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Introduction of the book
... Without proper environmental tools and policies in ports, there is an increased risk of having a clear imbalance between the benefits and costs of ports for the local community. Such imbalances potentially form a breeding ground for major socio-economic confrontations related to port development and operations (Benacchio and Musso, 2001;Notteboom and Winkelmans, 2003;Osthorst and Manz, 2012). ...
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From the policy and management perspective, this study aims to investigate the port management tools that port/public authorities have at their disposal and then to analyse to what extent the tools are used to enforce or encourage green port development at functional activities of port operations and development. We conduct an exploratory and comparative review based on two axes: on the one hand, the range of tools available to port authorities (pricing, monitoring and measuring, market access control and environmental standard regulation) and on the other hand, the functional activities in ports (shipping traffic, cargo handling and storage operations, intermodal connection, industrial activities, and port expansion). The situations in the leading ports in Asia and Europe, namely Singapore, Shanghai, Antwerp and Rotterdam are studied and compared, whereby the policies' effectiveness is discussed accordingly. Findings show that the ports are particularly mature in exercising environmental standard regulations which reveals that the enforcement approach is more prevalent. The most focused functional activity is shipping traffic which reflects that the ports are driven by the International Maritime Organisation. The respective port authorities in Antwerp and Rotterdam have a higher level of influence on devising green port policy in comparison to the two Asian ports.
This paper identifies research opportunities which will enable the further integration of inland waterway transport in the intermodal supply chain. Intermodal transport may be interpreted as a chain of actors who supply a transport service. Inland navigation can play a crucial role in increasing supply chain service performance. A first group of research challenges has the objective to encourage efficient operations in IWT: development of a system wide model for IWT, integration of operational planning systems and analysis of bundling networks. A second group of research efforts is directed towards shippers and consignees who use the intermodal transport chain to send or receive their goods: further development of models that integrate intermodal transport decisions with supply chain decisions and creation of green supply chains. A third group of research challenges concerns the problem domain of external cost calculations. Finally detailed time series data on freight transport should be collected to support these future research tracks.
It is sometimes claimed that transport infrastructure projects have network effects, which are not taken into account in the appraisal of these projects. This paper reviews the concept of network effects, relates this to transport appraisal practice, and links to the concept of 'total economic impact'. The limitations of transport modelling and appraisal in estimating total economic impact are reviewed. Good quality appraisals should be capable of picking up relevant network effects in the transport market, but the state of the art remains limited on the linkages between transport and the wider economy.
In a stochastic supply link between a supplier and a receiver, a crucial component of the total logistics costs is formed by the costs of safety stock held by the receiver to protect against stockouts. The level of safety stock depends on, among other things, the statistical distribution of demand during lead time (DDLT). For practical reasons, DDLT is often assumed to be normally distributed. However, previous research has indicated that this assumption is often invalid in real-life situations and that it can have a significant impact on safety stocks or service levels. This paper first presents an extensive review of previous research on stochastic inventory models, with specific emphasis on the distributions used to model period demand, lead time and/or DDLT. The paper also discusses a real-life case study in which the total logistics costs are calculated for a number of different transport modes for a gamma demand–gamma lead time setting.
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