Other researchers, however, have shown that the negative link between school discipline and academic achievement may actually be driven by unconsidered academic achievement measures earlier in the life course (Anderson et al. 2019;Kinsler 2013). Regardless, the drive to understand if and how these areas are connected remains high. ...
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STEM curricula and school disciplinary regimes are key foundations of the transition to adulthood, and they may be connected within school contexts in ways that reflect and exacerbate the intergenerational transmission of inequality. This study examines such connections with particular attention to student race/ethnicity and the racial/ethnic composition of high schools. Bivariate probit analyses of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 and the Civil Rights Data Collection of 2012 revealed that early suspension was associated with truncated trajectories of Calculus course taking later in high school while taking Algebra I in grade 9 was associated with avoiding suspension. The proportion of disciplinary cases of racial/ethnic peers was associated with the math coursework of boys and the proportion of Calculus enrollment moderated the association between Algebra I in 9th grade and suspension during high school for girls. These results confirm the value of studying the interplay of formal and informal processes of schooling.
... However, there is also direct evidence of the fact that minority students tend to show lower discipline with respect to natives. For instance, Kinsler (2010) exploits rich dataset on North Carolina schools containing detailed information on students discipline and behaviour in the class. He finds that discipline has an overall positive influence on student performance while a substantive part of the attainment gap between white and minority students is explained in his model by differences in behaviours. ...
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This paper focuses on mechanisms of 'social interactions' between native and non-native students. We present a theoretical framework based on Lazear (2001) education production function and test the theoretical predictions exploiting an extremely rich and totally new dataset of Italian junior high schools. Our results show that non-native school share has small and negative impacts on Language test scores of natives' peers, while it does not significantly affect Math test scores. The 'disruptive mechanism of native/non-natives peer interactions' is partly rejected by the empirical analysis, which rather support the 'integration model'. In fact, as long as non-native school share is sufficiently low, non-native students presence is not able to generate negative spillovers on natives' outcomes suggesting that an 'integration mechanism' is at work. In particular, for sufficiently low values of non-native school share (below 10%), non-native students do not significantly affect natives' attainment. Interestingly, all the results show that Language skills are the most influenced by peer interactions between natives and non-natives.
... Advocates of suspension and zero tolerance suggest that removing offending students from school will result in a more conducive climate where teachers can teach and students can learn (Martinez, 2009). One study of suspensions in North Carolina middle schools found that exposure to disruptive behaviors was related to lower academic achievement for students in general; this finding was interpreted to mean that removing misbehaving students would result in improved academic achievement (Kinsler, 2013). ...
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Zero tolerance as an approach to school safety has been around for almost 3 decades. Despite widespread criticisms of zero tolerance policies, few empirical studies have investigated the relationship of zero tolerance with school safety. More generally, the Government Accountability Office report on school shootings noted the need for research on the link between school discipline and school safety. Using a statewide survey from 108,888 students and 10,990 teachers from almost all Virginia middle schools, we found that a majority of surveyed teachers (74%) supported the use of zero tolerance as an effective discipline practice. Analysis using both linear and logistic regression indicated that support for zero tolerance was associated with higher rates of out-of-school suspension. Contrary to the goals of zero tolerance, both students and teachers in schools with greater support for zero tolerance had lower feelings of safety at school, even after controlling for school and student characteristics associated with safety. These findings offer new evidence to support efforts by school psychologists to discourage the use of zero tolerance and promote more effective school discipline practices.
... The SPMR allows leaders to review information related to student behavior referrals, inschool removals from class, out-of-school suspensions and expulsions. While it is commonly accepted that removal-based consequences for behavior incidents negatively impact the achievement of the students directly involved (Lacoe & Steinberg, 2019;Rausch & Skiba, 2005;Balfanz, Byrnes, Fox, 2014;Noltemeyer, Ward, & Mcloughlin, 2015), negative peer effects on achievement also have been documented (Demming, 2011;Kinsler, 2013;Perry & Morris, 2014). Students in schools with high levels of behavior incidents have reported feeling less safe and more distracted during the school day (Lacoe, 2015;Steinberg, Allensworth, & Johnson, 2011;Burdick-Will, 2018). ...
Conference Paper
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In 2017, the Kentucky Department of Education (KDE) set out to develop a new monitoring instrument for low-performing schools. This report, called the Student Performance Monitoring Report (SPMR), standardizes the incremental school improvement monitoring system, allowing for greater scalability and analysis by users at the school, system and agency levels. Instead of traditional academic measures, which vary from school to school and district to district, the SPMR uses indicators that are known to be influenced by multiple system-level factors; including attendance, behavior and early warning indicators. This study uses exploratory data analysis procedures to examine the relationships between these variables and established indicators of school quality such as identification for Comprehensive Support and Improvement (CSI) and other federally required classifications. In sum, this analysis provides early evidence that these indicators can be utilized as standardized measures of overall institutional health by demonstrating clear alignment and relationships between the variables and school outcomes. This report establishes a theoretical framework upon which future work can be built.
... 1 The reduced-form peer effects estimated in this way cannot be used to distinguish among externalities from different channels (Manski, 1993). With objectives similar to the work in this paper, several authors have recently tried to estimate peer effects emanating from different student behavior, such as student efforts (Cooley, 2009), the choice of college major (Giorgi et al., 2009) and classroom infractions (Kinsler, 2010). None of these papers, however, have explicitly studied peer interactions. ...
... Principal leadership by producing a thriving core of leaders among teachers, parents, and community members drives most changes in the school (Bryk, 2010). To prevent the occurrence or escalation of student deviant behavior, Principals as leaders manage students' behaviors by developing practices and policies, rules, and regulations (Kinsler, 2013) that are expected to improve a collegiality, safe and caring environment. Nooruddin and Baig (2014) carried out a study in secondary school in Karachi, Pakistan on teachers and students, the study found that school leadership influences student behaviors positively by selecting policies and practices that permeate school cultures. ...
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Violence is a widespread global problem in society and schools in particular; education stakeholders are charged with the urgency of diminishing violent behavior and delinquency in schools. This research was conducted using the cross-national principal data set from the 2018 Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) administered by the Organization for Economic and Co-operation and Development (OECD). The study examined the relationship between school violence and professional development in leadership, it also explored how multicultural diversity policies and practices, school multicultural environments relate to violence in schools. Country fixed effect estimate was conducted to explore the relationship between school leadership, multicultural environment, multicultural policies and practices, and school violence in 47 countries. Results indicate that school leadership is adversely related to school violence, multicultural policies and practices were interestingly found to affect school violence positively. The results added nuance to previous studies that school leadership can play a cogent role in school violence, schools should invest in creating policies and practices that are core in self-affirmation and inclusive of all students. Article visualizations: </p
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Schools have many available strategies to address problem behavior among students. One option increasingly used by schools is to suspend problem youth and remove them for defined periods. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether this type of disciplinary policy has unintended consequences by giving problem youth greater opportunity to commit crimes outside of school. Previous studies have looked at the “incapacitation” effect of school holidays and teacher strike days, but these studies do not directly address the relevant school policy decisions. The current study relies on administrative data from a school district and a juvenile justice system. The results indicate that out-of-school suspension may increase criminal offending behavior by problem youth, more than doubling the probability of arrest. The effect is particularly large among African American youth, relative to Whites.
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This paper analyzes whether the share of non-native students in a school determines externalities that affect natives’ educational outcomes. The identification strategy exploits the variation in the non-native school share between adjacent cohorts by using administrative data covering the census of Italian junior high schools. Our results show that the non-native school share has weak negative impact on the test scores of native peers: Increasing the non-native school share by 1 percentage point leads to a decrease of 0.043 % in native peers’ language school mean test scores, while no effect is detected for math. The effects are also highly nonlinear and marginally increasing with level of the non-native school share. Our findings are consistent with, though not direct evidence of, an ‘integration model’ of peer interactions between native and non-native students.
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Discretion in schools’ discipline choices can provide an efficient and effective misconduct management structure, but could lead to discipline based on unrelated factors. Consequently, schools’ disciplinary decisions can significantly limit students’ access to education by removing students from familiar learning environments. We investigate schools’ disciplinary decisions for serious misconducts and show that punishments are more severe in schools that do not report misconducts to local law enforcement agencies. Moreover, we show that schools that report fewer misconducts to law enforcement impose more severe punishments when the student body is characterized as having a higher proportion of minority students, lower socioeconomic status students and a higher proportion of students who are below the 15th percentile of standardized test scores. These results suggest that between-school punishment differentials are associated with student body traits.
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This study investigates the role of disciplinary mandates on race-based punishment disparity, exploiting variation in the quantity and types of state-level discipline guidelines for students who commit serious offenses in U.S. public high schools. Estimation results indicate that schools with higher proportions of black or Hispanic students impose more severe punishments, but disparities are significantly dampened and fewer punishments are administered in states that legislate more serious offenses sentencing guidelines. Sentencing guidelines for less harmful misconduct, however, tend to increase race-based disciplinary disparities for serious offenses. These outcomes are important for assessing existing sentencing guidelines and effectively crafting future policies.
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Inconsistent disciplinary administration across schools can inequitably impact students’ education access opportunities by separating certain students from familiar learning environments, especially in misconduct cases that result in longer-term removal. We empirically estimate whether such inconsistencies are attributable to heterogeneity in student body demographic characteristics. The results indicate that a greater number of disciplines that remove students from school for an extended period of time are observed in schools with a higher proportion of black students, but no significant differential punishment effects are observed in schools with a higher Hispanic student population. Furthermore, results of decomposing the marginal effects into conditional and unconditional elasticities indicate that it is not the case that schools with predominantly white student bodies have the least severe punishments and schools with more minority students have the most severe punishments. Rather, schools with inconsistent disciplinary behaviour have a proportion of the inconsistency attributable to the race of the student body.
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We study how athletic participation relates to two measures of engagement, school attendance and disciplinary suspension, among students in an urban school district. Following one strand of the literature, we study within‐student variation, comparing the same student when playing sports versus not. To this literature, we contribute a microeconomic model to better interpret estimates obtained using such variation, and we propose and employ novel instrumental variables based on lagged season‐specific sports choices and the sports‐specific participation trajectories of other students. Our most rigorous models suggest positive effects of athletics on student attendance, but no significant effects on disciplinary suspension.
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The Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court's unanimous decision (1954) held promise for many African American children and youth. Sixty years after Brown, racial disparities in school discipline have garnered national attention in the professional literature. This article extends the post-Brown discourse beyond the achievement gap to the discipline gap, or the disparate disciplinary practices that impact African American learners in Prekindergarten to 12th grade settings. After Brown's legal theories are advanced, the discussion focuses on school discipline and the impact of zero tolerance policies on African American learners. Lastly, interdisciplinary recommendations are proffered for educators, policymakers, juvenile justice, families, community members, and other agency personnel.
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Climate strength was first conceptualised in the organisational psychology literature as the within-group agreement on the perceptions of climate. In contrast to the deep study of climate level, climate strength has not been clarified by school climate research. The purpose of this cross-cultural study is to identify the main effect of disciplinary climate strength on student reading performance, and its moderating effect on the relationship between disciplinary climate level and student reading performance. A multilevel analysis was conducted on 2009 data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) from Shanghai-China, Japan, and the United States (US). The result showed a significantly positive relationship between climate strength and student reading performance in Shanghai-China and the US. Moreover, a moderating effect of climate strength was found in Shanghai-China and the US. The effects of climate strength were further examined in strong and weak conditions. School-level predictors of climate strength were also examined. The differences in disciplinary climate strengths and their effects on student reading performance suggested some culture differences in these countries/areas.
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Teachers face a dilemma in setting limits and establishing boundaries with excluded students, who often exhibit extremely disruptive behavior that cannot be ignored or condoned. Since limit-setting through threats, sanctions, punishment, or expulsion simply reinforces the cycle of exclusion, the alternative approach presented here is to treat the breaching of boundaries as a developmental rather than a moral issue. Benevolent authority and empathic limit-setting, which lie at the core of this method, involve understanding and tending to the needs of the young person while at the same time clearly defining the necessary boundaries and positively reinforcing students for maintaining them. The transition from power struggle to empathic limit-setting entails both a turning point in which problematic incidents are essentially reframed, and emotional awareness on the part of teachers of their own inner turmoil in response to such situations. To the extent that teachers can exercise their authority without punishing or humiliating their students, they provide a holding environment in which excluded students feel stable and secure enough to develop their own internal authority. This paper is based on action research carried out with teachers in an MEd program in inclusive education at the Oranim Academic College of Education in Israel.
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In recent decades, school discipline policies and practices in K-12 education resulting in school exclusion have garnered substantial attention and represent an important challenge with significant policy and equity implications. Given the central role that school exclusion plays in discipline policies and practices, it is important to critically assess the pathways, rates, and harms associated with school exclusion. This study provides a systematic review of the interdisciplinary literature on the relationship between school exclusion and students' short- and long-term educational and life outcomes. Although there are a handful of possible pathways, the most frequent pathway though which school discipline results in school exclusion are suspensions. The results of this systematic review indicate that school exclusion is not an efficacious response to student misbehavior given the short and long term correlates with negative student educational and life outcomes. There are several plausible mechanisms through which school exclusion may affect student outcomes but there is little empirical evidence on these mechanisms.
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Se presenta un estudio de la evolución de las faltas de disciplina en un período de tres años escolares para prevenir acciones violentas en el contexto educativo. Se han analizado 204 faltas cometidas por los estudiantes de primero a quinto de primaria desde un enfoque mixto de investigación. El análisis de correlación (Pr > F 0.037) es significativo con la variable que indica que los estudiantes del género masculino agreden mayormente a sus compañeros. Los resultados muestran que las principales faltas cometidas han sido faltas graves (50.5%) como agredir a un compañero y faltar el respeto a un profesor. En conclusión, las infracciones disminuyen en la aplicación de las medidas disciplinarias en el contexto escolar.
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Students in punishment “tracks” are rarely in advanced course-taking “tracks” in high school. Yet, there is little research that demonstrates the relationships between punishment and advanced course-taking, nor research that demonstrates how punishment and advanced course-taking together can impact long-term student trajectories. Using multi-level modeling with a national longitudinal study of high school students, we observed reciprocal disruptions. Advanced math courses significantly impacted future suspensions when accounting for prior suspensions, while suspensions significantly impacted future advanced math course-taking when accounting for prior math courses. We also observed that both suspensions and advanced math courses significantly influenced dropout status and college attendance. As baseline measures often maintained a strong relationship with their respective outcomes, disadvantages appeared to accumulate when students were excluded both from advanced math courses and through suspensions. Nevertheless, while we cannot undo the harms of previous disadvantages in punishment, our findings suggest that we can facilitate potential turning points in students’ lives by opening up new opportunities in math. By doing so, we can redirect students towards college. We conclude with a discussion of implications for policy and practice.
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Purpose To determine whether and how exclusionary school punishment experienced by parents affects the drug use of their offspring. Methods Using panel data of 360 parent-child dyads from the Rochester Youth Developmental Study and its intergenerational component, the Rochester Intergenerational Study, we conduct path analysis to evaluate the adequacy of a theoretical model that explicates the intergenerational pathways from parental school exclusion to offspring drug use. Results Parents who were suspended or expelled during adolescence are more likely to drop out of school, which, in turn, leads to parental adult drug use, economic hardship, and ineffective parenting of their children. As a result, their offspring are likely to hold attitudes/beliefs favoring drug use and have reduced bonding to school, which, ultimately, contribute to offspring drug use. Conclusions Exclusionary school disciplinary practices not only result in a number of adverse collateral consequences within one generation of respondents, the negative effects of such experiences are also felt by the next generation. Therefore, exclusionary school punishment should only be used as a last resort. Whenever possible, disciplinary practices in school need to involve inclusionary efforts to re-integrate students into the larger school community.
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Students with disabilities (SWDs) are more likely to be suspended or expelled than their general education peers and more likely to be chronically absent. This study uses 5 years of student-level data for all Michigan special education students to examine the relationship between educational setting, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes. Using within-student variation in an educational setting, I find that the degree of inclusion is associated with fewer disciplinary incidents and better attendance. However, the relationship between inclusion and disciplinary outcomes only exists for certain subgroups, and primarily for students who transitioned from more to less inclusive settings experiencing more disciplinary referrals and suspensions after these moves.
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The practice of temporarily removing students from school as a form of punishment (i.e., suspensions) remains quite common. This study uses longitudinal data from a large, urban school district in California to assess whether the use of suspensions improves school safety in the following school year. Additional analyses by student race and ethnicity are included to examine whether disproportionately punishing minority students can be partially justified by a reduction in the school crime rate. The number of student offenders, rather than the number of criminal incidents, is also investigated in relation to school suspensions. In general, the findings demonstrate that changes in suspension rates do not impact school crime rates or the number of student offenders in the following school year. However, increasing suspension rates for violent incidents significantly reduces the minor crime rate. Implications for policy are provided in light of these results.
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This study examined pre-service teachers’ initial perceptions of urban communities and schools. Furthermore, it explored whether engaging in critical service-learning coursework incorporating an anti-racist curriculum disrupted the mechanisms that perpetuate racist ideological habits and associations. The narrative analysis deconstructed 12 participants’ reflective essays using a critical race theoretical lens. The overall findings revealed that the participants experience urban communities through racist associations and ideologies promoting white supremacist thinking. The critical service-learning course did influence the perceptions of the participants. However, findings suggest that a single critical service-learning course is insufficient to prepare pre-service teachers with the anti-racist pedagogies necessary for disrupting the ideological habits they bring to the classroom. Therefore, this study concluded that teacher education programs should infuse anti-racist development as an ongoing and progressive aspect of their program.
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At state and national levels, black students are more likely to be suspended from school, and conditional on misbehavior, receive stiffer penalties when compared with white students. Racial bias is often cited as a primary contributor to these gaps. Using infraction data from North Carolina, I investigate gaps in punishment within and across schools, and explore how student-teacher and student-principal race interactions affect discipline. I find a significant statewide gap in discipline that is largely generated by cross-school variation in punishment. In addition, there is little evidence that black students are treated differentially according to teacher or principal race.
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Understanding peer effects is critical to evaluating the effect of public school seg-regation on the achievement gap. This paper develops a new approach to identifying the effect of peer behavior on achievement, using a framework that integrates previ-ously unexplored types of heterogeneity in peer spillovers. Applying the strategy to North Carolina public elementary school students, I find stronger peer effects within than across race-based reference groups, the magnitude of which varies substantially across the percentiles of the achievement distribution. Desegregating peer groups helps nonwhites in the lowest performing peer groups but leads to only marginal changes in the achievement gap.
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There is a widespread perception that externalities from troubled children are significant, though measuring them is difficult due to data and methodological limitations. We estimate the negative spillovers caused by children from troubled families by exploiting a unique dataset in which children's school records are matched to domestic violence cases. We find that children from troubled families significantly decrease the reading and math test scores of their peers and increase misbehavior in the classroom. The achievement spillovers are robust to within-family differences and when controlling for school-by-year effects, providing strong evidence that neither selection nor common shocks are driving the results. (JEL D62, I21, J12, J13, K42)
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This paper provides structural estimates of a dynamic model of schooling, work, and occupational choice decisions based on eleven years of observations on a sample of young men from the 1979 youth cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience (NLSY). The authors find that a suitably extended human capital investment model can in fact do an excellent job of fitting observed data on school attendance, work, occupational choices, and wages in the NLSY data on young men and also produces reasonable forecasts of future work decisions and wage patterns. Copyright 1997 by the University of Chicago.
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This paper proposes an unusual identification strategy to estimate the effects of disruptive students on peer behavior and academic outcomes. I suggest that boys with names most commonly given to girls may be more prone to misbehavior as they get older. This paper utilizes data on names, classroom assignment, behavior problems and student test scores from a large Florida school district in the school years spanning 1996-97 through 1999-2000 to directly study the relationship between behavior and peer outcomes. I find that boys with female-sounding names tend to misbehave disproportionately upon entry to middle school, as compared to other boys and to their previous (relative) behavior patterns. In addition, I find that behavior problems, instrumented with the distribution of boys' names in the class, are associated with increased peer disciplinary problems and reduced peer test scores, indicating that disruptive behavior of students has negative ramifications for their peers.
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We propose a simple model of trooper behavior to design empirical tests for whether troopers of different races are monolithic in their search behavior, and whether they exhibit relative racial prejudice in motor vehicle searches. Our test of relative racial prejudice provides a partial solution to the well-known infra-marginality and omitted-variables problems associated with outcome tests. When applied to a unique dataset from Florida, our tests soundly reject the hypothesis that troopers of different races are monolithic in their search behavior, but the tests fail to reject the hypothesis that troopers of different races do not exhibit relative racial prejudice.
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Police checking for illegal drugs are much more likely to search the vehicles of African-American motorists than those of white motorists. This paper develops a model of police and motorist behavior that suggests an empirical test for distinguishing whether this disparity is due to racial prejudice or to the police's objective to maximize arrests. When applied to vehicle search data from Maryland, our test results are consistent with the hypothesis of no racial prejudice against African-American motorists. However, if police have utility only for searches yielding large drug finds, then our analysis would suggest bias against white drivers. The model's prediction regarding nonrace characteristics is also largely supported by the data.
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This paper examines the relationship between student misbehavior and academic performance and the effects of family structure and mother's employment on misbehavior and performance. Using panel data on high school sophomores from the High School and Beyond (HSB) survey, we estimate a number of linear panel models. The findings indicate that sophomores with low grades misbehave more as seniors than those with high grades. Academic achievement in the sophomore year has little effect on changes in misbehavior. Misbehavior, however, has negative effects on changes in grades and achievement test scores. Finally, living in a single-parent family and mother's employment negatively affect both achievement and behavior.
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Anecdotal evidence has long suggested that boys in general and African American males in particular are disproportionately represented among students who receive corporal punishment (CP) in school. Until 1994, no national data disaggregated by race and gender were available to determine if African American boys are indeed subjected to physical discipline at excessive rates. This study provides the first analysis of such race/gender-disaggregated data; it also lamentably confirms the popular belief. The incidence of African American males receiving CP was found to be extremely high, as was the likelihood ratio comparing Black male students' CP rates to those for other race/gender cohorts, especially White females. Limitations of the data set and implications of the findings are discussed.
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Policy Research Report #SRS2 August, 2000 The contents of this publication were developed in part under grant #H325N990009 from the Office of Special Education Programs, Department of Education. However, those contents do not necessarily repre-sent the policy of the Department of Education, and no endorsement by the Federal Government should be assumed. The Indiana Education Policy Center is funded by Lilly Endowment, Inc. and Indiana University to provide nonpartisan information, research, and communication on education issues to Indiana policymakers and other education stakeholders to improve education. The views expressed in this Policy Research Report do not necessarily represent the views of Indiana University, the Lilly Endowment, or other supporters of the Policy Center. Despite the controversies that it has created in school districts throughout the coun-try, zero tolerance continues to be a widely used response to school disruption and violence. This paper explores the history, philosophy, and effectiveness of zero toler-ance school disciplinary strategies. Growing out of Reagan-Bush era drug enforcement policy, zero tolerance discipline attempts to send a message by punishing both major and minor incidents severely. Analysis of a representative range of zero tolerance suspensions and expulsions suggests that controversial applications of the policy are not idiosyncratic, but may be inherent in zero tolerance philosophy. There is as yet little evidence that the strategies typically associated with zero tolerance contribute to improved student behavior or overall school safety. Research on the effectiveness of school security measures is extremely sparse, while data on suspension and expulsion raise serious concerns about both the equity and effectiveness of school exclusion as an educational intervention. Community reaction has led some districts to adopt alter-natives to zero tolerance, stressing a graduated system matching offenses and consequences, and preventive strategies, including bullying prevention, early identifi-cation, and improved classroom management. Building a research base on these alternatives is critical, in order to assist schools in developing more effective, less intru-sive methods for school discipline.
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Congress enacted the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 to structure judicial discretion. Its goal was to reduce unwarranted disparity while retaining flexibility to individualize sentences in proportion to the seriousness of crimes and the history and characteristics of offenders. Pursuant to the Sentencing Reform Act, the U. S. Sentencing Commission implemented sentencing guidelines. These guidelines, now in force for five years, have stressed uniform sentences at the expense of proportionality. The district courts' response to the guidelines has been overwhelmingly critical: the prescribed sentences are too complex and severe, and the system too inflexible to accommodate the basic mission of judges-to do justice. Appellate courts have exacerbated the problem. As trial judges have departed from guideline prescriptions in accord with the statute, appellate courts have countered with strict guideline enforcement decisions, rejecting efforts to individualize sentences in proportion to case facts. These circuit court decisions have often misread the statute and misunderstood the impact of restrictions on the multi-discretionary process that produces sentences. This Article describes how a new system of informal discretionary sentencing at the district court level is responding to these restrictions. Prosecutors, defense attorneys, and probation officers are negotiating dispositions that adjust or sidestep the guidelines in order to produce reasonable sentences that trial judges will accept and that will not be appealed. This system is reintroducing individualized justice in sentencing, but at the expense of a new form of disparity: between those who follow the guidelines as gospel and those who avoid them as unjust.
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At state and national levels, black students are more likely to be suspended from school, and conditional on misbehavior, receive stiffer penalties when compared with white students. Racial bias is often cited as a primary contributor to these gaps. Using infraction data from North Carolina, I investigate gaps in punishment within and across schools, and explore how student-teacher and student-principal race interactions affect discipline. I find a significant statewide gap in discipline that is largely generated by cross-school variation in punishment. In addition, there is little evidence that black students are treated differentially according to teacher or principal race.
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Examined the disciplinary actions taken by school building administrators after receiving a discipline referral to identify evidence of race and gender bias in administration of corporal punishment (CP). Race was recorded as Black, White, Hispanic, and Asian. The relationships between race and CP, and gender and CP, were examined after controlling for the severity and frequency of punishable behaviors by students in each group. Analyses of 6,244 discipline files demonstrated a small, yet statistically significant relationship between race and CP, and a larger, statistically significant relationship between gender and CP. Results show evidence of race and gender bias in the administration of CP. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
Finite mixture distributions arise in a variety of applications ranging from the length distribution of fish to the content of DNA in the nuclei of liver cells. The literature surrounding them is large and goes back to the end of the last century when Karl Pearson published his well-known paper on estimating the five parameters in a mixture of two normal distributions. In this text we attempt to review this literature and in addition indicate the practical details of fitting such distributions to sample data. Our hope is that the monograph will be useful to statisticians interested in mixture distributions and to re­ search workers in other areas applying such distributions to their data. We would like to express our gratitude to Mrs Bertha Lakey for typing the manuscript. Institute oj Psychiatry B. S. Everitt University of London D. l Hand 1980 CHAPTER I General introduction 1. 1 Introduction This monograph is concerned with statistical distributions which can be expressed as superpositions of (usually simpler) component distributions. Such superpositions are termed mixture distributions or compound distributions. For example, the distribution of height in a population of children might be expressed as follows: h(height) = fg(height: age)f(age)d age (1. 1) where g(height: age) is the conditional distribution of height on age, and/(age) is the age distribution of the children in the population.
Article
Drawing upon control theory, school climate theory, and social disorganization theory, this study examined the relative influence of individual, institutional, and community factors on misconduct in Philadelphia middle schools. Using U.S. census data, school district data, police department data, and school climate survey data obtained from the administration of the Effective School Battery to 7, 583 students in 11 middle schools, we examined the following predictors of student misconduct: community poverty and residential stability; community crime; school size; student perceptions of school climate (school attachment); and individual student characteristics (e.g., age, race, sex, school involvement and effort, belief in rules, positive peer associations). “Community” was conceptualized in two ways: “local” (the census tract around the school), and “imported” (aggregated measures from the census tracts where students actually lived). We used hierarchical linear modeling techniques (HLM) to examine between- and within-school factors. Individual-level factors accounted for 16% of the explained variance; school and community-level factors (both local and imported) added only small increments (an additional 4.1–4.5%). We conclude that simplistic assumptions that “bad” communities typically produce “bad” children or “bad” schools are unwarranted.
Article
We examine peer effects in early education by estimating value-added models with school fixed effects that control extensively for individual, family, peer, and teacher characteristics to account for the endogeneity of peer group formation. We find statistically significant and robust spillover effects from preschool on math and reading outcomes, but statistically insignificant effects on various behavioral and social outcomes. We also find that peer externalizing problems, which most likely capture classroom disturbance, hinder cognitive outcomes. Our estimates imply that ignoring spillover effects significantly understates the social returns to preschool. (c) 2010 The President and Fellows of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Article
There is scant research concerned about punishment of handicapped, minority students in public schools. The purpose of this study was to investigate race and gender, types of rules violations, types of punishments, referral rates, referral frequencies, and follow-up activities to determine differences in treatment by race, sex, and handicapping condition. The sample consisted of 4,391 discipline files representing records from 9 schools in a district (K-12). All data were analyzed using the Chi Square statistic. It was demonstrated that racial bias existed in the administration of punishment, and that Black, male handicapped students were punished more severely than others for commission of the same offenses.
Article
A survey on school suspension was conducted with 620 middle and high school students. Two school districts, located in an inner city and in a rural town, were represented. All respondents provided demographic information and completed the Student Rating Scale (SRS) (Hightower, 1988). Students who reported they had been internally and/or externally suspended completed additional questions regarding their perceptions of this event. Males and Black students were overrepresented in the suspended subsamples. Students who had been suspended were more likely to be involved with the legal system. Two factor scores, Rule Compliance and School Interest, and the total score on the SRS differed in the three groups of students. Responses from the suspended subsamples of students indicated that physical aggression, attributed to lack of self-control, was the most common reason for suspension. When suspended, students reported that they felt “angry” or “happy to get out of the situation.” Of all students who had been suspended, 32% found suspension “not at all” helpful and thought that they would “probably be suspended again”; 37% found it of little use. The efficacy of school suspension practices is questioned; implications for school psychologists are discussed.
Article
Violence in and around schools has drawn increasing attention lately from both the public and policymakers. Despite the importance of the problem, however, research on this topic has been limited. In this paper I analyze how local violence affects high school graduation and college attendance. Using data from the High School and Beyond survey, I find that local violence has important effects. Moderate levels of violence reduce the likelihood of high school graduation by 5.1 percentage points on average, and lower the likelihood that a student will attend college by 6.9 percentage points.
Article
Using administrative, longitudinal data on felony arrests in Florida, we exploit the doscontinous increase in the punitiveness of criminal sanctions at 18 to estimate the deterence effect of incarceration. Our analysis suggests a 2 percent decline in the logodds of offending at 18, with a standard errors ruling out declines of 11 percent or more. We interpret these magnitudes using a stochastic dynamic extension of Becker's (1968) model of criminal behavior. Calibrating the model to match key empirical moments, we conclude that deterrence elasticities with respect to sentence lengths are no more negitive than -0.13 for young offenders.
Article
This paper formulates and estimates multistage production functions for child cognitive and noncognitive skills. Output is determined by parental environments and investments at different stages of childhood. We estimate the elasticity of substitution between investments in one period and stocks of skills in that period to assess the benefits of early investment in children compared to later remediation. We establish nonparametric identification of a general class of nonlinear factor models. A by-product of our approach is a framework for evaluating childhood interventions that does not rely on arbitrarily scaled test scores as outputs and recognizes the differential effects of skills in different tasks. Using the estimated technology, we determine optimal targeting of interventions to children with different parental and personal birth endowments. Substitutability decreases in later stages of the life cycle for the production of cognitive skills. It increases in later stages of the life cycle for the production of noncognitive skills. This finding has important implications for the design of policies that target the disadvantaged. For some configurations of disadvantage and outcomes, it is optimal to invest relatively more in the later stages of childhood.
Article
Over the last two decades juvenile violent crime has grown almost twice as quickly as that of adults. This paper finds that changes in relative punishments can account for 60 percent of that differential. Juvenile offenders are at least as responsive to criminal sanctions as adults. Sharp drops in crime at the age of majority suggest that deterrence (and not merely incapacitation) plays an important role. There does not, however, appear to be a strong relationship between the punitiveness of the juvenile justice system that a cohort faces and the extent of criminal involvement for that cohort later in life.
Article
Classroom education has public good aspects. The technology is such that when one student disrupts the class, learning is reduced for all other students. A disruption model of educational production is presented. It is shown that optimal class size is larger for better-behaved students, which helps explain why it is difficult to find class size effects in the data. Additionally, the role of discipline is analyzed and applied to differences in performance of Catholic and public schools. An empirical framework is discussed where the importance of sorting students, teacher quality, and other factors can be assessed. © 2001 the President and Fellows of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Article
This paper estimates models of the evolution of cognitive and noncognitive skills and explores the role of family environments in shaping these skills at different stages of the life cycle of the child. Central to this analysis is identification of the technology of skill formation. We estimate a dynamic factor model to solve the problem of endogeneity of inputs and multiplicity of inputs relative to instruments. We identify the scale of the factors by estimating their effects on adult outcomes. In this fashion we avoid reliance on test scores and changes in test scores that have no natural metric. Parental investments are generally more effective in raising noncognitive skills. Noncognitive skills promote the formation of cognitive skills but, in most specifications of our model, cognitive skills do not promote the formation of noncognitive skills. Parental inputs have different effects at different stages of the child’s life cycle with cognitive skills affected more at early ages and noncognitive skills affected more at later ages.
Article
This paper studies the determinants of children’s scores on tests of cognitive achievement in math and reading. Using rich longitudinal data on test scores, home environments, and schools, we implement alternative specifications for the cognitive achievement production function that allow achievement to depend on the entire history of lagged home and school inputs as well as on parents’ ability and unobserved endowments. We use cross‐validation methods to select among competing specifications and find support for a variant of a value‐added model of the production function augmented to include information on lagged inputs. Using this specification, we study the sources of test score gaps between black, white, and Hispanic children. The estimated model captures key patterns in the data, such as the widening of minority‐white test score gaps with age and differences in the gap pattern between Hispanics and blacks. We find that differences in mother’s “ability,” as measured by AFQT, account for about half of the test score gap. Home inputs also account for a significant proportion. Equalizing home inputs at the average levels of white children would close the black‐white and the Hispanic‐white test score gaps in math and reading by about 10–20 percent.
Article
Because there is little or no evidence of the efficacy of zero tolerance, schools and school districts need to explore preventive alternatives.
Article
Research suggests that suspension is not an effective deterrent and that more should be done to meet the needs of those who are continually suspended.
Article
This paper examines the effects of private schooling on adolescent non-market behaviors. We control for differences between private and public school students by making use of the rich set of covariates available with our NELS micro-dataset. We also employ an instrumental-variables strategy that exploits variation across metropolitan areas in the costs that parents face in transporting their children to private schools, which stem from differences in the quality of the local transportation infrastructure. We find evidence to suggest that religious private schooling reduces teen sexual activity, arrests, and use of hard drugs (cocaine), but not drinking, smoking, gang involvement, or marijuana use.
Article
Sizeable achievement differences by race appear in early grades, but substantial uncertainty exists about the impact of school quality on the black-white achievement gap and particularly about its evolution across different parts of the achievement distribution. Texas administrative data show that the overall growth in the achievement gap between third and eighth grade is higher for students with higher initial achievement and that specific teacher and peer characteristics including teacher experience and peer racial composition explain a substantial share of the widening. The adverse effect of attending school with a high black enrollment share appears to be an important contributor to the larger growth in the achievement differential in the upper part of the test score distribution. This evidence reaffirms the major role played by peers and school quality, but also presents a policy dilemma. Teacher labor market complications, current housing patterns, legal limits in segregation efforts, and uncertainty about the overall effects of specific desegregation programs indicate that effective policy responses will almost certainly involve a set of school improvements beyond simple changes in peer racial composition and the teacher experience distribution.
Article
Citizens of two groups may engage in crime, depending on their legal earning opportunities and on the probability of being audited. Police audit citizens. Police behavior is fair if both groups are policed with the same intensity. We provide exact conditions under which forcing the police to behave more fairly reduces the total amount of crime. These conditions are expressed as constraints on the quantile-quantile plot of the distributions of legal earning opportunities in the two groups. We also investigate the definition of fairness when the cost of being searched reflects the stigma of being singled out by police.
Article
In this paper, we structurally estimate a sequential model of high school attendance and work decisions. The estimates imply that youths who drop out of high school have different traits than those who graduate, e.g., they have lower school ability and/or motivation, lower expectations about the rewards from graduation, and a comparative advantage at jobs that are done by non-graduates. We also found that working while in school reduces school performance. However, policy experiments indicate that even a complete prohibition on working would have a limited impact on the high school graduation rates of white males.
Opportunitites Suspended: The Devastat-ing Consequences of Zero Tolerance Policies and School Discipline Policies Missing Out: Suspending Students from Connecticut Schools
  • J Braden
  • S And
  • Shaw
−6.764 * −5.537 * (0.131) (0.143) (0.265) (0.253) Male 0.491 * 0.575 * 1.072 * 0.979 * (0.030) (0.034) (0.047) (0.043) Black 0.972 * 1.002 * 1.782 * 1.658 * (0.071) (0.094) (0.106) (0.138) Hispanic 0.034 0.266 * 0.112 0.316 * (0.079) (0.073) (0.116) (0.096) Parents are HS dropouts 0.235 * 0.229 * 0.552 * 0.484 * (0.040) (0.047) (0.072) (0.063) Parents graduated 2 year college −0.224 * −0.199 * −0.407 * −0.355 * (0.041) (0.046) (0.065) (0.059) Parents graduated 4 year college −0.551 * −0.576 * −1.069 * −0.950 * (0.040) (0.043) (0.057) (0.052) Retained 0.592 * 0.196 * 1.276 * 0.664 * (0.048) (0.065) (0.090) (0.084) Disabled 0.432 * 0.263 * 0.815 * 0.558 * (0.029) (0.035) (0.051) (0.046) Actual policies ->85% Type I 2.34 2.53 2.71 3.34 3.62 4.55 Predicted policies ->85% Type I 2.25 2.62 2.70 3.06 3.67 3.96 Achievement maximizing policies ->85% Type I 3.24 4.26 4.65 3.64 4.64 5.07 Actual policies -≤85% Type I 2.47 2.66 3.27 3.51 3.84 4.48 Predicted policies -≤85% Type I 2.46 2.86 3.23 3.71 4.32 4.63 Achievement maximizing policies -≤85% Type I 4.02 4.44 4.74 4.36 5.02 5.22 REFERENCES ADVANCEMENT PROJECT AND THE CIVIL RIGHTS PROJECT, " Opportunitites Suspended: The Devastat-ing Consequences of Zero Tolerance Policies and School Discipline Policies, " Technical Report, www.civilrightsproject.harvard.edu, 2000. ALI, T., AND A. DUFRESNE, " Missing Out: Suspending Students from Connecticut Schools, " Technical Report, Connecticut Voices for Children, www.ncchild.org, 2008. BRADEN, J., AND S. SHAW, " Race and Gender Bias in the Administration of Corporal Punishment, " School Psychology Review 19 (1990), 378–83.
Desegregation and the Achievement Gap: Do Diverse Peers Help? " mimeo, University of Cambridge School Suspension: A Study with Secondary School Students
  • J Cooley
  • V Costenbader
  • S And
  • Markson
COOLEY, J., " Desegregation and the Achievement Gap: Do Diverse Peers Help? " mimeo, University of Cambridge, 2011. COSTENBADER, V., AND S. MARKSON, " School Suspension: A Study with Secondary School Students, " Journal of School Psychology 36 (1998), 59–82.
Sex, Drugs, and Catholic Schools: Private Schooling and Non-Market Adolescent Behaviors Federal Sentencing in the Wake of Guidelines: Unacceptable Limits on the Discretion of Sentencers
  • And J Ludwig ———
  • D Freed
———, AND J. LUDWIG, " Sex, Drugs, and Catholic Schools: Private Schooling and Non-Market Adolescent Behaviors, " NBER Working Paper No. 7990, 2000. FREED, D., " Federal Sentencing in the Wake of Guidelines: Unacceptable Limits on the Discretion of Sentencers, " The Yale Law Journal 101 (1992), 1681–754.
One Out of Ten: The Growing Suspension Crisis in North Carolina Optimal Replacement of GMC Bus Engines: An Empirical Model of Harold Zurcher
  • North Carolina Child Advocacy Institute
  • J Rust
NORTH CAROLINA CHILD ADVOCACY INSTITUTE, " One Out of Ten: The Growing Suspension Crisis in North Carolina, " Technical Report, www.ncchild.org, 2005. RUST, J., " Optimal Replacement of GMC Bus Engines: An Empirical Model of Harold Zurcher, " Econo-metrica 55 (1987), 999–1033.
Public Teacher Questionnaire
  • U S Department Of Education
  • National Center For Education
  • Statistics
  • School
  • W Staffing Survey Welsh
  • J Greene
  • And P Jenkins
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS, SCHOOL AND STAFFING SURVEY, " Public Teacher Questionnaire, " 2000. WELSH, W., J. GREENE, AND P. JENKINS, " School Disorder: The Influense of Individual, Institutional, and Community Factors, " Criminology 37 (1999), 73–115.
One Out of Ten: The Growing Suspension Crisis in North Carolina
  • North Carolina Child Advocacy Institute
North Carolina Child Advocacy Institute, " One Out of Ten: The Growing Suspension Crisis in North Carolina, " Technical Report, www.ncchild.org 2005.
  • Everitt