Article

Determining Long-term Effects of Teacher Education

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

The aim of research in the long-term effects of preservice teacher education (TE) programs is to describe and explain how such effects come about. The relevance of this research is to underpin guidelines and strategies for improving TE learning environments. This article first gives an overview of the state of the art in TE effect research. It then focuses on issues of conceptualization and methodology, notably how to model the objects of research and how to fulfill requirements of ecological validity. Productive research strategies and methodological solutions are presented with special attention to research design, instrumentation, data collection, and analysis.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... education (Brouwer, 2010;Cochran-Smith, 2003;Koster, Brekelmans, Korthagen, & Wubbels, 2005). ...
... Whereas significant advances in studying competencies of in-service teachers have been made, initial processes of knowledge acquisition and teacher competence development as provided by university-based teacher education have not been studied intensively (Brouwer, 2010;Koster et al., 2005). Integrating theory and practice in order to support the initial acquisition of teacher knowledge is particularly important in this context (Cochran-Smith & Zeichner, 2005). ...
... Yet, knowledge about these processes would advance the field, especially when it comes to designing learning environments in university-based teacher education. If the three reasoning aspects are highly interrelated and represent distinctive dimensions of increasing difficulty, teacher educators could draw on this knowledge in order to structure and sequence courses on teaching and learning (Brouwer, 2010;Koster et al., 2005). Therefore, in the present study we empirically tested which operationalization best fits the structure of reasoning when modeled with data on preservice teachers and to what extent these abilities are interrelated. ...
Article
Full-text available
Professional vision has been identified as an important element of teacher expertise that can be developed in teacher education. It describes the use of knowledge to notice and interpret significant features of classroom situations. Three aspects of professional vision have been described by qualitative research: describe, explain, and predict classroom sitautions. We refere to these aspects in order to model professional vision. We developed a video-based instrument to empirically test the model. The results show that our measure to assess aspects of professional vision differentiates between description, explanation, and prediction. The study provides insight into the structure of professional vision, allowing us to conceptualize it theoretically and discuss the target use for teaching and formative assessment of preservice teachers.
... Onderzoek volgens de causaal-genetische opvatting vraagt om een longitudinale opzet en een doordachte combinatie van kwantitatieve en kwalitatieve methoden. Een natuurwetenschappelijke, experimentele onderzoeksopzet is daarbij niet uitgesloten, maar heeft evenmin het monopolie op wetenschappelijkheid (Brouwer, 2007c). Wanneer je onderwijsonderzoek op deze manier positioneert, betekent het wel dat de resultaten maar moeizaam verspreiding en erkenning zullen vinden. ...
... Nederland kan leraren in staat te stellen tot levenslang leren. En niet in de laatste plaats: dit land kan investeren in de professionalisering van leraren- [2] opleiders (Engberts e.a., 1998;Engberts & Brouwer, 1999;Korthagen, 2002; De tragiek van de leraar is dat de opbrengst van zijn werk zo moeilijk zichtbaar te maken is. Maar ik zeg u: geen beschaafd land ter wereld kan het stellen zonder leraren, zonder deze bemiddelaars tussen het culturele erfgoed en de opgroeiende generaties. ...
... Iselinge Hogeschool [2] Noten 1 De kenniskring bestaat uit verschillende projectgroepen. De leden zijn afkomstig uit Iselinge Hogeschool en de afdeling Educatieve Dienstverlening van de IJsselgroep en uit de scholen in de regio. ...
... In zijn algemeenheid zijn deze opleidingsdidactieken nauwelijks nog onderzocht op effectiviteit (Brouwer, 2010;Grossman, 2005;National Research Council, 2010). Zoals al opgemerkt zijn deze didactieken ontwikkeld in reactie op een aantal problemen in de leerproces van aanstaande leraren, vooral gebaseerd op professionele inzichten en ervaringen van lerarenopleiders en onderzoekers. ...
... Afsluitend, onderzoek naar de effectiviteit van opleidingsdidactieken binnen de lerarenopleiding is relatief nieuw en sterk in ontwikkeling. Los daarvan is het ingewikkeld om dit onderzoek uit te voeren (zie Brouwer, 2010;. Aanvullend en als kader voor vervolgonderzoek kan ook worden gekeken naar onderzoek naar effectieve leraren en onderzoek naar het leren van leraren. ...
... The way teachers design and create learning opportunities in their classrooms strongly influences student learning (Darling-Hammond and Bransford 2005). Thus, defining and measuring the competencies that teachers require to create learning opportunities is particularly important in university-based teacher education (Brouwer 2010;Cochran-Smith 2003;Koster et al. 2005). In this regard, generic pedagogical competencies, including several aspects, such as the knowledge of important teaching and learning components in classrooms, are stressed as important requisites Shulman 1987). ...
... Knowledge about the structure of reasoning, however, serves to advance the field, especially when it comes to designing learning environments in university-based teacher education. If the three aspects of reasoning are highly interrelated and represent distinctive dimensions of increasing difficulty, teacher educators could draw on this knowledge in order to structure and sequence courses on teaching and learning (Brouwer 2010). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The development of generic pedagogical competencies is regarded as a key element of university-based teacher education. In the Observe project, the professional vision of pre-service teachers is investigated as an indicator of the acquisition of applicable generic pedagogical knowledge with regard to important teaching and learning components. With the aim of bridging the research gap regarding the relationship between professional knowledge acquisition and professional practice, the structure of pre-service teachers’ professional vision was modeled and then empirically tested using the Observer, a standardized yet contextualized instrument. Changes in the professional vision of pre-service teachers within university-based teacher education were measured, and approaches were developed to connect professional vision with teaching action in the classroom. In this chapter, we present a project overview and the most important findings of our research activities during the last 6 years.
... The subjects of teachers' professional development and learning within schools have captured the attention of school reformers, policy makers, and education researchers as a possible mechanism for raising school effectiveness and student achievements (Brouwer, 2010;Hoekstra & Korthagen, 2011;Shulman, 1998;Woolfolk Hoy, 2008). By providing teachers with the tools and opportunities to grow, their performance at school will likely improve and, consequently, so will student outcomes (Borko, 2004;Dam & Blom, 2006). ...
... One of the major goals of teacher learning climate is transferring the learning it had encouraged onto the students, whose performance and achievements are an ever-present concern among educators (e.g., Brouwer, 2010;Cornelius-White, 2007;Hoekstra & Korthagen, 2011;LaRocque & Mvududu, 2008). Recent studies have indicated the effects students' school engagement has on student achievements, performance, and attendance (Caprara, Barbaranelli, Steca, & Malone, 2006;Pakarinen, Kiuru, Lerkkanen, Poikkeus, Siekkien, & Nurmi, 2010;Perry, Liu, & Pabian, 2009;Wang, & Holcombe, 2010;Wang, & Pomerantz, 2009); accordingly, we posit that a teacher learning climate will result in teachers who are more satisfied, and consequentially, students who are more engaged (e.g., Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2009). ...
Article
To read the full article, please go to http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2016.06.007 This study set out to examine an integrative model in which teacher learning climate is associated with teachers’ sense of work engagement, organizational commitment, and subjective well-being, via teacher job satisfaction as a mediator. Moreover, we assert that learning climate and job satisfaction impact student school engagement, thereby giving further validity to the importance of this subject in the educational system. Data were collected from a sample of 273 teachers and 1040 students from 23 elementary and high schools in Israel. As predicted, a multilevel mediation analysis reflected the positive indirect relationship between teacher learning climate and teachers’ sense of work engagement, organizational commitment, and subjective well-being), which was mediated by teacher job satisfaction. In addition, the crossover process between teachers and their students was also confirmed, proving that teacher job satisfaction is a mediator in the positive relationship between teacher learning climate and student school engagement. The discussion highlights the role of teacher learning climate in promoting positive schooling outcomes among teachers as well as students. To read the full article, please go to http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2016.06.007
... helping preservice teachers in successfully linking pedagogical knowledge to the actual practice of classroom situations (Borko, Liston, & Whitcomb, 2006;Cochran-Smith & Zeichner, 2005). Many preservice teachers struggle when trying to integrate basic knowledge that is taught in the different courses on content and pedagogy, as well as to apply this knowledge to the actual situation of classroom teaching (Ball, 2000;Blomberg, Stürmer, & Seidel, 2011;Brouwer, 2010;Schoenfeld, 1998). Much emphasis, therefore, has been given to integrate practice into the context of initial teacher education (Darling-Hammond & Bransford, 2005;Grossman et al., 2009;Grossman & McDonald, 2008). ...
... Current teacher education research should therefore further the understanding of the connections between specific aspects of teacher education (e.g. the instructional strategies implemented) and preservice teachers' learning to address the lack of knowledge about instructional practices and how they relate to learning outcomes (Kennedy, Ahn, & Choi, 2008). A focus on the design of learning environmentsdespecially at an early stage of their professional education, at which pre-service teachers have not yet gained much practical teaching experiencedmay thus help to close the gap between the intentions and outcomes of teacher education (Brouwer, 2010). ...
... Especially action-related competencies seem to require more than those written competencies that can be investigated with paperpencil tests. Brouwer (2010) found that teachers under pressure are often not able to decide based on cognition, but rather act based on their earlier experiences as a student. Further, as teaching is a very complex process: many factors apart from the teacher's actual skills influence the success of a lesson (Helmke, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Measuring teachers' skills to carry out the complex tasks required in teaching is an important means of evaluating the effectiveness of teacher education but remains a challenging activity to conduct in practice. It is necessary to optimise approaches for usability and effectiveness along a continuum from low-effort and low-authenticity measures such as paper-and-pencil tests to high-effort, high-authenticity measures such as extended classroom observations. The first part of the paper reviews a range of efforts toward measuring the competencies of teachers and other professionals in carrying out the tasks that make up their work. These include performance tests such as computer-based simulations or simulations using actors, as well as the use of tasks requiring participation in or responses to video vignettes. Video vignette approaches typically have been less interactive than performance tests and interactivity is seen as a desirable feature. A novel framework for developing performance-oriented testing is then outlined. The second part of the paper exemplifies this framework in relation to providing explanations in physics classrooms. The development of a novel test instrument following the framework is described, and findings on construct validity are presented to support the applicability of the presented approach.
... Een belangrijk doel bij het opleiden van leraren is de verbinding van theorie en praktijk; aanstaande leraren moeten leren om pedagogische en (vak)didactische kennis te verbinden aan de onderwijspraktijk. Voor aanstaande leraren is het problematisch om inzichten uit het opleidingscurriculum te integreren en toe te passen op gebeurtenissen in de onderwijspraktijk (Ball, 2000;Brouwer, 2010). Juist de ontwikkeling van geïntegreerde kennis, ofwel het vermogen om gedifferentieerde kennisstructuren te verbinden aan diverse onderwijssituaties, is essentieel voor leraren (Borko, 2004;Putnam & Borko, 2000). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Dit onderzoek is gericht op de bijdrage van de ‘videoclub’ aan de professionalisering van startende leraren. In een contrasterende casestudy is onderzocht of startende leraren basisonderwijs die deelnemen aan de videoclub hun vermogen tot ‘noticing’ ontwikkelen. Uit kwalitatieve analyse van twee gevallen blijkt dat het niveau van noticing toeneemt, maar dat de ontwikkeling verschillende patronen kent. In het ene geval is er een ontwikkeling van letterlijk beschrijven van onderwijssituaties naar redeneren met gebruikmaking van relevante theoretische concepten, waarbij meer aandacht ontstaat voor leerlinggedrag. In het andere geval is er sprake van een ontwikkeling naar redeneren over onderwijssituaties waarbij meer gebruikgemaakt wordt van relevante theoretische concepten. De uitkomsten bevestigen dat de videoclub de ontwikkeling van noticing door startende leraren basisonderwijs bevordert.
... Een belangrijk doel bij het opleiden van leraren is de verbinding van theorie en praktijk; aanstaande leraren moeten leren om pedagogische en (vak)didactische kennis te verbinden aan de onderwijspraktijk. Voor aanstaande leraren is het problematisch om inzichten uit het opleidingscurriculum te integreren en toe te passen op gebeurtenissen in de onderwijspraktijk (Ball, 2000;Brouwer, 2010). Juist de ontwikkeling van geïntegreerde kennis, ofwel het vermogen om gedifferentieerde kennisstructuren te verbinden aan diverse onderwijssituaties, is essentieel voor leraren (Borko, 2004;Putnam & Borko, 2000). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Dit onderzoek is gericht op de bijdrage van de ‘videoclub’ aan de professionalisering van startende leraren. In een contrasterende casestudy is onderzocht of startende leraren basisonderwijs die deelnemen aan de videoclub hun vermogen tot ‘noticing’ ontwikkelen. Uit kwalitatieve analyse van twee gevallen blijkt dat het niveau van noticing toeneemt, maar dat de ontwikkeling verschillende patronen kent. In het ene geval is er een ontwikkeling van letterlijk beschrijven van onderwijssituaties naar beweringen met relevante theoretische concepten, waarbij meer aandacht is voor leerlinggedrag. In het andere geval is er sprake van een ontwikkeling naar redeneren over onderwijssituaties op basis van specifiek leerlinggedrag met gebruikmaking van relevante theoretische concepten. De uitkomsten bevestigen dat de videoclub de ontwikkeling van noticing door startende leraren basisonderwijs bevordert.
... For this reason, professional vision might be identified as an important element of teacher expertise that can be developed in teacher education ( Seidel and Sturmer, 2014). Thus, defining and measuring competencies that teachers require for creating learning opportunities should be of particular importance in teacher education (Brouwer, 2010;Cochran-Smith, 2003;Koster et al., 2005). ...
... Depending on variables like their experience, skills, or personality this pressure leads to decisions that are not entirely based on their professional knowledge. It sometimes leads to instruction that simulates the instruction as they experienced it as a student (Brouwer, 2010). A common written test for professional knowledge is less useful for testing knowledge required for authentic instruction compared to a test that demands decision-making under pressure as in real instruction. ...
Article
In recent years, many studies have researched the impact of teachers' professional knowledge on teaching quality. Those findings are still ambiguous providing unclear evidence for supporting teacher education programs that aim at developing professional knowledge. In this study, we followed a new approach and used a “performance test” to take a closer look at the impact of professional knowledge on teaching quality. We simulated one particular teaching situation in a controlled, standardized setting in which student teachers (N = 109) enrolled in physics teacher training courses at five German universities had to explain given phenomena to high‐school students. These high‐school students were trained to behave in a standardized way and to ask standardized questions. Videos of these situations were analyzed using an established model of explaining physics. The validity, reliability, and objectivity of these performance tests for explaining physics were examined in previous studies. In this article, we report on the analysis and interpretation of the results of our study concerning the impact of physics content knowledge (CK), pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and two groups of beliefs (specific aspects of (i) self‐efficacy and (ii) teaching and learning) that mediate the effect of CK and PCK on student teachers' explaining performance. Using path analysis, we can show that student teachers' PCK mediates the influence of their CK on explaining performance in that CK only has a positive influence if PCK has also increased as well. Our findings stress the key role of PCK. For one particular teaching situation, we can show the positive influence of student teachers' CK and their PCK they acquired in academic teacher education on their teaching quality.
... Longitudinelle studier som følger laerere fra laererutdanningen og gjennom de første årene i arbeid er sjeldne (Brouwer, 2010). Enda sjeldnere er storskalastudier basert på standardiserte målinger som gjør det mulig å generalisere resultater utover casene brukt i en spesifikk studie (Llineares & Krainer, 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
I denne longitudinelle studien ble 131 grunnskolelærere (1. til 4. trinn) fulgt opp fra det siste året i lærerutdanningen og gjennom de fire første årene i lærerjobb. Lærerne tok standardiserte tester i matematikk (matematikkunnskap) og matematikkdidaktikk (matematikkdidaktisk kunnskap) ved slutten av lærerutdanningen i 2008 og en gang til etter fire års arbeid som lærer, i 2012. I tillegg tok de etter fire år i jobb en standardisert videobasert test som måler ferdigheter i å oppdage og tolke situasjoner som oppstår under matematikkundervisning i klasserommet, samt evne til å ta avgjørelser om handling når det gjelder disse situasjonene (matematikkrelaterte praksisferdigheter). De målte kunnskapene og ferdighetene ble deretter relatert til grunnskolelærernes utdanningsløp ved hjelp av strukturelle ligningsmodeller med manifeste variabler (path analysis). Som forventet fant vi sterke langtidseffekter. Lærernes gjennomsnittskarakter fra avsluttende skoleeksamen predikerte sterkt deres matematikkrelaterte kunnskapsnivå og deres praksisferdigheter 10 til 12 år senere (etter fire år i jobb). Enda sterkere relatert til kunnskapsnivået i matematikk og matematikkdidaktikk etter fire år i jobb var typen matematikk-kurs de hadde tatt på videregående skole (avansert kurs vs. basiskurs). Derimot hadde typen skolematematikk-kurs ingen signifikant effekt på lærernes praksisferdigheter. Kunnskap i matematikk og matematikkdidaktikk ved slutten av lærerutdanningen korrelerte også signifikant med lærernes kunnskap fire år senere, mens effektene på praksisferdigheter var ubetydelig. Gjennomsnittskarakteren på den avsluttende brede lærerutdanningseksamenen hadde ingen signifikant effekt på lærernes matematikkrelaterte kunnskap eller ferdigheter. Alle langsiktige effekter av skolegang ble mediert gjennom lærerutdanningen. Når det gjelder videre forskning er en viktig konklusjon at det må undersøkes nøyere hva som påvirker praksisferdigheter. I tillegg er utvalgskriterier ved starten av lærerutdanningen et stikkord som burde diskuteres; et annet stikkord er hvilke muligheter studenter har til å lære seg matematikk og matematikkdidaktikk under grunnskolelærerutdanningen. Nøkkelord: lærerkompetanse, longitudinell studie, grunnskolelærere, kompetanseutvikling, matematikkunnskap, lærerutdanning Long-term effects of schooling and teacher education on primary teachers’ mathematics-related competence development Abstract 131 primary teachers (grades 1 to 4) were followed during the transition from teacher education to the teaching profession in a four-year longitudinal study. The teachers took standardized tests of their mathematics content knowledge (MCK) and their mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK) in their last year of teacher education and after four years on the job. In addition, they took a standardized test based on video-vignettes to examine the perception, interpretation and decision-making skills needed in the teaching of mathematics (M_PID). Path analysis was applied to regress these outcomes on teachers’ schooling and teacher education. As hypothesized, strong long-term effects were found. Teachers’ grade-point average from upper secondary school predicted significantly MCK, MPCK and M_PID 12 years later (after four years on the job). The type of course in school mathematics taken in upper secondary school predicted MCK and MPCK even more strongly, but not M_PID. MCK and MPCK at the end of teacher education predicted significantly MCK and MPCK four years later but only marginally M_PID. The grade-point average from teacher education did not predict any of the outcomes. All long-term effects of schooling were mediated through teacher education. With regard to research tasks resulting from this study, it seems to be important to examine predictors of M_PID in more detail. With regard to policy conclusions, the results suggest the need to discuss selection criteria at the beginning of teacher education, and opportunities to learn mathematics and mathematics education during primary teacher education. Keywords: teacher competence, longitudinal study, primary school teachers, competence development, mathematics knowledge, teacher education
... Se da un lato la formazione degli insegnanti (novizi ed esperti) si trova ad affrontare la sfida di valutare l'efficacia dell'insegnamento e la scelta di indicatori e strumenti che siano in grado di misurare la relazione tra insegnamento-apprendimento (Darling Hammond, Bransford 2005;Brouwer, 2010); da un lato parallelo, le ricerche sulle teorie dell'insegnamento, sull'apprendimento e formazione degli insegnanti, nonché sullo sviluppo professionale del docente (cfr. Shulman, ), stanno affermando, ormai da tempo, come i saperi degli insegnanti, unitamente ad una crescente base di conoscenza dei meccanismi e dei processi di generazione dell'apprendimento, siano in grado di influenzare l'azione didattica e viceversa, più che rispondere alla logica dell'efficacia. ...
Conference Paper
Research on teacher training and professional development indicates that some factors including the professional vision and teaching awareness can play an important role to become a “good teacher”. The study aims to investigate and analyze the professional vision as a teacher’s learning process, through some tools and through a progressive individual and collaborative data analysis. They participated in the project 30 experienced teachers. The attention has been focused on a professional development model supported by possible “cognitive development process”, recovered during different phases of the research. Among the evidence are recovered: personal visions on teaching; the gap between the professional vision and, modification and the resistance of personal convictions for teaching.
... I suggest possible explanations for these findings. According to Stürmer, Könings, and Seidel (2013) and Brouwer (2010), successful development and implementation of planning strategies in learning is based upon explicit metacognitive training, requiring students to apply newly learned material in new contexts. In this study, both research groups were exposed to such training in semi-similar environments but with the different research interventions, which allowed them to report about the planning strategies of teaching in similar ways without any significant differences between them. ...
Article
The object of the present study is to propose a technologically based method for developing Regulation of Cognition (RC) among pre-service teachers in a pedagogical problem context. The research intervention was carried out by two groups during a Teaching Training Workshop, based on the IMPROVE instructional method, which was implemented in the Learning Management System (LMS). The first group (N = 53) investigated the pedagogical problems with “dual perspectives” (teacher and learner"), and the other group (N = 47) analyzed the same problems from a teacher perspective only. The triangulated research design provided three sets of data of RC (e.g., statements on Metacognitive Awareness Inventory, Educational Data Mining, and observations on actual teaching). The results were indicative of the advantage that was obtained by the dual perspective group (LMS+2P), which has manifested in most components of RC, as compared with the single-based intervention (LMS+1P). The Online Version: http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/bIH7X3iVxtnx5WgWqDxZ/full
... A sound base of evidence on the impact of educational university studies on teachers' professional practice is lacking (Brouwer, 2010;Zeichner, 2005). This is mostly due to the fact that, unfortunately, studies which directly assess teacher students' educational knowledge and the long-term relation to the prospective teachers' professional practices are rare. ...
... Teacher candidates with high levels of self-efficacy may feel confident referring to their knowledge and skills and thus do not consider suggestions from the discourse and see no need for reflection or change. Strengths and limitations of the study One strength of our study is that it makes an empirically-based contribution to the field of teacher learning which is rather limited (Brouwer 2010). The study adds to the research on beginning teachers' professional development by examining the cognitive processes underlying these changes, which so far have been rarely studied (Desimone 2009). ...
... Een belangrijk doel bij het opleiden van leraren is de verbinding van theorie en praktijk; aanstaande leraren moeten leren om pedagogische en (vak)didactische kennis te verbinden aan de onderwijspraktijk. Voor aanstaande leraren is het problematisch om inzichten uit het opleidingscurriculum te integreren en toe te passen op gebeurtenissen in de onderwijspraktijk (Ball, 2000;Brouwer, 2010). Juist de ontwikkeling van geïntegreerde kennis, ofwel het vermogen om gedifferentieerde kennisstructuren te verbinden aan diverse onderwijssituaties, is essentieel voor leraren (Borko, 2004;Putnam & Borko, 2000). ...
Research
Full-text available
Dit onderzoek is gericht op de bijdrage van de ‘videoclub’ aan professionalisering van startende leraren. In een contrasterende casestudy is onderzocht of startende leraren basisonderwijs die deelnemen aan de videoclub hun vermogen tot ‘noticing’ ontwikkelen.
... It is an ongoing claim in the reform of university-based teacher education to improve the support of knowledge acquisition proximal to teaching practice (Brouwer 2010;Darling-Hammond and Bransford 2005;Grossman et al. 2009). Therefore, field experiences have been implemented in many programs to foster the integration of conceptual knowledge with examples of teaching practice Brouwer and Korthagen 2005;Darling-Hammond 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to reason about observed classroom situations constitutes an essential aspect of teachers’ professional vision and is seen as a key element of initial teacher education. The three aspects of the ability are as follows: to describe, explain, and predict classroom situations. Research has shown that field experiences, the acquisition of theoretical knowledge on effective instruction, and learning with video supports preservice teachers’ development in the three skills. However, the long-term effects taking into account intra-individual differences remain unexplored when it comes to tracking preservice teachers’ changes within teacher education programs that combine all three components. In this study, we investigate whether intra-individual differences between preservice teachers’ professional vision occur in an innovative teacher education program (integrating theory and practice), whether these differences result in different changes, and whether the attendance in the program leads to similar individual developments in preservice teachers’ professional vision. Data of N = 64 pre-service teachers’ reasoning skills were measured with the Observer Research Tool at four measurement points and analyzed using multilevel analysis. The results showed a linear growth in all three skills in the course of the program. Furthermore, preservice teachers systematically differ in their entry levels as well as change rates in professional vision.
... A causal-genetic research paradigm using mixed methods (cf. Brouwer, 2010) holds promise for scientific explanation and as such for designing interventions which demonstrably benefit the work of teachers. ...
Article
Full-text available
Since the beginning of the new millennium, the use of digital video for teacher education and professional development (PD) has grown into a burgeoning and exciting field of research and development (R&D). The collection of empirical studies in this special issue clearly exemplifies this trend. I will begin this comment by pointing out the societal relevance of developments in this field. Then I will discuss the nature of the findings of the six studies and their implications for the design of video interventions as well as for theory and research.
... Professional competencies of teachers are a central factor for quality and reform in educational systems (Brouwer, 2010;Cochran-Smith, 2003;Koster, Brekelmans, Korthagen, & Wubbels, 2005). They are main determinants for the quality of teaching, which affects the quality of student learning in classrooms (Darling-Hammond & Bransford, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study focuses on the assessment of educational-psychological teacher competencies regarding generic teaching and learning (TL) components in initial university-based teacher education. Based on the approximations-of-practice (AoP) framework, simulated teaching events (M-Teach) with different formats (tutoring, small group) were developed. In a validation study, it was asked to what extent preservice teachers show teaching skills discriminating students in their teaching quality. Furthermore, the relationship between performances in different M-Teach formats was investigated and compared with teaching in real classrooms. Finally, how preservice teachers experience teaching in M-Teach events and how their subjective experience is related to their performance was analyzed. As a sample, a full cohort of preservice teachers in the fifth semester of a Bachelor teacher education program in Germany (N = 89) participated. All participants taught two M-Teach formats of tutoring and small group teaching based on a standardized instruction and research design procedure. Video analysis of M-Teach event performance revealed that preservice teachers show relevant teaching skills with variations in teaching quality. The performance scores show a quite high stability between different formats (tutoring, small group) and are systematically related to performance in classroom teaching. Participants judge self-efficacy as high and the challenge of implementation as medium to low. The findings indicate that M-Teach events show a high fidelity for formative assessment purposes and can be used in further studies as measures for assessing the acquisition of relevant teaching skills in the area of educational-psychological competencies.
... Este tipo de estudios que vinculan la formación inicial con el resultado de sus egresados en terreno tienen un alto potencial de impacto, sin embargo son costosos pues requieren programas de investigación que hagan un seguimiento longitudinal de muestras importantes y representativas de los egresados. En este contexto, se requieren estudios que analicen la efectividad a partir de datos agregados sobre el desempeño de los estudiantes de pedagogía al egresar de la carrera (Brouwer, 2010;Cochran-Smith y Zeichner, 2005;Wilson, Floden, & Ferrini-Mundy, 2002). ...
... Teacher education faces the challenge of assessing effectiveness of their programs and choosing indicators and instruments that provide valid and reliable measures of educational outcomes (Darling-Hammond, 2010;Seidel, 2012). With the aim of supporting students' learning processes proximal to effective classroom teaching (Brouwer, 2010;Darling-Hammond & Bransford, 2005;Grossman et al., 2009), the measure of knowledge acquisition representing the integration of theory and practice is seen as crucial part of teacher education (Borko, 2004;Cochran-Smith & Zeichner, 2005;Putnam & Borko, 2000;Seidel, Blomberg, & Renkel, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we present an approach to validating the video-based Observer Extended Research Tool, which empirically captures prospective teachers’ professional vision in a standardized yet contextualized way. We extended the original Observer tool with the aim of providing a reliable, efficient measure for subpopulations in different consecutive phases of teacher education (university and induction phase). Therefore, we expand the measure to include a broader spectrum of knowledge about effective teaching by drawing on a cognitive process- oriented teaching and learning model while at the same time the number of test items is shortened to ensure a economically manageable assessment tool. In the validation study, we tested the extent to which the extension meets the criteria of context validity, reliability, and sensitiveness for different subpopulations. The participants were 317 preservice teachers and teacher candidates who worked with the Observer Extended Research Tool. Measurement quality was investigated using methods of item response theory. Our results confirm that the Observer Extended Research Tool provides a reliable measure of description, explanation, and prediction as aspects of professional vision within and across different subpopulations in teacher education.
... Teacher candidates with high levels of self-efficacy may feel confident referring to their knowledge and skills and thus do not consider suggestions from the discourse and see no need for reflection or change. Strengths and limitations of the study One strength of our study is that it makes an empirically-based contribution to the field of teacher learning which is rather limited (Brouwer 2010). The study adds to the research on beginning teachers' professional development by examining the cognitive processes underlying these changes, which so far have been rarely studied (Desimone 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates whether the quality of discourse during teacher induction classes predicts beginning teachers' reflection and beliefs about teaching and learning math-ematics. In a study with repeated measurements (interval 10 months), transmissive and constructivist beliefs of 536 German teacher candidates in their 2-year induction phase from 100 different seminars were assessed twice by questionnaires. In addition, the teacher candi-dates' reflection, their motivational-affective resources (self-efficacy, enthusiasm and emotional exhaustion) and their perception of discourse quality in the seminar (discussing different points of view and sharing experiences only) were assessed. Multilevel regression analyses confirmed a mediation effect: In seminars where candidates actively discussed different points of view, they showed higher levels of reflection. Reflection, in turn, was related to increased constructivist and decreased transmissive beliefs. This mediation effect was not found for seminars where experiences were only shared, not juxtaposed. The association between discussing different points of view and reflection was moderated by teacher candidates' enthusiasm and emotional exhaustion. The results support the relevance of deep processing and individual resources for the process of belief change. Keywords Teacher beliefs . Induction phase . Reflection . Motivation . Constructivist learning theory Teachers' beliefs about teaching and learning are an important aspect of teachers' professional competence (Fives and Buehl 2012), as they influence their instructional behaviour and
... followed by a professional learning phase in schools (Bauer and Prenzel 2012). In providing knowledge about what constitutes effective teaching and learning (Cochran-Smith 2003;Darling-Hammond 2006;Darling-Hammond and Bransford 2005;Noell and Burns 2006), universities aim to support professional knowledge acquisition related to instructional practice (Brouwer 2010;Darling-Hammond and Bransford 2005;Grossman et al. 2009). To enable preservice teachers to apply what they have learned to practice, the educational programs are required to foster the development of well-defined and differentiated knowledge connected to multiple instructional contexts (Borko 2004;Putnam and Borko 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
Preservice teachers’ professional vision is an important indicator of their initial acquisition of integrated knowledge structures within university-based teacher education. To date, empirical research investigating which factors contribute to explaining preservice teachers’ professional vision is scarce. This study aims to determine which factors are related to preservice teachers’ incipient professional vision and may constitute necessary conditions for development processes. The participants were 55 preservice teachers who completed a questionnaire investigating their individ- ual characteristics and opportunities used for learning and a video-based tool assessing their professional vision regarding generic pedagogical knowledge of teaching and learning. We conducted multiple regression analyses to identify relevant factors. The results showed that the number of attended courses on teaching and learning and the level of interest in the content are closely related to higher levels of professional vision. No relation was found with practical experience. It is concluded that professional vision is related to conditions of content-specific knowledge acquisition, as provided in formal teacher education programs.
... Further, to our knowledge, no empirical studies have yet investigated the development of teachers' self-regulatory styles over the course of their education and career. Thus, before we can claim that professional competence develops over teacher education and professional development, more research is needed on the developmental trajectories of different aspects of teacher competence (Brouwer, 2010; Desimone, 2009). Finally, as a fourth issue, we consider our study a starting point for further research investigating the interplay between different aspects of professional competence and general ability in more detail. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge, professional beliefs, work-related motivation, and self-regulation as aspects of their professional competence. Specifically, it examines how these aspects impact instruction and, in turn, student outcomes. In a nationally representative sample of 194 German secondary school mathematics classes, multiple measures were used to assess teacher competence, instructional quality, and students’ achievement and motivation. The effect of teachers’ professional competence on student outcomes was estimated in a 1-year repeated-measures design. Two-level structural equation models revealed positive effects of teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge, enthusiasm for teaching, and self-regulatory skills on instructional quality, which in turn affected student outcomes. In contrast, teachers’ general academic ability did not affect their instruction. The multidimensional model of teachers’ professional competence introduced in this article seems suited to stimulate further research on the personal indicators of teacher quality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
... This study aims at deepening the scientific understanding of conceptual knowledge acquisition and development of professional vision in initial teacher training at universities. Teaching and learning courses with two key objectives are investigated: equipping teacher candidates with declarative knowledge base about effective teaching (and learning), which are necessary for later teaching practice, and enabling them to apply this conceptual knowledge to authentic classroom situations (Brouwer, 2010;Darling-Hammond & Bransford, 2005;Koster, Brekelmans, Korthagen, & Wubbels, 2005). ...
Article
Background. Teachers’ professional vision includes the ability to apply general pedagogical knowledge about components of effective teaching and learning to reason about significant features of classroom practice. It requires teachers to (a) describe, (b) explain, and (c) predict classroom situations. Although the acquisition of underling knowledge can be considered as a key element of university-based teacher education programmes, to date, there has been little empirical research on teacher candidates’ development of professional vision. Aims. This study aims to improve understanding of how different university-based courses in teaching and learning impact the development of professional vision. Sample. Participants were teacher candidates (N= 53) attending the same teacher education programme at a German university. They were enrolled in one of three different compulsory courses in teaching and learning, lasting one semester. Methods. In a pre-test–post-test design, participants’ declarative knowledge about teaching and learning was measured with a test, professional vision with the online tool Observer. Analysis of covariance and multivariate analysis of variance were conducted. Results. Teacher candidates in all three courses showed significant gains both in declarative knowledge and professional vision. Patterns of results differed depending on the course attended. A video-based course with a focus on effective teaching resulted in highest gains in prediction of the consequences of observed events for student learning processes, which is the highest level of knowledge transfer. Conclusion. The development of professional vision is a strongly knowledge-guided process. In line with their content and aims, university-based courses can enhance teaching-relevant knowledge for teacher candidates.
Article
Background As prospective teachers traverse the early stages of their careers, their first experiences of teaching (both in-course and in-classroom), and the transitions between them, need to support the growth of their professional learning. In the context of STEM education, more needs to be understood about pre-service teachers’ lived experiences of these initial sessions, and the transitions between them, so that teacher educators can better prepare and support pre-service teachers to learn from these experiences and advance along their professional pathways. Purpose This study sought to explore primary teachers’ lived experiences of teaching science for the first time, firstly within a science teaching methods course, and then within a practicum. Methods Participants were 24 pre-service primary teachers attending a primary school teacher preparation programme in the USA. A phenomenological approach was adopted to describe the essence of the pre-service teachers’ lived experiences in teaching science for the first time, initially in a science teaching methods course and then in a practicum. They were interviewed at two points in time: once after their micro-teaching on the methods course, and then again after they had taught science at least once in their practicum. Data were analysed qualitatively. Findings The analysis suggested that the essence of pre-service primary teachers’ first-time science teaching experiences appeared to be about constructing ‘operating systems’ for teaching science (in the methods course), and then, once they had transitioned to the practicum, reconfiguring their operating systems, in part to align with the mentor teachers’ conceptualisation of what constituted science instruction and learning. Conclusion These findings highlight how the notion of ‘experience as teacher’ could assist science teacher educators in helping pre-service primary teachers to adjust their expectations and support their learning as they transition through the early stages of their STEM teaching journeys.
Thesis
Full-text available
The study aimed to determine the teachers' professional competencies and their proficiency in the core subjects. Sixty eight (68) teachers were chosen as respondents. This study made use of the descriptive-correlational research design. It also utilized percent, weighted mean, and Pearson product moment coefficient as statistical tools. Data disclosed that the proficiency level of teachers in English, Science and Mathematics is moderate. However, the teachers' proficiency level in written expression under the English subject is classified as low. The professional competency level of teachers is generally in the outstanding category. The study also found the following: (a) moderate and significant relationship between the teachers' position and two areas in Science (predicting and communicating); (b) moderate, negative and significant relationship between the teachers' level of professional competence in the area of innovation and their proficiency level in Science; (c) moderate, negative and significant relationship between the teachers' level of professional competence in the area of self-management and their proficiency level in Mathematics; (d) moderate, positive and significant relationship between the teachers' level of professional competence in the area of written communication and their proficiency level in Mathematics.
Chapter
This chapter explains the overview of teacher education; teacher education, technological approach, and learning materials; the perspectives on teacher educator; the perspectives on novice teacher; teacher education and teacher competence; teacher education, teacher identity, and social justice; and the importance of teacher education in global education. Teacher education is a continuous process, starting with preservice teacher education, followed by in-service education and continuing education. The aim of teacher education is to create a pedagogically thinking teacher with adequate amounts of theoretical background knowledge and a reflectively-critical attitude toward the challenges encountered in the teaching profession. Technology pedagogy, the 21st century skills, and ethical approaches are very important for preservice teacher practices. The chapter argues that encouraging teacher education has the potential to improve educational performance and gain sustainable competitive advantage in global education.
Article
Full-text available
This study mainly investigated whether there is any correlation between the Big Five Personality Traits of pre-service teachers and their performance in Practicums I&II, and attempted to identify the extent to which the personality traits affect pre-service teachers' performance. To fulfill the purpose of the study, a sample of 110 fourth-year student-teachers; 86 females & 24 male, of the English Department, in the Faculty of Education at Hodeidah University, was selected‎. ‎They enrolled in the four-year B.Ed. course. The Big Five Inventory (BFI) originally developed by John & Srivastava (1999) with little modification was distributed among the selected subjects. This inventory comprised of forty-four statements about the big five personality traits that are Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism and Openness. Collected data was analyzed by using simple descriptive and inferential statistical techniques such as mean, Pearson correlation, t-test and f-test. It was found that there is a relationship between the pre-service teachers' performance in Practicums I&II and their personality traits so pre-service teachers' personality DO influence their performance of teaching English. Also, pre-service teachers' personality traits of Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness are nearly same, so no significant difference found among male and females on these three traits. However, significant difference exists among the females and males on the trait of Neuroticism as female student-teacher score higher than males on this trait. Moreover, both male and female pre-service teachers ‎have quite good level of Extraversion and Agreeableness, and similar reasonable level of Conscientiousness ‎and Neuroticism but their level of Openness is a very low. It is recommended that Teacher Personality Development should be a part of teacher education programs and suggest some strategies for development of pre-service teachers’ personality.
Chapter
This chapter explains the overview of teacher education; teacher education, technological approach, and learning materials; the perspectives on teacher educator, the perspectives on novice teacher; teacher education and teacher competence; teacher education, teacher identity, and social justice; and the importance of teacher education in global education. Teacher education is a continuous process, starting with preservice teacher education, followed by in-service education and continuing education. The aim of teacher education is to create a pedagogically thinking teacher with adequate amounts of theoretical background knowledge and a reflectively-critical attitude toward the challenges encountered in the teaching profession. Technology pedagogy, the 21st century skills, and ethical approaches are very important for preservice teacher practices. The chapter argues that encouraging teacher education has the potential to improve educational performance and gain sustainable competitive advantage in global education.
Article
Full-text available
Learning By Teaching (LBT) programs for pre-service teachers in two different environments (technological and face-to-face) were compared using 100 pre-service teachers as subjects. Both programs were based on the IMPROVE instructional method which provides explicit metacognitive steps for LBT with a dual perspective (2P): that of the teacher and that of the learner. The dependent variables Knowledge of Cognition (KC) in learning and in teaching were tested for their immediate and long-term effects in a Technology-Based System group (TBS+2P), and in a Face-to-Face group (F2F+2P). Post-test results of KC have indicated that the TBS+2P group had shown a higher level of conditional and procedural knowledge of teaching. The TBS+2P group has also performed better in measures of long-term effects of declarative knowledge in teaching. Both theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed.
Chapter
This book presents a collection of the most important papers that examined—based on data from the “Teacher Education and Development Study: Learning to Teach Mathematics (TEDS-M)”—the outcomes of mathematics teacher education in terms of knowledge and beliefs, the relationship between opportunities to learn (OTL) during teacher education and outcomes, as well as the relationship between the future teachers’ background and teacher education outcomes. As an introduction, in this chapter the challenges of taking on an enterprise like TEDS-M are discussed. Firstly, the value-added of international studies and their methodological limits are reflected. Second, different approaches to examine teacher education outcomes over time and across countries are presented. In a third step, missing links on the continuum of teacher learning from teacher education through induction up to continuous professional development are modeled. Thus, the state of research on teacher knowledge and teacher beliefs is summarized in a new way. Finally, the practical relevance of studies such as TEDS-M is demonstrated by using their instruments as tools for learning during teacher education. The objective of these four parts is to frame the book by placing its results in the broader context.
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter summarizes the main findings of the COACTIV research program to date, discusses the implications of these findings, and—in the Discussion section—considers the generalizability and practical relevance of the results emerging from the COACTIV research program. In terms of practical relevance, the chapter includes a section drawing direct practical implications for teachers, a section on implications for teacher education, and a section discussing the applicability of the COACTIV measures in other contexts.
Article
Der Berufseinstieg gilt als Schlüsselphase von Lehrerbiographien, doch es fehlen Erkenntnisse zur Entwicklung des am Ende der Ausbildung vorliegenden fachlichen und fachdidaktischen Wissens sowie zu seiner Bedeutung für situationsbezogene und verhaltensnahe Kognitionen. Auf der Basis von Daten aus der internationalen Vergleichsstudie TEDS-M 2008 und seinem 2012 in Deutschland durchgeführten Follow-Up wird in diesem Beitrag über einen 4-Jahres-Längsschnitt mit n = 171 Mathematiklehrkräften der Sekundarstufe I die Kompetenzentwicklung während des Übergangs von der Lehrerausbildung in den Beruf untersucht. Dabei werden mithilfe von drei Testformaten (Papier-und-Bleistift-, Video-Vignetten- und Geschwindigkeitstest) unterschiedliche Indikatoren herangezogen, die auf das Vorliegen von Lehrerexpertise schließen lassen. Neben der Analyse von Niveauveränderungen im mathematischen (MCK) und mathematikdidaktischen Wissen (MPCK) wird in Pfadmodellen geprüft, inwieweit dieses Wissen ein geeigneter Prädiktor für die Wahrnehmung und Interpretation von Unterrichtssituationen einschließlich der Reaktion darauf sowie das schnelle Erkennen von Schülerfehlern ist. Die Ergebnisse zeigen eher unbedeutende Niveauveränderungen im Gruppenmittel (MCK: leichte lineare Vergessenseffekte, MPCK: Konstanz), aber starke Veränderungen in der MPCK-Rangfolge (d.h., geringe Korrelation), was auf unterschiedliche Lerneffekte aus der Praxiserfahrung hindeutet. Bedeutsam sind zudem Unterschiede in der Vorhersagekraft: MCK ist wichtig für den Geschwindigkeits-Indikator von Lehrerexpertise, MCK und MPCK für die Wahrnehmung und Interpretation sowie die Generierung von Handlungsoptionen. Diese Erkenntnisse können zum einen helfen, Entscheidungen hinsichtlich des Unterstützungsbedarfs von Berufsanfängerinnen und -anfängern besser zu gestalten; zum anderen deuten sie auf die Notwendigkeit der frühen Integration von Praxiselementen in die Lehrerausbildung zur Förderung des fachdidaktischen Kompetenzaufbaus hin.
Article
This review presents an overview of research on the assessment of mathematics teachers’ knowledge as one of the most important parameters of the quality of mathematics teaching in school. Its focus is on comparative and international studies that allow for analyzing the cultural dimensions of teacher knowledge. First, important conceptual frameworks underlying comparative studies of mathematics teachers’ knowledge are summarized. Then, key instruments designed to assess the content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge of future and practicing mathematics teachers in different countries are described. Core results from comparative and international studies are documented, including what we know about factors influencing the development of teacher knowledge and how the knowledge is related to teacher performance and student achievement. Finally, we discuss the challenges connected to cross-country assessments of teacher knowledge and we point to future research prospects.
Article
Full-text available
In initial teacher education, it is a challenge to foster the development of teaching skills proximal to classroom action. In this study, the impact of a combined practical and theoretical university-based term on preservice teachers’ professional vision is investigated by a video-based approach to supervising their knowledge acquisition and assessing their learning outcomes. Participants were N = 109 preservice teachers attending a 5-month theory practice term guided through video-based courses about effective teaching and learning. We measured their changes in professional vision using the video-based tool Observer. Our results show that preservice teachers positively change their professional vision during the theory practice term, especially if they show low entry levels at the beginning. Their notes on the observed teaching lessons illustrate these changes.
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter offers a theoretical overview of the development of teachers’ professional competence. Drawing on the literature on teacher quality and teacher education, it discusses two diverging perspectives on the development of teachers’ professional knowledge and skills, namely, the “individual aptitude” approach and the “professional qualification” approach. It then presents a theoretical model that integrates various theoretical approaches that have been used to explain the emergence of interindividual differences in teacher competence. Based on empirical evidence, this model predicts that teachers’ professional competence develops through the active uptake of various learning opportunities and that individual characteristics influence the degree to which teachers utilize these learning opportunities. Moreover, the model assumes that the provision of learning opportunities is dependent on certain contextual variables, such as the education system or school-specific characteristics. This model of the determinants and consequences of professional competence provides a comprehensive theoretical framework for the empirical studies presented in the subsequent chapters.
Article
First findings of IEA’s “Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M)” had revealed differences in the demographic background, opportunities to learn (OTL), and outcomes of teacher education between student teachers from different countries. Two hypotheses are examined: OTL and teacher background are significant predictors of mathematics content knowledge (MCK) and mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK) as outcomes. OTL effects are partly mediated by differential student teacher intake. Data from multi-level models support our hypotheses with respect to gender, high-school achievement, motivation, OTL in mathematics and the mediating effect of student teacher intake. Background affects only MCK but not MPCK.
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports the findings of a two-year longitudinal study of the development of teaching perspectives by four beginning teachers in the United States and examines: (1) the individual responses of the four teachers to the institutional contexts in which they worked; and (2) the nature of the formal control mechanisms which existed in their schools. An elaborated version of Lacey's (1977) construct of ‘social strategy’ is employed to describe the quality of individual responses to institutional pressures. An adaptation of Edwards's (1979) framework of ‘institutional control mechanisms’ is utilized as a heuristic device for examining formal attempts within the schools to direct the actions of the teachers. The findings describe the nature of each teacher's development from the beginning of student teaching until the end of their first year of teaching and raise questions about the commonly accepted view of an inevitable loss of idealism during induction into teaching.
Article
Full-text available
This article examines the peer-reviewed literature on alternative teacher certification programs in the United States to see what can be concluded about who participates in these programs, where participants teach, how long participants stay, how participants’ teaching is evaluated, and how well participants are able to promote student learning.
Article
Full-text available
Federal policy tools for gathering evidence on “What Works” in education, such as the What Works Clearinghouse’s (WWC) standards, emphasize randomized field trials as the preferred method for generating scientific evidence on the effectiveness of educational programs. This article argues instead for extended-term mixed-method (ETMM) designs. Emphasizing the need to consider temporal factors in gaining thorough understandings of programs as they take hold in organizational or community settings, the article asserts that formal study of contextual and site-specific variables with multiple research methods is a necessary prerequisite to designing sound field experiments for making generalized causal inferences. A theoretical rationale and five guiding principles for ETMM designs are presented, with suggested revisions to the WWC’s standards.
Article
Full-text available
Despite longstanding criticisms of teacher education, the weight of substantial evidence indicates that teachers who have had more preparation for teaching are more confident and successful with students than those who have had little or none. Recent evidence also indicates that reforms of teacher education creating more tightly integrated programs with extended clinical preparation interwoven with coursework on learning and teaching produce teachers who are both more effective and more likely to enter and stay in teaching. An important contribution of teacher education is its development of teachers’abilities to examine teaching from the perspective of learners who bring diverse experiences and frames of reference to the classroom.
Article
Full-text available
The authors were asked by the Office of Educational Research and Improvement and the U.S. Department of Education to conduct a review of high-quality research on five questions concerning teacher preparation. As part of that assignment, they were asked to develop a set of defensible criteria for including research in the review. In this article, they summarize what the research says about the five questions posed by their funders, and they discuss the development of the review criteria. The questions included attention to the subject matter and pedagogical preparation of prospective teachers, to the content and character of high-quality field experiences and alternative routes, and to research on the effects of policies on the enhancement of teacher preparation.
Article
Full-text available
New York City represents a microcosm of the changes that are shaking the very foundations of teacher education in this country. In their efforts to find teachers for hard-to-staff schools by creating multiple pathways into teaching, districts from New York City to Los Angeles are in the midst of what amounts to a national experiment in how best to recruit, prepare, and retain teachers. This article provides an overview of a research project that examines features of these different pathways into teaching in New York City schools and the impact of these features on where teachers teach, how long they remain in the classroom, and student achievement in reading and math as measured by value-added analyses. The article provides both a conceptual framework for the study and a discussion of some of the methodological challenges involved in such research, including problems of selection bias, difficulties in documenting programmatic features, and challenges of estimating teacher effects on student achievement.
Article
Full-text available
In this article, the authors argue for the use of ecological models of development in studies of teachers prepared through alternative certification (AC) programs. Previous studies of candidates in AC programs have focused on variables that describe their demographic characteristics. An ecological approach focuses on persons and situates their desires and attitudes toward teaching as shaped by their particular life circumstances and personal histories. This approach was applied to a large-scale study of individuals enrolled in California’s teacher internship program. The results are the development of six typological profiles that capture some of the complexities behind why individuals choose to enter teaching through AC routes.
Article
Federal policy tools for gathering evidence on “What Works” in education, such as the What Works Clearinghouse’s (WWC) standards, emphasize randomized field trials as the preferred method for generating scientific evidence on the effectiveness of educational programs. This article argues instead for extended-term mixed-method (ETMM) designs. Emphasizing the need to consider temporal factors in gaining thorough understandings of programs as they take hold in organizational or community settings, the article asserts that formal study of contextual and site-specific variables with multiple research methods is a necessary prerequisite to designing sound field experiments for making generalized causal inferences. A theoretical rationale and five guiding principles for ETMM designs are presented, with suggested revisions to the WWC’s standards.
Article
Perceived problems of beginning teachers in their first years of teaching are reviewed. Studies from different countries are included. Issues such as the reality shock and changes in behaviours and attitudes are considered also. The eight problems perceived most often are classroom discipline, motivating students, dealing with individual differences, assessing students’ work, relationships with parents, organization of class work, insufficient and/or inadequate teaching materials and supplies, and dealing with problems of individual students. There is a great correspondence between the problems of elementary and secondary beginning teachers. Issues such as person-specific and situation-specific differences, views of the principals, problems of experienced teachers, and job satisfaction of beginning teachers are discussed also. Three frameworks of teacher development are presented which provide conceptualizations of individual differences among beginning teachers. Finally, forms of planned support for beginning teachers are noted. Research using an interactionistic model for the explanation of behaviour is needed.
Article
93 empirical studies on learning to teach were reviewed in order to establish what is currently known about how people learn to teach and to critique the quality of the reporting of that research. Among other observations concerning teacher education, the review highlights the tensions between the hopes and expectations of teacher educators and the expectations and experiences of beginning teachers. While this review supports the findings of others that many traditional programs of teacher education have little effect upon the firmly held beliefs of the beginning teachers, it also provides examples of successful programs. Such programs typically build upon the beliefs of pre service teachers and feature systematic and consistent long-term support in a collaborative setting. It is concluded that this body of research has advanced the field in significant ways, offering new directions for research and program reform. The critique of the papers themselves reveals that authors need to pay more careful attention to data selection and presentation and to the links made between data and conclusions. The review points to the need for a more self-critical stance on the part of researchers and a more ecological approach to research on learning to teach.
Article
There is little empirical evidence concerning the predictive validity of indicators used in intake assessments for alternative teacher education programs. However, pinpointing potentially successful candidates requires predictors of teacher competence, which may be used to assess candidates’ dispositions, knowledge and skills. Available evidence regarding six possible predictors of teacher competence is examined and their limitations and possibilities are pointed out. Recommendations and methodological guidelines are given for developing and using these indicators in valid and reliable ways. Directions are explored for instrument development and assessment practice.
Article
"This paper advocates a validational process utilizing a matrix of intercorrelations among tests representing at least two traits, each measured by at least two methods. Measures of the same trait should correlate higher with each other than they do with measures of different traits involving separate methods. Ideally, these validity values should also be higher than the correlations among different traits measure by the same method." Examples from the literature are described as well as problems in the application of the technique. 36 refs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
In her book, Philosophy in a New Key, Susanne Langer remarks that certain ideas burst upon the intellectual landscape with a tremendous force. They resolve so many fundamental problems at once that they seem also to promise that they will resolve all fundamental problems, clarify all obscure issues. Everyone snaps them up as the open sesame of some new positive science, the conceptual center-point around which a comprehensive system of analysis can be built. The sudden vogue of such a grande ideé, crowding out almost everything else for a while, is due, she says, "to the fact that all sensitive and active minds turn at once to exploiting it. We try it in every connection, for every purpose, experiment with possible stretches of its strict meaning, with generalizetions and derivatives." After we have become familiar with the new idea, however, after it has become part of our general stock of theoretical concepts, our expectations are brought more into balance with its actual uses, and its excessive popularity is ended. A few zealots persist in the old key-to-the-universe view of it; but less driven thinkers settle down after a while to the problems the idea has really generated. They try to apply it and extend it where it applies and where it is capable of extension; and they desist where it does not apply or cannot be extended. It becomes, if it was, in truth, a seminal idea in the first place, a permanent and enduring part of our intellectual armory. But it no longer has the grandiose, all-promising scope, the infinite versatility of apparent application, it once had.
Article
Conducted a 3-yr follow-up study of an earlier examination of changes in teacher's general and professional attitudes, values, and personality traits after college (i.e., "praxis shock"). Findings show the surmounting of the initial professional problems and praxis shock by restoration of self-esteem. The originally observed conservative attitude shift continued on the average, indicating that the phenomenon cannot be considered typical only for the beginning teacher but can persist as an enduring effect of this interaction with the job environment. Teachers initially showing elevated general liberalism became less conservative in their special professional attitudes in both the short and long run than did their generally more conservative colleagues. Contrary to expectations, they did not have to suffer for this higher stability with loss of self-esteem. (11 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Contemporary educational theory holds that one of the pivotal causes of inadequate school performance is the inability of schools to adequately staff classrooms with qualified teachers. This theory also holds that these school staffing problems are primarily due to shortages of teachers, which, in turn, are primarily due to recent increases in teacher retirements and student enrollments. This analysis investigates the possibility that there are other factors—those tied to the organizational characteristics and conditions of schools—that are driving teacher turnover and, in turn, school staffing problems. The data utilized in this investigation are from the Schools and Staffing Survey and its supplement, the Teacher Followup Survey conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics. The results of the analysis indicate that school staffing problems are not primarily due to teacher shortages, in the technical sense of an insufficient supply of qualified teachers. Rather, the data indicate that school staffing problems are primarily due to excess demand resulting from a "revolving door"—where large numbers of qualified teachers depart their jobs for reasons other than retirement. Moreover, the data show that the amount of turnover accounted for by retirement is relatively minor when compared to that associated with other factors, such as teacher job dissatisfaction and teachers pursuing other jobs. The article concludes that popular education initiatives, such as teacher recruitment programs, will not solve the staffing problems of such schools if they do not also address the organizational sources of low teacher retention.
Article
Stage theory represents a concise explanation for change in teacher professional development with gained experience in the classroom. This study examines the self-task-impact stage chronology proposed by concerns-based theory within the framework of longitudinal research on beginning teaching. The study investigated developmental change in a panel (N=79) of beginning teachers across two years utilizing the Teacher Concerns Checklist, a concerns inventory, at six application points. Analysis of variance with Scheffé post hoc tests was utilized to rank categories of concerns and to test whether teacher and school contextual variables would affect these rankings. The results confirm findings of similar longitudinal studies, indicating teachers’ concerns for impact consistently rank highest across time. Additionally, the ranking of concerns categories was not affected by the contextual variables. Two aspects of impact, one academic in orientation and the second consisting of personal and individual concerns for students, emerged as distinct dimensions across time. The author proposes a reconsideration of concerns-based theory for its limited ability to comprehensively explain the complex nature of teacher development. Rather than chronological, concerns are recurring and indicate the need to scaffold linkages between student learning, learning theory, and instructional practices early in teaching careers in lieu of singularly focused managerial aspects of teaching.
Article
In this paper we explore the phenomenon of “shattered images” in the learning to teach process. For our presentation and discussion we draw on: reflective accounts of preservice teachers written prior to, during, and following periods of field experience; our experiences as teachers and teacher educators; and, on our own and other research on teacher education and development, particularly on our ongoing work which focuses on field experiences. We highlight and examine some of the discrepancies between preservice teachers' expectations and experiences, identify and discuss circumstances contributing to the discrepancies, and consider ways in which such inconsistencies might be taken into account in order to develop and maintain productive preservice teacher preparation programs.