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Veterinary care of the hedgehog

Authors:

Abstract

THE European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) is probably the most frequently treated wild mammal in Britain. Its small size, relative tolerance of human interference and non-aggressive nature make it an ideal species for rehabilitators. The wide range of clinical problems encountered also make it a fascinating subject for the veterinarian.
The
hedgehog
-
as
it
typically
presents
for
clinical
examination
Veterinary
care
of
the
hedgehog
IAN
ROBINSON
AND
ANDREW
ROUTH
THE
European
hedgehog
(Erinaceus
europaeus)
is
probably
the
most
frequently
treated
wild
mammal
in
Britain.
Its
small
size,
relative
tolerance
of
human
interference
and
non-aggressive
nature
make
it
an
ideal
species
for
rehabilitators.
The
wide
range
of
clinical
problems
encountered
also
make
it
a
fascinating
subject
for
the
veterinarian.
Ian
Robinson
qualified
from
Bristol
in
1975.
After
15
years
in
mixed
practice,
he
joined
the
RSPCA
to
run
the
RSPCA
Norfolk
Wildlife
Hospital,
near
King's
Lynn,
which
admits
around
5000
casualties
a
year.
He
holds
certificates
in
sheep
health
and
production
and
in
zoological
medicine.
Andrew
Routh
qualified
from
Liverpool
in
1981.
He
developed
an
interest
in
wildlife
while
working
in
general
practice
and,
in
1994,
joined
the
RSPCA
to
set
up
a
wildlife
hospital
and
cattery
at
Stapeley
Grange,
Cheshire.
He
worked
there
until
1998,
gaining
the
certificate
in
zoological
medicine
in
1997.
Since
then
he
has
been
working
in
wildlife
rehabilitation
around
the
world.
He
is
currently
involved
in
raptor
rehabilitation
in
India.
NATURAL
HISTORY
AND
BEHAVIOUR
The
hedgehog
is
Britain's
only
spiny
mammal.
About
5000
spines
(modified
hairs)
cover
the
dorsal
surface
of
an
adult.
These
are
shed
and
regrown
constantly,
each
spine
lasting
about
a
year.
The
spines
are
hollow
and
strengthened
by
a
corrugated
inner
wall.
They
have
a
pointed
tip
and
a
bulbous
base
preceded
by
a
narrow
neck
at
an
angle
to
the
main
shaft,
which
acts
as
a
shock
absorber
in
the
event
of
a
blow
or
fall.
Strong
erector
and
panniculus
muscles
and
a
massive
circular
orbicularis
muscle
enable
the
hedgehog
to
adopt
its
characteristic
defensive
manoeuvre
of
rolling
into
a
ball,
presenting
an
impenetrable
surface
of
projecting
spines.
Hedgehogs
have
few
predators
-
perhaps
surprisingly
for
their
small
size
-
although
badgers
and
occasionally
foxes
are
able
to
breach
their
defences.
Man
is
a
major
threat.
Hedgehogs
are
still
keepers
because
they
occasionally
take
the
eggs
of
ground-nesting
gamebirds.
Death
or
injury
on
the
roads
is
common
and,
while
they
are
well
suited
to
the
habitat
of
the
suburban
garden,
hedgehogs
also
face
many
dangers
there:
damage
by
strimmers,
entanglement
in
garden
netting,
ingestion
of
garden
chemicals,
and
disruption
of
nesting
sites
are
all
frequent
hazards.
widely
persecuted
by
game-
Age
Hedgehogs
are
insectivores
but
enjoy
a
varied
diet.
Caterpillars
and
moth
larvae,
the
larvae
and
adults
of
beetles,
slugs
and
snails,
earthworms,
toads,
slow-
worms,
small
mammals,
birds
and
their
young
and
eggs,
and
carrion
all
feature
in
hedgehog
diets.
Increasingly,
artificial
food
supplied
by
humans
is
a
regular
dietary
addition.
Adult
hedgehogs
are
solitary
in
nature,
but
share
overlapping
home
ranges,
each
of
which
may
extend
over
several
acres.
A
hedgehog
builds
several
nests
in
its
home
range
and
will
visit
the
nearest
nest
at
the
end
of
a
night's
foraging,
spending
the
daylight
hours
concealed.
It
is
abnormal
to
find
a
hedgehog
out
of
its
nest
and
active
during
the
hours
of
daylight.
The
home
range
is
not
defended
or
marked,
although
aggressive
behaviour
between
males
can
occur
during
the
mating
season.
Hedgehogs
hibernate
at
temperatures
below
80C,
although
they
will
emerge
during
spells
of
warm
winter
weather.
Normal
weight
Appearance
Newborn
2-3
days
7
days
12-20
g
50
g
12-14
days
21
-23
days
100
g
7-9
weeks
Adult
250-300
g
Up
to
1
5
kg
White
spines
covered
by
a
swollen
cutis.
Ears
and
eyes
closed.
Umbilical
remnant
visible
Brown
spines
start
to
grow
Hair
starts
to
grow
Eyes
start
to
open
Deciduous
teeth
start
to
erupt
Permanent
teeth
start
to
erupt
Higher
weights
are
recorded,
especially
when
artificial
food
sources
are
available
In
Practice
*
MARCH
1999
I
0
I
re
I
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128
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Two-week-old
orphan
hoglet
-
a
case
for
hand-rearing
RESCUE
AND
REARING
A
female
hedgehog
may
produce
two
litters
per
year,
the
average
litter
size
being
four
or
five
hoglets.
Juveniles
must
weigh
at
least
450
g
by
the
autumn
to
survive
their
first
hibernation.
In
the
autumn,
as
food
supplies
become
scarce,
hedgehogs
may
be found
out
during
the
day.
This
is
often,
but
not
invariably,
associated
with
ill
health.
Healthy
hedgehogs
benefit
from
supplementary
feeding
at
this
time,
but
weak
and
emaciated
individuals
require
rescue.
These
hedgehogs
can
be
successfully
treated
and
reared
through
the
winter
and
will
remain
active
and
feed-
ing
if
maintained
in
an
artificially
heated
environment.
Radiotracking
studies
indicate
that
both
adult
and
juvenile
hedgehogs
(including
hand-reared
orphans
and
overwintered,
naYve
juveniles)
released
after
a
period
in
captivity
rapidly
adopt
natural
behaviour
patterns,
although
some
dispersal
from
the
site
of
release
may
take
place.
HAND-REARING
ORPHANS
Orphan
hedgehogs
may
be
fed
artificial
bitch's
milk
(eg,
Esbilac;
Pet
Ag)
or
goat's
colostrum
using
a
syringe
or
bottle
and
teat
of
a
size
suitable
for
feeding
orphan
kittens.
Feeding
should
be
carried
out
two-
to
four-
hourly,
and
the
hoglet's
bodyweight
monitored
at
least
daily.
Night
feeds
can
be
withdrawn
once
steady
body-
weight
gains
are
achieved.
After
feeding
it
is
necessary
to
massage
the
anogenital
area
to
stimulate
urination
and
defecation
(a
moist
cotton
bud
is
useful
for
this
purpose).
If
the
skin
becomes
excoriated,
petroleum
jelly
or
a
bland
ointment
may
be
used.
Hoglets
will
often
lap
milk
from
a
bowl
from
an
early
age
and,
by
three
weeks
of
age,
should
be
eating
solid
food.
Complete
puppy
foods
(eg,
Pedigree
Chum
puppy
food)
are
ideal
first
solid
foods.
It
is
important
to
contin-
ue
monitoring
bodyweight
daily
to
ensure
an
adequate
intake
and
weight
gain
until
the
hoglets
are
fully
weaned.
CLINICAL
EXAMINATION
When
disturbed,
hedgehogs sometimes
utter
a
harsh
cough
as
an
alarm
call
and
a
jerky,
jumping
movement,
with
the
spines
erect,
may
be
made
in
an
attempt
to
deter
the
handler.
Most
hedgehogs,
however,
will
simply
roll
up
tightly
when
first
handled.
If
left
undisturbed
on
the
examination
table
the
patient
may
unroll
and
start
to
explore,
allowing
a
visual
inspection,
although
any
attempt
at
handling
usually
results
in
the
hedgehog
instantly
rolling
up
again.
Gentle
stroking
of
the
dorsal
spines
craniocaudally,
using
a
towel
or
glove
if
neces-
sary,
will
often
result
in
the
hedgehog
gradually
(left
and
below)
Reflex
roll
in
an
alopecic
hedgehog
unrolling.
The
handler
can
then
gently
grasp
the
hindlegs
and
lift
the
hindquarters,
taking
care
to
ensure
the
front
feet
remain
in
contact
with
the
examination
table.
This
leaves
the
body
fairly
accessible
for
visual
examination.
Care
should
be
taken
when
handling
hedgehogs,
as
they
will
occasionally
bite.
Hedgehogs
and
zoonoses
The
wearing
of
latex
gloves
when
handling
hedgehogs
is
recommended.
The
most
common
zoonotic
infection
transmitted
by
hedgehogs
is
ringworm.
This
often
presents
initially
as
small
fluid-filled
bullae
below
a
thickened
epider-
mis
and
may
not
always
be
recognised
by
medical
practitioners.
Bites
from
hedgehogs
are
rare,
but
severe
pyogenic
infection
has
resulted
from
cases
of
bite
wounds
which
have
broken
the
skin.
Salmonella
enteriditis
is
of
low
pathogenicity
to
humans
and
has
been
recorded
in
children
(and
also
in
dogs); other,
less
common,
Salmonella
species
represent
a
greater
zoonotic
risk.
Hedgehogs
often
roll
in
faecal
matter
to
anoint
themselves.
Skin
punctures
from
spines
may
therefore
turn
septic.
In
Practice
S
MARCH
1999
91
129
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Conscious
hedgehog
being
unrolled
and
grasped
by
the
hindlegs
to
facilitate
clinical
examination
Pain
will
cause
a
hedgehog
to
roll
up
despite
all
efforts
to
prevent
it.
Some
hedgehogs
simply
refuse
all
attempts
at
unrolling.
In
these
circumstances,
general
anaesthesia
(see
box
below)
is
the
only
option.
ROUTINE
INVESTIGATIONS
Despite
the
fact
that
the
cranial
vena
cava
or
saphenous
vein
may
be
accessible
in
the
anaesthetised
hedgehog,
it
is
difficult
reliably
to
obtain
a
blood
sample,
although
a
microsample
may
be
collected
from
the
nail
bed.
Because
of
these
difficulties,
haematology
and
clinical
chemistry
rarely
feature
in
routine
investigations
in
hedgehogs.
Reference
ranges
are
available
but
tend
to
be
based
on
small
data
sets.
COMMON
DISEASES
SKIN
DISEASE
The
principal
causes
of
skin
disease
in
the
hedgehog,
together
with
recommended
treatments,
are
listed
in
the
table
overleaf.
RESPIRATORY
DISEASE
Lungworm
(verminous
pneumonia)
Two
species
of
nematode
occur
in
the
lung:
Capillaria
aerophila
and
Crenosoma
striatum.
The
intermediate/transport
host
for
C
aerophila
is
the
earthworm.
Bipolar
eggs
can
be
found
in
the
faeces;
however,
differentiation
microscopically
from
those
of
gut
Capillaria
is
difficult
on
standard
wet
preparations.
The
intermediate
hosts
for
C
striatum
are
slugs
and
snails,
while
the
occurrence
of
this
nematode
in
unweaned
hedgehogs
suggests
that
direct
(possibly
transplacental)
transmission
also
takes
place.
Live
larvae
are
found
in
the
faeces.
The
morbidity
rate
associated
with
lungworm
infec-
tion
can
be
very
high.
Virtually
100
per
cent
of
juvenile
In
Practice
*
MARCH
1999
91
Heavy
lungworm
burden
in
a
hedgehog
lung
sectioned
postnortem
131
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p
p
I
pI
a
Clinical
signs/comments
Ubiquitous
and
easily
seen.
Heavy
infestation
may
be
indicative
of
poor
condition
Scurfy
or
scaly
skin
and
spine
loss.
White
mites
just
visible
to
the
naked
eye
(similar
to
Cheyletiella
mites
in
dogs).
Infestation
often
occurs
synergistically
with
dermatomycoses
Demodex
erinacei
Raised
papules
and
crusty
skin
lesions.
Mites
in
sebaceous
glands;
found
on
deep
scrapings
only
Notoedres
cati
Encrustations,
particularly
on
ears
and
around
the
head
Fleas
Archaeopsylla
erinacei
Mites
Caparinia
tripilis
Otodectes
cynotis
and
Sarcoptes
species
Ticks
Ixodes
hexagonus
and
Ixodes
ricinus
Myiasis
Lucilia
and
Calliphora
species
Also
recorded
Small
numbers
of
ticks
are
asymptomatic,
but
large
numbers
may
sometimes
cause
anaemia
(100+
ticks
on
one
small
hedgehog
have
been
recorded).
The
role
of
the
tick
as
a
vector
of
disease
has
been
largely
unexplored
in
the
hedgehog
Both
primary
fly
strike
and
secondary
wound
infestation
occur
from
mid-summer
until
well
into
the
autumn.
Ears,
eyes,
anus
and
genital
openings
are
frequently
attacked
Dermatomycosis
(ringworm)
Trichophyton
Characteristic
crusts
around
base
of
spines.
mentagrophytes
Mites
(see
above)
and
bacterial
infection
(var
erinace,);
often
also
present
occasionally
Microsporum
species
Bacterial
infections
Notably
Staphylococcus
species
Secondary
or
in
conjunction
with
other
disease.
Also
causes
a
primary
exudative
dermatitis
of
the
ventral
thorax
and
abdomen
Topical
ivermectin
Physical
removal
Physical
removal
Various
insecticidal
washes
Topical
coumaphos
Topical
natamycin
or
enilconazole
Oral
griseofulvin
Preferably
based
on
culture/
sensitivity:
amoxycillin/
clavulanate
(30-50
mg/kg
bid);
clindamycin
(5-10
mg/kg
bid);
or
enrofloxacin
(10
mg/kg
bid)
Pyrethrum,
piperonyl
butoxide
or
synthetic
pyrethroids
Treat
only
heavy
infestations
Topical
ivermectin
Ivermectin
by
injection
Topical
ivermectin
bid
Twice
daily
hedgehogs
presented
in
the
autumn
are
infected
with
one
or
both
of
these
parasites,
most
exhibiting
typical
clinical
signs
of
dyspnoea,
coughing,
nasal
discharge,
weakness
and
emaciation.
Mortality
can
also
be
high.
Lungworm
treatment
comprises
levamisole
(27
mg/kg),
fenbenda-
zole
(100
mg/kg)
or
mebendazole
(100
mg/kg).
Bacteria
Bordetella
bronchiseptica
has
been
isolated
from
hedge-
hogs,
infection
often
occurring
secondarily
to
verminous
pneumonia.
Associated
clinical
signs
are
dyspnoea
and
epistaxis.
Pasteurella
multocida
has
also
been
recorded.
Treatment
is
carried
out
with
enrofloxacin
(10
mg/kg
twice
daily),
clavulanate/amoxycillin
(30
to
50
mg/kg
twice
daily)
or
clindamycin
(5
to
10
mg/kg
twice
daily).
Respiratory
diseases
may
also
be
treated
symptomati-
cally
with
mucolytics,
bronchodilators
and
non-steroidal
anti-inflammatory
drugs.
In
hedgehogs
with
severely
congested
respiratory
tracts,
nebulisation
can
be
a
useful
technique.
Mucolyties,
such
as
acetylcystine,
can
be
combined
with
antibiotics;
gentamicin
is
ideal
as
it
is
not
absorbed
systemically,
but
there
are
health
and
safety
implications
in
using
this
technique
and
personnel
should
not
come
into
contact
with
the
suspended
droplets.
GASTROINTESTINAL
DISEASE
Endoparasites
A
wide
variety
of
endoparasites
have been
recorded
in
hedgehogs.
The
ones
most
commonly
associated
with
clinical
disease
are
discussed
below.
*
THREADWORMS.
Capillaria
erinacei
and
other
Capillaria
species
are
found
in
the
intestine
and,
where
very
heavy
infestations
occur,
cause
green
mucoid
diar-
rhoea.
Bipolar
eggs,
often
present
in
large
numbers,
are
seen
in
direct
faecal
smears
but
are
not
easily
differenti-
ated
from
those
of
C
aerophila.
Like
C
aerophila,
the
intermediate
host
of
these
endoparasitic
threadworms
is
the
earthworm.
Treatment
is
as
described
above
for
lung-
worm.
*
TAPEWORMS.
Infection
with
the
tapeworm
Hymenolepis
erinacei
is
usually
asymptomatic,
although
proglottids
are
sometimes
seen
in
faeces.
Beetles
are
the
intermediate
host,
and
the
recommended
treatment
is
praziquantel.
*
INTESTINAL
FLUKE.
The
fluke
Brachylaemus
erinacei
appears
to
have
a
patchy
geographical
distribution,
being
an
important
parasite
in
some
areas
of
southern
England,
Wales
and
the
Channel
Islands,
yet
rare
or
absent
from
northern
England
and
East
Anglia.
Clinical
signs
of
fluke
infestation
are
melaena
and
persistent
restlessness
In
Practice
e
MARCH
1999
Cause
Ectoparasitic
skin
infestations.
(above)
Flea
burden
from
a
juvenile
hedgehog
after
treatment
with
synthetic
pyrethroid
powder.
(below)
Sarcoptes
infection
in
a
juvenile
hedgehog,
diagnosed
from
a
skin
scraping.
This
individual
responded
well
to
treatment
with
ivermectin
by
injection
Treatment
132
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and
unipolar
eggs
are
seen
in
direct
faecal
smears.
Praziquantel
is
the
treatment
of
choice.
*
COCCIDIA.
Both
Eimerita
and
Isospora
species
occur
in
hedgehogs.
Infection
is
usually
subclinical,
but
these
protozoa
can
cause
clinical
disease,
especially
among
hand-reared
orphans
if
hygiene
is
poor.
Clinical
signs
are
bloody
diarrhoea
and
weight
loss.
Oocysts
are
seen
in
direct
faecal
smears.
Treatment
is
effected
with
sulphadimidine,
potentiated
sulphonamides
or
amprolium.
Bacteria
Sao/inne/lla
eniter-iditis
phage
type
11
appears
to
be
endemic
in
hedgehogs.
Deaths
in
wild
hedgehogs
have
been
attributed
to
primary
salmonellosis,
while
acute
salmonellosis
can
cause
problems
in
hand-reared
hedgehogs,
especially
around
weaning.
Clinical
signs
include
persistent
weight
loss,
green
diarrhoea,
rectal
or
bowel
prolapse
and
dyspnoea.
In
unweaned
hoglets
sudden
death
may
occur.
Postmortem
exam-
ination
may
reveal
mucohaemorrhagic
enteritis,
hepatomegaly
and
focal
pneumonia.
In
the
authors'
experience,
swabs
and
fresh
tissue
submitted
by
post
to
laboratories
have
failed
to
result
in
reliable
isolation
of
salmonellae
and
submission
of
whole
carcases
is
recommended.
Various
other
Salmtioniellai
species
have
been
isolated,
including
S
tvpliinuriumn.
Treatment
(preferably
based
on
culture
and
sensitivity)
is
carried
out
using
enrotloxacin.
amoxycillin/clavulanate
or
spectinomycin.
OTHER
CONDITIONS
Dental
tartar
and
gingivitis
Dental
tartar
and
gingivitis
are
seen
in
both
wild
hedge-
hogs
and
those
in
captivity.
A
link
to
the
feeding
of
soft
dog
food
diets
has
been
postulated,
but
not
substantiated.
Wild
hedgehogs
do,
nevertheless,
often
receive
supple-
mentary
feeding
by
householders.
Traumatic
injuries
*
SKIN
WOUNDS.
Many
wounds
are
old
and
contam-
inated
(sometimes
fly
infested
-
see
table
on
page
132)
when
presented,
and
are best
cleaned,
debrided
and
left
to
heal
by
second
intention.
Access
to
skin
wounds
for
cleaning
or
suturing
can
be
improved
by
cutting
the
surrounding
spines
short
with
scissors.
Intrasite
gel
(Smith
&
Nephew)
and
Orabase
(ConvaTec)
are
local
applications
which
have
been
particularly
successful
at
promoting
rapid
healing
in
large
wounds.
*
FRACTURES.
Spinal
fractures
can
often
be
detected
by
failure
of
the
spines
to
erect
caudal
to
the
site
of
injury,
and
by
protrusion
of
the
hindlegs
when
rolled.
Long
bone
fractures
can
be
stabilised
with
intramedullary
pins
(external
fixators
cannot
be
used
as
they
would
be
dislodged
by
the
orbicularis
muscle
when
rolling
up).
Damage
to
the
snout
can
result
in
severe
respiratory
distress
as
hedgehogs
are
reluctant
to
mouth-breathe.
Fractures
involving
the
maxillary
bone
are
not
uncommon;
often
the
fracture
is
just
caudal
to
the
incisor
teeth.
Damage
to
turbinates
may
affect
the
animal's
sense
of
smell
and
have
long
term
effects
on
its
foraging
(A)
The
spines
surrounding
a
contaminated,
traumatic
skin
wound
are
cut
short
with
scissors
to
provide
better
access
for
cleaning
and
debridement
(B).
(C)
The
wound
after
closure
using
a
standard
suturing
technique,
with
a
piece
of
fenestrated
drip
tubing
in
place.
Recovery
was
uneventful
In
Practice
*
MARCH
1999
93
133
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Traumatic
palatine
injuries
carry
a
guarded
prognosis
MEDICAL
TREATMENT
Examination
under
general anaesthesia
revealed
grossly
infected
comminuted
fractures
of
the
radius
and
ulna
in
the
left
forelimb
of
this
hedgehog.
Euthanasia
was
carried
out
ability,
which
must
be
considered
before
release
back
into
the
wild.
*
BONFIRE
DAMAGE.
Hedgehogs
caught
in
garden
bon-
fires
will
often
be
presented
with
patches
of
charred
or
melted
spines.
The
underlying
skin
may
appear
normal
but
often
will
slough
some
days
later,
so
a
period
of
time
inl
captivity
for
observation
is
justified.
Signs
of
respira-
tory
distress
associated
with
smoke
inhalation
are
also
common.
Poisoning
Metaldehyde,
paraquat.
organophosphorus.
alphachlo-
ralose
and
anticoagulant
rodenticide
poisonings
are
all
seen
in
hedgehogs.
The
drugs
and
doses
riven
in
the
table
on
the
right
are
believed
to
be
both
safe
and
effective
in
hedgehogs.
Where
a
drug
is
menitioned
but
no
dose
is
listed,
the
author-s
ftel
that,
although
the
drug
appear-s
to
be
safe,
they
have
insutficient
cxper-ience
or
data
to
suc-est
a
specific
dose
rate
as
effective,
and
it
is
left
to
the
discre-
tion
of
the
cliniciani
to
detei-rmine
a
dosc
followino
the
general
guidelines
discussed
below.
DRUG
DOSAGES
Many
dose
rates
suggested
for
hedgehogs
are
based
on
cat
or
dog
dosages
or
are
empirically
derived.
An
allomnetric
approach
would
calculate
both
the
dose
rate
and
trequenl-
cy
for
a
350
g
hedgehog
to
be
approximately
thr-cc
times
that
of
a
10
kg
dog
(see
box
below).
The
implication,
therefore,
is
that
uLse
of
standard
dose
rates
for
dog.s
and
cats
for
the
treatment
of
hedgehogs
results
in
significant
underdosing.
Howcver
the
disturbance
and
stress
ol
handline
for
such
trequent
drug
administration
may
be
impractical
or
undesirable.
Dose
rates
and
frequencies
are
therefore
often
a
compromise
between
theory
and
practice.
Therapeutic
levels
may
only
be
achieved
inter-
mittently.
Administration
of
drugs
in
food
or
water,
where
appropriate.
may
result
in
a
more
frequent
uptake.
Allometrically
derived
dose
rates
The
dose
of
clavulanate-potentiated
amoxycillin
for
a
10
kg
dog
and
a
350
g
hedgehog,
based
on
the
specific
minimum
energy
cost
(SMEC),
is:
10
kg
dog
12
5
mg/kg
350
g
hedgehog
28
9
mg/kg
2
x
daily
5
x
daily
SMEC
=
K(Wkg
-025)
W
=
bodyweight
K =
constant
based
on
metabolic
rate
(Hainsworth's
energy
group
constant)
Adapted
from
Sedgewick
(1993)
In
Practice
*
MARCH
1
999
136
group.bmj.com on July 4, 2014 - Published by inpractice.bmj.comDownloaded from
0
OI
i
f
I
**
Ii
0
I------
Drug/treatment
Trade
name
Dose
Various
Baytril
(Bayer)
Synulox
(Pfizer)
Ketamine
hydrochloride
Enrofloxacin
Clavulanate/
amoxycillin
Clindamycin
Levamisole*
Ivermectin
Ivomec
(Merial)
Fenbendazole*
Panacur
(Hoechst)
Mebendazole*
Telmin
(Janssen)
80
mg/kg
10
mg/kg
30-50
mg/kg
5-10
mg/kg
27
mg/kg
3
mg/kg
bid
bid
bid
Repeated
three
times
at
24-hour
intervals.
Showing
best
results
for
initial
treatment
of
nematode
infections
May
be
suitable
for
mange.
Not
recommended
as
single
dose
for
lungworm
Diluted
1:9
with
propylene
glycol
100
mg/kg
100
mg/kg
sid
for
5-7
days
sid
for
5-7
days
Droncit
(Bayer)
Negasunt
Powder
(Bayer)
Head-to-Tail
Flea
Powder
(Schering-Plough)
Frontline
(Merial)
Aqupharm
No.
11
and
No.
18
(Animalcare)
Saline
(0
18%)
with
glucose
(4%)
po,
sc
Topically
(sparingly)
Topically
(sparingly)
Topically
Up
to
10%
bodyweight
over
24
hours
As
for
Hartmann's
solution
Duphalyte
(Fort
Dodge)
Zenecarp
(C-Vet)
4
mg/kg
sid
for
3
days
sc,
ip,
10
sc,
ip,
io
po,
iv,
sc,
ip,
io
sc
sid
Once
daily,
bid
Twice
daily,
im
Intramuscular,
po
Oral,
sc
Subcutaneous,
ip
Intraperitoneal,
io
Intraosseous
*Anthelmintic
regimens
suggested
in
the
current
literature,
often
based
on
canine
dose
rates,
can
be
ineffective.
In
a
trial
conducted
recently
by
the
authors
on
overwintered
hedgehogs
in
Norfolk,
use
of
levamisole
at
27
mg/kg
and
ivermectin
at
3
mg/kg
resulted
in
only
a
50
per
cent
reduction
in
the
incidence
of
positive
faecal
smears,
with
no
significant
difference
between
the
two
treatments.
Mortality
due
to
lungworm
within
five
days
of
admission
was
high
and
persisted
for
some
time
despite
frequent
dosing.
However,
repeated
dosing
with
levamisole
at
24-hour
intervals
appears
to
produce
a
significant
reduction
in
both
morbidity
and
mortality,
although
trials
are
still
in
progress.
Oral
benzimidazoles,
fenbendazole
and
mebendazole
appear
to
be
effective
if
administered
at
100
mg/kg
daily
over
five
to
seven
days
and
can
be
given
in
food.
However,
oral
administration
to
inappetent
hedgehogs
can
be
difficult
due
to
reflex
rolling
tHedgehogs
are
reported
to
be
very
sensitive
to
organophosphorous
compounds,
both
as
powders
and
sprays.
In
the
authors'
experience,
these
compounds
are
effective
and
safe
if
used
sparingly.
However,
it
is
very
easy
to
overdose
small
hedgehogs
with
aerosol
preparations,
especially
if
the
animal
is
replaced
in
a
poorly
ventilated
area,
such
as
a
closed
cardboard
box,
after
spraying
Injction
tchnique
*
SUBCUTANEOUS
injections
can
be
given
between
the
spines,
either
superficially
or
deep
to
the
pan-
niculus
muscle
*
INTRAMUSCULAR
injections
are
best
given
into
the
orbicularis
or
purse
string
muscle,
as
this
is
exposed
even
when
the
hedgehog
is
rolled
up.
The
injection
site
is
on
the
ventrolateral
aspect,
at
the
junction
of
the
hair
and
spines
*
INTRAVENOUS
access
is
difficult
Acknowledgement
The
photographs
accompanying
this
article
were
taken
by
Andrew
Routh.
Reference
SEDGEWICK,
C.
J.
(1993)
Allometric
scaling
and
emergency
care:
the
importance
of
body
size.
In
Zoo
and
Wild
Animal
Medicine.
Current
Therapy
3.
Ed
M.
E.
Fowler.
Philadelphia,
W.
B.
Saunders.
pp
34-37
In
Practice
0
MARCH
1999
3
Frequency
Rtoute
Antirobe
(Pharmacia
&
Upjohn)
Levacide
(Norbrook)
Levadin
75
(Vetoquinol)
Ivomec
(Merial)
im
po,
im,
Sc,
Ip
po,
im,
sc
sc
sc
A
few
drops
topically
Praziquantel
Coumaphost
Permethrint
Fipronilt
Hartmann's
solution
Amino
acids,
glucose,
etc
Carprophen
137
group.bmj.com on July 4, 2014 - Published by inpractice.bmj.comDownloaded from
inotropic
support
is
required
to
stabilise
a
patient,
dobut-
amine
can
be
administered
by
constant
rate
infusion.
This
is
only
practical
where
equipment
and
staffing
lev-
els
allow
the
accurate
administration
of
the
drug
and
where
close
monitoring
of
the
patient
throughout
the
period
of
administration
is
possible.
In
the
future,
use
of
other
drugs
with
novel
modes
of
action
may
be
possible
but
data
from
human
trials
sug-
gest
that
long-term
administration
of
inotropic
agents
to
heart
failure
patients
may
be
harmful
except
in
the
case
of
digoxin.
References
BOSWOOD,
A.
(1996)
Rationale
for
the
use
of
drugs
in
the
treatment
of
cardiovascular
disease
1.
Diuretics.
In
Practice
18,
469-476
BOSWOOD,
A.
(1998)
Rationale
for
the
use
of
drugs
in
the
treatment
of
cardiovascular
disease
2.
Vasodilators.
In
Practice
20,
55-63
FERGUSON,
D.
W.
(1992)
Digitalis
and
neurohormonal
abnormalities
in
heart
failure
and
implications
for
therapy.
American
Journal
of
Cardiology
69,
24G-34G
KITTLESON,
M.
D.
(1991)
The
efficacy
and
safety
of
milrinone
for
treating
heart
failure
in
dogs.
Veterinary
Clinics
of
North
America:
Small
Animal
Practice
21,
905-918
KLEEMANN,
R.,
LE
BOBINNEC,
G.,
BRUYERE,
D.
&
JUSTUS,
C.
(1998)
Clinical
efficacy
of
the
new
inodilator
Pimobendan,
in
comparison
to
digoxin
for
the
treatment
of
congestive
heart
failure
in
dogs.
Proceedings
of
the
FECAVA/SCIVAC
congress,
Bologna,
June.
p
513
KNIGHT,
D.
H.
(1991)
Efficacy
of
inotropic
support
of
the
failing
heart.
Veterinary
Clinics
of
North
America:
Small
Animal
Practice
21,
879-904
LUIS
FUENTES,
V.,
KLEEMAN,
R.,
JUSTUS,
C.,
FRENCH,
A.,
SCHOBER,
K.
E.
&
CORCORAN,
B.
M.
(1998)
The
effect
of
the
novel
inodilator
Pimobendan
on
heart
failure
status
in
Cocker
Spaniels
and
Dobermans
with
idiopathic
dilated
cardiomyopathy.
Proceedings
of
the
BSAVA
congress,
Birmingham,
April
PACKER,
M.
(1997)
End
of
the
oldest
controversy
in
medicine.
New
England
Journal
of
Medicine
336,
575-576
SENIOR,
D.
F.,
FEIST,
E.
H.,
STUART,
L.
B.
&
LOMBARD,
C.
W.
(1991)
Treatment
of
acute
digoxin
toxicosis
with
digoxin
immune
Fab
(Ovine).
Journal
of
Veterinary
Internal
Medicine
5,
302-303
.............................................................................................................
CORRECTION
Veterinary
care
of
the
hedgehog
The
picture
showing
endotracheal
intubation
in
a
hedge-
hog
on
page
131
of
the
above
article
(In
Practice,
March
1999,
pp
128-137)
was
incorrectly
orientated.
It
should
have
been
rotated
90°,
to
show
the
animal
in
sternal
recumbency
with
dorsoflexion
of
the
head
to
allow
pas-
sage
of
the
tube.
The
error
is
regretted.
doi: 10.1136/inpract.21.3.128
1999 21: 128-137In Practice
Ian Robinson and Andrew Routh
Veterinary care of the hedgehog
http://inpractice.bmj.com/content/21/3/128
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... Hedgehogs are omnivorous animals. But invertebrates are important food sources, including beetles (adult and larvae), earthworms, caterpillars and moth larvae, slugs, and snails [57,150,151]. In addition, the diet of hedgehogs includes amphibians; small reptiles; small mammals; birds, their young, and their eggs; and carrion [57]. ...
... But invertebrates are important food sources, including beetles (adult and larvae), earthworms, caterpillars and moth larvae, slugs, and snails [57,150,151]. In addition, the diet of hedgehogs includes amphibians; small reptiles; small mammals; birds, their young, and their eggs; and carrion [57]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The helminth fauna of the Northern white-breasted hedgehog Erinaceus roumanicus was studied in the Republic of Mordovia (Russia) for the first time. In total, 9 species of helminths were found in 23 studied hedgehogs: Trematoda—Isthmiophora melis, Strigea strigis (metacercaria); Cestoda—Hymenolepis erinacei; Nematoda—Aonchotheca erinacei, Physaloptera clausa, Crenosoma striatum, Physocephalus sexalatus (juvenile), Agamospirura minuta (juvenile); and Acanthocephala—Nephridiorhynchus major. Four parasite species (the trematode I. melis, nematodes P. sexalatus, A. minuta, and the acanthocephalan N. major) were found in hedgehogs for the first time in Russia. An overview of the helminth fauna of four species of Erinaceus hedgehogs inhabiting the Palearctic region is given. A total of 54 parasite species were recorded across Erinaceus europaeus, E. roumanicus, E. concolor and E. amurensis: 14 trematodes, 6 cestodes, 27 nematodes, and 7 acanthocephalans. Among all the studied species of hedgehogs, E. europaeus (35 species) and E. roumanicus (36) have the richest helminth faunas. The diversity of the parasite communities of Erinaceus spp. is due to the wide distribution and varied diet of these mammals. Most of the helminths found in hedgehogs are transmitted along trophic chains. Hedgehogs are the final hosts for 39 species of parasites. For 15 helminth species, Erinaceus spp. are paratenic hosts. The majority of the hedgehog’s helminth fauna is formed by host-specific parasites, of which there are 13 species. Most of the hedgehog’s parasites in the Palaearctic are facultative (non-specific) species that parasitize in various vertebrate species. The helminth fauna of Erinaceus hedgehogs is most studied in Russia and Belarus, where 17 species of parasites are found in each country. The comparative analysis of the helminth faunas of Erinaceus spp. from various regions showed, on the one hand, the originality of the helminth fauna of each hedgehog species and, on the other, the similarity of the helminth fauna of these insectivores from various countries of the Palaearctic. These features are caused by similar lifestyles and diet peculiarities of every hedgehog species in various regions of the Palaearctic. A total of 12 of the 54 helminth species found in hedgehogs have medical and veterinary significance as causative agents of dangerous helminthiasis.
... The infection is acquired by the ingestion of snail intermediate hosts [43]. Symptoms caused by B. erinacei include excessive weight loss, restlessness and diarrhea, often containing blood [56]. The infection can prove lethal, especially in young hedgehogs. ...
... However, Nephridiacanthus major (syn. Nephridiorhyncus major) is a species frequently reported for infecting the hedgehog worldwide, including in Italy [1,24,60] C. rastegaievae is considered a common protozoan species infecting hedgehogs, and it may contribute to the development of clinical signs such as dark-green droppings and hemorrhagic enteritis in hedgehogs of all ages [56,61]. ...
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The European hedgehog is a synanthropic mammal, widely distributed in Europe. This species usually inhabits the edges of deciduous or mixed woods, but it is also very common in private gardens and public parks. Despite its popularity and frequency of contacts both with humans and with wild and domestic animals, few studies have examined the endoparasitic fauna of the hedgehog in Italy. In the present study, endoparasites of naturally deceased hedgehogs (n = 40) from central Italy (Latium and Tuscany regions) were investigated, along with concurrent gross and histopathological lesions. The most prevalent identified endoparasites were Crenosoma striatum (45%), Capillaria erinacei (42.5%) and Brachylaemus erinacei (22.5%), in accordance with previous reports from hedgehogs in southern Italy. In few subjects, Physaloptera clausa, Acanthocephalans and Cystoisospora rastegaeivae coccidia were also identified. The infection by the lungworm C. striatum was found to be significantly associated (p < 0.01) with bronchial hyperplasia and peribronchiolitis upon histopathological examination. Awareness of the most common parasitic infections in the hedgehog and of their effects on the health of these animals is extremely important, especially in wildlife rescue centers, where European hedgehog represents the most frequently hospitalized mammal species.
... The number of hedgehogs in Great Britain has been steadily declining over the last few decades (Hof 2009;Roos 2012;Wilson 2018). Additionally, hedgehogs are the most frequently admitted mammal to British Wildlife Rehabilitation Centres WRCs (Kirkwood 2003;Bullen 2002;Molony 2006), where they require care for a number of issues such as malnutrition, traumatic injury, disease, parasite burden and orphaning (Robinson and Routh 1999;Bunnell 2001;Stocker 2013); many of which are the result of human influence (Reeve and Huijser 1999). The care for hedgehogs in WRCs is time-consuming and expensive but has the end goal of rehabilitating them and releasing them healthy back into the wild (Stocker 2013;Mullineaux 2014, RSPCA). ...
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The hedgehog ( Erinaceus europaeus ) population is in decline in the UK and they are the most frequently admitted mammal to British Wildlife Rehabilitation Centres (WRCs). Whilst successful, UK rehabilitation is time-consuming and expensive and few large-scale studies into UK WRC admission and survival rates have been published in the last decade. This paper examines admission and survival trends in 19,577 hedgehogs admitted to Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals centres over a 13 year period (2005–2017) to gauge the state of Britain’s hedgehogs in WRCs and to gain indirect insight into the wild population. During the studied period, admissions more than doubled. Admission weights were greater in later than early litter juveniles. The survival improved 26% overall, and 33% in juveniles. Twenty two percent of animals died or were euthanased within 48 h of admission. Kaplan–Meier analysis gave survivor functions of 0.78 at 2 days, 0.66 at 10 days, 0.62 at 20 days, and 0.53 at 80 days. Survival was independent of admission weight in each age category. In particular, survival was greater in early litter juveniles than in adults or late litter juveniles; and across the breeding season diminished in juveniles and increased in adults. These data suggest factors impacting hedgehog survival have remained stable despite population decrease; that care methods have improved; and that late litters are more vulnerable than early. For WRCs this reaffirms that current methods are successful, but that further resources could be directed towards late litters.
... Hedgehogs that do not have enough body weight to survive hibernation are still foraging in winter [31]. Robinson and Routh [21] reported that hedgehogs weighing less than 450 g in the fall or those moving about out of their nests during the day with symptoms of weakness or a health disorder may need some help to survive the winter. However, a different optimum weight before hibernation was reported in other studies. ...
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The European hedgehog ( Erinaceus europaeus ) is a species found in abundance throughout Europe. Nevertheless, it has seen a decline in some regions. This study aimed to analyze trends in intake and outcomes for hedgehogs admitted into rescue centers in the Czech Republic. In the period from 2010 to 2019, 16,967 European hedgehogs were admitted in 34 rescue centers in the Czech Republic. Most hedgehogs were admitted in September (25.30%) and October (22.14%), the fewest in March (0.96%). Most admitted hedgehogs were hoglets (59.49%). The treatment was successful in 44.39% of admitted hedgehogs; those were subsequently released into the wild. On average, they stayed in rescue centers for 48.77 days (median of 30 days). Death or euthanasia was an outcome for 25.27% and 3.15% of admitted hedgehogs, respectively. Only 0.59% of the hedgehogs remained in captivity with a permanent handicap. The highest release rate was achieved in hedgehogs admitted after falls into pits and other openings (83.19%), whereas the least success was achieved in poisoned hedgehogs (13.21%). An increasing trend (rSp = 0.9273, p < 0.01) was found in the number of hedgehogs admitted to rescue centers during the monitored period. Furthermore, not all of them required human care. Given the fact that less than a half of the admitted hedgehogs could be released, raising public awareness of this issue could help to avoid unnecessary interventions (especially in hoglets).