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Study of Physico-Chemical Parameters of Wastewater From Some Selected Location on Amba Nalla, Amravati

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The waste water from some selected areas on Amba Nalla, Amravati City has been studied. The various parameters studied include the physical parameters (pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids) and chemical parameters (dissolved oxygen, total hardness, salinity, chlorine) The pH of the samples ranged from 7.67 ± 0.006 – 9.18 ± 0.008. Total dissolved solids ranged from 408.50 ± 0.003 – 1050.30 ± 0.270 mg/l. Total suspended solids ranged from 17100.00 ± 0.230 – 544400.00 ± 0.430 mg/l. The conductivity of the samples ranged from 657.60 ± 0.300 – 1420.00 ± 0.500μs/cm. The salinity concentrations ranged from 342.200 ± 0.040 – 601.250 ± 0.650 mg/l. The total hardness of the samples analyzed ranged from 1098.600 ± 0.300 – 2603.120 ± 0.500 mg/l. Dissolved oxygen was absent in the entire sample studied. The chloride contents ranged from 280.500 ± 0.120 – 987.670 ± 0.045 mg/l. Most of the physical and chemical parameters of waste water exceeded the ISI permissible level. With the results of this investigation, waste water should not be disposed into the environment or be used as irrigation water for agriculture.
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INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH X 311
Volume : 3 | Issue : 8 | Aug 2013 | ISSN - 2249-555X
ReseaRch PaPeR
Environment
Study of Physico-Chemical Parameters of Wastewater
From Some Selected Location on Amba Nalla,
Amravati
Dr. Sangita P. Ingole Prof. Arvind Chavhan Dr. Jayashree D. Dhote
Department o Environmental
Science, Shri Shivaji Science
College, Amravati-444603.
Department of Zoology, Shri Shivaji
Science College, Amravati-444603
Department of Zoology, Shri Shivaji
Science College, Amravati-444603
Keywords
waste, domestic activities, physical and chemical parameters
ABSTRACT
The waste water from some selected areas on Amba Nalla, Amravati City has been studied. The various pa-
rameters studied include the physical parameters (pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids and total suspend-
ed solids) and chemical parameters (dissolved oxygen, total hardness, salinity, chlorine) The pH of the samples ranged from
7.67 ± 0.006 – 9.18 ± 0.008. Total dissolved solids ranged from 408.50 ± 0.003 – 1050.30 ± 0.270 mg/l. Total suspended
solids ranged from 17100.00 ± 0.230 – 544400.00 ± 0.430 mg/l. The conductivity of the samples ranged from 657.60 ±
0.300 – 1420.00 ± 0.500μs/cm. The salinity concentrations ranged from 342.200 ± 0.040 – 601.250 ± 0.650 mg/l. The total
hardness of the samples analyzed ranged from 1098.600 ± 0.300 – 2603.120 ± 0.500 mg/l. Dissolved oxygen was absent in
the entire sample studied. The chloride contents ranged from 280.500 ± 0.120 – 987.670 ± 0.045 mg/l. Most of the physi-
cal and chemical parameters of waste water exceeded the ISI permissible level. With the results of this investigation, waste
water should not be disposed into the environment or be used as irrigation water for agriculture.
INTRODUCTION
Pollution of land, rivers and streams by waste has become
one of the most crucial environmental problems of the 21st
century. The rapid development of urbanization and indus-
trialization led to the rising use of sewage for agricultural
land irrigation and water pollution. Sewage provides water
and valuable plant nutrients; it leads to the potential accu-
mulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils (Abdel- Sabour,
2003; Zhang et al., 2008; Maldonado, 2008). The disposal of
sewage sludge on soils as a fertilizer for agriculture or as a
regenerative for soil is the most attractive application since
the sludge act as a source of nutrients for crop production
owing to their high content of organic matters (Walter et al.,
1994). Sewage is made up of excrement, excreta, wastewa-
ter from cloth washing machines, waste from kitchen dish-
es, bathing water, paper fiber, food particles, vomit, gar-
bage, etc. They also contain dissolved oxygen (DO) which
includes: Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical
Oxygen Demand (COD), Oxygen Demand Index (ODI), and
Total Oxygen Carbon (TOC). Domestic pollutants associat-
ed with organic matter inorganic dissolved solids and other
unwanted chemicals cause serious ground water problems
(Tyagi, 2000). During the past decade, widespread reports
of ground water contamination have increased public con-
cern about drinking water quality (Yanggen and Born, 1990).
The waste water gets accumulated in the form of stagnant
water and if there are any drinking water pipes near to that
area, there is a chance for the intrusion of waste water in
drinking water pipelines. Therefore, this present study was
aimed to determine the physical and chemical parameters
of waste water from some selected areas in on Amba Nalla,
Amravati city, Maharashtra.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Sample Collection and Preparation. Eight samples (4 samples
from pit and 4 samples from ground) of sewage were col-
lected in plastic bottles from four different locations on Amba
Nalla, Amravati city, Maharashtra in the month of January,
2012. The samples were labeled as follows: Wadali a; Wadali
b; Gopal Nagar a; Gopal Nagar b; Devi a; Devi b; Kholapuri
Gate a and Kholapuri Gate b. Where a and b represent pit
and ground sewage respectively. The collected samples were
analyzed within 24 hours.
Sample analysis
Determination of pH and conductivity: The pH and conduc-
tivity of the samples were measured by using the water anal-
ysis kit (CENTURY CK 711). Chemical and physical param-
eters of the samples were determined by standard methods
(APHA, 2000; Trivedy and Goel, 1984).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 1. Physical parameters of waste water from some selected areas Amba Nalla, Amravati City.
Waste Sample and
locations
pH TDS mg/l TSS mg/l Conductivity l μs/cm
Wadali
A 8.12 ± 0.005 950.32 ± 0.012 18800± 0.250 1304.50 ± 0.300
B 7.67 ± 0.006 550.56± 0.004 476010 ±0.050 797.00 ± 0.200
Gopal Nagar
A 9.18 ± 0.008 780.50± 0.024 23006± 0.500 1087.40 ± 0.600
B 8.45 ± 0.005 408.50± 0.003 544400± 0.430 657.60 ± 0.300
Devi
A 8.62 ± 0.005 1050.30± 0.270 17100± 0.230 1420.00 ± 0.500
B 8.01 ± 0.012 578.00± 0.008 485550± 0.300 893.50 ± 0.600
Kholapuri Gate
A 7.93 ± 0.040 876.30± 0.043 19960± 0.300 1194.30 ± 0.400
B 7.64 ± 0.009 501.20± 0.076 490010± 0.200 708.00 ± 0.120
a = Pit Sewage b = Ground Sewage;
312 X INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH
Volume : 3 | Issue : 8 | Aug 2013 | ISSN - 2249-555X
ReseaRch PaPeR
Table 2: Chemical parameters of waste water from some selected areas Amba Nalla, Amravati City.
Waste Sample
and locations
Total hardness mg/l Cl mg/l Salinity mg/l DO mg/l
Wadali
A 1987.200 ± .050 540.500 ±0.008 468.600 ± 0.450 NIL
B 1098.600± 0.300 280.500 ± 0.120 342.200 ± 0.040 NIL
Gopal Nagar
A 2122.250± 0.400 580.600± 0.340 513.800 ± 0.200 NIL
B 1301.170± 0.005 440.610± 0.040 421.000 ± 0.030 NIL
Devi
A 2302.070± 0.320 745.510± 0.050 541.300 ± 0.230 NIL
B 1520.230± 0.200 430.300± 0.015 443.000 ± 0.180 NIL
Kholapuri Gate
A 2603.120± 0.500 987.670± 0.045 601.250 ± 0.650 NIL
B 1760.850± 0.230 506.500± 0.100 454.500 ± 0.100 NIL
Fig no.4: total hardness mg/l content of waste water from
selected area on Amba Nalla, Amravati city.
Fig no.5: Cl mg/l content of waste water from selected
area on Amba Nalla, Amravati city.
Fig no.6: salinity mg/l content of waste water from se-
lected area on Amba Nalla, Amravati city.
a = Pit Sewage b = Ground Sewage.
Fig no.1: pH content of waste water from selected area on
Amba Nalla, Amravati city.
Fig no.2: TDS mg/l content of waste water from selected
area on Amba Nalla, Amravati city.
Fig no.3: Conductivity in μs/cm content of waste water
from selected area on Amba Nalla, Amravati city.
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Fig no.7: DO mg/l content of waste water from selected
area on Amba Nalla, Amravati city.
The physical parameters of the sewage from some selected
areas Amba Nalla, Amravati city, Maharashtra were present-
ed in Table 1 and Fig 1-7.
1. pH:
The pH of the samples ranged from 7.67 ± 0.006 – 9.18
± 0.008. Gopal Nagar a had the highest pH value (9.18 ±
0.008) while, Wadali b had the lowest value (7.67 ± 0.006).
The increase in pH can be attributed to organic pollution,
alkaline chemicals, soap and detergents produced due to
commercial and residential activities. The pH of the sam-
ples are within the permissible limit (6.5 – 8.5) by W.H.O
for aesthetic quality except sample Gopal Nagar a (9.18
± 0.008) and Ca (8.62 ± 0.005). pH of the samples were
similar to the range 8.0 – 9.4 reported by Krishnan et al.,
(2007).
2. TDS:
Total dissolved solids ranged from 408.50 ± 0.003 – 1050.30
± 0.270 mg/l. Sample Devi a had the highest content
(1050.30 ± 0.270 mg/l) of total dissolved solids while Gopal
Nagar b had the lowest content (408.50 ± 0.003). Total dis-
solved solids is a measure of the combined content of all
inorganic and organic substances contained in molecular,
ionized or micro granular suspended form. High total dis-
solved solids content generally indicate hard water, which
can cause scale buildup in pipes, valves and filters. Thresh-
old of accepted aesthetic criteria for human drinking water
is 100 mg/l. Research has shown that exposure to high to-
tal dissolved solids is compounded in toxicity when other
stressors are present, such as abnormal pH, high turbidly,
or reduced dissolved oxygen with the latter stressor act-
ing only in the case of anmaila. High total dissolved solids
concentrations can produce laxative effects and can give an
unpleasant mineral taste to water. High total dissolved solid
concentrations are also unsuitable for many industrial ap-
plications. High total dissolved solids may also reduce water
clarity, contribute to a decrease in photosynthesis, combine
with toxic compounds and heavy metals and could lead to
an increase in water temperature.
3. TSS
Total suspended solids ranged from 17100.00 ± 0.230 –
544400.00 ± 0.430 mg/l. Gopal Nagar b had the highest
concentration (544400.00 ± 0.430 mg/l) while Devi a had
the lowest concentration (17100.00 ± 0.230). The high
amount of the total suspended solids is mainly due to the
discharge of domestic waste (Palanivel and Rajaguru, 1999).
High concentrations of suspended solids can cause many
problems for stream health and aquatic life by blocking
light from reaching submerged vegetation and reduces the
rates of photosynthesis causes less dissolved oxygen to
be released into the water by plants. If light is completely
blocked from bottom dwelling plants, the plants will stop
producing oxygen and will die. As the plants are decom-
posed, bacteria will use up even more oxygen from the wa-
ter. High total suspended solids can also cause an increase
in surface water temperature, because the suspended parti-
cles absorbed heat from sunlight.
4. Conductivity:
The conductivity of the samples ranged from 657.60 ± 0.300
– 1420.00 ± 0.500 μs/cm. Sample Devi a had the highest
conductivity (1420.00 ± 0.500 μs/cm) while Gopal Nagar b
had the lowest conductivity (657.60 ± 0.300 μs/cm). Electric
conductivity of water is directly related to the concentration
of dissolved ionized solids in the sewage. Ions from the dis-
solved solids in waste water create the ability for the sewage
to conduct an electrical current.
The chemical parameters of sewage samples investigated in
this study were presented in Table 2.
5. Salinity:
The salinity concentrations ranged from 342.200 ± 0.040
– 601.250 ± 0.650 mg/l. Kholapuri Gate a had the highest
salinity concentration (601.250 ± 0.650 mg/l) while Wadali
b had the lowest (342.200 ± 0.040 mg/l) concentration of
salinity might be due to discharge of domestic wastes con-
taining high concentration of chlorides. The results of salinity
obtained in this study were lower than the results reported by
Krishnan et al.,(2007).
6. Hardness:
The total hardness of the samples analyzed ranged from
1098.600 ± 0.300 – 2603.120 ± 0.500 mg/l. Sample
Kholapuri Gate a had the highest concentration (2603.120
± 0.500 mg/l) while Wadali b had the lowest concentration
(1098.600 ± 0.300 mg/l). Total hardness represents the
concentration of calcium and magnesium. The total hard-
ness of the samples investigated were high when com-
pared with the desirable limit which is 200 mg/l in water as
per ISI and higher than results obtained by Krishnan et al.,
(2007) and Roy and Kumar,(2002). Permanent hardness is
mainly caused by chlorides and sulphates (Roy and Kumar,
2002).
7. DO:
From the investigation carried out, dissolved oxygen was ab-
sent in the entire sample studied. This suggests that most
of the discharges are organic in nature and hence require
oxygen for decomposition. High decomposition of organic
substances in sewage, indicate high pollution load and also
reduces the dissolved oxygen. The deficiency of the oxygen
in the samples is shelter for bacteria and other pathogens,
which are anaerobic and injurious to human health. The re-
sults were similar to the results obtained by Krishnan et al.,
(2007).
8. Chloride:
The chloride contents ranged from 280.500 ± 0.120 –
987.670 ± 0.045 mg/l. Wadali b had the lowest Chloride
concentration (280.500 ± 0.120 mg/l). The high concentra-
tion of chloride is due to dissolution of salts from domestic
activities.
CONCLUSION
The levels of the parameters investigated exceeded the per-
missible limit for domestic water purposes, agriculture pur-
pose and fish production. The waste water must be treated
before disposed into the environment for avoiding health
hazards.
AKNOWLEDGEMENT
We are Grateful to University Grant commission for the fund-
ing this research under Major Research Project F. no. 39-
314/2010. Basically this research paper is based on initial
research work. We are grateful MNC, Amravati for provide
valuable information regards major sewer of Amravati City.
It’s our immense pleasure to acknowledge our Principal Dr.
V.G, Thakare for their support and encouragement during
work.
314 X INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH
Volume : 3 | Issue : 8 | Aug 2013 | ISSN - 2249-555X
ReseaRch PaPeR
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... In 2017, the World exchange are usually used. Advanced oxidation processes are Health Organization (WHO) reported that by 2025, 50% of the efficient and eco-friendly methods for the degradation of toxic world's population will live in water-stressed areas [3]. Water chemicals [6] such as pesticides, coloring matters, surfactants, containing unwanted substances, which cause adverse effects pharmaceuticals and so on. ...
... dation of organic compounds. Several researchers have found various wastewater treatment For advanced oxidation processes, the following oxidants methods that reduce the cost for the reuse of the water [3,4]. can be used: (i) ozone, (ii) hydrogen peroxide and (iii) oxy Household wastewater can be reused for floor and car washing, gen. ...
... It can disinfect waters and a destroy pollutants. When UV radiation is coupled with power ful oxidants such as O 3 [29,30]. In Table 6.1, experimental conditions, applica d tions and performances of various photochemical AOPs have is been given. ...
... Due to paucity of funds of the local bodies discharge their domestic's effluents in nearby river through /local nalla without any treatment and it is a major source of surface water pollution. Scientists around the world are working on new strategy for water conservation (Ingole et al., 2013; Dhote et al., 2013; Pangarkar et al., 2010 Rao et al., 2003). It is an opportune time, to refocus on one of the technique to recycle water through the reuse of waste water by economical way. ...
... Waste water treatment is an environmental friendly process as a control of water pollution. Many people have investigated the various waste water treatment methods extensively on the international and national levels and many researchers tried to reduce the cost for recycling of the water (Ingole et al., 2013; Dhote et al., 2013). The household waste water can be reused for other purposes, especially landscape irrigation, floor washing, car washing and toilet flushing. ...
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