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Architects Predict Lay Evaluations of Large Contemporary Buildings: Whose Conceptual Properties?

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Abstract

Evidence suggests that architects as a group cannot predict the public's aesthetic evaluations of architecture. In this study, practicing architects predicted laypersons' responses to large contemporary building, and again these predictions were poorly correlated with ratings by laypersons, although some architects' predictions were better than others, and architects were able to predict accurately that lay ratings in general would be more favourable than their own. To understand why most architects are unable to predict reactions to particular buildings, the architects' predictions were analysed in relation to their own and lay ratings of the buildings' conceptual properties. The results suggest that architects are unable to exchange their own criteria for conceptual properties for those of laypersons when they predict public evaluations, which leads to self-anchored, inaccurate predictions. This was supported by showing that the best-predicting architects related their evaluations to buildings' conceptual properties in a manner similar to that of the laypersons. Implications for design are suggested.

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... The present study focused on a population of students and young architects to explore the aesthetic opinion shift within architectural careers. This study was intended to be a conceptual replication of the study of Brown and Gifford (2001) in a Central European context. A total of 109 participants (21e28 years old) evaluated 40 randomized pictures of houses to detect whether non-architecture undergraduates and fresh graduates of architecture would express different aesthetic preferences compared with their peers from the general population. ...
... With respect to the abovementioned data, we explored two related issues: (1) differences in aesthetic preferences between young architects and their peers and (2) professional opinion shift in young architects. We conducted a conceptual replication (Bonett, 2012;Appelbaum et al., 2018) of the study of Brown and Gifford (2001). We also extended the scope of the study and compared the outcomes of the original study with those of the replication study. ...
... Gifford et al. (2000) and Llinares et al. (2011) offered a psychological perspective on this issue. Brown and Gifford (2001) suggested that architects in general cannot predict the public's aesthetic evaluations of architecture. Montanaña's (2013) research was widely developed on Gifford's approach and presented the significance of emotional choices in laypersons' preferences. ...
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Previous studies showed significant differences between expert architects and laypeople in aesthetic evaluations of buildings. However, studies exploring the aesthetic preferences of architecture students are lacking. The present study focused on a population of students and young architects to explore the aesthetic opinion shift within architectural careers. This study was intended to be a conceptual replication of the study of Brown and Gifford (2001) in a Central European context. A total of 109 participants (21–28 years old) evaluated 40 randomized pictures of houses to detect whether non-architecture undergraduates and fresh graduates of architecture would express different aesthetic preferences compared with their peers from the general population. The study also examined whether laypersons can predict the preferences of architects, and vice versa. Results show a trend that is contrary to the original research, that is, young architects and laypeople did not significantly differ in their aesthetic evaluations of the given stimuli. Analyses revealed high prediction ability in young architects and their non-architect peers. Moreover, the existing professional experience of young architects had no influence on the accuracy of their estimations. Findings suggest that the professional shift in architects’ expertise is obscured at an early career stage, as revealed in their aesthetic preferences.
... Studies show that architects used materials as a decisive physical stimulus (for example, the façade was metal, brick or stone), while laymen relied more on shapes in their judgments (roundness, ornamentation, etc.). (Brown-Gifford 2001) Several studies (e. g. Kaplan 1973, idézi Dúll-Urbán 1997 confirmed that architects stress certain characteristics (such as coherence) more in their preferences than laymen. ...
... Most studies found differences between professionals and lay people when using a semantic differential scale (e. g. Brózik 2006;Brown-Gifford 2001;Gifford et al. 2002;Kaplan 1973, idézi Dúll-Urbán 1997. The exceptions either used a city scale environment (Gjerde 2011) versus the building scale in other studies, or did not differentiate between freshmen and senior architect students, and referred to them together as professionals (Hidayetoglu et al. 2010). ...
... Lay people without said training have different categories to describe a building, to consider a building beautiful or not, to prefer it or not (e. g. Brown-Gifford 2001;Gifford et al. 2002;Brózik 2006;Hidayetoglu et al. 2010;Dúll 2017). These different categories can also be manifested in the media. ...
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In the present study we introduce the Grounded Theory method through the example of a study about similarities and differences in the opinions regarding glass façade buildings. We highlight the importance of using different samples. From a methodological point of view it is of utmost importance to pick the right method for data collection. Glass façade buildings have special psychological meanings which are different for lay people and professionals. In the study used as an example the sources of information were lay people and professional and lay media outlets. Qualitative content analysis was used to explore these parities and divergences. We introduce the capabilities and shortcomings of the Grounded Theory method we encountered during our research.
... Effects of buildings on perceivers have been studied frequently. Hershberger [4] has been mentioned to be the first researcher who documented perceptional differences between architects and laypersons and underlined the role of architectural education in this difference [5]. Several other researchers who worked with different sets of building types and professional groups also came up with similar findings. ...
... The changes of taste and judgment in architectural education were displayed in another study which compared the scorings of different and equivalent levels of Turkish and Polish students; although Polish students were found to be adopting the intangible and abstract language of architectural design earlier than their Turkish peers, both Turkish and Polish students were showing similar judgmental patterns through the end of their education [7]. Another result of this special educational process was architects' misjudgments when they were predicting about public taste on housing [8] or large contemporary buildings [5]. Architects and laypersons were found to be using different conceptual properties in assessments on buildings therefore the physical and formal properties causing this differentiation required detailed investigation and support [5]. ...
... Another result of this special educational process was architects' misjudgments when they were predicting about public taste on housing [8] or large contemporary buildings [5]. Architects and laypersons were found to be using different conceptual properties in assessments on buildings therefore the physical and formal properties causing this differentiation required detailed investigation and support [5]. In this context, contemporary office buildings were examined and they were found to be affecting architects and laypersons differently in terms of emotional impact and global aesthetic qualities and, not surprisingly, the objective features that were causing these differing assessments were found to be almost totally different for each group. ...
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This study proposes a model for measuring the responses of architects (n=32), teachers (n=51) and police officers (n=50) for a set of police station facades in order to diagnose the architectural style characteristics that affect these groups similarly. Approachability, professional outlook and prestigious outlook were the independent variables as appreciation was the dependent variable of the study. An expert group (n=5) assessed a large set of images (n=60) and related them with architectural characteristics (n=14). Images with repeating characteristics were eliminated so a more reliable set of images (n=20) was used in the study. Via the questionnaire, 11 questions were asked and 133 participants gave response. Results indicated facades that were / had foursquare, well-defined entrance, massive-transparent, legible, elaborated, humanly-inhumanly scaled, static, traditional-reformer, traditional roof-modern roof, varied in colors, and monotonous in fenestration characteristics were raising positive response of all participants. The study is important in terms of its potential to assist in decision giving processes of architects for the specific building type facades that has to give a positive image to whole society. In addition, the study proposes a research model that is more specific to designers rather than psychology related disciplines via combining conventional research methodologies with architectural characteristics.
... Architects preferred complexity and high-end attributes, while non-architects opted for simplicity and popular attributes. In another study, Brown and Gifford (2001) were interested in establishing why architects as a group cannot predict a layperson's aesthetic evaluation. Architects and laypeople were asked to rate colour slides, with a global impression rating on a scale of 1 to 10, presented in black-white in order to negate the influence of colour. ...
... When the experiences of designers and non-designers were considered together across the three cases of engagement, the research found a highly dynamic, complex and contextual form of engagement. In this respect, the research challenges previous research such as that by Brown and Gifford (2001) that proposes that closing the gap between designers' and nondesigners' relies (solely) on a better understanding of the relationship between the physical or formal properties of a building and its conceptual properties as understood by designers and nondesigners respectively. Such a proposal is deemed by this study to be too narrowly focussed on the building as observed rather than experienced. ...
Thesis
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Initial attempts to more deeply understand what architecture means to people as they go about their everyday activities revealed that relevant bodies of knowledge such as environmental psychology (including environmental perception and cognition) did not adequately satisfy, either singularly or collectively, the need expressed in environmental psychology and design theory for a more contextualized and a holistic conceptual framework. The research described in this thesis addresses this shortfall by responding to the question: What is the architectural experience in the everyday context? In other words, the research aimed to identify the various ways in which people make sense of buildings that are part of their everyday context in order to develop a conceptual framework that captures the holistic and contextual role of architecture in people’s everyday lives. As an overarching methodology Grounded Theory (GT) was used to guide research in a systematic inductive way augmented by Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) to reveal the idiographic, contextual nature of architectural experience through building engagement. To facilitate exploring their experiences in semi-structured interviews, participants were asked to photograph buildings that they encountered and experienced on a regular basis in the Brisbane CBD as a pedestrian while walking along the street and as a visitor. A third stage of the project involved interviewing participants in the building in which they work, that is, as occupants. In the first two instances, participants were asked to bring their photographs to the interview with the photo-elicitation method found to be successful in taking participants back to their actual experience and in the encouraging revelation of emotive and existential sense-making as well as conceptual and perceptual sense-making. Analysis of the data from the three stages produced four super-ordinate themes: (1) building in urban (text), (2) building in (text), (3) building in human (text), (4) and building in time (text) which, with their sub-themes, constitute an original conceptual framework representative of the multifaceted way in which people make sense of building in the everyday. The framework was also found to be useful in accommodating specific environmental psychology theories about selective aspects of person-environment engagement. Through this framework, the research makes a substantial original contribution to environmental psychology, particularly from a transactional perspective, as well as to architecture and design, educationally and professionally. Specifically, it identifies the general community’s contextual sense-making in relation to the everyday experience of buildings, producing a comprehensive theoretical framework that acknowledges a person’s relationship with a building as dynamic and unfolding, as opposed to static and constant; as emotive and existential as well as conceptual and perceptual. As well as contributing methodologically through the integrated use of GT and IPA, at a practical level, this thesis extends our knowledge of the relationship between people and architecture (in this case buildings) to help inform and enhance the design of more responsive buildings, interior environments and the urban context.
... Gjerde (2010) [40] observed that ordinary participants with no professional expertise in the built environment had similar perspectives and aesthetic judgments to architects and planners, however, professional participants were more confident and vocal in voicing their concerns. Brown and Gifford (2001) [41] concluded that the conceptual qualities (formal or physical) of a structure should be investigated in order to uncover disparities in preference between architects and the general public. The literature shows that built environment participants and others hold opposing views on preferences, highlighting the necessity to investigate people's aesthetic perceptions further. ...
... Gjerde (2010) [40] observed that ordinary participants with no professional expertise in the built environment had similar perspectives and aesthetic judgments to architects and planners, however, professional participants were more confident and vocal in voicing their concerns. Brown and Gifford (2001) [41] concluded that the conceptual qualities (formal or physical) of a structure should be investigated in order to uncover disparities in preference between architects and the general public. The literature shows that built environment participants and others hold opposing views on preferences, highlighting the necessity to investigate people's aesthetic perceptions further. ...
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The built environment, urban processes, and experience all work together to create the spatial environment of a city. Many urban spaces, especially those that appear to be ‘leftover’, do not reflect a set concept but are constantly questioned and recreated. Recognizing leftover spaces in an urban environment is an important aspect of the urban redevelopment process. Researchers have highlighted the difficulties, circumstances, and relevance of making good use of leftover space. To accomplish environmental and social benefits, these places can be created, changed, and incorporated into the main urban fabric; however, there is a scarcity of knowledge on how to go about constructing such environments. This study explores the visual perception of two groups of people, those with knowledge of the built environment and those with other educational backgrounds regarding leftover spaces in Wellington City. The research, which employs a mixed approach, consists of three studies, beginning with a visual preference study to better understand human perceptions, which might lead to better design solutions. The second study looked at differences in design preferences across the built environment and non-built environment participants. Finally, individuals from the built and non-built environments participants were invited to a focus group discussion for study three. To summarize, the findings demonstrated that adding vegetation is a crucial design feature. The findings refute the hypotheses of non-built environment specialists have different design perceptions for a built environment.
... The importance of considering the perceptions of various groups of users of the urban space is evidenced in several studies (eg., BROWN;GIFFORD, 2001;DEVLIN;NASAR, 1989;FAWCETT;ELLINGHAM;PLATT, 2008;GIFFORD et al. 2002;HERSHBERGER;CASS, 1992;PURCELL;NASAR, 1992;STAMPS, 1999). These studies show that the opinions of different groups vary according to specific aspects such as gender, age and culture. ...
... The importance of considering the perceptions of various groups of users of the urban space is evidenced in several studies (eg., BROWN;GIFFORD, 2001;DEVLIN;NASAR, 1989;FAWCETT;ELLINGHAM;PLATT, 2008;GIFFORD et al. 2002;HERSHBERGER;CASS, 1992;PURCELL;NASAR, 1992;STAMPS, 1999). These studies show that the opinions of different groups vary according to specific aspects such as gender, age and culture. ...
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This study aims at identifying, through the perception of different groups of users of urban space, the height at which a building is considered high. It investigates the perception of urban space’s users of the impacts produced by tall buildings in the city, trying to understand whether the changes caused by tall buildings in the urban landscape are considered positive or negative by the respondents, whether or not they are users of tall buildings. As part of the methodology, questionnaires were administered via internet to different groups of users of urban space, to a total of 148 respondents as follows: architects, non-architects college graduates and non college graduates. Among the main results found are: the minimum height of 10 oors can be established as an indicator of high-rise building; the main impacts generated by tall buildings were the change of the urban landscape, the overload in urban infras- tructure, the increase of population and traf c density, the change of the local mi- croclimate, and that most of the respondents consider that tall buildings negatively affect the city’s landscape. Moreover, it was found that perceptions of change in the urban landscape are independent of the respondents’ groups.
... A relevância da consideração das percepções dos vários grupos de usuários do espaço urbano é evidenciada em vários estudos (p. ex., BROWN;GIFFORD, 2001;DEVLIN;NASAR, 1989;FAWCETT;ELLINGHAM;PLATT, 2008;GIFFORD et al., 2002;HERSHBERGER;CASS, 1992;PURCELL;NASAR, 1992;STAMPS, 1999 High-rise buildings in the perception of the users of the urban space geral. Cada grupo de respondentes pode utilizar-se de uma diferente ordem de prioridade ao avaliar edificações, em especial os edifícios altos (SIMON, 1977). ...
... A relevância da consideração das percepções dos vários grupos de usuários do espaço urbano é evidenciada em vários estudos (p. ex., BROWN;GIFFORD, 2001;DEVLIN;NASAR, 1989;FAWCETT;ELLINGHAM;PLATT, 2008;GIFFORD et al., 2002;HERSHBERGER;CASS, 1992;PURCELL;NASAR, 1992;STAMPS, 1999 High-rise buildings in the perception of the users of the urban space geral. Cada grupo de respondentes pode utilizar-se de uma diferente ordem de prioridade ao avaliar edificações, em especial os edifícios altos (SIMON, 1977). ...
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Este trabalho tem como objetivo a identi cação, através da percepção de diferentes grupos de usuários do espaço urbano, da altura a partir da qual um edifício é consi- derado alto. Ainda, é investigada a percepção dos usuários do espaço urbano quanto aos impactos produzidos pelos edifícios altos na cidade, procurando compreender se as alterações provocadas pelos edifícios altos na paisagem urbana são consideradas positivas ou negativas pelos respondentes, sejam eles usuários ou não de edifícios al- tos. Como parte da metodologia, foram aplicados questionários via internet a distintos grupos de usuários do espaço urbano, totalizando 148 respondentes conforme segue: arquitetos, não-arquitetos com formação universitária e respondentes sem formação universitária. Dentre os principais resultados veri cou-se que: a altura de 10 pavimen- tos pode ser estabelecida como indicadora de edifício alto; os impactos mais recorren- tes gerados pelos edifícios altos foram a alteração da paisagem urbana, a sobrecarga na infraestrutura urbana, o aumento da densidade populacional, o adensamento do trá- fego e a alteração do microclima local; e que a maior parte dos respondentes considera que os edifícios altos afetam negativamente a paisagem da cidade. Ainda foi veri cado que as percepções da alteração da paisagem urbana independem dos grupos dos quais os respondentes fazem parte.
... Several studies have addressed the aesthetic judgment differences between designer and non-designer groups (Hershberger, 1969;Hershberger, 1988;Brown & Gifford, 2001;Fawcett et al., 2008). Among them, the physical attributes-emotional response studies take special place since they do not only indicate emotional response differences but also diagnose the physical elements that arouse these responses too. ...
... Researches which focused on the development of the value set of architectural students (e.g., Wilson and Canter, 1990; and architect-layperson assessments (e.g., Hershberger, 1969;Hershberger, 1988;Brown & Gifford, 2001;Gifford et al., 2000;Fawcett et al., 2008) were mostly based on aesthetic concerns and physical attributes. In fact, the theory, which shapes the profession and the practice, can also be given place in judgments on architecture. ...
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Architects' judgments on physical environments were found to be distinguishable from the judgments of non-architects. Dissimilarities between value sets were attributed to the professional education of architects. Level and school differences were also found to have significant effect on judgments. This article focuses on the judgment differences between students of a Polish school of architecture and a Turkish one in order to exemplify the dimensions of culture and level (dis)similarities. 2 nd and 4 th year students (N=160) of schools were asked to judge 45 building images in terms of practical and theoretical concerns. A control group of eminent design teachers (n=13) scored each image for concrete and abstract attributes (N=25). Results were checked through 2 successive Lens Models which correlated 2 nd & 2 nd and 4 th & 4 th year responses with the scores of the control group. The constancy of the correlations for the theoretical concern variable was a noteworthy finding supporting previous studies that claimed the presence of an underlying judgment structure gained through architectural education. On the other hand, the findings indicated an asymmetric development of culture groups, i.e. earlier development of Polish students in terms of internalizing the typical value sets compared to their Turkish peers. Value sets were found to get more congruent as students progressed in education. Results underline the homogenizing effect of the professional education. The study also proposes an adaptation of the Lens Model to the field of architectural research by which further comparative studies become available with the architects who adopt different tenets.
... Gifford (Brown & Gifford, 2001;Gifford, Hine, Muller-Clemm, & Shaw, 2002). In these two studies, Gifford and his colleagues tested to see whether architects were able to predict the public's aesthetic evaluations of architecture. ...
... In these two studies, Gifford and his colleagues tested to see whether architects were able to predict the public's aesthetic evaluations of architecture. In the first study (Brown & Gifford, 2001), they asked architects and laypersons to rate 42 large urban structures of diverse styles. Architects where asked to both make ratings themselves and predict, or try to mimic, a typical non-architect's impression. ...
Thesis
In recent decades, the exterior design of Protestant churches, primarily those affiliated with evangelical Protestantism in America, has undergone radical re-formulation. Since the late 1970’s many congregations have built churches that intentionally avoid traditional churchly design and instead are designed with an exterior architecture similar to secular building typologies such as schools, offices, stadiums, and commercial buildings. This design trend, known as architectural evangelism, is a product of the combination of the evangelistic desire to engage the unchurched such that they may become churched, and the application of a missiological logic which proposes that churchly architecture is a barrier for unchurched attendance. The influence and adoption of architectural evangelism is pervasive, having produced decades of engagement and practice. Yet, despite this widespread engagement, there has been no systematic study of the accuracy of architectural evangelism’s ideas. Thus, this dissertation examines the aptness of architectural evangelism and the efficacy of its design prescriptions by asking: What is the relationship between the design of Protestant church exteriors and 1) place constructs and 2) place judgements held by churched and unchurched individuals? Utilizing a comparative case study research design, the research employs an image-based sorting task interview. Four case studies were conducted with 25 churched and 25 unchurched respondents interviewed in each case study, for a total of 200 respondents. Two case studies were located in Southeast Michigan and two in Southern California. In each location, one case study was drawn from a case study church that does not embrace architectural evangelism and one case study church that does. The results of the study demonstrate the accuracy of architectural evangelism’s presuppositions that churched and unchurched individuals hold different constructs, yet the details of those constructs are not as predicted. In fact, the unchurched respondents judged churches designed with a more traditional ecclesiological profile to be more comfortable, beautiful, and overall more preferred over churches that use secular typologies. Furthermore, the unchurched preference is most highly correlated with aesthetic beauty and also positively correlated with perceived emphasis of worship. The results suggest that architectural evangelism’s design prescriptions may be in error.
... Of course, Alexander was hardly the first to note this disparity between the judgments of architects and laypersons. Indeed, the evidence for this state of affairs is abundant in the literature [48]. More importantly, Alexander did more than wring his hands. ...
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Christopher Alexander published his longest and arguably most philosophical work, The Nature of Order, beginning in 2003. Early criticism assessed that text to be a speculative failure; at best, unrelated to Alexander’s earlier, mathematically grounded work. On the contrary, this review presents evidence that the newer work was a logically consistent culmination of a lifelong and remarkably useful inquiry into part-whole relations—an ancient but still-relevant and even urgent topic of design, architecture, urbanism, and science. Further evidence demonstrates that Alexander’s practical contributions are remarkably prodigious beyond architecture, in fields as diverse as computer science, biology and organization theory, and that these contributions continue today. This review assesses the potential for more particular contributions to the urban professions from the later work, and specifically, to an emerging “science of cities.” It examines the practical, as well as philosophical contributions of Alexander’s proposed tools and methodologies for the design process, considering both their quantitative and qualitative aspects, and their potential compatibility with other tools and strategies now emerging from the science of cities. Finally, it highlights Alexander’s challenge to an architecture profession that seems increasingly isolated, mired in abstraction, and incapable of effectively responding to larger technological and philosophical challenges.
... Past studies have strongly indicated that architects differ from nonarchitects in their assessments of the built environment (Devlin, 1990;Devlin & Nasar, 1989;Gifford, Hine, Muller-Clemn, & Shaw, 2002;Groat, 1982;Hersberger, 1969;Hubbard, 1996;Imamoglu, 1979Imamoglu, , 2000Jeffrey & Reynolds, 1999;Nasar, 1989;Nasar & Kang, 1989;Pennartz & Elsinga, 1990;Purcell, 1995;Purcell & Nasar 1992;Purcell, Peron, & Sanchez, 1998;Stamps, 1991;Vischer & Marcus, 1986). Evidence suggests that architects as a group cannot predict the public's aesthetic evaluations of architecture (Brown & Gifford, 2001). Architects' distinctive attitudes most likely derive from shared values acquired in their education. ...
... The Q-sort technique is a categorization or sorting technique, which directs participants to group visual stimuli into categories as de fined by the researcher (Amin, 2000). To transmit architectural values, elicitation through photographs is a common device in different research domains, and photographs or slides have been used extensively as a substitute for the physical environment (Brown & Gifford, 2001;Stamps, 2000;Stamps & Nasar, 1997). Previous studies that explored the use of photographic images and other elicitation media have generally concluded that the correlation between responses to static color photographs, dynamic virtual reality model, and responses to the physical environment is comparatively very high (Stamps, 2010). ...
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What are the visual attributes of successfully designed urban open spaces that play significant roles in the creation of sustainable livable cities? Public spaces are mostly designed for social interaction and communication. The aesthetic and morphological dimensions of public spaces are among the essential visual and physical characteristics that need to be understood for successful social use. This paper reports on a study that was exploratory and qualitative in nature and sets out to explore the different physical characteristics of designed urban open spaces as being aesthetically and socially important from the users’ point of view. By using photo simulation techniques, a set of 24 photographs of urban plazas, squares, and pedestrian malls were used as surrogates for the physical environment. The study identified some salient attributes of designed urban open spaces in order to create sustainable urban planning, with six sub-categories considered to be important. Based on detailed participant responses, a list of the attributes of preferred physical environment to design sustainable urban open space has been developed. The findings can be implemented to create sustainable urban planning as well as to design successful urban plazas, squares, and other public open spaces according to user preferences in the future.
... The results obtained by surveying the area users and architecture students indicate different approaches in the evaluation of space, and in visual, tactile and auditory terms, within various categories of the respondents. There are differences in the perception of space by architects (in this case, students) and non-architects (area users) i.e., differences in their reactions to the impulses from public spaces, as has been indicated by various authors [83][84][85][86]. Architecture students had high criteria in their evaluation of the aesthetic components of the area (applied materials and colours), while other users of the public space were more critical toward the functional and infrastructural deficiencies in the public space, as well as acoustic comfort. ...
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The physical structure of Podgorica was predominantly developed with a traditional planning concept, whereby public open spaces of the city are as important as the city’s architectural objects. The focus of this paper is the perception of a traditional street in the context of sustainable urban regeneration. The aim of this study is to submit a proposal, through the Urban Design course at the Faculty of Architecture in Podgorica, for the physical regeneration of twelve traditional streets (eight street directions) that define the central core of Podgorica, known as Mirkova Varoš. These streets are the sites of social processes, interpreters of cultural and identity values of the society, and primary keepers of collective memory. It was detected that the attractiveness of the case study streets is weakening due to inadequate social and professional engagement in the processes of preservation and regeneration over time and also due to new users’ needs. Global requirements reflect the weakened role of public open spaces as places of social interaction, in favour of primarily closed shopping centres that are the new urban artefacts of the 21st century city. The first phase of this study is related to the theoretical interpretation of regeneration and the role of public space in the context of socio-spatial sustainability. The second phase of the study is directed toward estimating the perception of the current state of the street area in Mirova Varoš, as seen by the case study area users and architecture students, using (1) visual, (2) tactile, and (3) auditory criteria. The obtained results serve as a platform for concrete urban design proposals for sustainable street regeneration that will reflect a stronger socio-spatial interaction between (1) user–place, (2) the place–city system, and (3) local processes–global flows.
... Although there are several studies (Hershberger, 1969;Devlin & Nasar, 1989;Nasar, 1989;Devlin, 1990;Stamps, 1991;Hubbard, 1994;Brown & Gifford, 2001) that found a perceptual difference between architects and non-architects, those differences are related to the overall evaluation of building facades made from pictures or slides and not real environments or public spaces. ...
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This paper seeks to determine which physical elements of privately owned public spaces affect users′ impressions, which characteristics of these elements are noticed, and what impressions they cause. The study is based on a caption evaluation and semantic differential survey of 12 public spaces in the center of Tokyo. Ten participants were surveyed for each space, and 1494 of the obtained entries were analyzed. The semantic differential survey was then cross-referenced with density measures to evaluate the effect of physical elements′ densities on participants′ impressions. It was found that the physical elements that caught users′ attention were greenery, street furniture, the building, the sidewalk and the space itself. From all of the elements, tree coverage density was the best predictor of desire to stay and rest activities in the space. A logistic regression analysis of each activity by tree density is also provided.
... Particularly in the EBS (Environment, Behavior, and Society) domain, photographs or slides have been used extensively as a substitute for the physical environment. 30,[35][36][37] A group of scholars from the EBS research group, in the Faculty of Architecture at the University of Sydney, selected 24 photographs to use as visual stimuli from a series of 42 different photographs of urban open spaces. The selection of open spaces was based on two different criteria. ...
Article
What are the visual attributes of successfully designed urban open spaces that play significant roles in the creation of sustainable livable cities? Public spaces are mostly designed for social interaction and communication. The aesthetic and morphological dimensions of public spaces are among the essential visual and physical characteristics that need to be understood for successful social use. This paper reports on a study that was exploratory and qualitative in nature and sets out to explore the different physical characteristics of designed urban open spaces as being aesthetically and socially important from the users' point of view. By using photo simulation techniques, a set of 24 photographs of urban plazas, squares, and pedestrian malls were used as surrogates for the physical environment. The study identified some salient attributes of designed urban open spaces in order to create sustainable urban planning, with six sub-categories considered to be important. Based on detailed participant responses, a list of the attributes of preferred physical environment to design sustainable urban open space has been developed. The findings can be implemented to create sustainable urban planning as well as to design successful urban plazas, squares, and other public open spaces according to user preferences in the future.
... The term architectural design style refers to visual characteristics of a building/object that differentiate styles, as reflected through ornament shape, construction system and the materials used (Poppeliers and Chambers, 2003). Furthermore, architects' classifications and style preferences deviate from public preferences (Brown and Gifford, 2001;Canter, 1969;Gifford et al., 2002;Hershberger and Cass, 1974;Purcell, 1986;Venturi et al., 1972). This difference further clouds the distinctiveness between architectural design styles and the consumers' ability to recognize styles. ...
Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate what people with different demographic characteristics such as age and gender expect from hotel room design and examine how design preferences affect purchase intent and desire to stay and word-of-mouth behavior. Design/methodology/approach The study was based on a quasi-experimental design conducted on 762 participants. The manipulations of room color and design style were prepared using the 3D modeling software, while age and gender were self-reported variables. Findings The results indicated that age and gender moderate the relationship between hotel guest satisfaction and room design style. Younger guests prefer contemporary design style, while older guests show equal satisfaction with traditional and contemporary styles. Male guests prefer rooms decorated in masculine colors, while women are equally satisfied with masculine or feminine color schemes. Research limitations/implications This study was conducted as a hypothetical, computer-aided experimental scenario. A field experiment captured guests’ satisfaction with an experimental hotel room. A substantive cause–effect relationship between hotel room visual servicescape stimuli and satisfaction was established. Practical implications Identifying design style and color preferences of a hotel target market is paramount for investment payoff and further supports the customization of hotel services. Originality/value This is the first experimental study to manipulate color scheme and type of design in a hotel room and capture their effects on satisfaction and behavior of guests with different demographic characteristics.
... Later, various studies were carried out on the basis of this study (Hershberger ve Cass, 1974;Groat, 1982;Devlin & Nasar, 1989;Nasar, 1989;Stamps, 1991;Imamoğlu 2000, Akalın et al., 2009). In the study carried out by Brown and Gifford (2001) to determine the perception differences between the designer and the user where the effect of social factors in perception is studied, it has been found that the education got creates differences in perception. Similarly, Gifford et al. (2000Gifford et al. ( , 2002 examined in their study that architects, as compared to non-architects, have a different approach to aesthetic evaluations of building facades physically and emotionally. ...
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In architecture, perception based studies about building facades have become more popular. In recent studies, mostly residential buildings and business center type of buildings had been selected as target buildings. The lack of study of the perception of the facades of religious structures has created the basic motivation for this work. In the current study, the facade features of (Seljuk period, Ottoman period and Republic period) some important mosques from different periods were evaluated according to the adjective pairs of complexity, preference and impressiveness variables. Also, whether or not the general views of the mosques represent Islamic religion and their level of arousing curiosity were questioned. For this purpose, in the study, a total of 16 mosques were used. The results obtained from the participants as architect and non-architect are given. It is seen that the participant architects show a statistically more negative approach compared to those who are non-architects in the perceptual evaluations of the facades of the mosques for complexity variable. On the other hand, there was no statistically significant difference between the participants' evaluations of preference and impressiveness variables (at p
... De fato, estudos demonstram que o julgamento feito por arquitetos a respeito da aparência de edifícios é diferente do julgamento feito por não arquitetos (Devlin & Nasar, 1989;Fawcett, Ellington & Platt, 2008;Hershberger, 1988), ao ponto de arquitetos não conseguirem predizer corretamente, com relação a edifícios apresentados, quais seriam as avaliações estéticas feitas por leigos (Brown & Gifford, 2001). ...
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Esta pesquisa aborda ambientes físicos que exercem um papel de restauro das capacidades cognitivas e emocionais desgastadas no dia-a-dia. Em comparação com cenários naturais foram investigados edifícios espelhados, edifícios de arquitetura não convencional e fachadas com murais de grafite. Investigou-se: se estes três elementos são percebidos como distintos dos demais elementos da cidade e como são classificados (Estudo 1: tarefa de classificação de imagens); quais são os perfis de restauro potencial percebido para estes ambientes (Estudo 2: diferencial semântico); e de que maneira o restauro promovido pela visualização de edifícios escultóricos (um subconjunto dos edifícios de arquitetura não convencional) e edifícios espelhados se compara com o restauro promovido por cenários de natureza, em ambos os casos após a indução de um estresse agudo (Estudo 3: experimento). O primeiro estudo (n=152) evidenciou que há critérios formais de agrupamento compartilhados entre participantes, os três elementos de interesse compõem grupos distintos e agrupamentos gerados por leigos e por pessoas com treino em arte diferem. O segundo estudo (n=125) evidenciou que natureza é o ambiente mais preferido (54,4%) e é percebido como mais restaurador. Edifícios de vidro espelhado são percebidos como majoritariamente neutros e edifícios de arquitetura não convencional e cenários de grafite são grupos intermediários. O perfil de restauro percebido é diferente para leigos e participantes com treino em artes em relação à subtipos de cenários urbanos, mas não em relação à natureza. O terceiro estudo (n=40) evidenciou que não há diferenças de restauro entre as condições de visualização de fotos de natureza, arquitetura escultórica e vidro espelhado no que diz respeito à recuperação fisiológica (atividade eletrodérmica e pressão arterial sistólica) e recuperação atencional. Foi observada uma diferença entre os grupos na percepção subjetiva de estresse: a percepção de relaxamento foi menor para integrantes do grupo de visualização de edifícios de vidro espelhado. A principal contribuição desta pesquisa é a observação de que há um alto potencial restaurador em ambientes urbanos bem cuidados e com projetos arquitetônicos que valorizam elementos como linhas curvas, orgânicas, flúidas, complexas porém harmônicas, a presença de nichos e a integração com elementos naturais e de água. O grafite apresenta ainda um perfil de restauro promissor e deve ser investigado em pesquisas futuras. Concluímos que: não é possível tratar cenários urbanos como um grupo homogêneo; é preciso estudar as diferenças de cenário levando-se em consideração sua complexidade; há diferenças na classificação e percepção de potencial restaurador de ambientes urbanos entre pessoas que possuem treino na área de artes e leigos e, finalmente, pesquisas da área devem fazer uma avaliação conjunta dos diversos aspectos da experiência de restauro: percepção subjetiva, indicadores atencionais e indicadores fisiológicos.
... Lebih lanjut Coeterier (2002) menyebutkan bahwa kriteria untuk daya tarik bangunan bersejarah adalah warna, material yang digunakan, dan proporsi. Brown and Gifford (2001) menyebutkan enam faktor kognitif dalam evaluasi fasad bangunan yaitu kejelasan (clarity), kompleasitas (complexity), keramahtamahan (friendliness), orisinalitas (originality), ketidakrataan (ruggedness), dan kemaknaan (meaningfulness). Beberapa studi percaya bahwa emosi terhadap suatu bangunan dapat mempengaruhi evaluasi seseorang terhadap fasad bangunan. ...
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This research aims to discover people’s perceptions and preferences towards building façade. This research has used a mixed-method approach with the triangulation of data validation. In the analysis, a sequence-analysis method has been utilized, beginning from qualitative descriptive to quantitative one. Data were collected from in-depth-interview with several key persons like district official, officers of certain governmental departments, and questionnaire distribution to the people who have their daily activities in Ki SamaunStreet, which is part of Kota Lama area in Tangerang City. The findings of this study show that colors; architectural design; width and height of the buildings and buildings’ ornaments are the most important elements in building façade that can be used to comprehend the people’s perceptions and preferences. This study has found that there are similarities between people’s perceptions and preferences with the Kota Lama’s development plans. Both sides are of the opinion that the colors of the buildings are similar, unpleasant, and there are some buildings more stand out than the others. Both sides also perceive that the architectural style of the buildings no longer represents the Chinese culture. This makes the restoration work to reverse the façade back into its original form is essential. Both sides also recognize that buildings’ height and width are not in harmony, although the people think that renovation is not needed. Both sides also observe that there are no buildingswith similar ornaments; whilesignage is the main source of visual pollution and rearrangement of signage is needed. Keywords: People’s perception and preferences, building façade, urban heritage, corridor revitalization
... Some of the last decade's publications on beauty and ugliness in architecture, or the "architecture of happiness" (De Botton, 2008), (Montgomery, 2013), show a sense of aesthetic division between trained architects or planners and recipients of contemporary architecture and urban spaces (dwellers, users, passersby). Architects are, empirically, the worst judges of what people want or like in the built environment (Smith, 2015), (Brown & Gifford, 2001). In that context, it should be noticed that the success of regeneration and revitalisation of many previously depopulated and degraded historical quarters and post-industrial sites in Europe lies not only in humanly scaled spaces, but to a large extent in the substance of old buildings. ...
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The original placemaking philosophy was based on the recognition that place is intrinsically tied to cultural values, ones tested by generations of human interaction. Its practices have created a growing body of knowledge of the design strategies and physical elements that make vital public spaces and successful development projects. However, without proper consideration of local history and heritage, such practices might not leave room for character and distinctive beauty. The result can be places that are again more a manifestation of planning principles and generalised design strategies than integrating urban cultures and communities. Without inclusion of the attributes that people want to preserve, adapt, rehabilitate, or even reconstruct, public space may present a missed opportunity to produce specific, beautiful places. Careful approaches to existing structures provide a sense of continuity, comprehensibility, meaningfulness, and coherence – the values of importance beyond aesthetic satisfaction. Placemaking practices might be expanded again, to advocate for more sustaining, organised complexity, and reconciling new urban communities with adaptive places full of character.
... Working according to the directives of contemporary architectural culture, they are taught to ignore their own body's intuitive responses, and to instead impose abstract formal criteria for design (Salingaros, 2017). It is known, though rarely publicized, that architects and laypersons have almost diametrically opposite architectural preferences (Brown & Gifford, 2001;Gifford, Hine, Muller-Clemm, & Shaw, 2002;Wilson, 1996). ...
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On Agrotourism and Forest Landscape management techniques
... ;Brown, Gifford 2001;Buchanan 2007;Ghomeshi et al. 2012;Ng 2017; Mehaffy, Alterman 2019: 14−16) to avoid the consequences of this malpractice that are al-ready evident in dysfunctional cities and metropolitan areas around the globe. ...
Article
Frankfurt am Main is well-known for its financial centre of Europe and recognised as the German city with the highest concentration of high-rise buildings ("skyline"). For several years now, this construction class has also been discovered for hotel, residential and hybrid usages. The completion of an initial 15 hybrid-use high-rise towers in the city of Frankfurt am Main is expected by the year 2023. Other German cities such as Berlin, Hamburg and Dusseldorf are following similar strategies to implement vertical allocations of property rights in towers embedded in selected privately owned (semi-)public spaces. The amenities include arcades, pocket parks, seating areas, landscape terraces, rooftop bars and swimming pools. We will discuss the renaissance of high-rises, which is a market-based and marketing-based approach following the monetary policy of the European Central Bank, wooing investors at a time of unprecedented speed of construction of tall, particularly hybrid, buildings. In the case study of the 'Four' inner-city revitalisation project, located on plots formerly known as 'the forbidden town' of Frankfurt as this area was blocked to the public for decades, we will pay particular attention to the planning department's right to regulate. The findings presented here are the result of scientific project work conducted in 2019-2020. The local government has imposed a 30% mandatory quota for affordable, subsidised housing rents and price reduced condominiums as legally binding requirements for tower constructions to prevent vertical gated communities. Our paper deals with the central areas of real estate development: land and capital investment.
... Many types of research about experimental aesthetics have been conducted to investigate various aspects of buildings and cities to ensure user satisfaction Sánchez-Pantoja, Vidal and Pastor (2018), Amer and Attia (2019) (Stanislav and Chin, 2019). Although the literature includes many studies examining the different views and perceptions of architects and laypersons (Hershberger, 1969(Hershberger, , 1988Canter, 1969;Kaplan, 1974;İmamoglu, 1979;Groat, 1982;Devlin and Nasar, 1989;Erdogan et al., 2010a;Erdogan et al., 2010b;Nasar and Kang, 1989;Devlin, 1990;Nasar and Purcell, 1990;Purcell, 1995;Hubbard, 1996;Purcell et al., 1998;Imamoglu, 2000;Gifford et al., 2000;Gifford et al., 2002;Brown and Gifford, 2001;Fawcett et al., 2008), only a limited number of studies have indicated there to be similar views between these two groups (Kunawong, 1986;Kuller, 1973;Özbudak et al., 2015). A number of studies have evaluated whether the meanings imposed by the architects and laypersons on to buildings matched with the names assigned to buildings and have assessed the spatial elements, regulations and power factors of various buildings (Hersberger 1969(Hersberger , 1988. ...
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Purpose This study focuses on the subject of environmental aesthetics and aims to identify the differences and similarities that emerge in the general aesthetic evaluations toward the individual style, particularly examining the physical and connotative meanings in the buildings by Zaha Hadid. The study further seeks to understand how individual style fosters aesthetic awareness or common perceptions on a universal level without causing a cultural difference. Design/Methodology/Approach A survey was conducted to understand the visual aesthetic evaluations of architects and laypersons over 16 buildings of Hadid—an architect who managed to develop her own individual style. The visual images created were evaluated in terms of sensorial and physical concepts in order to understand whether there was a common language by evaluating the aesthetic perceptions of subjects with different backgrounds, and to reveal the effect of individual style in forming a universal tongue. Descriptive statics, correlation analysis and independent t test were performed to conduct the evaluations. Findings According to analysis results, the rhythm and organic lines of a building are the most significant elements for building façades and masses in aesthetic evaluations. In addition, no significant differences regarding the dimensions of “liking”, “ornate”, “attractive”, “meaningful” and “warm” were found between the groups. Research Limitations/Implications The survey was conducted between two different subject groups; architects and laypersons. Specific parameters related to the sensorial concepts of the buildings were used. These parameters included the concepts of liking, pleasant, complex, familiar, meaningful, ornate and warm, while for the physical characteristics of the buildings, the concepts of regular/ irregular, full/ empty, rhythmic/ arrhythmic, soft/ hard, meaningful/ meaningless and symmetric/asymmetric were used. Originality/Value This study is significant insofar as it is among the rare research studies that found there to be no differences between architects and laypersons but rather, similarities between them.
... The overall project employs a multi-perspective strategy of investigation, which entails the assessments of physical-environment affordances by different social actors (users and experts), with the purpose of gaining a better understanding of the human -environment interactions occurring in the setting of SHF (Brown & Gifford, 2001;Devlin & Arneill, 2003). ...
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Supported housing facilities (SHF) are among the most common housing solutions for people with severe mental illness (SMI). A poor level of physical-environment qualities and the re-creation of institutional atmospheres in these settings have been found in recent studies. The research focus in the psychiatric field has, however, largely neglected these topics and the available knowledge does not provide sufficient evidence to draw any conclusions in terms of which physical environmental aspects support the well-being of people with SMI. The aim of this thesis is thus to reduce this knowledge gap and identify physical-environment affordances for psychosocially supportive housing facilities. The HEI model and a salutogenic approach are the thesis’ theoretical backgrounds that have led to the identification of physical-environment affordances, which have proven to be crucial for people’s well-being. Such affordances are operationalized in terms of visual pleasantness, homelikeness and indirect environmental effects. SHF (N = 20) were investigated with a multi-place approach by experts (N = 5), user-group panel (N = 3), people with SMI (N = 72) and staff (N = 117) (social actors). Four papers contribute to test the influence of the selected affordances on people with SMI: comparison of the views of different social actors (Paper I), evaluation of their impact on social climate (Paper II), observed behaviors (Paper IV) and on place attachment and quality of life (Paper III). Results suggest that SHFs with perceived greater physical affordances (visual pleasantness and indirect environmental effects) were associated with positive social climate perceptions. Moreover, the indirect environmental effects were found to be supportive for observed behaviors of interactions, attachment to place and quality of life responses. Place attachment and social climate mediated the effects of the physical environment. These findings suggest that future planning of SHF should focus on a housing design that sustains possibilities for social interaction, privacy regulation and restoration (indirect environmental effects) in order to support well-being outcomes among people with SMI. Methodological, theoretical and practical design implications are discussed.
... In addition, it was determined that architects were not able to predict the public's aesthetic evaluations of architecture [31]. Architects were unable to exchange the standards of their concepts and attributes with those of laymen, which led to incorrect predictions [32]. Architectural education and training were considered to be the reasons for the divergence between the perceptions of architects and non-architects [33][34][35], because it changed architects' understanding of symbols and results in the forming a specialised language [33,36]. ...
Article
The perception of the architectural acoustic environment of both architects and non-architects is important. Through interviews with architects and non-architects, theoretical frameworks on acoustic environment perception for the two groups are created in the present study. The entire perception process is summarised into four steps for both groups: attitude towards the acoustic environment of the building, perception of the acoustic environment design, factors influencing the interpretation, and the outcome of the acoustic environment. Some obvious differences between the two groups were observed. Architects tend to focus on controlling the physical parameters of sound; they recognize that the active design of the acoustic environment is difficult and problematic. Non-architects pay more attention to interpreting and experiencing acoustic environments. They tend to create a good acoustic environment using ideal sound and have a positive attitude towards shaping the acoustic environment. Furthermore, compared to non-architects, architects do not pay enough attention to the various influencing factors that affect users’ interpretations of acoustic environments, and the multiple, long-term, and profound effects (e.g. behavioural, emotional, recovery, and health) of the architectural acoustic environment on users are usually ignored. Correlation analysis of these differences and phenomena reveals that the existing issues of the acoustic environment design initially focuses on two aspects: architects’ understanding of the active architectural acoustic environment design is not sufficient to overcome its inherent limitations, and architects’ understanding of public preferences and demands is insufficient. According to the interviews, the future development direction may lie in the combination of acoustic environment design and architecture, support for architects, effective communication and feedback mechanisms, and the transition of architects’ design thinking.
... Huxtable (2004), Hayashi (2004), Kong and Yeoh (2004) Hui (2007) emphasized the importance of the building façade especially in urban perception. Similarly, studies on the effects of building façade appearance on perceptual evaluations were made (Robbins and Langton, 1999;Gifford et al., 2000;Brown and Gifford, 2001). Mehrabian and Russell (1974), Russell et al. (1981) and Gifford et al. (2000) determined in their studies that observer preferences were changed with building façades. ...
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Purpose This study aimed to make a comparative evaluation of the differences between the original façade (original) and the modified façade of the traditional Turkish Houses (collected from Afyonkarahisar city) based on perception. Design/Methodology/Approach In line with this purpose, digital images of eight sets of original and modified street silhouettes with gray color scales have been produced on the computer. Two different groups consisting of 80 people (architect and non-architect group) have evaluated the prepared images by the semantic differentiation scale consisting of the adjective pairs. The main hypothesis of the study is "The original façade would be more preferred than the modified façade". Also, gender, architect and non-architect group comparisons were made in the evaluations, too. Findings The results have shown that the participants liked the original traditional Turkish House façade more. The tidy/untidy and proportional/non-proportional adjective pairs have had the biggest difference in this evaluation. In another result, male participants have evaluated the traditional Turkish House façade views liked more for all dependent variables except for familiar / unfamiliar and qualified / unqualified adjective pairs compared to female participants. In addition, non-architects have liked more than architects the façade views of traditional Turkish Houses for adjective pairs that are beautiful / ugly, not impressive / unimpressive and interesting / uninteresting. On the other hand the architects have liked more than non-architects the façade view of traditional Turkish Houses for the proportional / non-proportional adjective pair. Research Limitations/Implications This study has been conducted only for Turkish Houses collected from Afyonkarahisar city. In addition, only architects and non-architects group attended for evaluation of the surveys. Social/Practical Implications According to the most important finding obtained from the study, the fact that the original state is observed in the restoration of traditional Turkish Houses has caused people liked it more. Similarly, it has been observed that the organization of windows, solid-void relationship ratio, repetitions, horizontal and vertical structural elements (beams etc.) in the Turkish house façade characteristic will have a positive effect on perception. Originality/Value With this study, for the first time in the literature, the evaluation of holistic (comprehensive) street silhouettes was made based on a single façade layout.
... The performed procedure was based on previous studies [10,28]; however, it used different stimuli, and the rating scale was also limited from 1 to 10 to 1 to 5. On the basis of the prepared research material, an online questionnaire was developed, consisting of two parts. The first part consisted of one task aimed at arranging randomly displayed graphics (described in Section 2.2) from the prettiest (value 1) to the ugliest (value 5). ...
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The aim of this study is to determine the preferences of Polish society towards building facades depending on the degree of the composition regularity of the facade elements. The subject matter is inspired by the authors’ observations in relation to the current architectural trends. The purposefulness of the conducted research results from several issues. Firstly, the reports of psychology and neurosciences clearly indicate the universality of certain preferences towards visual attributes of objects (e.g., in relation to abstract symmetric patterns), resulting from biological conditions. Secondly, residential, multi-family architecture is by definition designed for a wide group of anonymous users whose expectations must be met. One of the dimensions of the above-mentioned expectations is the visual dimension, partially dependent on the composition of the facade. In the course of the conducted research, it is shown that facades with a regular composition are assessed as more attractive than those with irregular compositions. Moreover, irregular facades evoked a negative effect of a significantly greater force than the positive effect in the case of regular facades. The above-described discoveries shed, in the authors’ opinion, a completely new light on the contemporary work of architects. It is extremely important to adapt the visual dimension of architecture to the expectations of its recipients, while taking care of its values and quality as a field of art.
... Contudo, nesses dois processos de revitalização não foram coletadas e consideradas informações acerca das percepções das populações locais. A relevância da percepção de vários grupos de usuários do espaço urbano é evidenciada em diversos estudos que enfatizam que as avaliações que envolvem o espaço urbano ou edificações deveriam ser realizadas por arquitetos e pessoas leigas, sem formação universitária e com formação em outras áreas profissionais, para que se possam verificar as percepções dos profissionais que projetam os espaços, assim como dos distintos usuários do espaço urbano (PURCELL; NASAR, 1992; BROWN; GIFFORD, 2001). Adicionalmente, vários estudos sobre a conexão 202 entre orlas e áreas urbanas salientam a relevância de se considerar a percepção dos usuários da cidade a respeito de tais orlas (DONOFRIO, 2007;TELLA, 2012). ...
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This paper aims to analyze the perception and frequency of use of the inactive port area of Mauá Quayside, by three groups of Porto Alegre City users, the positive and negative aspects perceived by users being identified. Moreover, the relationship among city users' perception, the waterfront guidelines developed by the City Council of Porto Alegre and those proposed by the researches, and the revitalization design proposal for this sector of Guaiba Waterfront are investigated. Data gathering means include the application of questionnaires via the internet to the three groups of users, namely architects, non-architects college graduates, and non-college graduates. The results make it possible to verify the importance of this urban area in the context of the city, confirming the relevance of city users' perception to produce guidelines and to develop urban intervention projects.
Chapter
This chapter argues that in designing architecture, aesthetics should be considered as a “risk factor” in addition to conventional risk factors such as environment and health and ethical considerations such as justice, fairness and equity. Buildings should not only be designed to be sustainable in a technical sense but also in an aesthetic sense.
Article
This research aims to discover people’s perceptions and preferences towards building façade. This research has used a mixed-method approach with the triangulation of data validation. In the analysis, a sequence-analysis method has been utilized, beginning from qualitative descriptive to quantitative one. Data were collected from in-depth-interview with several key persons like district official, officers of certain governmental departments, and questionnaire distribution to the people who have their daily activities in Ki Samaun Street, which is part of Kota Lama area in Tangerang City. The findings of this study show that colors; architectural design; width and height of the buildings and buildings’ ornaments are the most important elements in building façade that can be used to comprehend the people’s perceptions and preferences. This study has found that there are similarities between people’s perceptions and preferences with the Kota Lama’s development plans. Both sides are of the opinion that the colors of the buildings are similar, unpleasant, and there are some buildings more stand out than the others. Both sides also perceive that the architectural style of the buildings no longer represents the Chinese culture. This makes the restoration work to reverse the façade back into its original form is essential. Both sides also recognize that buildings’ height and width are not in harmony, although the people think that renovation is not needed. Both sides also observe that there are no buildings with similar ornaments; while signage is the main source of visual pollution and rearrangement of signage is needed. Keywords: People’s perception and preferences, building façade, urban heritage, corridor revitalization.
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The purpose of this study is to clarify the difference of visual evaluation under combined environment of noise and temperature between architectural and non-architectural students. Environmental conditions were temperature condition (20.5 C and 24.5 C in winter; 20.5 C, 24.5 C, and 28.5 C in summer) and noise condition (47dB of ambient noise, 65dB of road traffic noise). The Semantic Differential method was used. Consequently, it was shown that environmental factors other than vision, such as temperature and noise, influenced significantly the evaluation of landscapes. Furthermore, the influence of noise, the difference between subjects, etc. were discussed in detail.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there would be any difference between preconceptualizations and a narrative-based visualization of a restoration-supporting built environment. The first study involved 100 subjects including architects, laypersons, and students. Subjects were given a narrative describing attention fatigue and were then asked to write down what an ideal restorative built environment could look like. A modified version of Brunswik's lens model served as a frame of analysis for identifying restorative components from the narratives. Thirteen major distal and proximal cue categories were identified and ranked to determine the most frequently mentioned combined cues, such as construction elements (i.e., light wall, high ceiling, wooden floor, large window, and open door), soft furniture, bright lighting, and airy ambiance. The combined cues were then visualized by using an applied segmentation technique and CAD. The second study involved 119 laypersons and consisted of an evaluation of the above-mentioned visualization scenario by using the perceived restorativeness scale and an alternative restoration-supportive built environment scale. This study revealed that architects', laypersons', and students' individual pre-conceptualizations of an ideal restoration-supportive built environment may not fully correspond to the concept of a research-based design scenario, which here was intended to represent a universal restoration-supportive built environment for the general public. Copyright © 2008, Locke Science Publishing Company, Inc. Chicago, IL, USA. All Rights Reserved.
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The purpose of this study is to clarify the combined effect of visual and auditory factors on the facade design evaluation of buildings in urban areas. We conducted three psychological experiments. In the last experiment, nine kinds of slides of buildings in Kyoto city adjusted to one level of traffic noise (LAeq 60 dB), and two levels of road (with or without), cars and passerby (with or without), were presented to the subjects. Evaluation was made on seven point scales of 20 pairs of adjectives by Semantic Differential method. The result showed that the buildings used in the two experiments were classified into the following three categories; Japanese style, Western style, and contemporary style. The difference in the evaluation between each category was shown.
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Urban Public Spaces (UPS) are important arenas for human interaction and social activities, and ensuring their quality and functionality is crucial for a successful urban design with public health benefits. However, mostly for insufficient public participation, user experiences of UPS are usually not what the designers were expecting. Therefore, the urgent need to investigate the difference in UPS perception between design professionals and ‘laypersons’, that is, non-professional users, has been increasingly highlighted. In this paper, we utilize Immersive Virtual Environment (IVE) and physiological measurement tools to obtain empirical observations on the psychological and physiological responses, as well as environmental preferences on UPS of the two groups, compare their perceptual similarities and differences, and consequently analyze the influencing factors and potential mechanisms. We find that the environmental perception of the two groups do differ, with design professionals showing a higher degree of ‘intolerance’ in the quality rating of UPS, and being more sensitive to scene features related to necessary than spontaneous and social activities. The findings reveal structural differences for the two groups in the mechanisms by which environmental features trigger perceptual differences, thus providing new support for designers to prepare ready-made UPS design templates that are evidence-based.
Article
It was aimed in this study to determine the effects on the perceptual evaluations of participants for the design differences of mosque facades that were shaped according to periods, countries and architectural trends within the geographical boundaries where the Islamic religion spread. With this purpose, 100 participants treated in 3 groups (Seljukid period, Ottoman period and Turkish Republic Period) were evaluated with the semantic differentiation scale, which covered the variables of preference, complexity, impressiveness and stimulative of the facade visuals of 16 different mosques. In conclusion, the data obtained on the mosque visuals, which were used in the survey study, showed that there was a statistically significant differences among the variables of complexity, preference, impressiveness and stimulative and it was determined that there was a reverse U-shaped relationship between the variables of preference and complexity in the evaluation of mosque. Then, to examine the effect of age, gender and education level on participants evaluations of the mosque visuals, the one-way analysis of variance was applied. Accordingly, it was determined that the male participants displayed a more negative approach compared to female, middle-aged participants (36-50 years of age) compared to young participants (22-35 years of age), participants with higher education compared to participants with secondary education. According to results; the Ottoman period mosques were more complex compared to the others, they were preferenced more and found to be even more effective and stimulating.
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Designed by Alvar Aalto for the author Göran Schildt and his wife Christine, Villa Skeppet is a detached house completed in 1970. The Schildts were personal friends of Aalto, and Göran Schildt is known as the author of Alvar Aalto’s biography. The Schildts lived the majority of any given year on the Greek Island of Leros, spending only short periods at a time in Villa Skeppet. The subject of research for this master’s thesis was proposed by the Christine and Göran Schildt Foundation, which also supported the work and provided me with a residence adjacent to the villa itself. The thesis work was done during a period of time in which Christine Schildt, the sole resident of the villa, relocated elsewhere. This master’s thesis studies Villa Skeppet as a home: what kind of dwelling it has been for its inhabitants, and how its architecture contributes to their well-being. The thesis is a qualitative study that utilises the theory and research outcomes of environmental psychology. The body of data is based on interviews and the author’s documentation of the building as well as archive material from both the Alvar Aalto museum and Christine and Göran Schildt Foundation. This study of Villa Skeppet as a building and as a home is divided in three parts. I begin by using archive material to describe its design process and approach Villa Skeppet as a detached house among Alvar Aalto’s body of work. In the interview chapter I first discuss design with Tore Tallqvist, who was the architect in charge of design and construction oversight of Villa Skeppet while working in Aalto’s architectural practice. The second interview with co commissioner and inhabitant Christine Schildt reveals the experience of living in Villa Skeppet and what kind of a home it has been for its inhabitants. Lastly I study Villa Skeppet as a dwelling and a home, examining the experience of living in the villa as a holistic whole from the theoretical framework of environmental psychology. This examination has been divided into four parts: (1) what emotions Villa Skeppet’s architecture evokes; (2) what actions its architecture encourages; (3) what kinds of social interactions its architecture steers toward and what manner of social expectations it reinforces; and lastly (4) how an inhabitant can express selfness through the building and instill the house with personal significances. In the light of the material at hand it becomes clear that Aalto’s persona is inseparable from Villa Skeppet and that it represents both inhabitants with differing roles for home. The building’s functional and architectural properties exist in relation to the living room that is elevated from the rest of the house. Life in Villa Skeppet has also been influenced by the curiosity of the general populace towards Alvar Aalto’s work. This thesis provides a glimpse into living in an architecturally renowned building, and into the properties and qualities of a inhabitant centered home. Keywords: Alvar Aalto, dwellings, environmental psychology, housing, Villa Skeppet
Article
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Façades are one of the architectural physical elements that play a significant role in the aesthetic preferences on their observer. The façade creates the first and perhaps the most important impact. Aesthetic is identifying and understanding factors that contribute to perception of an object or beautiful/pleasant process. In order to assess the beauty of a phenomenon, its factors and visual qualities should be studied, so finding a measure or a way to evaluate them are one of aesthetics’ priorities. Therefore, not only recognition of visual qualities, but also their quantitative evaluation is also important in aesthetics. Different visual qualities participate in the formation of façades, one of which is porosity. If these visual qualities studied, interpreted and measured, their factors, rules, and attributes can be extracted and using them as variables, the aesthetics of façades can be evaluated. This research is based on the question of how porosity can be measured and evaluated as one of the visual quality of façade and what is the relation between the quantitative measures of these buildings' façade's porosity? The purpose of this research is to investigate the concept of porosity as a visual quality and to decode the art of designing and constructing façades in Iranian-Islamic architecture by quantitatively measuring the porosity. The study in theoretical part, using the analytical-descriptive method, has presented a theoretical framework. In the first stage a comparative method will be used. Collecting information in this research, in addition to documentary and library studies, will also include field studies that are used to compile the subject literature review to find the thematic framework. At this stage, by expressing the perceptual concept, the architectural porosity elements as well as the study of its theories, criteria, rules and components are explained. In the second stage, a quantitative method for measuring porosity will be presented using the criteria and components obtained in the previous stage, the classification of porosity elements, factors and effective variables of façade's porosity. Structured questionnaires will be used to find the relationship between these variables and their impact on each other and facade's porosity. In the third stage which is the case study section, the theoretical framework and the porosity quantitative measuring method are carried out in 30 main facades of historical houses of Tabriz city and gathered data are analyzed with descriptive statistics. Based on the findings of the research, façades have a special feature called porosity number that is unique to them. The structure of the forming elements and the porosity changes of the façades also follow a particular pattern. The research also shows that the main trait of porosity is openness. Air circulation, light and the connection of internal and external spaces are major physical achievements of porosity and its spiritual achievement is space and raised meaning in architecture. Empty, despite the lack of material has an equal value, and sometimes more, than full, and how it is created and placed not only increases the physical and spatial quality but also can have an impact in facades’ evaluations. Porosity is one of the basic visual qualities, which over time has found a more significant role in façade. Porosity has a hidden and mysterious pattern that can be the result of aesthetic feedback from architects, observers/residents, and environmental conditions of the region. A certain evident percentage of porosity and a specific pattern and alignment of porous space arrangement found in this study indicate that, at least in Tabriz environmental conditions, a specific pattern of porosity is a part of the aesthetic preferences of the architects and the residential-historical architectural users of Tabriz city. This optimal and aesthetic level of porosity in the historical houses of Tabriz façades is close to 0.4 (40%).This pattern and alignment can be considered by contemporary architects in this cultural-climatic area as an aesthetic factor. Of course, the generalization of these features to other cities in Iran and beyond requires more and wider researches. This study showed that porosity as a visual quality and its quantitative measurement method can also be used as criteria of aesthetic evaluation of architectural façades. Keywords: Porosity, Architectural Façade, Quantitative Measurement, Visual Qualities, Empirical Aesthetic
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Bu çalışmada, ülkelere, mimari akımlara ve dönemlere göre farklı olarak yapılmış cami cephelerinin insanlar tarafından nasıl algılandığının irdelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu kapsamda, Osmanlı, Selçuklu ve Cumhuriyet Dönemi olmak üzere 3 farklı gruba ayrılan 16 adet cami cephe görseli, 100 kişi tarafından anket yolu ile analiz edilmiştir. Anketlerde karmaşıklık, beğeni, etkileyicilik ve uyarıcılık olarak seçilen dört farklı sıfat çifti beş basamaklı anlamsal farklılaşma ölçeği ile değerlendirilmiştir. Yapılan analizlerle seçilen değişkenler arasındaki farklılıkların istatistiksel açıdan anlamlı olduğu görülmüştür. Çalışmada cami görselleri üzerinden elde edilen verilerin karmaşıklık, beğeni, etkileyicilik ve uyarıcılık gibi kavramlar arasındaki ilişkisi tespit edilmiş ve beğeni ile karmaşıklık arasında ters U şekilli bir ilişkinin olduğu görülmüştür. Çalışmada yaş, cinsiyet ve eğitim düzeyi gibi sosyal faktörlerin cami algısında ne ölçüde etken olduğunu saptamak için tek yönlü varyans analizi yapılmıştır. Analizlere göre erkek katılımcıların kadınlara göre camilerin algısal değerlendirmesinde daha seçici ya da eleştirel oldukları tespit edilirken, orta yaş (36-50 arası) katılımcıların genç (22-35 arası) katılımcılara göre daha eleştirel olduğu görülmüştür. Benzer şekilde eğitim seviyesinin artması da cami değerlendirmesinde seçiciliği artırmıştır. Çalışmadan elde edilen bulgulara göre, Osmanlı dönemi camilerinin diğer dönemlere ait camilere göre daha kompleks olduğu görülmüş buna rağmen daha çok beğenilmiş ve etkileyici bulunmuştur. Anahtar sözcükler: Etkileyicilik; karmaşıklık; cami cephesi; algı; tercih; sosyal faktörler. ÖZ It was aimed in this study to determine the effects on the perceptual evaluations of participants for the design differences of mosque facades that were shaped according to periods, countries and architectural trends within the geographical boundaries where the Islamic religion spread. With this purpose, 100 participants treated in 3 groups (Seljukid period, Ottoman period and Turkish Republic Period) were evaluated with the semantic differentiation scale, which covered the variables of preference, complexity, impressiveness and stimulative of the facade visuals of 16 different mosques. In conclusion, the data obtained on the mosque visuals, which were used in the survey study, showed that there was a statistically significant differences among the variables of complexity, preference, impres-siveness and stimulative and it was determined that there was a reverse U-shaped relationship between the variables of preference and complexity in the evaluation of mosque. Then, to examine the effect of age, gender and education level on participants evaluations of the mosque visuals, the one-way analysis of variance was applied. Accordingly, it was determined that the male participants displayed a more negative approach compared to female, middle-aged participants (36-50 years of age) compared to young participants (22-35 years of age), participants with higher education compared to participants with secondary education. According to results; the Ottoman period mosques were more complex compared to the others, they were preferenced more and found to be even more effective and stimulating.
Article
Purpose This study aims to provide a method to assess the perceptual impact of the visual complexity of building façades. Design/methodology/approach The research identifies the number of design elements and the variation in their position and colour as variables of visual complexity. It introduces the concepts of vertices and corners as atomic indicators on which the measurement of these variables is built. It measures visual complexity and its variables in images of building façades and analyses their relationships with participants' reactions. It reports on the effect of visual complexity on preferences, the adequacy of different methods in measuring visual complexity and the perceptual impact of each of its variables. Findings The research demonstrates that visual complexity can be assessed through the measure of its variables and their statistical mapping to users' preferences. Originality/value The manuscript provides the foundation for a planning/assessment tool for the visual control of the built environment using computer systems based on the preferences of residents through the examination of the relationship between the users and their environment. It creates a paradigm, which introduces a robust concept in the visual analysis of urban design.
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Architectural style positioning is an important part in the process of residential building design and project planning. However, in practice, due to the complexity and ambiguity of styles, style positioning often relies more on the subjective judgement of the designers and lacks scientificity. This paper proposes a method for the classification and prediction of residential building styles. Through structured interviews and questionnaire surveys on front-line designers and project planners, it refines the key morphological elements and the site economic factors that influence architectural style classification and positioning. Based on machine learning, after analysing the data of 372 newly built real estate projects in Hangzhou, the research finds that the current real estate styles can generally be divided into 8 categories. Whether it is a curved volume, the shape of the roof and the richness of the tones are the most important morphological variables that differentiate style categories, and the building height is the most important economic factor for style positioning. When using the selected five economic factors as independent variables to train a neural network model and predict the morphological elements and style categories, the average accuracy reaches 77.2%.
Thesis
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BIM is a new radically different emerging approach to design, construction and facilities management. There is a growing need for more knowledge on how BIM technology and processes can be and should be adopted and what happens when BIM technologies and processes are implemented and used in the practice of architecture. Successful development of building projects depends on the ability to create, coordinate, validate, share and utilize building related information. The traditional building development process has relied on the creation of 2D drawings and textual specifications by a range of building related disciplines. Inherently, in this approach there are a range of problems. Building Information Modelling (BIM) is an emerging approach that promises to better facilitate the building development and building operation. This research has indicated that guidance on how small architectural practices should adopt BIM is lacking (Jung et al 2010). Several books have been written on BIM (Eastman et al 2008) and even on BIM implementation (Smith et al 2009) but they do not cover the particular issues related small architectural practices. The critical issue of change management does not seem to be adequately addressed within these texts. BIM execution plans exist such as the Pennsylvania State University BIM execution plan but this focuses on projects as opposed to organisation implementation of BIM. (Pennsylvania State University has subsequently issued BIM adoption organisation related material). This lack of guidance is one of the reasons why small architectural practices are disinclined to adopt BIM. The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate how Building Information Modelling (BIM) can be effectively adopted in small architectural practices and put forward a framework that can be used for future BIM implementations. Successful BIM implementation should achieve, if correctly undertaken, considerable internal and external benefits to the architectural practices involved. For the construction industry which has failed to achieve efficiencies in the past, it is important that the collaborative benefits of BIM are realized. Thus, BIM promises to create an integrated construction industry with integrated architectural practices (Pressman 2007). But it is equally important, particularly from a business perspective that the potential benefits of BIM within the remit of each discipline are realized (McGraw Hill Construction, 2010). The research first considers the challenges currently facing the construction industry and small architectural practices. Then the key areas with which BIM can improve architectural operation and address these challenges are identified. Then the problems and stages related to BIM implementation within small architectural practice organisations are investigated and substantiated. Small architectural practice organisations represent a particular problem as the size of such companies precludes sizable R & D investments which are often necessary to adopt innovative technology even though tax relief is available to certain SME’s in the UK to undertake R & D (HM Revenue & Customs 2012). This problem is often exacerbated by the unpredictable income stream which is provided through non-consecutive, requirement unique, building projects. From an architectural and industry point of view, the consequences of BIM depends on how the technology and new processes are implemented and integrated into the firm’s internal and external business model. The identification of the problems and issues of BIM implementation was achieved through undertaking a process of two years of case study and action research at a small architectural practice John McCall Architects which is based in Liverpool, England. The findings of this BIM implementation research were then documented and reviewed. From this process of review a revised improved framework for BIM adoption was developed.
Conference Paper
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Understanding the needs and expectations of the intended users of a designed environment is recognized as one of the essential factors that influence the decision-making process in an interior design project. This situation is also reflected in interior design education, where students conventionally design for hypothetical clients and users. This study explores the contribution of a new user-focused and scenario-based design studio modal to students’ approach to successive stages of design processes, learning outcomes, and engagement to the project course during an online education period. Within the scope of the study, second-year interior design students were assigned to real artists and product designers as clients for a workshop for creative production- showroom project. The students had to communicate with their clients, do research and integrate the information they have collected into their design proposals. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the proposed model from students’ view. It is believed that the approach proposed and applied within the scope of the study has the potential to present a different perspective in interior design studio courses.
Chapter
The paper presents a computational methodology to quantify the differences in visual perception of originality of the rotating tower typology between architects and non-architects. A parametric definition of the Absolute Tower Building D with twelve variables is used to generate 250 design variants. Subsequently, sixty architects and sixty non-architects were asked to rate the design variants, in comparison to the original design, on a Likert scale of ‘Plagiarised’ to ‘Original’. With the crowd-sourced evaluation data, two neural networks - one each for architects and non-architects - were trained to predict the originality score of 15,000 design variants. The results indicate that architects are more lenient at seeing design variants as original. The average originality score by architects is 27.74% higher than the average originality score by non-architects. Compared to a non-architect, an architect is 1.93 times likelier to see a design variant as original. In 92.01% of the cases, architects’ originality score is higher than non-architects’. The methodology can be used to quantify and predict any subjective opinion.
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In this paper, the fundamentals of a 3D nested construction method for 3D-printing stackable tower-like structures are explained, taking into consideration the transportation, storage, assembly, and even disassembly of building components. The proposed method is called “PRINT in PRINT.” This paper also documents the authors’ experience of and findings from designing and printing a column erected out of a series of 3D printed components in a short stack. Employing the design principles of 3D printing in a nested fashion, the authors showcase the main parameters involved in dividing the column’s global geometry into stackable components. By converting formal, technical, and material restrictions of a robotic-assisted 3D printing process into geometric constraints, the paper describes how the column components are divided, namely that one component shapes the adjacent one.
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The physical and affective bases of the differences between architects’ and laypersons’ aesthetic evaluations of building facades were examined. Fifty-nine objective features of 42 large modern office buildings were related to ratings of the buildings’ emotional impact and global aesthetic quality made by architects and laypersons. Both groups strongly based their global assessments on elicited pleasure (and not on elicited arousal), but the two groups based their emotional assessments on almost entirely different sets of objective building features, which may help to explain why the aesthetic evaluations of architects and lay persons are virtually unrelated.
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Because of increases in participatory, neighborhood, and aesthetic planning, nondesigners are being asked to anticipate architectural preferences of other nondesigners. Neighborhood design review boards are a case in point. This study compared the preferences of a neighborhood design review board to the preferences of other demographic subpopulations. It was found that the overall correlations between the preferences of the review board and the preferences of other respondent groups were statistically significant. However, it was also found that the correspondence between the review board and other people decreased when individual projects and specific design criteria were compared.
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Three styles of high rise architecture were compared to each other with respect to the preferences of a random sample of a city's population and several demographic subdivisions thereof. Contrary to expectations, the random sample of respondents actually preferred the most modern buildings over the older buildings. Also contrary to expectations, high intergroup consensus was found for all demographic subdivisions except for political affiliation.
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Architects and laypersons experience buildings quite differently; this study investigated the physical and cognitive underpinnings of these differences. Laypersons and practicing architects assessed the global. aesthetic quality and six key cognitive properties (complexity, clarity, friendliness, originality, meaningfulness, and ruggedness) of 42 large contemporary buildings, and 59 physical features of each building were independently scored. Lens model analyses revealed how these physical features are interpreted differently by the tvo groups, which apparently leads them to experience different cognitive properties, which in turn leads to different aesthetic conclusions. However, the results also suggest how architects and laypersons might better understand each other.
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Preferences for urban spaces were studied as a function of spatial category and nine predictor variables: spaciousness, refuge, enclosure, coherence, legibility, complexity, mystery, typicality, and age. A non-metric factor analysis of the preference ratings yielded four categories of urban spaces: Open-Undefined, Well-Structured, Enclosed Settings, and Blocked Views. These categories are similar to the spatial categories proposed for natural environments by S. Kaplan (1979, Assessing Amenity Resource Values. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-68), who stressed openness and spatial definition as bases for categorization. The Well-Structured category was best liked, with the other categories not very well liked and about equal in preference. Regression analyses revealed three variables as consistent predictors of preference. Coherence and complexity were positively related to preference, and age was negatively related. Overall, the results support the Kaplans' proposal that both spatial and non-spatial factors are important in categorizing environments and in explaining environmental preferences.
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To improve community appearance, most cities in the United States have implemented design review, but empirical studies of design review are rare. Key issues are the effects on preferences of: (1) design reviewper se; (2) common design review principles such as visual bulk; (3) common demographic factors such as geographical location, age, gender, ethnic or political affiliations; and (4) the personality factor of sensation seeking. The present article describes a preference experiment on 35 houses as judged by 82 respondents in two different cities. Results indicate that design review, bulk, demographic and personality factors account for much less preference than did the architectural components of style or individual buildings.
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An experiment is reported that assessed aspects of a constructivist model of environmental experience, using examples of high- and popular-style, single, detached houses. Of interest was the relationship between measures of typicality and familiarity and affective experience, as well as how this relationship was affected by examples from different cultural/geographic locations. Also investigated were similarities and differences between architecture students at the beginning of their education, architecture students part way through their first year, and students from the general university population. Systematic relationships were found between the judgments of typicality and familiarity and affective judgments. Similarities and differences were related to the cultural/geographic origin of examples. No difference was found between architecture students at different stages of their university work, but both groups were dearly different from their nonarchitecture colleagues. These results are discussed in the context of the constructivist model of environmental experience.
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The idea that environmental preferences are not solely determined by the characteristics of individuals, but instead are socially constituted, has fundamentally challenged many traditional psychological analyses of landscape preference and meaning. In this paper, an attempt is made to suggest that the two interpretations are by no means incompatible, and that there is a growing need for an environmental psychology that recognizes the importance of both individual and social factors. Drawing on traditions within European social psychology, this paper demonstrates how the quantitative analysis of social representations can be used to identify both differences and commonalities in peoples' interpretations of architecture. Specifically, this study reports on one segment of a larger empirical study investigating differences in architectural interpretation between planners, planning students and public respondents. These interpretations were examined using multiple sorting techniques, with respondents asked to sort 15 examples of contemporary architecture according to their own criteria. INDSCAL analysis of this data facilitated the recognition of a shared conceptualization of these architectural stimuli, but also demonstrated a number of important inter-group and inter-individual differences in architectural interpretation, which were evident as variations from this common conceptualization. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of this study for research in environmental psychology, particularly stressing the need to consider notions of power and ideology.
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The apparent difference in the appreciation of architecture between architects and ‘lay’ people has been the focus of much research. If architects truly have different standards of appreciation from nonarchitects, it is then most likely that these standards of judgement are acquired within the schools of architecture during the period of architectural education. The paper describes a cross-sectional study of the architectural preferences of students at two schools of architecture at five different stages of their education. Smallest Space Analysis (SSA) of the students' evaluations of 26 examples of contemporary architecture suggests a process of socialization within the schools of architecture whereby students develop standards of judgement that are both characteristic of the profession as a whole and shaped by the specific school of training. Analysis of the underlying structure of the students' evaluations of the buildings allows a model of architectural preference to be proposed. Although the students give a variety of explanations of why they appreciate the buildings they do, analysis of the associations between the buildings shows that the underlying structure of the evaluations is clearly based on architectural style. The implications are discussed.
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For Post-Modern architects and others with an interest in architecture that communicates desirable meanings to the public, empirical study of the meaning inferred from styles can be helpful. This research examined the connotative meanings laypersons infer from various home-styles, the variability of those meanings with sociodemographic characteristics and region, and whether architects share or know public meanings. Adiverse sample of 118 adults in Columbus, Ohio, and 102 adults in Los Angeles rated six styles of homes in terms of desirability, and the friendliness and status of assumed residents. In total, 65 architects in Columbus answered the same questions and tried to guess how the Columbus public responded. Laypersons in Columbus and L.A. displayed remarkably similar patterns of response. Significant effects of style revealed that both groups rated Farm and Tudor as most desirable, Mediterranean and Saltbox and least desirable, Farm as most friendly, Colonial as unfriendly, Colonial and Tudor as highest in status, and Saltbox and Mediterranean as lowest in status. Differences in meaning emerged in relation to sociodemographic characteristics, and the architects responded differently from and misgauged the public responses.
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Design reviewers make judgments based on their opinion of how physical features influence the evaluative quality of the building and its surroundings. What features evoke favorable evaluative responses? Although some people may view aesthetics as qualitative and idiosyncratic, researchers have continued in their search for general principles. This article reviews that research, with particular attention to building exteriors. The article defines and examines three kinds of aesthetic variables-formal, symbolic, and schemas. It highlights the importance of enclosure, complexity, and order as formal variables, of style as a symbolic variable, and of atypicality in relation to schemas. It discusses the relationship of these variables to evaluative response. As different kinds of evaluative responses may be appropriate and desirable for different kinds of places, this article considers the dimensions of evaluative response. The analysis suggests that design review seeking pleasantness should encourage order, moderate complexity, and elements of "popular" styles; design review seeking excitement should encourage high complexity, atypicality, and low order; and design review seeking calmness should encourage high order and naturalness. Acknowledging potential variability across contexts, this article offers aesthetic programming and evaluation as alternate ways to develop and refine guidelines for design review.
Book
The book deals with applied statistics and seeks to train the student in the use of quantitative methods. Part I, Psychophysical Methods, covers 194 pages and treats the method of average error, properties of the normal distribution curve, the method of minimal changes, equal-appearing intervals, and the constant methods. Part II, Psychological Scaling Methods, 70 pages, discusses the topics of the method of paired comparisons, the order of merit method, and rating scale methods. Part III, Correlation and Test Methods, 230 pages, covers the following: elements of curve fitting, simple correlation methods, multiple and partial correlation, mental test methods, and factor analysis. An appendix of 36 pages presents various numerical aids to calculation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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THE DEPTH OF PSYCHOSOCIAL CONSIDERATION VARIES WITH ARCHITECTURAL FUNCTION. THESE FACTORS INCREASE AS A BUILDING USAGE BECOMES MORE ANTHROPOPHILIC. SITUATIONS RELATING TO AMBIGUOUS DESIGN MUST BE ELIMINATED IN BUILDING DESIGN. PROBLEMS INVOLVING VISUAL PERCEPTION SUCH AS (1) GLASS DOORS, (2) APPARENT INSECURITY OF STRUCTURE, (3) AMBIGUOUS SYMBOLIC REPRESENTATIONS, AND (4) LACK OF EFFECTIVE CONTRASTS ARE CRITICAL. CONFUSING VISUAL SITUATIONS SUCH AS INDOOR-OUTDOOR RELATIONSHIP, TALL BUILDING INSECURITY, OR SPATIAL INCOHERENCE, AND LACK OF IDENTITY MUST ALSO BE CONTENDED WITH. THE CULTURALLY DEPENDENT CONCEPT OF PRIVACY DEMANDS CONSIDERATION IN (1) OFFICE RELATIONSHIPS AND APPARENT SEPARATION CHARACTERISTICS, (2) SANITARY FACILITIES, (3) DESIGN OF ACCESS PATTERNS, AND (4) DEFINITION OF SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS. PROPER RECOGNITION OF SAFETY AND WELFARE FACTORS DEPENDS UPON THE DETERMINATION OF PERFORMANCE-ORIENTED STANDARDS. THIS ARTICLE IS A REPRINT FROM "BUILDING RESEARCH," JULY-AUGUST 1965. COPIES ARE AVAILABLE FROM THE BUILDING RESEARCH INSTITUTE, 1725 DE SALES STREET, N.W., WASHINGTON, D. C. 20036. (MH)
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A l'examen, le développement des concepts architecturaux pendant l'éiducation professionnelle, en utilisant la Multiple Sorting Procedure. Soixantequinze étudiants dans chacune des cinq années de leur formation à l'architecture furent priés de donner 26 exemples d'architecture contemporaine, choisis selon des concepts personnels. Les types de concepts choisis pour catégoriser les constructions montrent une progression, depuis les concepts concrets, physiques, utilisés par les étudiants des premières années d'école, jusqu'aux concepts plus complexes, abstraits, employés par les étudiants plus expérimentés. L'analyse multidimensionnelle, par scalogramme, des catégorisations pour les groupes de chacune des années, révèle que, tandis que les mêmes quatre styles majeurs sont reprdséntés dans chacun des groupes, le processus de formation architecturale apparaît développer chez les étudiants une complexité croissante du concept de style architectural. Au fur et à mesure que se déroulent les années, plus de catégories sont incluses dans la facette de polarisation, le style architectural, et après la deuxième année, la présence de la facette modulante de typicalité, donne un exemple du radex de style architectural.
Article
This research examined differences between the features of ‘high’ and ‘popular’ style residential architecture and between responses to those styles by architects and non-architects. Forty slides (20 of each style) were scored in terms of physical properties. They were also rated by 20 architects and 20 non-architects. The research identified distinct physical features of each style. ‘High’ style residential architecture had fewer materials, more concrete, simpler forms, more white, and off-center entrances. They were judged as more complex, novel, and exciting. ‘Popular’ style residential architecture was characterized by use of more building materials, horizontal orientation, hip roofs, framed windows, centered entrances, and warm colors. Architects and non-architects differed in how they characterized and evaluated the two kinds of buildings, Architects rated the ‘high’ buildings as more clear, coherent pleasant, relaxing, and meaningful. Models of preference revealed that both groups favored novelty and coherence (or clarity), but the non-architects favored simplicity and ‘popular’ attributes, while the architects favored complexity and ‘high’ attributes.
Article
The relevance of the multiple sorting task as a research tactic for the empirical study of environmental meaning is illustrated in the context of a specific study of Modern and Post-Modern architecture. The assumption of architectural critics that Post-Modern buildings are more meaningful to the general public than Modern buildings forms the basis for the research hypotheses of this study. Twenty-four buildings, ranging from Modern to Post-Modern are evaluated by 20 architects and 20 accountants whose responses are structured through a multiple sorting task. The sorting data are interpreted in terms of regional analyses of multi-dimensional scaling structures, following the general principles of Facet Theory. These results suggest that (1) architects and accountants do employ different sets of criteria (different codes, in effect) for evaluating buildings, and yet (2) Post-Modern buildings (despite their architects' intentions of relating their designs to a popular code) are not perceived by the accountants as distinct from Modern buildings. The particular strengths of the multiple sorting task as a research tactic for this and other studies of environmental meaning are discussed and summarized.
Article
This paper presents a model for the process underlying similarities and differences in environmental experience. According to the model, repeated exposure to regularities in the environment influences the development of internal knowledge structures. Discrepancies from the knowledge structures influence emotional appraisals. In Experiment 1, using measure of goodness of example and familiarity for knowledge structures, and measures of preferences and interest for emotional appraisals, we had first year architecture and students from other disciplines judge a set of single family houses-half of ‘high’ style, and half of ‘popular’ style. In a second experiment, two groups of the same architecture students at the end of their third year made judgements of goodness of example and preference for the same set of houses. In the first experiment, the two groups displayed similar knowledge structures for the homes, but they differed in the way their emotional appraisals related to discrepancies from the shared knowledge structure. In the second experiment, the goodness of example judgements indicated that little change had occurred in the students' knowledge structures but preference for ‘popular’ style houses had decreased significantly. These results are discussed in terms of the model of the processes that produce similarities and differences in experience.
Article
Reliability coefficients often take the form of intraclass correlation coefficients. In this article, guidelines are given for choosing among 6 different forms of the intraclass correlation for reliability studies in which n targets are rated by k judges. Relevant to the choice of the coefficient are the appropriate statistical model for the reliability study and the applications to be made of the reliability results. Confidence intervals for each of the forms are reviewed. (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Architecture and emotions
  • Kuller
Kuller, R. (1980). Architecture and emotions. In B. Mikellides, (Ed.), Architecture and People. London: Studio Vista.
Symbolic meaning of house styles Urban design aesthetics: the evaluative qualities of building exteriors Beauty and the beast ex-tended: knowledge structure and evaluations of house by Australian architects and nonarchitects
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