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An Introduction to Intercultural Communication:Identities in a Global Community

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Abstract

By Fred E. Jandt.This textbook challenges students to develop cultural competency by developing an understanding of how we perceive and react to cultural rules – not only those of others, but also our own. Going beyond an "American" assessment of the field, this textbook assumes that no culture is privileged over another, be that culture from across the globe or a subculture or subgroup around the corner. Issues of identity, nationality, assimilation, and inter-group relations promote appreciation of diversity among people.

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... In an individualistic culture, the interests of the individual are higher than that of the collective, and people will pay more attention to themselves. Jandt [20] and in a collectivist culture, collective interests occupy the dominant position, and people will give up their interests for the common goal of the collective. Hofstede [21] pointed out that collectivism is a cohesive group that exchanges loyalty for protection. ...
... However, studies have shown that collectivist cultures tend to converge more easily because people need to cooperate in the same context, which requires people to avoid conflicts and emphasize homogeneity as much as possible. In this way, individual differences are rarely seen [20,24] . Research shows that cultural convergence can improve the efficiency of cooperation and the quality of communication between employees [25,26] . ...
... Children are taught to have the ability to think and work independently since childhood, which requires them to be independent of others as much as possible, to emphasize the values of self-orientation and self-achievement. Research shows that in countries with high individualism, labour relations are determined by contract, and the determinants of employment and promotion are skills and rules, but in a collectivist culture, labour relations are linked with morality [20] . Compared with the United Kingdom, due to China's strong collective consciousness, the score in long term ori- Figure 3. International cross-cultural interaction area adapted from Adle [13] entation is particularly high, which means that China is a very pragmatic culture. ...
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This qualitative study proposes how to help cross-cultural communicators identify and address the causes and challenges of the cultural differences they encounter through the factors of cultural differences. The study was compared through a control group and data was collected and analysed by understanding interviewees' professional experiences to date as well as their experience of living in a foreign country. The participants were then asked specific questions using Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory and the concept of culture shock as a framework to inductively categorise the data while explaining through cultural dimensions theory and folk China theory. This study provides new insights for cross-cultural communicators on the cultural differences between China and Britain and provides a new understanding of the cultural differences between China and Britain through the cultural dimension theory and folk China theory. This study integrates the existing theories, especially proves that folk China theory can be used as theoretical support for the cultural dimension of the Sino-British data, and summarizes the current influences and underlying reasons for the Sino-British cultural communicators. In addition, the study provides effective recommendations and suggestions for a new generation of Sino-British cross-cultural communicators, both individually and collectively.
... Prejudice refers to an irrational understanding or hatred towards a particular group, race, religion, or sexual orientation. Stereotypes and prejudices are interrelated because they both assess individuals based on group membership [13]. These deep sentiments take the form of anger, fear, hatred, and anxiety towards cultural groups without the need to present any evidence at all or shared experiences. ...
... These deep sentiments take the form of anger, fear, hatred, and anxiety towards cultural groups without the need to present any evidence at all or shared experiences. [13] [14]. Like stereotypes, prejudice is something learned. ...
... As revealed on Table 12 that the participants' comments show that they like diversity in intercultural interaction. Jandt (2018) asserts that diversity in culture might exceed differences between cultures. So, knowing one's cultural identity does not provide complete or reliable information about that person. ...
... On the other hand, the language, dialect, or accent used by speakers from different cultures sometimes makes difficulties for other people from other cultures to comprehend and understand verbal and non-verbal language used in intercultural interaction. Jandt (2018) argues that language can be a barrier to intercultural communication. Jandt adds that each of us lives not in the midst of the whole world but only in that part of the world that our language permits us to know. ...
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The authors address the study on intercultural communicative competence (ICC) of EFL students from different culture at higher education in the classroom setting. ICC is the most interesting and important topic in every meeting among people from different ethnic groups. López-Rocha (2016) mentions that intercultural communicative competence (ICC) needs to be incorporated in the language curriculum if educators hope to help students develop an appreciation for the language and culture studied, an awareness of their own culture, and the development of skills that will allow them to be competent, adaptable, and communicators. This present study therefore aims at exploring students’ perceptions on the practice of intercultural communication competence in EFL classroom at English Department, Faculty of Languages and Literature State University of Makassar, Indonesia in 2019/2020 academic year. A questionnaire was distributed and responded by fifty four undergraduate students. The data obtained from respondents were analyzed using descriptive statistics illustrating mean, standard deviation (SD), sum, and percentage of students’ perceptions on the questionnaire dealing with ICC practices in EFL classroom. The findings reveal that the students enjoy interacting with other students from different cultures. Other evidences from the study are: 1) they find it easy to talk to students from different cultures, 2) they like to be with students from different cultures, 3) they are open-minded to students from different cultures, 4) they respect the ways students from different cultures behave, 5) They try to get as much information as they can when interacting with students from different cultures, 6) they never think their culture is better than other cultures, 7) they often give positive responses to students from other cultures when maintaining interaction, and 8) they have a feeling of enjoyment towards diversity in their classroom interaction. The implication of the study is that the inclusion of ICC in the curriculum at higher education is a must.
... Да бисмо разумели њен дубоки и суштински смисао, морамо, пре свега, именовати њене основне елементе, који се разликују у културама и могу бити узрок проблема у интеркултуралним интеракцијама. Како наводе Самовар, Портер, Мaкданијел и Рој (Samovar et al., 2017), Лустиг и Костер (Lustig & Koester, 2018), Нулип (Neuliep, 2018) и Јант (Jandt, 2021), основни елементи културе су језик, правила, веровања, симболи, вредности и историја. ...
... Због тога је размена информација у интеркултуралној комуникацији врло сложена, јер свака култура другачије интерпретира вербалне и невербалне кодове. Јант (Jandt, 2021) због тога и сматра да управо различите интерпретације могу да угрозе комуникацију, нарочито ако једна културолошка група верује у своје перцепције о култури (које су углавном засноване на стереотипима) и кроз њих сагледава особу из те културе. ...
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The primary goal of popular culture as the dominant form of culture in the 21st century should be to unite people in a cultural synergy. Popular culture as such should insist on the richness of diversity, not on stereotypes, which is the case today. This paper will analyze the concepts of communication, culture, intercultural communication, cultural imperialism as well as the influence of popular culture on intercultural communication. Popular culture is a key component in creating a social identity in the 21st century. It provides a sense of belonging and togetherness to people around the globe. That is why they rely on popular culture to understand the world around them, and for most people, the view of the world exists only through the prism of popular culture. Although popular culture could be a hybrid space for bringing cultures closer, this is impossible today because the media deepens the gap between cultures with negative stereotypes by looking at other cultures through their own cultural prism. In order for cultures to come closer to one another, the media must be comprehensive in the way they present images in the broad category of meanings of the concepts of 'culture', 'race' and 'nation' so that people understand that culture exists on multiple levels of complexity, while popular culture presents a superficial (visible) part of culture based on which people mistakenly form a perception of a culture, which can be the cause of misunderstandings in intercultural communication.
... In stories related to environmental issues, BBC quoted many Western experts and officials from UN but not a single Chinese scientist or government official. Jandt argued that since developed countries are now in a position to curtail their carbon emission and the developing nations rely mainly on higher emission to achieve the status of developed country, environment now frequently becomes an issue of contention among the global North and South (Jandt, 2018). He used the phrase ecoimperialism to denote the inherent bias in international governance bodies that hold on to protecting developed countries but deny others to use their resources and escape the poverty trap. ...
... The People's Daily, on the other hand, made a comparison between Google and the opium traders of the 19 th century (Demick, 2011). According to Jandt, China sees such demands as attacks on its sovereignty, with the US operating as a selfappointed global human rights judge (Jandt, 2018). Since the flow of information from the West to the Rest is not equal, many countries, specifically in the decolonized World, challenge the spurious logic of valuefree global knowledge (internet). ...
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It examines the representation of China in the news coverage of BBC English and Urdu (online)
... In the absence of strong empirical evidence that supports cultural impact on the use of cohesive devices, the researcher challenges the cultural dimension framework (Appendix 1) previously used by Jandt (1995), Ostler (1987) and Mohammad and Omer (2000) etc., and proposes to investigate if the notion of cohesive contrasts in the cultural framework is factual or fallacious as far as pedagogically induced academic writing is concerned. The study will be possibly the first of its orientation in the Arab EFL context to seek empirical evidence on the proposed model of analysis for argumentative writing. ...
... The essays were typed in the word file with all the errors intact to maintain transparency. The researcher used the framework which had earlier been applied by Jandt (1995), Ostler (1987) and Mohammad and Omer (2000) to find out the extent to which L1 culture influenced students' use of cohesive devices in English in terms of cohesive contrasts. These studies had done cross-linguistic analysis of the Arabic texts and their English translations. ...
Article
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The impact of culture on academic writing in terms of the lexico-grammatical choices and semantic relations between and across clauses formally referred to as cohesion has been reported to cause textual variations in second language writing. Premised on this assumption, this study investigates the argumentative essays of Saudi EFL students to gauge the extent to which the use of cohesive devices in academic writing is impacted by the cultural framework. The results obtained through non-parametric correlation analysis revealed that culture did impact the choice of cohesion devices but was not pervasive enough to establish the claim of previous research. Word-level lexical repetition was the most statistically significant cohesive device which corresponded with the cultural framework followed by statistically non-significant instances of the additive conjunction, the General noun, and the context-based Reference. The author argues that the pedagogic and learning processes overshadow the cultural impact as student writers acquire writing proficiency to produce academically appropriate texts. However, an analysis of the narrative or the descriptive writing can further validate the findings of this research. The study also recommends a cross-cultural and cross-linguistic analysis of both English and Arabic texts to further substantiate the notion of cultural influences in creating textual variations.
... Kинезика обухвата: а) физички изглед; б) држање тела; в) гестикулацију; г) изразе лица. Они су са интеркултуралне тачке гледишта јако важни јер се путем њих види како различите културе на различите начине тумаче исте покрете (Samovar et al., 2017;Martin & Nakayama, 2018;Neuliep, 2018;Jandt, 2021). ...
... На пример, Кинези више воле седење бок уз бок са неким, док је Немцима приватност њиховог личног простора веома важна и код куће и на послу -врата су увек затворена и особа мора да покуца пре него што уђе. Простор је одраз француске културе и француских институција, што значи да је све централизовано и да је цела држава просторно распоређена у центре (Jandt, 2021). ...
Article
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Nonverbal communication as one of the most important requirements of the communicative competence of each individual is an integral part of intercultural communication, i.e., communication between people who come from different cultures. Although language is an effective means of transmitting information, in the process of communication, in addition to verbal messages, hidden messages are also transmitted via nonverbal codes. Although many nonverbal codes can be considered universal, most are learned in a particular cultural space and are therefore culturally specific. Hence, it is necessary to look for broader cultural patterns in nonverbal behaviour instead of trying to identify cultural differences because it reduces their complexity and can lead to misunderstandings in intercultural communication because it is the understanding of intercultural communication that assumes that people are basically cultural beings. Understanding nonverbal codes is, therefore, a key factor in the communication process both intraculturally and interculturally. Bearing in mind that nonverbal codes are culturally different, this paper analysed their role in intercultural communication, their universality, and classification through examples.
... According to Yosso (2005), linguistic strengths refer to the intellectual, cognitive, communication, and social skills developed through different languages and the traditions that underlie language, such as storytelling and cultural narratives. In essence, bi/multilingualism is a fund of experiential knowledge because it is integral to cultural identity and bi/multilingualism enhances cross-cultural socialization (Jandt, 2017). Studies (Anandavalli, 2019;L. ...
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Aim/Purpose: The purpose of this study is to use narrative inquiry to discover and understand how Chinese students leverage their strengths and multiple identities in socializing to American higher education and their profession. Chinese students engage with American academic culture while embracing their multiple identities. I will explore the cultural strengths they use to socialize and develop their personal, social, cultural, and professional identities in their doctoral educational experience. Background: Chinese international doctoral students encounter a unique socialization experience during their doctoral studies because they lack meaningful cross-cultural support. Likewise, it is problematic that Chinese students are often viewed as a homogeneous group and much prior research has emphasized the traditional deficit perspective in explaining how Chinese students must adjust and assimilate to the university environment. Methodology: This qualitative research uses narrative inquiry to study Chinese international doctoral students’ socialization experiences while retaining their authentic voices. Narrative inquiry allows for a more nuanced understanding of the experiences of Chinese students compared to the perceptions imposed by other stakeholders. The narrative methodology provides diverse ways to understand Chinese student interactions within American culture, place, and context. This study applies the three-dimensional approach to retell participants’ stories. The three-dimensional approach is more holistic and provides a broad lens to learn about the interactions, past, present, and future experiences of individuals through time and space. Contribution: This research shifts the narrative from the deficit view to a strength-based perspective as to how Chinese international doctoral students can rely on their cultural values and multiple identities as strengths to succeed academically, socially, and emotionally. Findings: Findings related to the literature in two important ways. First, findings support how the six cultural strengths of Yosso’s community cultural wealth apply to Chinese international doctoral students. Chinese students’ stories align with these strengths and through these strengths, they explore and develop their personal, social, cultural, and professional identity. Second, Chinese students’ stories as a counternarrative challenged and contradicted the essentialist view and misconception that Chinese students are a homogenous group personally, socially, culturally, or academically. Recommendations for Practitioners: The findings from this study offer insight for practitioners into what institutions and departments might do to support Chinese international doctoral students in their socialization journey. It is vital to support the whole student through understanding their multiple identities. Recommendation for Researchers: Chinese students and other diverse learners may benefit from peer and faculty mentors in different ways. Therefore, understanding the unique cross-cultural socialization needs and strength-based perspective will help tailor social activities and inclusive learning environments. Impact on Society: The current political, economic, and social relationships between the U.S. and China make it vital for American institutions to consider Chinese international doctoral students’ cross-cultural socialization journey. Future Research: Though it is hoped that this study is transferable, specific issues of how it can be generalized to other Chinese international doctoral students in other areas of the U.S. are beyond the scope of this study. Future research might explore how Chinese International doctoral students’ socialization experiences differ depending on where they study in the U.S.
... За пословног човека који одлази у иностранство од суштинског је значаја да зна не само правила у вези са даривањем већ да зна и који су поклони прикладни у култури у којој ће се пословати, као и када их треба дати. У Јапану, на пример, поклони се могу разменити на почетку, а вредност и врста поклона зависе од важности будућег пословања, за разлику од Чилеа, где се поклони уручују тек након добро успостављеног пословног односа, док у Данској уопште нису потребни (Jandt, 2021). ...
Article
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One of the main goals of modern business is the promotion of contacts between cultures, which implies the need to know and understand other cultures. In today's globalized market, intercultural teamwork and collaboration are essential to business success. However, intercultural cooperation is not at all simple because many problems arise from the fact that communication is conditioned by knowledge of different cultures. Through Hofstede's and Tompenaars' models of cultural dimensions, this paper analyses the impact of culture on business intercultural communication as well as cultural differences that, although seemingly universal at first glance, actually differ greatly and thus affect the business. The rules of national culture play one of the crucial roles in creating an appropriate way of doing business. The most important thing for a businessperson is to recognize that the value system they have learned in their own culture is only part of what is called culture in the 21st century. Instead, they should focus on the differences that exist in other cultures that affect interpersonal relationships and international business, because by observing other cultures, one can learn a lot about one's own culture. As the business world becomes globally connected more than ever, being an active listener and a culturally competent interlocutor represent a solid base for effective intercultural communication in modern business.
... Further, in the context of conflict, and in accordance with social identity theory, individuals identify with their group and feel they share the same destiny (Ferguson et al., 2014). They develop the concept of "we" and "them" and demonstrate solidarity by supporting each other, thus perceiving themselves as a cohesive group with a sense of identity (Jandt, 2007). Consequently, a shared identity may become salient among ingroup members, especially when they are confronted with hostile behaviors by outgroup members. ...
Article
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This study examined the roles of perceived influence of the media, exposure to verbal assault, and desire for self‐reliance on national identity. Using an online self‐reported questionnaire from Qatari college students (N = 293). Mediation analysis revealed that both perceived media influence and desire for self‐reliance fully mediated the effects of exposure to verbal assault on national identity. The findings support the efficacy of strategies which targeted the development and implementation of media and economic programs fostering the construction and/or strengthening of a sense of national identity in Qatar during the Gulf crisis.
... People that are interculturally competent will be able to alter their verbal and nonverbal communications to fit into other cultural situations. Jandt [7] explained intercultural communication competence as the development of skills that change a person from a monocultural individual to a multicultural individual who respects other cultures and is tolerant of differences. In the Identity Negotiation Theory [8], Ting-Toomey described how individuals manage or negotiate pressures between the "personal self" and the "cultural self" in ways that increase respect for other cultural groups. ...
... This point is best explained by the "Sapir Whorf hypothesis" (Jandt, 2010, p. 140). This hypothesis suggests that language becomes a barrier to effective intercultural communication when a group with more power enforces the use of its language on another group, with the intention of making their culture dominant (Jandt, 2010). Therefore, it is our view that when students boast with dominance of their cultures, it is not only the effective communication that will be negatively affected but also their academic or learning progress. ...
Chapter
This book chapter is a contribution to the book titled "Communication and Interculturality in Higher Education: Unveiling contextual barriers". It provides literature on the understanding of culture from the African perspective. Moreso, it discusses various barriers to effective intercultural communication among university students and provides a blueprint for how to overcome them.
... Fourthly, masculinity versus femininity relates to "the distribution of values between the genders which is another fundamental issue for any society, to which a range of solutions can be found" (Hofstede, 2011, p. 12). Ahn and Cunningham (2017) and Jandt (2017) explained that people in countries with higher masculine cultures (e.g., Japan) have a preference for achievement, heroism, assertiveness, competitiveness, and material reward for success. Countries with lower masculine traits (e.g., Sweden) value cooperation, quality of life, modesty, and caring for others. ...
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During the COVID-19 pandemic, all lecturers had to replace their physical classroom teaching mode with online learning, albeit with challenges experienced by students and lecturers. Drawing upon Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory, this study attempted to unearth Indonesian students' learning culture by analysing written reflections on their learning experiences. Twenty EFL (English as a foreign language) students enrolled in the English Academic Writing courses at an Islamic university in Indonesia, wrote a reflective essay on their online learning experiences with various platforms, such as Google Classroom, Google Meet, Canvas, Moodle, and some other online learning platforms. Content analysis was used to analyse the students' reflective writing essays. Results show that the students' voices bring to the fore several learning issues from online learning experiences. These include: the lecturers' dominant use of WhatsApp as an instruction tool, unclear explanations, assigning students too many assignments, and the abandonment of lecturer feedback on works submitted by students. Noteworthy, whether the students liked or disliked the online learning experience, they accepted how the lecturers treated them in the online teaching and learning process. The findings indicated that the students avoided conflicts, showed high respect to their superiors, and used indirect disagreement in the online learning contexts. The findings suggest that the 'small culture' of online learning in higher education is governed by a strong influence of 'large culture' in Indonesia.
... It is important to note that psychologists have identified highly prejudiced individuals as having an authoritarian personality. These individuals include the police who possess great power -power of which will be influenced heavily by any prejudices that the officer may have towards minorities (Jandt, 2004). ...
Article
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... This Host, Social Communication competency refers to the capacity to communicate with the host culture's communication symbols and meaning systems. The ability to communicate skillfully in the dominant language of the host culture can be the most important factor in successful acculturation [23]. ...
... Man-nature orientation used for his study covers a narrower definition than the environmental orientation term used for this study and is encompassed by 5 questions. Man-nature orientation was initially proposed as one of the orientations in the framework of value-orientation by Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961) to describe culture and values based on a human being's relationship with nature (Jandt, 2004) and presents three possibilities: subjugation to nature, harmony with nature, and mastery over nature. Multiple researchers have proposed man-nature orientation as a way to understand attitudes toward the relationship between human beings and nature (Chandler & Dreger, 1993;Snodgrass & Gates, 1998). ...
Article
Despite the growing interest of environmentally friendly clothing (EFC), there have been discrepancies among customers in defining EFC. The purposes of this study were to assess the participants’ environmental orientation and environmental knowledge toward EFC, to compare them in terms of college major and gender and identify relationships between orientation and knowledge, and to acquire the current perceptions and practices toward EFC. The revised New Environmental Paradigm scale (NEP) with 15 items, the Environmental Apparel Knowledge scale (EAK) with 11 items, and the developed perception and practice question sets with 12 items were used. A total of 122 undergraduate students participated through an online survey. Results indicated that students in sustainability-related majors have higher ratings in knowledge than students in other majors. Gender was not found to make a significant difference in either orientation or knowledge ratings. Orientation and knowledge were positively correlated, but not strongly. Results present the need for reinforcement of sustainable contents in university curricula. Practical feedback from this study has the potential to assist with the development of effective marketing campaigns. Sample size and grouping of majors are possible limitations in this study.
... For this reason, adopting crisis communication to a diverse cultural context has the potential to provide additional support during critical moments. It means that the communicator needs to have several message skills: (1) ability to understand language (message skills); behavioral flexibility (to look appropriate in the eyes of the target audience); (3) interaction management (ability to initiate interactions in different cultural contexts); and (4) social skills (a capacity for empathy) (Jandt 2007). ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic is testing the ability of the national governments to manage a crisis by covering policy sectors, which are decisive for health, well-being, sustainability of individuals, and society at large. Communication plays a crucial role in situations when society is at risk. Communication is a source of prevention, action, mitigation, and empowerment. Therefore, the ways and means of how national governments and governmental institutions implement adopted strategies, and how they make their actions understandable and reasonable to their societies, become an important element of crisis management at large. Diversification of the modern information environment makes governments’ communication even more complex. The media landscape, especially social media, impact reality’s perception, including crisis and emergencies. As a result, governments are struggling with different forms of messaging and a choice of narratives to be shared with the broader public or societal groups. Considering the existing division in the perception of political realities between Latvian and Russian-speaking communities, Latvia is a case of particular interest for analysis. The article aims to explore how the society has been led through the current crisis communication-wise by the government and what strategies are used for the particular linguistic groups. The article looks at the main factors influencing the perceptions of the Russian-speaking community in Latvia and the main reasons for the existing divergence between perceptions of Latvian and Russian-speaking representatives. The study is based on focus group interviews organized authors.
... Именно на стереотипах основаны такие явления, как расизм, сексизм, ксенофобия, исламофобия и другие [28]. Этой точки зрения придерживается профессор Фред Джандт, подчеркивая, что стереотипы часто являются оружием пропаганды, приведя в пример успешную антисемитскую кампанию национал-социалистической демократической партии Германии во главе с А. Гитлером, убедившей многих людей правильности идей расизма и фашизма [24]. ...
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Автор подчеркивает важность произносительных характеристик при определении социального статуса говорящего, предлагая вниманию читателя обзор ряда научных трудов и публицистических статей по заявленной тематике.
... Based on his clothes and the drinks he orders; the advertisement tries to emphasize his masculine side. Masculinity is a set of traits heavily associated with men, such as being tough, strong, independent and confident (Jandt, 2010). The man's confidence can be seen from the way he initiates the conversation. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper examines the image of women –alongside men– in five cigarette advertisements published in the Netherlands during the period of the first (1870-1920) and the second (1960-1980) wave feminism. Social culture in the early 19th century Europe considered that smoking is taboo for women, likewise the depiction of women in advertisements generally displayed as mere ornaments. Due to the feminism movement in the third quarter of 19th century, many women chose to smoke as a manner against the stereotype of how women should behave. The aim of this research is to describe a female figure paired with a male and identify the way she is portrayed in cigarette advertisements. This paper is conducted using the semiotics theory with connotation and denotation concept; with feminism approaches. The findings of this research conclude that the depiction of women in cigarette advertisements affirm feminist thoughts and ideals at the time, e.g. the right to participate in public sphere under the same circumstances as men and criticizing the objectification of women. Most women have adapted masculine activities or habits, namely smoking and enjoying it without any negative views in society. Women are also depicted as independent and free to express themselves with their bodies. Keywords: Cigarette advertisements, feminism in the Netherlands, women’s image in cigarette advertisements
... The nuclear family environments should be the main foundation of millennial generation to study. Even the family is positioned as the first institution of millennial generation to know culture, including language (Jandt, 2013). Millennials still hold that the family is a very important pillar of their lives (Shofiyyah et al., 2019). ...
Article
Local languages which are also referred as mother tongue should be attached to every child as individual. The re-orientation of language due to global influences should not mean forgetting the local language. Globalization and traditions can run simultaneously so that millennial generations are not only proficient in foreign languages, but also understand in using their local languages. This is a communication and culture research. The purpose of this study was to determine the millennials assumptions about local languages and the teaching approaches needed. An integrated teaching approach is needed so that it can restore the millennials’ interest and confidence in speaking their local languages. This research used a descriptive qualitative method with interview techniques, involving millennial generation from Jakarta, West Java and Lampung Provinces. The results of the study show that some of the millennials can speak their local languages but not as active speakers. There are two major obstacles that prevent the millennials to speak their local languages, namely internal and external factors. Internal factor that prevents them from speaking their local languages is family, and the external factors include peers, environment and technology. To encourage the use of local language, the government has issued Regional Regulations (PERDA) so that local languages can be used by daily life such as in schools. In addition, equality communication model can be used in teaching local languages, that include seriousness, openness, acceptance, and flexible teaching This approach is supported by binding local government regulations that require the use of local languages in a variety of contexts, including the language of instruction in education.
... Another explanation is the anxiety and uncertainty arisen such as not knowing how to interact and behave when communicating with the out-group. When levels of anxiety and uncertainty are high, one tends to evade interaction (Jandt 2018). Previous studies have also found the importance of language proficiency and linguistic confidence (e.g. ...
Article
This study was set against the backdrop of a common worldwide phenomenon of internationalisation and multiculturality on campuses, the prevalence of cross-cultural communication in the epoch of globalisation, and a paucity of studies investigating both mainstream and minority students’ intra- and cross-cultural interaction and attitudes. As the first step towards maximising students’ benefits reaped from intercultural interaction, this article reports on the quantitative findings of intra- and inter-cultural relations as well as perceptions among both mainstream and minority tertiary-level students (n = 155) in Hong Kong. From the survey results, various within- and between-group comparisons were made. Significant findings include the substantial differences in how mainstream students relate and view themselves vis-à-vis the minority group, and the general greater open-mindedness and acceptance of the minority group compared with the mainstream group. This article culminates with implications for cultivating positive cross-cultural relations in international classrooms, which are especially pertinent for the mainstream students.
... • An Introduction to Intercultural Communication: Identities in a Global Community (Jandt, 2021) -its aim is to promote the skills of intercultural competence by developing an understanding of cultures. ...
... • An Introduction to Intercultural Communication: Identities in a Global Community (Jandt, 2021) -its aim is to promote the skills of intercultural competence by developing an understanding of cultures. ...
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This handbook is intended for teachers involved in the teaching of courses in foreign languages or in the teaching of culturally or ethnically mixed groups of students. This handbook could help teachers increase their professional competencies by focusing on the salient issues of the international teaching environment. In other words, it has an ambition to help university teachers to incorporate an intercultural dimension into their teaching. Increasing the internationalization of the university is currently an existential prerequisite for the further sustainability and competitiveness of any university.The degree of internationalization of the university is reflected not only in the top-down emphasis on well-thought-out internationalization strategies but equally in the bottom-up activation of individual teachers and teams.So far, this area appears to be underdeveloped. Our publication tries to bridge this gap.This handbook is intended for teachers involved in the teaching of courses in foreign languages or in the teaching of culturally or ethnically mixed groups of students.
... • An Introduction to Intercultural Communication: Identities in a Global Community (Jandt, 2021) -its aim is to promote the skills of intercultural competence by developing an understanding of cultures. ...
Book
This handbook is intended for teachers involved in the teaching of courses in foreign languages or in the teaching of culturally or ethnically mixed groups of students. This handbook could help teachers increase their professional competencies by focusing on the salient issues of the international teaching environment. In other words, it has an ambition to help university teachers to incorporate an intercultural dimension into their teaching. Increasing the internationalization of the university is currently an existential prerequisite for the further sustainability and competitiveness of any university. The degree of internationalization of the university is reflected not only in the top-down emphasis on well-thought-out internationalization strategies but equally in the bottom-up activation of individual teachers and teams. So far, this area appears to be underdeveloped. Our publication tries to bridge this gap.
... Because of the rise of internationalized business environment and global competitiveness, the managing of human diversity has become a challenging daily routine task for many business communities [1] [2] [3]. The impact of communication in a diverse workplace affects productivity and overall performance of a business is discussed in studies of Ferraro [4]; Jandit [5] and Gupta [6]. Workplace diversity is often described as differences in age, gender, sexual orientation, education, cultural background, religion, life experience and so on [7]. ...
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This paper presents an example of developing intercultural communication competencies through student-centered learning introduced as part of a course in Intercultural Business Communication at a Business school in the Czech Republic. Knowing how to navigate cultural differences is an increasingly valuable skill for students, which in the future makes them valuable employees and leaders. Therefore, the focus of the course was placed on the challenges that companies face in the global landscape in order to deepen intercultural communication strategies used to effectively develop and manage workforce in a culturally and geographically diverse environment. Over a period of three years (2018-2020), data from three cohorts of students were collected. In order to assess the impact of the approach in question, both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection and analysis were employed. In addition, student feedback mapping the impact of the course on ability to become a better communicator in intercultural situations was collected, transcribed, coded and evaluated. Based on the data results, this paper argues that tertiary educational institutions should adopt methods of preparing students for both opportunities as well as challenges of the 21st century global workplace by deepening students' knowledge, skills and competencies so that they are able to successfully communicate across cultures in a time of globalization and rapid change.
... In an increasingly globalized world, cross-cultural communication and collaboration are often used in preventive health work. Cross-cultural refers to the comparison of phenomena across cultures [4]. An integral part of a cross-cultural relationship is understanding how the interactions with people from different cultures may be unlike the interactions accustomed to one's own culture [5]. ...
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Abstract Background: Health campaigns are an important aspect of preventive health work. They can aim to improve health literacy in rural areas where residents lack access to health information and knowledge, and to improve both local and global health through cross-cultural collaboration. In Tanga District, Tanzania, exchange students and local youths participate together with Tanga International Competence Centre (TICC) to plan and accomplish health campaigns in local communities. The aim of this study was to explore the participants’ experiences with the cross-cultural collaboration in the planning and delivery of TICC’s health campaigns. Methods: This study used a focused ethnographic approach. Five weeks of fieldwork included four observations of health campaigns and nine interviews: three individual interviews with employees at TICC (all Tanzanians), two group interviews with nine Norwegian nursing students, two group interviews with five local youths enrolled in TICC’s Youth Program, one interview with a local village leader, and one interview with a local primary school teacher. The interview material was analyzed using systematic text condensation. Results: All participants experienced the cross-cultural collaboration as successful. Having enough time, adapting to local conditions, and understanding the needs of the target groups were perceived as essential to the campaigns’ success. Music and role-play, which are dominant within Tanzanian culture but not common among the Norwegian students, created excitement and motivation among the audiences. The interviewees identified changes in people’s health behavior in the aftermath of the campaigns. Conclusion: All participants in this study identified positive outcomes from the cross-cultural collaboration within TICC’s health campaigns. The health campaigns were considered beneficial because of the poor access to health information among residents in the local communities.
... O Quadro Europeu Comum de Referência para as Línguas (QECR) também enfatiza a importância da consciência intercultural no ensino-aprendizagem de línguas como forma de entender como cada comunidade aparece na perspetiva do outro, "muitas vezes na forma de estereótipos nacionais" (CONSELHO DA EUROPA, 2001, p. 150). A literatura indica que o principal objetivo da comunicação intercultural é precisamente eliminar as generalizações e os estereótipos negativos que cada cultura produz sobre as outras (ALSINA, 1999;BYRAM, 2008;BYRAM;GRIBKOVA;STARKEY 2002;JANDT, 2015;NEULIEP, 2018) fomentando uma mudança de mentalidade em relação à desumanização com que os povos construíram a representação de outros povos ao longo da história. A comunicação intercultural deve, assim, conduzir à relativização da nossa cultura e à compreensão de valores alternativos, reconhecendo que os valores da nossa cultura não são únicos e que todas as culturas têm conteúdos válidos. ...
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Neste estudo promovemos uma pesquisa documental ou bibliográfica ao manual bilingue (português e chinês) “Beleza!” com o objetivo de analisar os conteúdos socioculturais que este material didático contém. Os resultados indicam que este manual contém bastante quantidade e diversidade de conhecimentos sociais e culturais que fomentam uma reflexão crítica sobre estas temáticas, representando, assim, um instrumento ser profícuo para o ensino da comunicação e da cidadania intercultural de PLE na China.
... While language is the lens through which humans interpret the world (Regier and Xu 2017), it is not universal. Different communities develop different languages (Jandt 2017). ...
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This article examines how qualitative approaches to human-centered inquiry benefit public diplomacy (PD) scholarship. It argues that rigorous qualitative methods improve the frameworks guiding PD research. Tendencies for miscommunication permeate the encoding and decoding communication processes in international/intercultural contexts, with PD often transcending cultural boundaries and national borders. This article cautions against assuming conceptual, measurement, and semiotic equivalence of constructs and variables, based on influences from culture and language. Furthermore, the article advocates mixed methods, explicating how rigorous qualitative methods can better contextualize the statistics of quantitative methods, leading to more comprehensive understandings of PD.
... Because culture is deeply internalised through recurrent regularities in terms of values, attitudes, beliefs and behavioural conventions that form expectations of what can be accepted within social groups (Bennet, 2009;McDaniel, Samovar & Porter, 2012), the participants begin to learn how such regularities they usually experience within the cultural groups may not be shared with the other. This supports the literature that indicates the sensemaking process occurs when it is situated within the cultural context to which it is lived by people (Bennett, 2009;Jandt, 2010). This sensemaking of culturally acceptable behaviour reflects the notion of appropriateness that forms the core conception of intercultural competence. ...
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This paper discusses how Malaysian university students relate to the culture of others on campus based on sensemaking. More specifically, it articulates the sensemaking idea of self-other relations in which the individuals make sense of their experiences as they interact with others, how they view others around them and the others’ responses through socialising and their reflections of such acts. The paper is driven by the idea that to be effective global citizens, students should acquire intercultural competence by understanding their own social acts through interacting with others. Such competence is witnessed and enacted during interactions with culturally diverse others. The interactions are often taken for granted given that these acts are observable only among the interlocutors. The self-other understanding in interpersonal interaction requires people to understand not only what is said and meant in the process but also how to display proper conduct in performing the acts. Drawing from a series of focus group interviews with students in three Malaysian universities, the findings reveal that these students comprehended interaction with others using the language that reflects mindful acts, varied accommodating moves and appropriate cultural mannerisms. Such findings reflect the students’ meaning making of the interactions. It reveals the ways in which the students make sense of how the interactions influenced them and the conversant partners. The paper provides some implications including the need to embrace proper communication competencies in intercultural interactions in the campus and in other social or public spheres. Keywords: Sensemaking, self-other relations, mindful language, intercultural competence, Malaysia.
Thesis
Die vorliegende Untersuchung entwickelt sich aus der grundlegenden Fragestellung, ob mediale Artikulation, die sich als bewusste Explikation individueller implizit-qualitativer Erfahrungen in symbolischen Medien auszeichnet, nicht nur aus der anthropologischen bzw. bildungstheoretischen Perspektive, sondern auch aus einer machttheoretischen Perspektive interpretiert werden kann. Um diese Fragestellung zu diskutieren, werden zentrale Begriffe wie neoliberale Gouvernementalität, Selbsttechnologien aus den Spätwerken Foucaults und Aufmerksamkeitsökonomie, mediale neoliberal-gouvernementale Selbsttechnologien aus den Arbeiten von G. Franck, H. Bublitz und A. Reckwitz thematisiert. Aus dieser theoretischen Arbeit wird die zentrale These der vorliegenden Untersuchung formuliert, dass mediale Artikulation als Form der medialen neoliberal-gouvernementalen Selbsttechnologie verstanden wird. Für die empirische Überprüfung dieser formulierten zentralen These wird ein konkretes Forschungsthema ausgewählt, in diesem Fall die sogenannte „Aegyo-Inszenierung“, die man als bewusste Inszenierung des Selbst als eine niedliche bzw. kindliche Person versteht. Daraufhin werden 198 Profilbilder auf Facebook mit dem Aegyo-Repertoire von Pädagogik-Studierenden an einer südkoreanischen Universität nach dem Geschlecht des Abgebildeten klassifiziert und miteinander verglichen. Für die Geltungsüberprüfung werden sie zusätzlich mit den öffentlichen Pressefotografien weiblicher, südkoreanischer Prominenter verglichen. Durch diese empirische Untersuchung mit der Bildanalyse bzw. dem -vergleich kann resultiert werden, dass mediale Artikulation am Beispiel von Profilbildern auf Facebook als Form der medialen neoliberal-gouvernementalen Selbsttechnologie verstanden werden kann, damit jede der Abgebildeten mithilfe der Aegyo-Inszenierung soziale Aufmerksamkeit von anderen Personen im medialen Raum erregt. Dabei fungiert der Körper des jeweiligen Abgebildeten für die Aegyo-Inszenierung als Humankapital, um soziale Aufmerksamkeit zu erlangen. Zusätzlich kann aus dieser empirischen Untersuchung noch eine weitere These der vorliegenden Untersuchung formuliert werden, dass das Aegyo-Phänomen in Südkorea als ein Beispiel der ökonomisierten Transformation der tradierten idealen Weiblichkeit verstanden wird. Im Prozess der Modernisierung der südkoreanischen Gesellschaft fungieren Schwäche, Passivität, Gehorsamkeit, Niedlichkeit usw., welche jeweils als ideale Weiblichkeit in der traditionellen konfuzianischen Gesellschaft galten, immer weniger als Geschlechternorm, sondern vielmehr als Mittel für die Herstellung sozialer Aufmerksamkeit. In diesem Kontext inszenieren die weiblichen Abgebildeten sich selbst aus eigenem Antrieb als ideale Frau – nicht für die Erfüllung der tradierten Geschlechternorm, sondern um soziale Aufmerksamkeit zu erzeugen.
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The subject of this article is the machine translation (MT) of the German terms Lehrbefugnis (“authorisation to teach”) and Lehrbefähigung (“teaching qualification”) into Polish. First, the role of these terms in international academic careers is highlighted and then their semantics is described. The next point of the article is basic information about the principles of MT. The structural equivalents of German terms in Polish and typical mistakes made by translators are also discussed. The concluded part of the analysis is that translators are not yet able to translate such specific terms correctly, therefore further work (also of a linguistic nature) is necessary to improve their quality, e.g. by supplementing lexical resources.
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Political and economic globalization, together with constant technological advances, has resulted in unprecedented levels of international human mobility. As a result, societies are increasingly intercultural. Nowhere is this interculturality more pervasive than in digital discourse (traditionally known as computer-mediated communication or CMC), where interlocutors from different cultural backgrounds may interact on global platforms and social networking sites such as Twitter, Instagram, or YouTube, to name but a few. Intercultural communication, however, poses interlocutors with serious challenges to overcome, such as differences in their value systems, and diverging communication styles and behaviours. All of them can easily lead to miscommunication and conflict between cultural groups, both within and across societies, as well as the perpetuation of cultural stereotypes. Yet, most research on CMC to date has focused on monocultural studies or cross-cultural comparisons while intercultural communication in CMC is still rather under-researched. Keeping the above in mind, the present chapter aims to review the research that has been carried out so far in the field of digital discourse with a special focus on intercultural communication, as well as to provide readers with avenues for future research in this burgeoning field.
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The current discourses about race and diversity (online and offline) are transformative. This article is based on methodology to showcase a liminal space of intersectionality. Drawing on Crenshaw’s concept of “Intersectionality”, the author shows the commitment that drove her to write this essay. The author provides a vignette to analyse the results in terms of hypervisibility, additive visibility, and intersectional invisibility. On the same line of Chávez and Griffin, the author hopes to expand on the conversation between communication and intersectionality studies, especially when it comes to minority religions.
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Employee satisfaction and productivity are highly dependent on the alignment between the design of a workplace, the culture, the work activities, and the technology used, and while the understanding of such interactions has received increased interest in fields including architecture, health, and psychology, very little is known in relation to virtual work and reality (VR). VR workplaces have the potential to become an integral part of new work arrangements, enabling employees to execute teamwork and task work through (mature) simulated environments designed to meet individual, team, and organizational productivity needs. Thus, the aim of this study was three-fold: In study 1, we gained, through expert interviews, insights into contemporary thinking in workplace design, and gathered a greater understanding of the dimensions of design, behaviors, environments, and tools that affect collaborative work and productivity. In study 2, we observed knowledge workers in home environments and open, closed, and balanced office layouts, in order to understand the potential for successful integration in VR. In study 3, we evaluated environmental needs and opportunities through VR. Based on our findings, we developed an Ecology of Work model, combining work systems and pillars of performance success. These are followed by discussions on design needs and implications for VR.
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Increased contacts with people from different linguistic and cultural backgrounds during initial encounters are likely to create high levels of uncertainty. High levels of uncertainty have been shown to increase the chances of misunderstandings and miscommunication. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of Kiswahili as an intercultural communication tool that bridges linguistic differences in polyglosified diverse settings in Busia town. It aims at investigating the status of Kiswahili as a medium of communication in enhancing intercultural interactions and cross-border trade, establishing the limitations Kiswahili faces, and finally, evaluating the communication strategies traders and customers employ to overcome linguistic differences, thereby enhancing intercultural interactions and cross-border trade in the region. Quantitative data were collected through questionnaires and analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS). Qualitative data were collected through observations, a survey of linguistic landscaping and sound recordings, and analyzed through a narrative analytic approach. Through theory triangulation, the study was underpinned by the Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT) as the flexible and applicable theory in trader-customer trade interactions. The study revealed that Kiswahili has a significant status in enhancing intercultural interactions among traders and customers in terms of initial encounters, discussions, bargaining, taking instructions, and in advertisements. The study also established that Kiswahili faces limitations, including dialectical differences, colonial influence and mentality, the lack of a uniform status of Kiswahili, negative ethnic attitude, the lack of good political will, religion, age differences, and the lack of exposure. Finally, the study revealed that traders and customers employ different communication accommodation strategies. An approximation strategy was established as the most commonly used strategy. In view of these results, the study recommends Kiswahili use in Busia town for communication accommodation purposes.
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Dok je multikulturalnost politički preduslov za pravnu garanciju i zaštitu manjinskih grupa, dotle interkulturalnost podrazumeva uspostavljanje odnosa između pojedinaca ili grupa koje pripadaju različitim kulturama uz verovanje da se ljudsko iskustvo kulturološkim kontaktima obogaćuje i razvija. Da bi osoba mogla da razume druge kulture, pre svega treba da poznaje sopstvenu kulturu, jezik, religiju, vrednosti, verovanja, norme i poglede na svet. Posebno su aktualne debate koje imaju za cilj traženje adekvatnog odnosa između modernih nacionalnih država i etničkih i nacionalnih manjina koje su domicilne ili novopridošle na njihovim teritorijama. Rešenje se traži u interkulturalnoj komunikaciji kao narednom koraku koji bi sproveo u praksu multikulturalne pretpostavke, odnosno pojedince doveo do uvažavanja vlastite i tuđe kulture i do interkulturalne razmene koja bi predstavljala konačni, poželjni proizvod zamišljenih politika. U radu su predstavljene neke od pretpostavki za interkulturalnu komunikaciju kojima se postiže interaktivni odnos sa ljudima i/ili drugim kulturološkim grupama. Potreba da se diskutuje o ovim pojmovima leži u okolnostima u kojima ih u modernom svetu nije moguće prenebregnuti, pre svega, zato što nije moguć povratak na vreme u kojem grupe sa različitom kulturološkom i identitetskom osnovom više neće biti zainteresovane da zastupaju svoju različitost.
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Socialization is a concept used by sociologists, social psychologists, anthropologists, political scientists, and educators to refer to the lifelong process of inheriting and disseminating the norms, customs, and philosophies, to equip a person with the skills and habits needed to participate within. your community. The powerful revolution changed has been perceived by the society through digital social media all around. Society has various facet likewise business, legal, political, cultural etc. Every facet of society has been taking move through DSM. This study gives insight of significant affect in our socio-cultural world. Cases of cyber bullying by unknown users and harassment are unknown. Such cases have resulted in significant loss of self-esteem and have a detrimental effect on people's morals.
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The primary aim of this chapter is to illustrate up-to-date international applications of intercultural practices in speech-language pathology/therapy services and also to discuss the importance of intercultural competence and communication in health and education professionals.
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Our study, targeting the Francophone learners of Slovak, is focused on Linguistic Interference and Negative Language Transfer. We suppose that the mother tongue or native language – French Language has an influence on the language learned – Slovak Language. The research is carried out mainly in the field of Morpho-syntax and has to find the reasons for grammar mistakes and a way how to learn Slovak as a foreign language in a more efficient way. It would like to prevent Francophone learners of Slovak language to learn it only by heart. The study is an analysis and a comparison of data collected in a pre-survey.
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This paper presents some aspects concerning the influence of the environmental factors from 2008-2010 on the both sweet cherry tree growth and fructification. The agricultural years 2008 (a rainy one) and 2009 (a droughty one) can be described as years with special climatic characteristics which influenced negatively the vegetative growing and the tree production in this area. The meteorological factors (during 3 years) were analyzed, the fruit’s production (kg/tree) on cultivars was calculated, were made measurements and determinations concerning the trunk’s cross-sectional area and the length of the annual increases. In terms of 2008 which was an unusual year with an excess of 338,4 l/m2 rainfall compared to the multiannual average and of 2009 which was very droughty with a deficiency of 198,6 l/m2 compared to the multiannual average, ‘Cociu’ and ‘Ludovic’ were noted as the most resistant to drought.
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This article focuses on entrepreneurship, in particular startups and the emerging need they have to go international since its creation or shortly thereafter. Only in this way will they be able to guarantee their survival and achieve the necessary scalability to grow rapidly across new markets acting globally. There are several barriers in an internationalization process, such as language and culture, and as a result, reaching and creating a worth-lasting effective business relationship it's a hard task to undertake, therefore we will address interculturality and its fundamental role in the process. Finally, we address Eligent Club, its origin and development since its creation, its role in supporting startups acting as facilitator, providing access to international opportunities beneficial to both global and local economies, namely international projects, partners, academics, experts, and investors. We will approach in detail, Eligent Accelerator Program case, a virtual program that fits the reality of the ongoing and increasing, business digital transformation movement we are living in the middle of the COVID-19 Pandemic but will certainly fit also the period that will follow it. With the virtual accelerator programs being recent, their advantages will be highlighted, as well as the many challenges they face.
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This chapter discusses conceptualizations and categorizations of silence, and the values and roles of silence in various global cultures, in classrooms, and in social justice events. The chapter argues for acceptance of silence in a variety of social spaces and for a variety of purposes.
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Churches in Zimbabwe have excluded deaf people, limiting their access, presence and participation in Missio Dei and Missio Ecclesiae. So far, there is minimal Zimbabwean theological scholarly attention to communicating the gospel with deaf people. Much of the available related literature focusses on education for deaf people. This article applies a critical disability theory, which is explanatory, practical, normative, and promotes equality and inclusion. In this contribution, communication of the gospel with deaf people is explored. Against the backdrop of marginalisation of deaf people and the inconsideration of the hearing Church, this study interrogated the gospel communication gap that needs to be bridged between deaf people and the hearing Church. The culture of deaf people and communication of the gospel in Zimbabwe were examined. Reflecting through a topic ‘Speaking in signs: Communicating the gospel with deaf people in Zimbabwe’, using a qualitative research methodology through interviews with 20 participants from different institutions for deaf people and Evangelical Fellowship of Zimbabwe, this research observed that very few denominations have reached out to deaf people with the gospel, whilst the majority have not. The study challenges traditionally exclusive Zimbabwean ecclesiology, missiology and communication of the gospel. It recommends inclusive and contextualised communication of the gospel through the incorporation of sign language and deaf culture towards effective evangelisation and discipleship of deaf people. Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The trainers of deaf people, Evangelical Fellowship of Zimbabwe and deaf people themselves provided an example of an interdisciplinary approach to communicating the gospel with deaf people in Zimbabwe where Ecclesiology, Communication and Disability Studies collaborate towards inclusive sharing of the gospel, and the realisation of Missio Dei and Missio Ecclesiae in Zimbabwe.
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This study entitled “Culture Insight Of New Age Technologies For Underdeveloped Society “,is about underdeveloped society in Temajuk Village, Indonesia-Malaysia border area, where is still underdeveloped area. This study aimed to find out the insight of new age technologies from Temajuk villager through their experiences about new technology and their meanings. In addition, the approach of this study is using qualitative-descriptive with interpretive paradigm through fenomenologi studi. The subject of this study is the villager who lived in Temajuk Village, located in the end of Borneo Island that directly borders with Malaysia. The subject is selected purposively, based on the context and the need of research. The data collection was conducted through interview, observation, literary review and documentations. The result for the culture insight of Temajuk society about new technologies are,the experiences more dynamic and its meanings independence life for them. The insight conclusion is the are very anthusiasm for the new technolog , its influenced by the history and conditions that build a culture insight for society of Temajuk village. Keywords: New Age Technology ; Smartphones; Culture Insight ;Temajuk Village; Underdeveloped Society
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Geert Hofstede’s legendary national culture research is critiqued. Crucial assumptions which underlie his claim to have uncovered the secrets of entire national cultures are described and challenged. The plausibility of systematically causal national cultures is questioned.
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This essay provides an introduction to postcolonial theory and criticism. It offers an overview of the questions and problematics with which postcolonial scholarship is concerned. It charts the historical and intellectual development of postcolonial studies. Finally, it explores the intersections of postcolonial studies and communication studies, and makes a case for the relevance of this area of work to communication scholarship.