Article

A Step Forward to Using Translation to Teach a Foreign/Second Language

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Abstract

The article presents a progress report on research into using translation as an effective teaching method in a foreign/second language class. The report includes a) research into the use of translation in the past; b) first approach: adaptation of approaches used in translation courses; c) feedback from the trial; and d) further in- vestigation into using translation as a second language teaching methodology. A student survey about the initial application of translation found their range of expectations for the subject and revealed diversity in their first and second language abilities. The students' work showed the common errors they would make even after consulting dictionaries and 'translation aids'. As a result, 'translation' could be understood from a wider perspective. Finally, possible further development of the act of translating as a teaching methodology in the advanced level second/foreign language class is discussed.

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... Karimi (2006) used the term source language (SL) which is the basis when converting the SL to the target language (TL); in the process, a translator decodes the SL and encodes this understanding and interpretation of the TL form. The 'act of translating' demands full understanding of the source text including its linguistic and non-linguistic parameters ( Machida, 2008). Karimi further asserted that translation is a branch of applied linguistics wherein a translator exhausts the possibility of seeing the similar and different aspects of these two languages to find the equivalents. ...
... This hypothesis is used into a model of bilingual education. Most importantly, although Machida (2008) raised the question whether or not the translation activities can be a major methodology, she takes note of teacher's and students' positive attitudes towards developing the act of translation as a major method. 'Multicompetence' is preferred over bilingual and multilingual terms as language use is not described using these two words ( Scott, 2010). ...
... To close, the Mother Tongue-BasedMultilingual Education (MTB-MLE) program in the Philippines has been implemented since 2012 only from Grades 1 to 3. The initial results in this study hopefully will also serve as a reminder that even college or university students need the resource of their mother tongue in the study of English as a second language. In fact, translation is used as a teaching methodology in an advanced ESL/EFL class ( Machida, 2008). Consequently, this calls for a judicious and prudent use of mother tongue in the classroom, and the language policy of bilingualism in an ESL/EFL classroom not only in the Philippines, but also in many countries with a bilingual and multilingual set up. ...
Article
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This paper attempts to investigate whether or not translation facilitates the accuracy of the past tense. It looks at the correlations between the two translation tasks and the actual writing of a narrative genre. One hundred seventeen second year university students from the General Education program enrolled in Writing in the Discipline took the four writing tasks as their prelim examination. Four writing tasks included: word level morphological transformation, sentence level translation, paragraph level translation, and actual writing of a narrative genre. Results show that both translation tasks, and paragraph writing are statistically different when students are grouped according to the language used at home. All four writing tasks are high in level whether students are bilingual or multilingual speakers. The correlations between sentence level translation and paragraph level translation to the actual paragraph narrative writing aver that translation facilitates the accuracy of the past tense of the verbs in actual paragraph narrative writing. The study offers implications for language teaching and learning, and the relevance of the study for the Mother Tongue-Based–Multilingual Education curriculum implemented in the Philippines.
... 70) [38]. As intercultural knowledge is crucial in the era of globalisation, translation is thought to be a way to raise learners' awareness of their culture as well as others (Machida, 2008) [39]. How translation plays a part in that process is demonstrated by Ekoç's research (2019) [40], who explored the significance of translation as a class activity by assigning exercises that involve translating films and songs to a group of Turkish students. ...
... 70) [38]. As intercultural knowledge is crucial in the era of globalisation, translation is thought to be a way to raise learners' awareness of their culture as well as others (Machida, 2008) [39]. How translation plays a part in that process is demonstrated by Ekoç's research (2019) [40], who explored the significance of translation as a class activity by assigning exercises that involve translating films and songs to a group of Turkish students. ...
Article
Although teaching and learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) has reached the post-method era, which means no single method is considered the best way of teaching, the use of translation and first language (L1) instruction remain a much avoided element in many English classrooms. Nevertheless, current studies in Vietnam have shown that both teachers and students are supportive of, or at least not against the idea of moderately using L1 in EFL classes. This study aims at further exploring the effectiveness of translation as a pedagogic tool in an EFL class for Vietnamese non-English majored students. After comparing the students’ performance after learning through translation method and other methods with no use of L1, it seems that the students who were taught using translation tasks were able to use items of vocabulary and language structures they have just learned more frequently and precisely. It was also discovered that the act of translating not only provided the students with more learning opportunities but also enabled the teacher to monitor the students’ progress more closely. Despite being a preliminary work, this study hopes to contribute as an evidence supporting the use of translation as part of a multi-section lesson of EFL.
... With the role of L1 being increasingly recognized in language teaching and learning, translation has been reassessed and slowly reintroduced to enhance language learning. More and more research demonstrates no reason why translation cannot be applied in L2 classrooms (Carreres, 2006;Dagilienė, 2012;Fernández-Guerra, 2014;Kim, 2011;Liao, 2006;Machida, 2008;Van Dyk, 2009). Despite this, there is still very little research on how translation may be applied to assist language learners, especially in grammar learning as a case in point. ...
... All these positive feelings/views strongly echo positive previous research findings on students' perceptions or attitudes towards the use of translation in language learning/teaching (e.g. Carreres, 2006;Dagilienė, 2012;Liao, 2006;Machida, 2008). ...
Article
Associated with grammar-translation method, translation is still often seen as a mere replacement of linguistic forms, which is a far cry from its nature as an act of communication. On the other hand, while being criticized for not assisting learners enough to use grammar in a communication context, isolated grammar teaching has its own merits and is still widely practiced. By implementing translation for meaning-making, this action research seeks to examine how translation may be integrated into the traditional grammar teaching to assist tertiary EFL students to learn L2 forms in communicative contexts. With translation employed at the sentence and discourse levels after the practice session, it was revealed through the participants reflections that translation exercises may further consolidate students knowledge of how to use specific forms in various contexts, especially as it relates to lexico-grammatical aspects, help deal with L1 interferences, and are an effective way to raise students awareness of the essential role of grammar in meaning-making.DOI: doi.org/10.24071/llt.2020.230112
... Positive aspects and multiple benefits of pedagogical translation, especially at the university level, are dealt with by many contemporary authors (e.g. Peverati 2014, Cook 2010, House 2009, Machida 2008, Carreres 2006, Liao 2006, Preložníková and Toft 2004, Sewell 2004, Gomes Ferreira 1999, Kasmer 1999, Faber 1998, Pym 1992 ...
... When it comes to empirical research, in addition to the revision of the purposefulness of translation use in foreign language teaching, which we have previously briefly mentioned, in reference books we can also find research dealing with the relation between university teachers or university students of foreign languages and translation as teaching activity, and with the students' expectations in terms of its application in the teaching process (e.g. Pym et al. 2013, Peverati 2014, Machida 2008, Liao 2006, Horwitz 1988, Hsieh 2000, Prince 1996. ...
Article
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There are different attitudes towards the use of translation in foreign language teaching, which are often split between two extremes. This paper will aim to present the positive views on the role of translation within language degrees in general, and in particular in those situations when there is a lack of nation-wide professional schools and university courses specialized in translator training. As a contribution to a positive perspective of pedagogical translation at university level, the paper will reveal the results of a survey conducted among the undergraduate students from the language departments at the Faculty of Philology of the University of Montenegro. The survey had a goal to find out about the students' views on the role of translation exercises in acquiring both language competence and translation competence.
... In this view, language learners are considered language users who play an active role in language choice and shape the context they are in rather than blindly following native speaker norms. Since translation involves, by definition, more than one language, this has also led to a re-evaluation of and an increased interest in the use of translation in the language classroom (Olk 2001;Colina 2002;Beaven and Álvarez 2004;González Davies 2004;Elorza 2008;Machida 2008Machida , 2011Stiefel 2009;Cook 2010;Leonardi 2010;Carreres and Noriega-Sánchez 2011;Källkvist 2013;Pym et al. 2013;Tsagari and Floros 2013;Károly 2014;Laviosa 2014;Kelly and Bruen 2015). Translation is theoretically and empirically recognised both as a means of teaching and testing learners' proficiency and as a skill in its own right (see Laviosa 2014 for a review). ...
... Her results suggest that translation is effective in encouraging student-initiated interaction but less so in drawing students' attention to a particular item of target L2 grammar. Machida (2008) reports a positive attitude toward translation activities by advanced students. Other studies have proposed activities to develop aspects of students' intercultural competence, including cultural mediation (Beaven and Álvarez 2004;Elorza 2008;Stiefel 2009). ...
Article
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The purpose of this paper is to examine possible uses of translation in language teaching in the beginner-level language classroom. In particular, it analyses students’ performance in the translation of e-mails of refusal from Japanese to English before and after a series of five study sessions. The results show a significant change in students’ performance before and after the sessions. Before the study sessions, students largely focused on the transfer of the referential meanings of words and syntactic structure. In contrast, after the sessions, students took into consideration a range of the factors at stake in translation, including the relationship between the writer and reader, the nature of e-mails, and the writer’s intentions/feelings. Based on these results, this paper argues that (1) translation activities enable beginner students to act as cultural mediators between the writer of the source text and the reader of the target text, by mitigating potentially offensive acts to the reader; and (2) they encourage students to be more conscious of their choice of words and of the consequences of those choices.
... result, many linguists agree on the importance of using translation activities in FLT and underline its beneficial effects to increase the literacy skills by expanding vocabulary, developing writing style and further understanding the interaction between languages (Carreres, 2006;Källkvist, 2004;Machida, 2001Machida, , 2008Cook, 2010;Braga & Maíz, 2013). ...
... The conceptual part of the paper describes the evolution of the role of students' own language in FLT and advocates the new communicative, cognitive and functional approach taken by translation tasks for FLT pedagogical purposes. Drawing on the scholarly views (Malmkjaer, 1998;Cummins, 2007;Carreres, 2006;Machida, 2008Machida, , 2011Cook, 2010;Braga & Maíz, 2013;Kelly & Bruen, 2014) and works from both language and translation teaching fields that maintain that 'it is impossible to learn a language without comparing it to one's mother tongue' (Leonardi, 2011, p. 19), a translation task is presented as one of the various possible illustrations of that beneficial interlingual relationship. It is assumed that languages in contact exert an influence on each other (Krashen, 1981) and that this relationship inevitably generates an interaction between both languages that usually ends up in one language having a pervasive and detrimental influence on the other. ...
Article
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The negative attitude towards translation as another pedagogical means in Foreign Language Teaching (FLT) has prevailed for much time (Cook, 2010). Nonetheless, currently, many theorists and linguistics agree on the importance of using translation activities in foreign language teaching and underline its beneficial effects to expand vocabulary, to develop writing style and to further understand how languages in contact work (Schäffner, 1998). This paper presents the results of a pilot experience where a reconceptualised role of a translation-based task is implemented in the Foreign Language Teaching (FLT) class and explores the question of whether it can be used as a means to foster the cross-linguistic cognitive processing of languages involved so that this metacognition provided by the translation process will contribute to boost a student’s watchfulness and so reduce calque errors when writing (translating) in L2 (English). Under the task-based language teaching methodology, an initiative has been put forward with a group of selected English as an L2 students pursuing a fourfold objective: i) firstly, to reintroduce translation-based tasks as a viable teaching tool in Foreign Language Teaching (FLT) class; ii) secondly, to examine the role of cross-linguistic interference in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) and iii) to identify and tag a specific type of negative interference, namely calque errors, committed by students when translating into L2, and iv) lastly, to check whether this task triggers students’ awareness of cross-linguistic differences and similarities and turn this realization into an opportunity to learn (positive interference) by avoiding committing calque errors again.
... Although much of the previous literature is largely theoretical, empirical research has also been undertaken. Some of this has focused on learners' and/or teachers' attitudes towards translation and use of L1 in the classroom (Carreres, 2006;Kelly & Bruen 2015;Machida, 2008) including some which looked specifically at English as the L2 (Calis & Dikilitas, 2012;Druce, 2012Druce, & 2015Fernandez-Guerra, 2014;Kim, 2011;Mollaei, Taghinezhad & Sadighi 2017;Murtisari, 2016). These studies have generally concluded that teachers and learners see the benefit(s) of using translation activities as one of many language-teaching tools, and that translation is viewed by both learners and teachers as particularly helpful in improving learners' language accuracy. ...
Article
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This report focuses on research results from a project completed at Trier University in December 2015 that provides insight into whether a monolingual group of learners can improve their grammatical accuracy and reduce interference mistakes in their English via contrastive analysis and translation instruction and activities. Contrastive analysis and translation (CAT) instruction in this setting focusses on comparing grammatical differences between students' dominant language (German) and English, and practice activities where sentences or short texts are translated from German into English. The results of a pre-and post-test administered in the first and final week of a translation class were compared to two other class types: a grammar class which consisted of form-focused instruction but not translation, and a process-approach essay writing class where students received feedback on their written work throughout the semester. The results of our study indicate that with C1 level EAP students, more improvement in grammatical accuracy is seen through teaching with CAT than in explicit grammar instruction or through language feedback on written work alone. These results indicate that CAT does indeed have a place in modern language classes.
... With the communicative task-based nature of the translation activities and grammatical feedback students received from the language focus and translation exercises, the unit allowed for what may be called an interlingual Focus on Form (cf Machida, 2008Machida, , 2011. Originally coined by Michael Long (1991Long ( , 2016, the concept of focus on form (FonF) may be defined as 'various techniques designed to attract learners' attention to form while they are using the L2 as a tool for communicating' (Ellis, 2016, p. 5). ...
... However, in recent years, an increasing number of studies have emerged that approach translation in the language classroom from new perspectives (Beaven & Álvarez, 2004;Carreres & Noriega-Sánchez, 2011;Colina, 2002;G. Cook, 2010;Elorza, 2008;González Davies, 2004;Källkvist, 2013;Károly, 2014;Koshiba, 2016;Laviosa, 2014;Leonardi, 2010;Machida, 2008Machida, , 2011Olk, 2001;Stiefel, 2009;Tsagari & Floros, 2013). ...
Article
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This study examines the potential of translation activities as a means for introducing a discourse approach to teaching culture (Kramsch & Zhu, 2016; Scollon, Scollon, & Jones, 2012) in the beginner-level language classroom. For this purpose, a translation session was implemented to a group of beginner-level learners of Japanese at a U.K. university. Analysis of classroom interaction and students' journals revealed that the translation activities enabled the students to analyse, discuss, and reflect upon how choice of words (including choice of script, etc.) can play an important role in constructing perceptions and how it influences the relations between writers/texts and their readers. Furthermore, they allowed the students to explore the symbolic meanings of language by themselves, through the very process of translating a given text. In this study, culture was taught through the analysis, discussion, and creation of specific texts, rather than through the transmission of prescriptive knowledge regarding culture A or culture B. The results suggest that translation activities have the potential to contribute effectively to the implementation of a discourse approach to culture, even in the beginner-level classroom. 本研究は、 初級レベルの学習者に対し、 ディスコース・アプローチ(Kramsch and Zhu 2016; Scollon, Scollon, and Jones 2011)を用いて文化を教えるという 試みの結果を報告するものである。本研究では、英国の大学で、初級の日 本語学習者に翻訳クラスを実施し、クラスでのディスカッションとクラス 後に提出された学習日記を分析した。分析の結果、この翻訳クラスでは、 ことばの選択(ひらがな・カタカナ・漢字のどの表記を使うかなど)がい かに読み手が受ける印象や書き手・読み手の関係を左右するのかなどにつ いて分析し、話し合うことができたことが明らかになった。また、翻訳プ ロセスを通して、 分析するだけでなく、 自らがどういったことばを使って、 どんな意味を作り出したいかという産出面についても考えさせることが できた。 このクラスでは、 ある文化に対する知識の伝達という形ではなく、 テキストの分析・議論・産出という形で文化が導入されており、この結果 から、ディスコース・アプローチを初級クラスで導入する際に、翻訳活動 が活用できるのではないかという示唆が得られた。
... -the act of translating can provide the learners with holistic challenging projects, involving problem-solving, and integrate linguistic, cultural, and pragmatic knowledge beyond communicating using language (Machida 2008). ...
Article
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The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.
... Mann (2005), en su trabajo sobre el estado de la cuestión acerca de la formación continua del profesor, hace hincapié en la necesidad de la práctica reflexiva y los procesos cooperativos en la formación continua del profesorado. El segundo ítem puede reflejar una tendencia creciente en el ámbito de la enseñanza donde se está replanteando, según Machida (2008), el uso de la traducción en el aula de L2. ...
Article
RESUMEN En este estudio se quiere profundizar sobre dos elementos clave para poder dar paso a la reflexión individual de los alumnos que están cursando el Máster de Educación: las experiencias educativa previas y las expectativas sobre su formación como profesores de secundaria. Para este fin, se ha usado una encuesta denominada Declaración, que forma parte del European Portfolio for Student Teachers of Languages: A reflection tool for language teacher education (EPOSTL). Un grupo de 46 alumnos de la especialidad de inglés completaron el cuestionario de cuatro apartados que permite analizar estos dos elementos. Se ha enfocado esta primera parte del estudio en el análisis de la pregunta que trata de lo que piensan los alumnos sobre lo que es importante para un profesor de idiomas. La pregunta fijaba tres ítems en común para todos los participantes y permitía añadir siete ítems más. Los alumnos evaluaban estos ítems usando una escala Likert de cinco descriptores que posteriormente han sido clasificados y analizados. Los resultados preliminares de este análisis demuestran resultados a veces sorprendentes y siempre reveladores que sirven para ilustrar la importancia de la reflexión en la formación de profesores de idiomas.
... It suggested that such activities are important in L2 teaching but at the same time the communicative goals should be achieved too. Machida (2008) reported the results of bringing text translation into an advanced L2 program concluding that the root of the large proportion of the errors in translation is the vocabulary problems. ...
Article
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This study aims to reveal the probable problems which may occur due to inadvertent translation of Farsi adjectives into English by teachers in EFL classrooms. Students, especially in lower levels, resort to their L1 to fill the gaps of their L2 knowledge. Non-native foreign language teachers some times give language learners the wrong impression that there are one-to-one correspondence equivalents in both languages without considering the non-compatibility of certain combinations such as noun+ adjectives. This problem manifests itself when teachers try to translate from their native language into English. For instance, the Persian adjective, /sädeh/, can be translated into "easy, plain, naïve and unskilled". The results of this case study revealed that out-of-context translations and providing only one equivalent for students without informing them on the importance of context in selecting the equivalents can be misleading.
Article
Translator training has recently received a plethora of research owing to the increasing significance of translation in a globalised world. While professional training in independent institutions is commonly viewed as the key to effecting favourable responses to the demands of the national and international financial business, university courses of translation remain a valuable arsenal in the service of certified education if subjected to effective goal-oriented methodology. Translation of written texts has been a part of international communication for centuries, but courses in how to do it are more recent. This article draws on a case study from the context of a Moroccan university where translation courses (English-Arabic) are taught in semesters three and four. It reports the teachers’ perspectives on the translation course from English into Arabic (semester 4, 2018), along with the results of the students’ translations based on 477 examination answers. The researcher’s class observation and conducting of a short online students’ survey inform most of the reports on students’ and teachers’ approach to translation. The analysis and discussion of the results reveal the shortcomings for the existing training and practice of translation at the tertiary level; they also suggest new ways of customising the course for more efficient learner-fronted preparation of translators who can operate in functional situations, a prerequisite for today’s access to the job market.
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Translation teaches learners about language, but not how to use it. Translation does not help learners develop their communication skills. Translation encourages learners to use L1, often for long periods of class time, when the aim of modern teaching is to remove it from the classroom. The skills involved in translation may not be suitable for all kinds of learners. It may, for example, be best for learners who are more analytical or have preferences for verbal-linguistic learning strategies. It may not be suitable either for young learners or lower levels. Learners may not see the value of translation as an activity to help them learn English, and instead see it as a specialised, and difficult, activity. Translation is a difficult skill which must be done well in order to be productive and rewarding. Learners and teachers not only have to take into account meaning but also a range of other issues, including form, register, style, and idiom. This is not easy, but too many translation activities rely on it being done well.
Article
Translation is an activity that has been neglected over a prolonged period of time. Translation was severely outlawed from the foreign language classroom for a long tenure. However, this denial overlooked the numerous benefits that its implementation provides students with. In this sense, over the last years, translation has started to find its place within the language classroom and it is now regarded as a useful resource to be applied for learning a second language. When we speak about translation we refer to a professional activity, even in the educational context. However, the type of translation that is implemented within the classroom doesn't have much to do with professional translation, which is known as pedagogical translation. The main goal of pedagogical translation, or in other words, the type of translation undertaken in the language classroom, consists in a didactic objective, since it is devoted to the teacher and the students. It pursues the comprehension of the students and the improvement of the second language since the knowledge of the Source Language (SL) and the Target Language (TL) becomes a mandate. The aim of the present paper is to portray the necessity of translation in Foreign Language teaching by putting in the valid differences between Professional and Pedagogical translation. This text will also list down the ways by which translation is implemented in classrooms in the form of activities along with the benefits of its implementation when the cultural prospects are taken into consideration.
Article
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In the course of the development of EFL instruction, the so-called grammar-translation method was one of the earliest ones used. Later, EFL pedagogies evolved and other approaches were enunciated as alternatives to the old method. The most remarkable of these is the communicative (or direct) approach, built on the rationale that L1 stands in the way of L2 acquisition. It has been propagated with fervour in East Asian communities, especially in Hong Kong, as in many countries in the Third World. This article begins by contrasting Hadzantonis' Transition Model, aimed to eradicate all traces of local culture through English language instruction, as exemplified in the case of South Korea, with Canagarajah's resistance pedagogies, as used in Sri Lanka, and then uses this as the basis for a proposal to reintroduce, or reinvigorate, the Translation Method, which is not only pedagogically effective but also conducive to the formation of intercultural identities (rather than allowing East Asian values to be replaced by Western ones). The practicalities of EFL classroom instruction are related to the development of national policies in various parts of East Asia in which English learning is related to an urgent social need to nurture not only competent bilingual experts but also translation professionals.
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The common universal marketplace is contributing to the rapid globalization of higher education and those institutions offering internationalized undergraduate courses stand better chances of producing globally well-prepared graduates.
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This article illustrates a step-by-step hypothesis refinement activity that is consistent with constructivist pedagogics and the perception of culture learning as a process of discovery. Postsecondary students identified stereotypes about the cultures of French-speaking countries, conducted open-ended investigations, and accepted or rejected the validity of the stereotypes based on supporting and contradictory evidence. They compiled the information they gathered during their explorations, along with rationales explaining their thinking processes, in a portfolio. As a result of completing the project, students not only gained insight on a specific aspect of their own and francophone cultures but also recognized the impact their own perspectives have on understanding another culture. They became aware of their own process of learning, engaged in critical thinking, and familiarized themselves with resources for future cultural explorations. The activity may be implemented in upper-level high school classes as well as university classes and is appropriate for the study of any target culture.
Article
Contents: Preface. E. Hinkel, S. Fotos, From Theory to Practice: A Teacher's View. Part I: Grammar in Language Teaching. R. Ellis, The Place of Grammar Instruction in the Second/Foreign Language Curriculum. J.C. Richards, Accuracy and Fluency Revisited. M. McCarthy, R. Carter, Ten Criteria for a Spoken Grammar. M.C. Pennington, Grammar and Communication: New Directions in Theory and Practice. Part II: Classroom Approaches to Grammar Teaching. D. Larsen-Freeman, The Grammar of Choice. M. Celce-Murcia, Why It Makes Sense to Teach Grammar in Context and Through Discourse. S. Fotos, Structure-Based Interactive Tasks for the EFL Grammar Learner. R. Ellis, Methodological Options in Grammar Teaching Materials. E. Hinkel, Grammar Teaching in Writing Classes: Tenses and Cohesion. Part III: Research on Grammar Structures. P. Master, Relative Clause Reduction in Technical Research Articles. E. Hinkel, Why English Passive Is Difficult to Teach (and Learn).
Article
I had intended this review not specifically as a criticism of Skinner's speculations regarding language, but rather as a more general critique of behaviorist (I would now prefer to say "empiricist") speculation as to the nature of higher mental processes. My reason for discussing Skinner's book in such detail was that it was the most careful and thoroughgoing presentation of such speculations, an evaluation that I feel is still accurate. Therefore, if the conclusions I attempted to substantiate in the review are correct, as I believe they are, then Skinner's work can be regarded as, in effect, a reductio ad absurdum of behaviorist assumptions. My personal view is that it is a definite merit, not a defect, of Skinner's work that it can be used for this purpose, and it was for this reason that I tried to deal with it fairly exhaustively. I do not see how his proposals can be improved upon, aside from occasional details and oversights, within the framework of the general assumptions that he accepts. I do not, in other words, see any way in which his proposals can be substantially improved within the general framework of behaviorist or neobehaviorist, or, more generally, empiricist ideas that has dominated much of modern linguistics, psychology, and philosophy. The conclusion that I hoped to establish in the review, by discussing these speculations in their most explicit and detailed form, was that the general point of view was largely mythology, and that its widespread acceptance is not the result of empirical support, persuasive reasoning, or the absence of a plausible alternative.
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