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Controversial outsiders : a cross-national study of media attention to the far-right 1986-2004

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... Her findings 'throw into doubt whether the popular press can be clearly and consistently distinguished from the serious press in subject matter and political orientation' and notes that such differences should not be conflated with differences in style. Counting the number of articles between 1986-2004, Schafraad (2009) found that in absolute terms two Dutch quality newspapers devoted more attention to the radical right than the popular De Telegraaf --which is not surprising as the latter has simply less extensive news content in general. Relatively speaking, however, he did not observe differences in the visibility and prominence of the radical right; neither did he find empirical support for differences in what he labelled 'support attention' and 28 With thanks to Thom Duyvené de Wit, who was responsible for coding these data. ...
... I have not presented detailed descriptions of the content of the hostile public reactions towards both parties, but, in line with common perception, it has been shown before that the LPF faced less stigmatic associations with Nazism and violent extremism than the CD (e.g. Schafraad 2009). The label 'dissonance' may thus not have covered a constant substantive meaning over a ten-year period. ...
... Ten eerste zijn in een aantal gevallen de scores van variabelen zeer scheef verdeeld. Gecombineerd met kleine aantallen waarin sommige variabelen voorkwamen is de conservatieve maat Krippendorff's alpha geen goede indicator voor de betrouwbaarheid van de codering (Lombard, Snyder-Duch & Bracken, 2004;Neuendorf, 2002;Schafraad, 2009). Ten tweede duidt het percentage overeenstemming bij deze variabelen erop dat er wel degelijk een grote mate van overeenstemming bestond tussen de codeurs. ...
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Sensationalism in front page photographs: Content analysis of Dutch popular and quality newspapers Sensationalism in front page photographs: Content analysis of Dutch popular and quality newspapers Sensation in the news has been a longtime cause for social and scientific debate. Sensational news is thought to substitute ‘serious’ information needed for serious citizen deliberation. A trend towards more sensationalist news has been described for television. This study analyses quality and popular newspaper photographs in terms of sensationalist content and form. Quantitative content analysis of the five major newspapers in the Netherlands shows that a slight majority of newspaper photographs shows sensational content (i.e. dramatic events such as violence, disasters, or crime). A minority of the photographs has sensational format features (e.g., emotions, close-ups, personalization). In eight out of eleven variables, popular newspapers contain more sensational photographs than quality newspapers. However, in some instances differences in sensationalism within the two groups are greater than differences between the groups.
... The sample consists of the five largest daily newspapers in the Netherlands: De Telegraaf, AD, De Volkskrant, NRC Handelsblad and Trouw (NDP Nieuwsmedia data, 2013). Based on previous studies of the Dutch press, we categorize De Telegraaf and AD as popular (tabloid) newspapers, and De Volkskrant, NRC Handelsblad and Trouw as quality press (Schafraad, 2009;Vliegenthart, 2007). Popular press is said to cover the news in a more sensational and less nuanced way than quality press, and to share the anti-establishment and anti-immigrant sentiments of the populist right-wing parties (Mazzoleni, 2003). ...
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This article provides an overview of the discourses on Dutch mosque education. Based on a review of the scholarly debates on mosque education in West, we conducted a qualitative content analysis of newspaper articles containing references to mosque education between 2010 and 2016 (N = 45). The data are sampled from the five largest Dutch newspapers. Most of the themes emerging from the literature are also reflected in the discourses on mosque education in the press. In line with other media analysis on representation of Muslims, the portrayal of mosque education in the Dutch press is also mainly negative. The key issues in the press portrayals included use of corporal punishment, inadequate training of imams, reinforcement of conservative gender norms, intensification of social segregation, links with religious extremism and local opposition to mosques. Fewer references concern the positive influence of mosque education on cognitive skills and identity development of the Muslim children.
... Ten eerste zijn in een aantal gevallen de scores van variabelen zeer scheef verdeeld. Gecombineerd met kleine aantallen waarin sommige variabelen voorkwamen is de conservatieve maat Krippendorff's alpha geen goede indicator voor de betrouwbaarheid van de codering (Lombard, Snyder-Duch & Bracken, 2004;Neuendorf, 2002;Schafraad, 2009). Ten tweede duidt het percentage overeenstemming bij deze variabelen erop dat er wel degelijk een grote mate van overeenstemming bestond tussen de codeurs. ...
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GABI SCHAAP & ALEXANDER PLEIJTER Sensationalism in front page photographs: Content analysis of Dutch popular and quality newspapers Sensation in the news has been a longtime cause for social and scientific debate. Sensational news is thought to substitute 'serious' information needed for serious citizen deliberation. A trend towards more sensationalist news has been described for television. This study analyses quality and popular newspaper photographs in terms of sensationalist content and form. Quantitative content analysis of the five major newspapers in the Netherlands shows that a slight majority of newspaper photographs shows sensational content (i.e. dramatic events such as violence, disasters, or crime). A minority of the photographs has sensational format features (e.g., emotions, close-ups, personalization). In eight out of eleven variables, popular newspapers contain more sensational photographs than quality newspapers. However, in some instances differences in sensationalism within the two groups are greater than differences between the groups.
... This confirms other research that concluded that, in contrast with the absolute amount of coverage, there are hardly any differences in the tone and portrayal of radical-right politicians (Schafraad, Wester, and Scheepers 2009;Bos, Van der Brug, and De Vreese 2010). Counting the number of articles between 1986-2004, Schafraad (2009) found that, in absolute terms, two highly regarded Dutch newspapers devoted more attention to the radical right than the popular Telegraaf-not surprisingly, as the latter has simply less news content in general. Relatively speaking, however, he did not observe differences in the visibility and prominence of the radical right; neither did he find empirical support for differences in what he labeled "support attention" and "substantial attention." ...
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This article seeks to explain why the Dutch extreme-right party, Center Democrats (CD), never succeeded in breaking out of its marginal position. It argues that, in addition to analyzing fluctuations in electoral support, scholars should also examine the degree to which extreme-right parties are able to express their views in the mass media. Supply-side explanations are extended by showing that discursive political opportunities need to be openly acknowledged and debated publicly to become relevant. Relying on longitudinal data derived from political claims analysis and opinion polls, this article demonstrates that negative public reactions significantly eroded the electoral attractiveness of the extreme-right party. In contrast, when one's goal is to achieve mass media access, the results reveal that any publicity is favorable publicity. Public criticism enhanced the CD's access to the public debate. Also, rising support in opinion polls led to more public claim making. Remarkably, however, the extreme right party did not increase its electoral support when it made itself more prominently heard in the mass media. Thus, the CD appeared trapped in a spiral of discursive weakness.
... On the one hand, for instance, Krippendorf's alpha is too conservative, since occasional differences in coding cause a sharp decline in alpha scores (e.g. Schafraad 2009;Lombard et al. 2002). On the other hand, percentage wise agreement might provide a too optimistic picture, since computer and human coder will agree on the large majority of articles scoring negative on the presence of a specific image. ...
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Despite the large amount of research into both media coverage of politics as well as political leadership, surprisingly little research has been devoted to the ways political leaders are discussed in the media. This paper studies whether computer-aided content analysis can be applied in examining political leadership images in Dutch newspaper articles. It, firstly, provides a conceptualization of political leader character traits that integrates different perspectives in the literature. Moreover, this paper measures twelve political leadership images in media coverage, based on a large-scale computer-assisted content analysis of Dutch media coverage (including almost 150.000 newspaper articles), and systematically tests the quality of the employed measurement instrument by assessing the relationship between the images, the variance in the measurement, the over-time development of images for two party leaders and by comparing the computer results with manual coding. We conclude that the computerized content analysis provides a valid measurement for the leadership images in Dutch newspapers. Moreover, we find that the dimensions political craftsmanship, vigorousness, integrity, communicative performances and consistency are regularly applied in discussing party leaders, but that portrayal of party leaders in terms of responsiveness is almost completely absent in Dutch newspapers.
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After more than 30 years of studies focused on stereotyping in gender portrayal in television commercials, there are only a handful of studies that analyze gender stereotyping in TV com-mercials over time. The conclusions of previous studies fall into two categories: those who posit that stereotyping in gender portrayal in TV commercials continues and even worsens and those who say that stereotyping has grown less over time and TV commercials are starting to reflect the reality of women’s lives. This study starts from this debate and aims to explore how gender portrayal in TV commercials has changed in the Netherlands; to discern to what extent Dutch television commercials have kept pace with the changing position of women in the Netherlands over time. We conducted a content analysis on a sample of 1,967 nationally broadcasted television commercials, broadcasted between 1980 and 2005. Our results indicate that overall gender stereotyping in Dutch TV commercials persists, in the gender stereotyped association with products and life domains and even worsens through a decreased presence of female main characters over time. However, our results also point to small changes in stereotyping in the fact that women increased their presence in the professional role and increased their presence in the role of voice-over. In sum, our results indicate that there are two underlying patterns in the gender portrayal of men and women over time, one that partly mirrors societal changes and one that shows continued stereotyping, catering to cultural re-sistance to change.
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Het sensatiegehalte van voorpaginafoto's: een inhoudsanalyse van populaire en kwaliteitskranten in Nederland Een kwantitatieve inhoudsanalyse van foto's in 'kwaliteitskranten' en 'populaire kranten' op aspecten van sensatie laat zien dat een meerderheid van de foto's op de voorpagina's van Nederlandse kranten een sensationeel onderwerp bevat. Een kwart tot een derde van de foto's heeft een sensationele vormgeving. Op acht van de elf sensatiekenmerken zijn foto's in populaire kranten sensationeler dan die in kwaliteitskranten. Echter, in sommige geval-len zijn de verschillen binnen de twee groepen groter dan die ertussen. Introductie Het verschijnsel 'sensatie in het nieuws' kan zich de laatste jaren verheugen op een groeiende maatschappelijke en wetenschappelijke belangstelling. Kern van het debat over sensatie is de versmelting van informatie en entertainment; critici vrezen dat sensatie steeds meer de plaats van 'echte' informatie zal innemen, niet alleen doordat steeds meer van de beperkte tijd en ruimte in de nieuwsmedia besteed zal worden aan onder andere human interest, drama en emoties, en niet aan 'serieuze' informatie, maar ook doordat de twee steeds meer versmelten tot 'infotainment'. De aandacht en interesse van het publiek lijkt vooral te liggen bij sensationele bericht-geving (Grabe, Lang & Zhao, 2003; Tai & Chang, 2002). Men vreest dat het gevolg daarvan is dat de burger onvoldoende geïnformeerd wordt over zaken die er in een democratisch bestel werkelijk toe doen. Zowel in Europa als in de Verenigde Staten is de afgelopen vijftien jaar veel onderzoek gedaan naar sensatie in het nieuws en de effecten ervan op de ontvanger (
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