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... I made notes during and/or after these field visits which were integrated in the data analysis with the interviews and document analysis [52]. Data gathered in both desk research and interviews was coded and analysed by means of qualitative data analysis software, 16 which made it possible to triangulate findings from different types of sources [53][54][55]. ...
... The pressure on natural resources plays a role in market dynamics and is likely to become increasingly important in future geo-politics. One way of guaranteeing the inflow of (precious) metals into natural-resource poor Europe is by exploiting the resources of the urban mine 55 to their full potential. There is however a major pull for e-waste transports to Asia. ...
... It is not easy to determine whether this last category of actors is legal or illegal. Legal recycling actors face competition (antagonistic interface) from governments that tolerate the 55 The urban mine is a mine of (raw) materials from products, buildings and waste in a society. Urban mining is the idea of using those compounds and elements as resources for new production, thereby avoiding these materials from going to waste. ...
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This article responds to the call for more empirical knowledge about transnational environmental crime. It does so by analysing the case of illegal transports of electronic waste (e-waste) in a European trade hub. Given the complexity and global nature of transnational environmental crime, it is difficult to determine which actors are involved. In this regard, a local research setting allows the actors involved in illegal transports of e-waste to be identified. This research tries to determine whether these actors and their roles can be considered legal or illegal and illustrates the legal-illegal interfaces in e-waste flows. Moreover, this case study analyses the push, pull and facilitating factors and therefore looks at what motivations and opportunities shape the flows of e-waste in locations of origin, transit and destination. The results show that the social organisation and emergence of transnational environmental crime is on a thin line between legal and illegal which needs to be contextualised within the global reality of the locations of origin, transit and destination.
... The research went back and forth between theory and empirical data to reach the most adequate description and explanation for the phenomenon under study. 15 Loosveldt, Swyngedouw, & Cambre, 2007 Within the case-study design different methods of qualitative data-gathering and analysis were therefore triangulated ( ). This PhD study combines document analysis, semi-structured interviews and field visits (4.5. ...
... 51 Leys, 2009, pp. 56-65 The software allowed to triangulate findings from different types of sources ( ;Loosveldt, et al., 2007;Yin, 2009). It helped manage the massive amount of data gathered in the different research phases. ...
... Data gathered in both desk research and interviews was coded and analysed by means of qualitative data analysis software 99 Leys, 2009, pp. 56-65 , which made it possible to triangulate findings from different types of sources ( ;Loosveldt, et al., 2007;Yin, 2009). This case study focuses on a European research setting, because Europe can be considered a forerunner in environmental policy making (Vig & Faure, 2004). ...
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This article discusses the topic of transnational environmental crime and its governance. After illustrating the social relevance of and scientific attention for transnational environmental crime this article turns to a discussion of the implications for the governance paradigm. This raises a number of topics which are subject of analysis in the PhD research about the cases of illegal transports of e-waste and tropical timber within a European research setting. This article explains how this can improve the understanding about transnational environmental crime and its governance. It argues that this topic deserves continued societal and scientific attention.
... The analysis was based on the researcher's notes and transcriptions of the recordings. Data gathered in both desk research and interviews were coded and analysed by means of qualitative data analysis software 21 which made it possible to triangulate findings from different types of sources (Leys, 2009;Loosveldt et al., 2007;Yin, 2009). ...
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This article analyses what the governance reality is of illegal transports of tropical timber in a European trade hub. The frame of analysis used is a nodal-networked governance analysis, which pays attention to the contextual surroundings that shape the governance framework. By means of document analysis and expert interviews, this article provides insights into the facilitating and hindering factors for governance arrangements throughout the tropical timber flows, for actors individually and in their interaction. These findings are related back to both the models of the responsive regulatory pyramid and networked governance. The findings reveal the complexity inherent to governing the illegal trade in tropical timber.
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