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Abstract

The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was developed to assess satisfaction with the respondent’s life as a whole. The scale does not assess satisfaction with life domains such as health or finances but allows subjects to integrate and weight these domains in whatever way they choose. Normative data are presented for the scale, which shows good convergent validity with other scales and with other types of assessments of subjective well-being. Life satisfaction as assessed by the SWLS shows a degree of temporal stability (e.g., 54 for 4 years), yet the SWLS has shown sufficient sensitivity to be potentially valuable to detect change in life satisfaction during the course of clinical intervention. Further, the scale shows discriminant validity from emotional well-being measures. The SWLS is recommended as a complement to scales that focus on psychopathology or emotional well-being because it assesses an individuals’ conscious evaluative judgment of his or her life by using the person’s own criteria.
... Life satisfaction was related to perceptions of their medical condition (e.g., less emotional impact, more perceived personal control, fewer observed consequences), but not related to their current physical state (as measured by their functional walking ability). Life satisfaction typically focuses on the extent to which people report living up to the standards that they set for themselves (Pavot & Diener, 1993). Although the nature and the "height" of such standards differ across individuals, people report more contentment and fulfillment (i.e., more life satisfaction) when there is a closer match between perceptions of their lives and their ideals. ...
... Life satisfaction The Satisfaction with Life Scale (Pavot & Diener, 1993) measured the extent to which participants feel content with their lives. This scale does not specify satisfaction within certain domains (i.e., health, work), but seeks to assess the person's overall life satisfaction. ...
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Recollection of family unpredictability in one’s childhood has been associated with depression and/or anxiety (Hood et al., 2019; Ross et al., 2016); however, it is unclear whether low levels of unpredictability are beneficial for our well-being. Following the positive psychology trend, the present study assessed whether less unpredictability (i.e., more predictability) is associated with mental health (life satisfaction, love of life, and happiness) in two samples, and whether these relationships relate to control and personal predictability beliefs. Among college students (N = 161), mental health correlated with more family predictability, weaker unpredictability beliefs, and more internality. In addition, we detected two moderation models in the student sample: stronger personal unpredictability beliefs dampened the relationship between family predictability and life satisfaction, and low internality intensified the relationship between low family predictability and love of life. In a separate study, adults (N = 220) with stronger mental health also reported more family predictability, weaker personal unpredictability beliefs, and internality. Beliefs regarding internality and personal unpredictability mediated the relationship between family unpredictability and both love of life and life satisfaction. Finally, regression analysis indicated a moderation, in that the combination of less family predictability and stronger unpredictability beliefs appears particularly detrimental for adults’ love of life. Taken together, one’s family of origin and current beliefs (that likely develop in the context of that family) relate to current mental health. We conclude with limitations and implications of our findings.
... Life satisfaction was quantified using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) developed by Diener et al. [14], which has five items (in each case: five levels). The final score is expressed by the mean of the five items. ...
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Objective: The aim of this study was to clarify the link between Parkinson’s disease (i.e., comparing individuals with Parkinson’s disease and individuals without Parkinson’s disease) and psychosocial outcomes (in terms of life satisfaction, optimism, loneliness, perceived social isolation and perceived autonomy). Methods: Cross-sectional data (wave 5) were used from the nationally representative German Ageing Survey (with n = 7832). Life satisfaction was quantified using the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Optimism was measured using the Brandstädter and Wentura tool. Perceived autonomy was quantified using the Schwarzer tool. Loneliness was quantified using the De Jong Gierveld tool. Perceived social isolation was quantified using the Bude and Lantermann tool. Physician-diagnosed Parkinson’s disease served as the key independent variable. Results: Multiple linear regressions showed that individuals with Parkinson’s disease reported significantly lower perceived autonomy (β = −0.30, p < 0.01) compared to individuals without Parkinson’s disease. In contrast, they did not report worse psychosocial outcomes (in terms of life satisfaction, optimism, loneliness and perceived social isolation). Conclusion: Study findings showed a quite strong association between Parkinson’s disease and perceived autonomy. Future research could elucidate the underlying mechanisms.
... Firstly, the mean life satisfaction score for the current sample of teachers in South Africa was found to be significantly lower than the values reported in other countries. Pavot and Diener (2009) asserted that it is typical for citizens in Western countries to score highly on a range of measures of well-being, including the SWLS. This assertion seems to be corroborated by South African studies that have also reported low life satisfaction scores prior to the pandemic (e.g. ...
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Life satisfaction is generally regarded as the cognitive component of subjective well-being, as opposed to positive and negative affect, which are regarded as the affective components. This topic has been extensively studied worldwide and has been linked to a variety of outcomes related to the work context as well as psychological well-being. In this study, we examine the psychometric properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), one of the most widely used measures of life satisfaction, using three different approaches: classical test theory, Rasch analysis and Mokken analysis. Combining these three approaches provides a more comprehensive validation of an instrument. In this study, schoolteachers (n = 355) completed the SWLS, the trait scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Beck Hopelessness Scale and the University of California, Los Angeles Loneliness Scale. The three approaches confirmed the reliability, validity and unidimensional nature of the SWLS, thus supporting its continued use as a measure of life satisfaction in the South African context.
... Life satisfaction comprises the cognitive dimension of subjective well-being and refers to an individual's assessment of their life according to their own standards (Diener, 2000;Pavot, and Diener, 1985). Life satisfaction, providing meaning to the time interval in which the individual lives, is shaped by some determinative experiences in the past. ...
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The aim of this study was to determine the mediating role of academic motivation in the relationship between attachment styles and life satisfaction. The sample comprised 352 participants [232 (65.9%) female, 120 (34.1%) male]. The ages of participants ranged from 15 to 33 years [Mage = 20.91, SD = 1.85]. According to the results of correlation analysis, there were significant correlations found between attachment styles, academic motivation and life satisfaction. Mediating test results revealed that academic motivation had a full mediating role in the correlations between secure and avoidant attachment styles with life satisfaction. Analyses of the anxious-ambivalent attachment style determined academic motivation had a partial mediating role. The research results offer empirical findings for both clinical and educational practice.
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Objective: Identify in the adult population of Metropolitan Lima the prevalence, access and factors associated with the main mental disorders (MD) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methodology: Cross-sectional, correlational study in a probabilistic, two-stage sample of 1823 adults (≥18 years old), interviewed by telephone. Instruments: sociodemographic file and housing characteristics; Questionnaire on COVID-19 Experiences; the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview ICD-10 Version; the MINI Suicide Risk Scale; the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; the Perceived Stress Scale; Psychosocial Functioning Brief Scale (based on suggested areas of the WHO DAS-S); Questionnaire on Access to Health Services; Mezzich Quality of Life Index; Diener's Life Satisfaction Scale; Block's Ego-Resilience Scale; and an Abbreviated Ad-hoc Questionnaire on Domestic Violence. Analysis used were the corrected F as a variant of the second-order Rao-Scott chi-square statistic and its significance based on its degrees of freedom and a significance level of < 0.05 and logistic regression analysis for complex samples. Results: A moderate to severe stress level was found in 57.2% of the population. Most mental health indicators, including positive health, showed unfavorable results over previous studies, including suicidal indicators, sleep problems, and systematic violence against women. The prevalence at 12 months, 6 months and current prevalence of any MD was 19.6%, 17.8% and 12.5%, respectively. The most frequent MD was depressive episode with an annual prevalence of 13.6% and 6 months prevalence of 12.3%, followed by generalized anxiety disorder. The presence of MD was significantly associated with female sex, lower age, marital status separated, divorced, or widowed, low educational level, low economic status, having lost its employment due to the pandemic, having been infected with COVID-19, having a family member infected and having a close family member died by COVID. A 12.2% of people with diagnosable MD accessed to treatment, and 29.4% considered they had needed a lot of care but did not receive it. Conclusions: Compared to periods without a pandemic, there was a two to three-fold increase in MD during the pandemic, suggesting that social policies should be oriented with priority to mental health.
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Background: Reliable and consistent social support is associated with the mental health and well-being of persons with severe mental illness, including bipolar disorder (BD). Yet the COVID-19 pandemic and associated social distancing measures (eg, shelter in place) reduced access to regular social contacts, while social media use (SMU) increased concomitantly. Little is currently known about associations between the well-being of adults with BD and different types of SMU (eg, passive and active). Objective: For this study, we had two goals. First, we report descriptive information regarding SMU by persons with BD during COVID-19 (all platforms). Specific to Facebook, we next developed and tested a hypothesized model to identify direct and indirect associations between BD symptoms, social support, loneliness, life satisfaction, and SMU. Responses were collected during the global spread of the Delta variant and prior/concurrent with the Omicron variant, 20 months after the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a global pandemic. Methods: Over 8 weeks, we obtained responses from an international sample of 102 adults with BD using the Qualtrics online platform. Most had previously participated in the BADAS (Bipolar Affective Disorders and older Adults) Study (n=89, 87.3%); the remainder were recruited specifically for this research (n=13, 2.7%). The subsamples did not differ in age (t[100]=1.64; p=.10), gender (chi-square [df=2]=0.2; p=.90), socioeconomic status (chi-square [df=6] =9.9; p=.13), or time since BD diagnosis (t[97]=1.27; p=.21). Both were recruited using social media advertising micro-targeted to adults with BD. On average, participants were 53.96 (SD 13.22, range 20-77) years of age, they had completed 15.4 (SD 4.28) years of education, and were diagnosed with BD 19.6 (SD 10.31) years ago. Path analyses were performed to develop and test our hypothesized model. Results: Almost all participants (n=95, 93.1%) reported having both Facebook and LinkedIn accounts; 91.2% (n=93) reported regular use of either or both. During the pandemic, most (n=62, 60.8%) reported accessing social media several times a day; 36.3% (n=37) reported using social media more often since the emergence of COVID-19. Specific to Facebook, the model we hypothesized differed somewhat from what emerged. The resulting model suggests that symptoms of depression predict loneliness and, inversely, social support and life satisfaction. Social support predicts social Facebook use, whereas passive Facebook use predicts life satisfaction. Symptoms of depression emerged as indirect predictors of SMU via social support. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the operational definition of passive-active SMU requires further analysis and refinement. In contrast to theory, passive Facebook use appears positively associated with well-being among certain populations. Longitudinal data collection over multiple points is required to identify associations between BD symptoms, SMU, and well-being over time.
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This paper reviews literature on the structure of subjective well-being, and examines the support for a number of proposed well-being dimensions. It is considered that a distinction between cognitive and affective dimensions is conceptually useful, but poorly researched. Clear support, however, is available for a distinction between positive and negative affective dimensions, as well as for a general second-order dimension of subjective well-being. Proposals for a distinction between inner and outer dimensions of well-being are considered promising but speculative at present. Although the intensity and frequency of affective experience are clearly distinct, it is considered that affect intensity should not be regarded as a dimension of well-being. Three issues related to the dimensionality of well-being, the time focus of assessment, attempts at cross-classification of dimensions, and research on the stability of well-being structure, are also discussed. Although considerable research into subjective well-being exists, the structure of well-being is not yet well established or researched.
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Investigated, in 2 experiments, whether judgments of happiness and satisfaction with one's life are influenced by mood at the time of judgment. In Exp I, moods were induced by asking 61 undergraduates for vivid descriptions of a recent happy or sad event in their lives. In Exp II, moods were induced by interviewing 84 participants on sunny or rainy days. In both experiments, Ss reported more happiness and satisfaction with their life as a whole when in a good mood than when in a bad mood. However, the negative impact of bad moods was eliminated when Ss were induced to attribute their present feelings to transient external sources irrelevant to the evaluation of their lives; but Ss who were in a good mood were not affected by misattribution manipulations. The data suggest that (a) people use their momentary affective states in making judgments of how happy and satisfied they are with their lives in general and (b) people in unpleasant affective states are more likely to search for and use information to explain their state than are people in pleasant affective states. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
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Details the psychometric evaluation of the Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI), a measure of life satisfaction that may complement symptom-oriented measures of psychological functioning in evaluating the outcome of interventions aimed at ameliorating mental disorders, disabling physical illnesses, and community-wide social problems. Test–retest coefficients for the QOLI ranged from .80 to .91, and internal consistency coefficients ranged from .77 to .89 across 3 clinical and 3 nonclinical samples. QOLI item–total correlations were found to be adequate, and the QOLI had significantly positive correlations with 7 related measures of subjective well-being, including a peer rating and clinical interview measure. Significant negative correlations were obtained between the QOLI and measures of general psychopathology and depression. Clinical and nonclinical criterion groups differed significantly in mean QOLI scores. QOLI norms are presented, and the usefulness of the QOLI for assessing treatment outcome and for psychotherapy treatment planning is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)