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Op zoek naar nieuw publiek domein - Analyse en Strategie

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... Want niet alle openbare ruimte is even toegankelijk. "Niet elke openbare ruimte is een publiek domein", stellen Hajer en Reijndorp (2001). Kinderen, vrouwen, sommige groepen jongeren en ouderen zijn doorgaans minder vertegenwoordigd. ...
... Kinderen, vrouwen, sommige groepen jongeren en ouderen zijn doorgaans minder vertegenwoordigd. Hajer en Reijndorp (2001) schetsen het stedelijke veld als een archipel van enclaves. Stadsbewoners gebruiken de stedelijke ruimte op een voor hen betekenisvolle wijze. ...
... Hoewel dit uitsorteringsproces volkomen willekeurig lijkt, blijkt dat veel mensen naar plaatsen gaan die gekenmerkt worden door een specifi eke bezoekerspopulatie: people like us. Hajer en Reijndorp (2001) signaleren dan ook dat al die individuele (en dus in feite sociaal-culturele) archipels op gespannen voet staan met de publieke functie van openbare ruimte. Mensen komen immers niet meer toevallig ergens, het ruimtegebruik wordt in hoge mate gearrangeerd en is overeenkomstig de eigen sociale status. ...
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Steden veranderen van plaatsen die primair gericht zijn op productie naar plaatsen van consumptie. Het opknappen van de openbare ruimte speelt een belangrijke rol in het aantrekkelijker maken van steden voor consumptie. In dit artikel richten we ons op het Amsterdamse Museumplein waarvoor recentelijk tal van vernieuwingsplannen zijn gelanceerd. Met gegevens van onder meer een grootschalig empirisch onderzoek gaan we na hoe dit plein momenteel functioneert en voor wie: voor bewoners, voor toeristen, voor ondernemers, voor politici. In hoeverre wordt het ideaal van een openbare ruimte voor iedereen gehaald, welke processen van in- en uitsluiting zien we? En hoe belangrijk zijn bewoners eigenlijk voor het toeristisch product Museumplein? Dit artikel eindigt met aanbevelingen die het gemengde karakter van het Museumplein kunnen versterken.
... Case studies revealed that when large organisations accommodate in inner-cities, their monoculture, introversion and self-centrism tend to destroy the diversity of existing urban fabrics, from which these recover slowly. Conversely, when organisations create urban environments – see the ambitions of Schiphol Airport, major shopping malls and hospitals – the need for control, uniformity and compatible information, posed naturallyby these organizations, creates a " special stupidity " (Easterling, 2007, p. 84) that operates as an obstacle to the formation of contradiction, complexity and diversity that defi ne urbanity (Boomkens, 2002;Gadet, 1999;Laermans, 1999;Loeckx, 1999;Reijndorp & Hajer, 2001;Worthington, 2008)Duffy pointed to the erosion of corporate territory (Duffy, 2008). The city in its meaning of 'urbs' becomes the new workplace. ...
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This excerpt from the Liber Amicorum for Hans de Jonge tells the origin, aim and development of the Corporations and cities research project as executed at the Faculty of Architecture at the TU Delft since 2004. Author theorizes on the meanings of ‘city’ used in this discourse – urbs, civitas, polis – and the meanings of corporation – building, organisation, oikos. The nine-square grid that arises when the two times three meanings are crossed, allows for situating the discourses of the conference that was held in 2008 and related existing research.
... Hoe dat ook zij, verwondering en irritatie over afwijkend gedrag horen bij de stad. Als het doel zou zijn zo min mogelijk frictie met andere groepen te laten ontstaan, zou dat het einde betekenen van elke vorm van stedelijkheid, opgevat als het ervaren van perspectiefwisselingen en confrontaties met 'anderen' (Hajer en Reijndorp 2001). ...
... New public spaces -shopping malls, theme parks, university campuses, … especially in urban fringes -are capable of combining the growing mobility in society with the exchange of knowledge between mutually uninformed societal groups -"parishes" -and have the potential to evolve to places with agoral characteristics since cultural heterogeneity increases through the temporary presence of those passing-by. (Hajer & Reijndorp, 2001;Van der Wouden, 2002) Open space as public space ...
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Multiplicity and diversity are predominantly related to urban contexts. In highly urbanised and urbanising societies also rural areas seem to be confronted with similar challenges. Rural areas are becoming complex melting pots of diverse societal groups that differ in the functional use of and in the identity they connect to these areas. Because of the historical lead of urban planning in the search for concepts that deal with multiplicity and diversity, urban concepts are a source of inspiration for alternative visions about the spatial development of rural areas. The exploration of green public spaces in world agglomerations reveals three success factors that could also serve as leading principles for the design of these areas. The transformation of a 1.200 hectares rural area in the fringe of one of the city of Ghent into a landscape park is an interesting illustration of the concept of public open space. As often however, the promising concepts used are lost in the translation into a traditional zoning plan.
... These alternatives are situated in the public, semi-public and even more private domain of society and, as a consequence, actually open up the term of 'public space' to this of 'collective space' (e.g. De Sola Morales, 1992; Lofland, 1998; Hajer & Reijndorp, 2001). Based on their accessibility, Van der Wouden (2002), for example, distinguishes public passage places that are meant for flow and conduction of mobility and semi-public parochial places which are meeting places for equally interested people/subcultures/parishes or places and where individuals/strangers also can get acquainted with differently interested people/other subcultures/other parishes (Hajer & Reijndorp, 2001). ...
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Summary Multiplicity and diversity are predominantly related to urban contexts, narrowed to the growing issue of coexistence of ethnic groups. In highly urbanised and urbanising societies also rural areas are confronted with similar challenges. Because of the declining importance of agricultural production and the increasing consumption of rural areas by non-agrarians for other purposes, rural areas become a complex melting pot of diverse societal groups that differ in the functional use of and the identity they connect to these areas. The mutual unawareness of customs and habits seems to be characteristic of the urban context and to become so of the rural context. It appears to be growing into the biggest future challenge for policy, and planning policy in particular. Because of the historical lead of urban planning in the search for concepts that deal with multiplicity and diversity, these urban concepts are a source of inspiration for alternatives that challenge the rusted traditional functional zoning of areas for agriculture and nature in the physical planning of rural areas. After all, it is becoming obvious that functional zoning is outdated, especially for the multiple use and identities of rural areas in urbanising contexts. Alternatively, conceiving these areas as a complement for the leaner public spaces in the city centres opens new perspectives on the cohabitation of societal groups in these areas. As a consequence, planning in rural areas should shift towards the design of elements of public space (paths, attractors, signs, beacons, …) that can facilitate multiple use by and multiple identities for the different groups in rural areas. Examining successes of green public spaces in world agglomerations has revealed three success factors that could also serve as leading principles for the design of rural areas: a rural area with a sufficient surface and in scale related to the built area, a surrounding built edge whose "residents" make functional and/or visual use of the rural area and finally the introduction of an element in the rural area that attracts residents of the built edge or elsewhere and that invites them to explore the rest of the rural area and to meet its users. These design principles also offer the elements for innovative partnerships between farmers, residential inhabitants, vacationers, local governments and other involved actors about the use of and the view on the rural area. Local contracts between these actors could
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Governance in de Nederlandse gezondheidszorg is ingewikkeld. Zorgaanbieders moeten werken in de combinatie van private, publieke en professionals governance. Onderzocht is hoe die combinatie in elkaar zit en hoe governance in de zorg functioneert. Governance bestaat doorgaans uit spelregels en omgangsvormen voor bestuur, toezicht en verantwoording. Deze spelregels en omgangsvormen moeten ervoor zorgen dat organisaties of personen de belangen, die aan hen zijn toevertrouwd, zo goed mogelijk behartigen. Iedere sector in de maatschappij heeft tegenwoordig met governance te maken. Ook de gezondheidszorg. In Nederland wordt zorg en behandeling geleverd door private organisaties en personen. Organisaties zoals ziekenhuizen, verpleeghuizen en thuiszorgorganisaties. Personen zoals huisartsen, medisch specialisten en fysiotherapeuten. Zorg wordt verleend op basis van private contracten tussen zorgaanbieder, zorgvrager en zorgverzekeraar. Zorgaanbieders hebben hun eigen private belangen, zoals de continuïteit van de eigen organisatie. Maar ze moeten ook bijdragen aan de publieke belangen die de overheid voor de gezondheidszorg wil behartigen. En ze dienen rekening te houden met de professionele opvattingen over zorgverlening en de belangen van de zorgprofessionals. Private, publieke en professionele belangen vragen ieder hun eigen governance. Er worden immers verschillende doelen gesteld. Er heersen verschillende morele opvattingen en omgangsvormen, in deze studie aangeduid als moraliteiten. Er gelden verschillende governance principes en er worden verschillende instrumenten gebruikt. Moraliteiten, doelen, principes en instrumenten van private, publieke en professionals governance zijn onderling zo verschillend, dat gesproken kan worden over verschillende governance werelden. Zorgaanbieders moeten functioneren in de combinatie van die drie governance werelden. Ze zijn genoodzaakt steeds afwegingen te maken tussen – en binnen – private, publieke en professionele belangen. Ze hebben te voldoen aan de eisen van de drie governance werelden. Zowel de doelen als de inrichting van de governance kunnen onderling strijdig zijn. In deze studie is onderzocht hoe de combinatie van de private, publieke en professionals governance wereld functioneert voor Nederlandse zorgaanbieders.
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Authorities are increasingly challenged by the globalised media to improve their way of communication to the public. This applies particularly for the management of calamities. In the past government was acting at the top of the information pyramid, but this is no longer the case. Professionals and citizens have become more self reliant and active in collecting information. The hierarchical communication structure has been replaced by a network structure. In case the government is not handling this changed situation adequately it is likely to result in loss of authority and of communication efficiency. In this paper results are presented of two studies carried out in the period 2005-2007 involving in total 110 calamities. The general purpose of the study was to analyze the changing communication landscape of risks and calamities in order to provide government authorities with recommendations to improve communication effectiveness e.g. by applying communication instruments adapted to the new situation. In this context the predictability of the size of the media attention for a calamity has been assessed. If media attention can be predicted in an early phase of the calamity this will provide extra reaction time to authorities and may help to e.g. nominate a spokesperson at the right level from the beginning. The results show that media attention can be reasonably well predicted on the basis of a limited number of criteria. Powerful predictive criteria are e.g. economic damage, number of evacuated people, and a general criterion called the magic factor. This is a container criterion including aspects such as newness, hugeness and related aspects which have as common denominator that they stimulate imagination and have a highly emotional content. Although the study focused on external safety calamities the predictive methodology is also applicable for other types of calamities which have similar time-space characteristics, such as terrorist attacks. Media will however never be completely predictable. Therefore intuition, local expertise, and repeated assessment of the likely media attention are needed to come to a reliable overall judgement.
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