Creative Tourism and Cultural Events
Paper presented at the 2nd Forum on UNESCO Creative Cities Network
Icheon, Republic of Korea, 21 October 2010.
Department of Leisure Studies
Recent years have seen increased attention for the creative economy of cities, of which
the UNESCO Creative Cities Network is one concrete example. Most of the activity in
creative cities has focused on the productive aspects of creativity – how to develop the
creative industries, creative enterprises, innovation and creative clusters. However,
effective creative development depends not just on the production of creativity, but also
creative consumption. This paper examines two important dimensions of creative
consumption in the form of tourism and events, and provides examples of how cities
and regions are harnessing creativity in these areas.
Just as the production of culture is an important expression of individual and collective
creativity, so creative consumption has also become an important part of our everyday
lives. The range of creative opportunities has also expanded beyond more formal
participation in the arts towards the creative development of individual experiences.
The experiences that we undergo in our daily lives, during our travels or participation in
cultural events, become important creative building blocks in our own personal
narratives. What we do and experience has become an important part of who we are.
Even if an increasing proportion of our lives in the modern network society is spent
online, most of our significant experiences still involve physical contact with others. In
fact, many commentators on the role of modern communications have noted that
increasing virtual contact strengthens rather than reduces our need for physical co-
presence. This continuing desire to be together, to celebrate and to share experiences
with others has led to the growth of what Robert Palmer and myself have called
‘eventful cities’, places that develop eventfulness as a way of meeting a range of
different cultural, creative, social and economic goals (Richards and Palmer, 2010).
The growth of events also has an important link with the growth of creative tourism, or
the development of creative experiences for, by and with visitors.
The rest of this paper examines the recent development of creative tourism and
illustrates the role that cultural events can play in this development.
Creative tourism as a development of cultural tourism
Growing interest in culture has arguably made cultural tourism one of the largest
segments of the global tourist industry. The convergence of growing consumer demand
and the desire of places worldwide to develop and promote themselves through culture
served to create a cultural tourism boom from the 1980s onwards. Research by ATLAS
has underlined how cultural visits have tended to grow as a proportion of tourism
consumption, reaching 36% of those surveyed in 2008 (www.tram-research.com/atlas).
This growth, coupled with the perception of cultural tourism as high value tourism,
encouraged many countries and regions to develop specific cultural tourism
programmes, and to design marketing efforts targeted at cultural tourists. As a result,
the OECD (2009) has estimated that there are now around 300 million international
cultural tourism trips every year.
The growth of cultural tourism is related to some fundamental shifts in society. As
society has developed, so the basis of human needs and wants has also changed. As
we became increasingly able to satisfy our basic needs for food and shelter, we turned
our attention to the satisfaction of 'higher order' needs, such as status and self-
fulfilment. Scitovsky (1976) has described this development in terms of the shift from
unskilled to skilled consumption, or from outer-directed to inner-directed consumption.
People are no longer just concerned to accumulate goods, but they also want to
develop themselves and their own consumption skills through cultural and creative
At the same time, the nature of production has shifted dramatically. Pine and Gilmore
(1999) have shown that the previous stages of the economy based on the production of
goods or services have been replaced by an economy specialised in the production of
experiences. Increasing competition forces producers to differentiate their products by
adding value, such as additional features or services. However, over time, competitors
can reproduce these features and the value of the product, and therefore productivity,
This competitive spiral can also been seen in cities as well. In globalising world, one of
the most important issues is creating distinction. According to Markusen and Schrock
(2006), distinction may be sought in productive structure, consumption and identity:
• Productive distinctiveness captures relative uniqueness of a city’s production
factors—land, labour, capital and technology.
• Consumptive distinctiveness connotes the unique consumption patterns on the
part of urban residents,
• Identity distinctiveness relates to the extent to which cities are recognised by
residents and non-residents as being culturally unique.
In other words, cities may be distinctive because of their economic base, the
consumption of residents or their distinctive image. Examples of strategies to develop
these different forms of distinctiveness in cities abound, and cultural tourism has been
one of the key areas of such development.
One might also argue that the creative city is a specific strategy that utilises all three
dimensions of distinctiveness simultaneously, by developing the creative industries to
attract the consumption of the creative class and give a distinctive, creative image to
the city. In the past, it might have been sufficient to develop a creative city strategy to
stand out form one’s competitors. These days, however, there are many creative cities,
many creative industry strategies and many creative clusters and districts. Even
creative cities therefore face problems of distinctiveness, and are seeking new
strategies to make themselves unique and different in terms of their production and
Tourism as an industry has also undergone major transformations in line with the rise
of skilled consumption and the experience economy. Tourism is of course one of the
phenomena closely identified with the rise of the service industry, and in many
countries it is the most important single service sector. Tourism grew rapidly in the
latter half of the 20th century because the basic inputs were cheap and easy to mass-
produce. The rise of mass tourism also brought about several negative impacts, such
as overcrowding, environmental problems, degradation of local culture, etc. Cultural
tourism, in contrast, was often viewed as a 'good' form of tourism, which was small-
scale, high-spend and low impact. Perhaps most importantly, cultural tourists
themselves were perceived as desirable visitors, because they were usually wealthy,
well-heeled and well-behaved.
In the past, cultural tourism was largely based on cultural heritage – particularly those
elements of heritage, such as museums and monuments, which can be consumed by
large numbers of people. In Europe, the ATLAS research programme has shown that
over 50% of cultural tourists visit museums and monuments and in Asian countries this
rises to around 60% (Richards, 2000).
However, there is a certain irony in places seeking to develop distinctiveness through
cultural tourism. In fact, many places follow similar strategies in order to achieve
uniqueness, which ends up making those places feel and look the same. This is the
problem of 'serial reproduction' described by Richards and Wilson (2006). They
identified a number of generic cultural tourism strategies, which include:
Iconic structures (e.g. the Guggenheim Bilbao)
Megaevents (e.g. the World Expo)
Thematization (e.g. Seoul Design City)
Heritage mining (e.g. World Heritage Sties)
These strategies are recognisable in cities across the globe, and the means of
consuming these products are also becoming increasingly familiar: the tourist bus, the
city card, the guided tour. Russo (2002) argues that for many tourist cities there is a
vicious cycle related to the growth of mass cultural tourism, in which growing number of
tourists begin to devalue the very experience that they came for. As Richards (2008)
stated at the Santa Fe Conference on Creative Tourism:
'Trooping through cathedrals or museums or art galleries with hundreds of other
people is increasingly being seen as an experience to be avoided rather than
It seems that just as cultural tourists are becoming more experienced, more
sophisticated and better able to structure their own tourism experiences, so the cultural
tourism product being offered is becoming more standardized, more rigid and less
satisfying. The ATLAS research has indicated that the experiences enjoyed most by
cultural tourists tend to be those small-scale, less visited places that offer a taste of
'local' or 'authentic' culture. Tourists increasingly say that they want to experience local
culture, to live like locals and to find out about the real identity of the places they visit.
These trends mean that there is increased demand for authentic, high quality cultural
experiences on the part of both city residents and visitors. Supplying such experiences
provides significant challenges for cities across the globe. The following sections of the
paper examine the phenomenon of creative tourism and provide some case studies of
how creative tourism and events can be developed.
The challenge of creative tourism
Faced with these changes in the nature of experience production and consumption,
destinations could continue offering the same mass cultural tourism products they
always have, but they do this at the risk of losing an opportunity to develop tourism
creatively and to develop what we have termed ‘creative tourism’.
Richards and Raymond (2000:18) originally defined creative tourism as:
Tourism which offers visitors the opportunity to develop their creative potential
through active participation in courses and learning experiences which are
characteristic of the holiday destination where they are undertaken.
The growing trend towards creative tourism reflects the increasing desire of some
consumers to use their holiday time for self-development and learning, as well as a
degree of disillusion with current modes of cultural tourism. The creative tourist is
usually keen to get to know a culture from the inside and meet ‘real’ people and
experience their everyday lives. Learning a craft or skill direct from local producers is
one effective way of achieving this.
Creative tourism is therefore about tourists getting actively involved in the creative lives
of the places they visit and meeting and interacting with local people. Active
involvement in creativity makes a deeper impression on tourists, implies the need for
them to stay longer in the destination and offers the opportunity to develop meaningful
relationships with the local community, enhancing the likelihood they will return.
Creativity also has important effects on tourism because:
It creates ‘atmosphere’
It feeds on people’s need for self-development
It creates a direct link between the culture of the tourist and the host population
It can refresh stale tourism products
Utilising creative tourism also involves creativity on the part of the destination, since
products need to be developed for a skilled, creative audience, often in conjunction
with the consumers themselves. This means that places need to pay attention to a
number of key aspects of creativity in tourism:
Developing creative potential
The tourist needs to be provided with the tools to develop their own creative
potential, and to take something more than souvenirs home with them.
Creating active involvement
The consumer should be actively involved in the creative process, and this
involvement creates the potential for genuine exchange and engagement with local
people and local culture.
Providing characteristic experiences
Creativity can happen anywhere, but the important thing is to link the creative
process to the destination and to anchor it in local culture, creativity and identity.
This requires not just creativity on the part of the tourist, but also the destination.
The concept of creative tourism implies a level of co-creation, or co-makership
between visitors and locals (Binkhorst, 2007).
Creative tourism can take many different forms – in fact, the range of creative tourism
possibilities are only limited by the creative imaginations of the cities and their visitors.
Our research on the relationship between tourism and creativity suggest that there are
a number of ways in which they can be linked in order to enhance the tourism product
and the visitor experience.
Types of creative tourism experiences
Creative tourism covers a range of different types of experiences, ranging from more
active involvement in more formal settings (such as educational courses and
workshops), through to more passive forms of creative consumption, such as cultural
itineraries or designer shops.
Cultural and creative events are a particularly useful vehicle for the development of
creative tourism, because they involve a range of different stakeholders and can also
encompass a range of experiences catering to different consumer and producer needs.
As Sedita (2008) has suggested, events can also act as a catalyst to bring different
networks together, exploiting the ‘structural holes’ that exist to develop new forms of
collaboration and new products and experiences.
The role of events
This networking quality of events is one reason why cities around the world have
become more interested in using events to achieve a range of desired cultural, social
and economic outcomes. As Richards and Palmer (2010) have argued, cities are
increasingly developing cultural and other events because there is a widespread
• Events are more flexible than certain types of fixed physical infrastructure.
• Events can help to differentiate physical environments threatened by ‘serial
• Events have greater ability to offer ‘spectacle’ and ‘atmosphere’.
• Events generally meet the need for co-presence and the feeling of ‘being there’.
• Events can cost less and achieve greater impact in the short-term.
The development of ‘eventfulness’ can help cities to become more attractive places for
residents and visitors alike. At the same time, they can also strengthen the stakeholder
networks and ‘orgware’ which is so important in supporting the creative potential of
cities. Cultural events can function as ‘structural holes’ in the social fabric of the city.
They are a special window in time which opens up new possibilities for creative
development by unfreezing existing relationships and forging new ones. Events attract
attention, and they focus that attention onto the creation of new possibilities. Many
cities have therefore seized on the catalytic nature of major events as a means of
transforming the city – including Seoul, Shanghai, Montreal, Glasgow, Lille and
Liverpool. But even small scale events can create change and produce positive
creative outcomes for places.
However, simply staging events is not enough. There needs to be creative vision and
overall management of the event ‘portfolio’ to achieve maximum effectiveness.
The key factors in developing a programme for a successful eventful city are in our
Context: the city must develop a programme that is appropriate for the city
at the time. Each city may be at a different phase of its historical, cultural,
social and economic development, and this context must be taken into
Local involvement: the engagement and ownership by the local population
needs to be managed in an appropriate and effective manner.
Partnerships: the development of partnerships with many different
stakeholders is of primary importance, and these may include event-driven
cultural institutions, local independent associations and groups, business
and tourism sectors and social services/community organizations.
Long-term planning: both advance planning of the event programme and
legacy planning are essential.
Clear objectives: clearly defined aims and objectives must be developed.
Strong content: the programme should be unique and visible with a
balance of different types of projects.
Political independence and artistic autonomy: the event programmes
should not be influenced by political interests, and the operational structure
should have artistic or programming autonomy.
Good communication and marketing: a clearly defined communication
strategy is indispensable.
Sufficient funds: a confirmed budget should be in place as early as
possible in the preparation phase.
Strong leadership and committed team: an independent director with an
international vision and leadership skills to head a team of committed staff
should be recruited.
Political will: the project needs political support to ensure sustainable
These basic ‘critical success factors’ are important in the development of any eventful
city. But the effective deployment of creativity in the eventful city requires particular
attention for three issues: the involvement of local citizens, the co-creation of events
with different partners and the willingness to take risks. The examples of creative
tourism and events provided in the following section illustrate the importance of these
factors in creating successful creative projects.
Case studies of creative tourism and event development
The key to developing creative tourism is to start from your own creative strengths. In
this sense, every place has different potential and challenges. I will therefore run
through a few different examples to give an idea of the range of different types of
creative tourism products and events that can be developed.
The concept of creative tourism actually sprang from the EUROTEX craft project
(Richards, 1999), and this is also one sector in which a wide range of different types of
creative tourism have been developed. Contemporary craft production faces a number
of challenges, including:
• How to valorize the skill content of craft
• How to distinguish craft products from mass produced goods
• High levels of competition
• How to develop quality
By providing direct experience of the creative process, creative tourism can help to
address these issues. By seeing the creative process for themselves, creative tourists
can appreciate the true value of craft production and the different skills involved. This
also creates a bond between producer and consumer, which leads to a higher
propensity to purchase and greater satisfaction with the experience.
In Santa Fe, for example, the conference on Creative Tourism organized with the
UNESCO Creative Cities Network help to stimulate a wide range of new craft-based
creative tourism products, including pottery, weaving, jewelry-making, glass-making
and weaving. The Creative Tourism New Zealand network (see below) is also heavily
craft-based, with weaving, bone carving, felt making, pottery and wood turning. These
experiences can have real impacts on the craft producers and their business. In
Portugal the number of craft producers participating in craft routes established by
EUROTEX increased from 35 in 1998 to 60 in 2001. Sales of crafts through tourist
offices increased five-fold between 1999 and 2002. An evaluation of the project carried
out in 2006 indicated that over 60% of crafts producers thought that the crafts
promotion was successful and that sales through tourist offices were effective in
expanding the market (Richards, 2010).
Although such craft-based projects may open up new opportunities, they also bring
their own challenges. One of the implications of craft-based creative tourism has been
that local craft producers not only need to learn new marketing skills, but that they also
need to learn how to deal with and relate to visitors. This is not just a question of
marketing, but involves the whole process of service design, which is crucial in the
ability of enterprises to deliver high quality creative experiences (Miettinen, 2009).
Creative Tourism Networks
One of the important lessons from the development of creative craft tourism is that
collaboration and networking between producers is extremely important. The principle
of networking is now being applied to creative tourism development in general.
The most developed creative tourism network can be found in New Zealand, where
Creative Tourism New Zealand has been established as a network of creative
businesses offering products to tourists (www.creativetourism.co.nz). The network
provides a wide range of creative experiences, including bone carving, Maori language
classes, weaving, felting and woodwork and New Zealand gastronomy. The focus is
very much on learning experiences, with a range of hands-on workshops being run by
local tutors (Raymond 2007). Originally located in the small city of Nelson, this network
now has national coverage and is frequently featured in guide books on the country.
Creative Tourism Barcelona (www.barcelonacreativa.info) takes a slightly different
approach, acting as an intermediary to link creative producers in the city with people
from other parts of the world who want to engage in creative activities there. This more
artistic approach to the development of creative tourism provides a platform through
which potential creative tourists can indicate the types of creative activities they are
interested in, and they are then put in touch with local creative sector actors who can
provide the facilities or resources to make it happen. As their website says, they
provide: ‘Customized solutions to meet the specific requests of tourists and artists
wishing to discover our city creatively or to exert their talents.’ More recently, Creative
Tourism Barcelona has also been developing more specific creative activities with
creative producers which can be offered to groups of 'creative tourists' on demand.
Creative Tourism Barcelona has also begun to develop international collaboration
through partnerships with cities such as Paris and Rome. In the future, they hope to
expand these activities still further to create an international network for creative
tourism, which is planned to be launched at a conference in Barcelona in December
Cultural and creative events
Interestingly, many of the current UNESCO Creative Cities are also strongly featured
as good examples of cultural event development in our book on Eventful Cities,
particularly Edinburgh, Montreal, Melbourne, Glasgow and Berlin. This illustrates an
important point about cultural events – they will often thrive in cities which take culture
seriously. If the cultural ecology of the city is strong, its cultural events will be strong,
and they in turn will contribute to a positive cultural climate. Rather than use these
relatively well-known examples, however, I will draw on other places from which there
may be lessons to be learned.
In the Dutch City of Den Bosch, the creativity of the painter who took his name from the
city, Hieronymus Bosch, is being used as the inspiration for a series of creative events
to mark the 500
anniversary of his death in 2016 (www.bosch500.nl/). Bosch was a
highly creative painter whose fantasy-rich depictions of paradise and hell have inspired
generations of artists, including Pieter Bruegel, Goya, Salvador Dali and other
Surrealists. An interesting challenge for the city of Den Bosch is that they do not have
any paintings by the artist himself – they all hang in important art museums elsewhere
in the world. So instead of organizing the usual blockbuster exhibition, the city has
taken a much more creative approach to the celebrations, developing events which
involve the local population in themes linked to the painter. Such events include a
‘Bosch Parade’ or procession along the river that runs through the centre of city, with
boats or ‘floating artworks’ inspired by Bosch. There is also a Bosch Young Talent
Show, bringing together young artists whose work is inspired by Bosch. A Bosch diner
was held for 500 people in the market square in the centre of the city, bringing together
cooking teams from different neighbourhoods in a ‘Palio-style’ cooking competition
themed on the medieval culture of the city.
The event is being developed in partnership between the city, the cultural sector,
educational institutions and the local community. The city and a range of sponsors are
investing some €36 million in a multiannual programme which is expected to attract
hundreds of thousands of visitors and create an economic impact in excess of €100
million. The event programme is supported by an international network of cities which
house artworks by Bosch, including Rotterdam, Ghent, Brussels, Vienna, Madrid,
Lisbon, Paris, London, Berlin, Washington and New York. In order to stage a Bosch
exhibition in 2016 a major restoration project is being planned, where cities in the
network will have their Bosch paintings restored in return for their loan for the
exhibition. Interestingly this event also makes it clear that there are considerable
advantages to be gained from cities working in collaboration on a global basis, rather
than concentrating on the competitive aspects of globalization.
Creativity is not just the preserve of great painters or the contemporary creative sector.
Increasingly cities are realizing that the biggest source of creativity lies in the local
population. In the Swedish city of Umea, for example, the bid to stage the European
Capital of Culture in 2014 is being run on an open source principle. Instead of the
programme being designed by 'experts' in the cultural sector the event is being planned
and programmed with direct involvement of local people. For example, local
schoolchildren created a blog which was used as the basic script for an opera
performance to which they were later invited. By extending this open source or co-
creation concept to the national and international arena, this also becomes a strategy
to develop creative tourism. The audience is not there simply to consume, but also to
take an active part in producing the experience.
Co-creation can also be the basis for local events in the city. The Festes de Gràcia is a
local festival in a district of Barcelona which has developed into a major celebration for
the whole city. The key element of this event is the decoration of local streets by
residents, using recycled materials. Each street is themed, and there is a high level of
creativity involved in creating a totally new space from discarded items such as water
bottles and milk cartons. The event attracts some 2 million visits a year, at a time when
much of the life of the city is on hold because of the intense summer heat. In Brussels,
local creative energy has been harnessed in a similar way by the Zinneke Parade in
Brussels This parade loops around the inner ring road of the city and then converges in
the centre to bring different districts of the city together in a ‘future urban ritual’. Each
group works on their own costumes and floats within the overall theme of the year, and
the development of ideas and materials is devolved to a series of open workshops
around the city. The 2008 edition attracted more than 23000 parade participants,
boosting the creative capacity of the local community and providing support for local
artists. The Zinneke Parade was one of about 30 major cultural projects stimulated by
Brussels 2000 European Capital of Culture, emphasising the long-lasting cultural
impact of this event.
Co-creation can be a basis for even smaller, locally-based events. Ceolas is a week-
long music school that was established on the island South Uist in Scotland in 1996 by
the Gaelic Arts Agency (McLean, 2006). During the week-long programme, a wide
range of events, concerts and activities are organised, and the number of people
attending Ceolas events has varied between 2000 and 3500, almost as many as the
total population of the island (4000). The event fills all the available beds in South Uist
for a week, boosts visitor spending and helps to develop interest in local culture. The
festival has increased pride in local culture among residents and raised social
cohesion. In spite of the isolated location of the island, many of the participants come
from abroad. The development of social events and the house ceilidhs have integrated
the visitor into the life of the island and cleverly transformed the visitor, who may think
of themselves as an outsider, into someone who is part of the life of the island – even if
it is only for one week in the year.
Implications for the creative city
What are the important points that cities need to consider in developing creative
tourism and events?
Firstly, there is a need for a holistic approach. Very often, creativity, tourism or event
strategies are developed in isolation, with a minimum of linkage with other sectors or
between production and consumption related issues. Cities need to achieve a very
difficult balancing act in terms of creativity, which is to plan carefully for spontaneity.
Planned spontaneity leaves room for creative risk-taking, innovation and co-creation,
but at the same time provides a secure framework in which stakeholders are happy to
Cultural events are important in this process, because they represent windows of
opportunity or ‘structural holes’ in the urban network where new combinations of
stakeholders, events and resources be developed. Castells (2009) has recently
underlined the important role of key actors or ‘switchers’ who can link and acts as an
intermediary between different urban networks. This is the essence of creativity in the
modern networked city, and events and creative tourism can act as conduits for such
Exchanging ideas with others and ‘borrowing’ and adapting concepts from elsewhere
are important sources of innovation. But in relying too heavily on such ‘external’
creativity can bring dangers, for example in the circulation of tired concepts and the
development of ‘me-too’ products. Rather than relying on external creativity, it is
important to stimulate local, home-grown creativity as well. The important thing is to ‘be
yourself’ and to maintain a distinct way of working which leads to a clear identity.
Authenticity is a much abused word, particularly in the world of tourism, and there is not
much agreement about what authenticity really is. But there is little doubt that
authenticity is something that people are increasingly looking for, and they will not find
it in copy-cat festivals or cookie-cutter mega events.
Co-creation is one important strategy that can help cities to develop their endogenous
creativity. By working with local talent each concept can be given a unique home-grown
feel, which avoids many of the problems of serial reproduction. The problem in tourism
terms is that you also need to communicate your creative products clearly to outsiders
as well. So ways must be found of making your culture familiar, by providing links with
other cultures as well as emphasising the unique features of your own creativity.
Successful creative tourism and creative event development therefore requires the city
to develop a range of new skills which hopefully will help in many other areas of cultural
and tourism development as well. Creative tourism can help destinations to rethink and
refit cultural tourism in interesting and innovative ways. in doing so, places can not only
increase their potential to attract creative tourists, but can also increase their general
creative potential, helping to address broader cultural, social and economic problems.
At a very basic level, for example, the recognition of minority cultures as a source of
creativity and skills rather than tradition or cultural objects immediately places these
groups in a new position vis a vis the mainstream economy, the tourism industry, the
tourists and society as a whole. Individuals who possess unique creative skills are
placed in a new position of power as the purveyors of knowledge and the teachers of
skills. The tourist is also transformed from an insensitive individual who is ignorant
about local culture into a pupil and a colleague who is there to receive and exchange
knowledge with their hosts.
Binkhorst, E., (2007) Creativity in tourism experiences, a closer look at Sitges. In G.
Richards and J. Wilson (eds.) Tourism, creativity and development, Routledge, Oxon,
McLean, M. (2006) Developing cultural and creative tourism in the Scottish Highlands.
The case of Proiseact Nan Ealan, the Gaelic Arts Agency.
Miettinen, S. (2009) Prototyping Social Design in Finland and In Namibia Service
Design as a Method for Designing Services for Wellbeing, In IASDR 2009 Proceedings.
International Association of Societies Of Design Research 2009, Oct 18-22.2009 Coex,
Seoul, Korea, www.iasdr2009.org
OECD (2009) The Impact of Culture on Tourism. Paris: OECD
Pine, B.J. and Gilmore, J.H. (1999) The Experience Economy. Boston: Harvard
Raymond, C. (2007) Creative Tourism New Zealand: The practical challenges of
developing creative tourism. In Richards G. and Wilson, J. (eds) Tourism, Creativity
and Development. London: Routledge, pp. 145-157.
Richards, G. (1999) Developing and Marketing Crafts Tourism. ATLAS, Tilburg.
Richards, G. (2000) Cultural Tourism in Europe (Korean Translation). Baek San
Publishing Co., Seoul.
Richards, G. (2008) Creative tourism and local development. Paper presented at the
conference Creative Tourism: A global conversation. Santa Fe, September 2008.
Richards, G. (2010) EUROTEX: Trans-national Partnership Linking Crafts and
Tourism. In: World Tourism Organization (ed.) Joining Forces – Collaborative
Processes for Sustainable and Competitive Tourism. UNWTO: Madrid, pp. 83-89.
Richards, G. and Raymond, C. (2000) Creative Tourism. ATLAS News, no. 23, 16-20.
Richards, G. and Palmer, R. (2010) Eventful Cities. Elsevier: Oxford. 516pp.
Richards, G. and Wilson, J. (2006) Developing Creativity in Tourist Experiences: A
Solution to the Serial Reproduction of Culture? Tourism Management 27, 1209-1223.
Russo, A.P. (2002) The “vicious circle” of tourism development in heritage cities.
Annals of Tourism Research’ Volume 29, Issue 1, January 2002, Pages 165-182
Scitovsky, T. (1976) The Joyless Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.