Conference PaperPDF Available

Enhancing User eXperience during waiting time in HCI: Contributions of cognitive psychology

Authors:

Abstract

Despite technological progress, daily Human-Computer Interactions (HCI) are still encompassing moments where the interaction between the user and the system is temporarily interrupted (file download, setup of a program, etc.). These waiting times are often sources of anxiety and irritation. In order to enhance the User eXperience (UX) during waiting time in HCI, this research based on cognitive models of time perception focuses on the impact of several variables on the satisfaction and waiting time perceived by a user. Variations in waiting time duration, cognitive workload and informational level of a feedback screen are therefore experimentally created to study their impact on satisfaction and waiting time perception. The results confirm the existence of a link between cognitive workload and waiting time perception and may provide valuable information for User Interface design.




 !"##$%&
'(%%)*

+, & ,&  % %,
- .-/   %,& %% 0
  0     % 
%,,.(0,(,&%
/0&%(($
 -     1 2, .12/
& 0& %  -    
&%(%,,(%,
(     (  0& %
,    3  0& % 
& 04  (%  (  (4
  ( $,%    
%,  (  0& % ,, 
 (%  $ (  4 0 &
04  0& % ,,  % ,
(%(1-(&

1 $, % , & 54
&61-(

#7-(%(.&-/89
1-( :,(.:1-/

%;$,%

,(%,&0<
(%&=,
  %,    ,  
,    ,   %% ( +
&% %, -.-/ 
0((%,9&&(0
,&  , (  ,&%    -  ( (
&%  % , (  %% ( 
 ( % %,>  %, ( 
(4 ,      %  7?#8
,&0&,0
%(0&%0(
 (   %  (% %4 
0 %  & 78 @   
&0&(&012,.12/
     4   = 
& (     & 
% (&    4  (( 1
-( & &   ,
,& (    12 (
 %  ,,  0 &
% ( % ,, % ,   
 & 0&, 
&%((%


%,(%,&%&
(    ( ( & ,& 
,,& 7! !# ?A ?"8 %, <&% 
   ,& , (  
0%(%
 ,      
1& & ,  %,$  
%(%%
 %> &  % ( %  
$,(<%,,.
 %/7?8
% %,   $(
  4 7  ?" B8 5  % 
4  0 %, (  ,%4 %
%,%4%,
%<(%
 % ( ,  % 
%((0%%
0,%4%
 (& (  ,%4 ( ; %
  4  (  %,
,%(<%,,
(%(4,,%7?"8
(,,%4,&
,+(<%(
  % ( , 0  &  
& ((  0 5  0   (( 
%  %4 &   , (  , (  04 (
,%&0(,,
%(,(%%&,
((,&,0
 ,  ,        C ,
,(,%D(
!! !#E!F01
,&E!=6A" ! B#E? !!E ?D!DEGH!EEE
DIS 2012 • In the Wild June 11–15, 2012 • Newcastle, UK
751
   0  ,%4  
%   %   % (
,%,%45<,
%%0,
%(,((%
   % ( ,  0   ,
&  ,%4   % = 
%4&,%,%
I%&(:7!#!G8
  0 (( %,  4
%J % 7?"8    ,
%   ,%4 0  (0  &
%5K05J0
L  4  %   (  &
%,0(((
L7!G8%&%%
(% ,&    9
4%%  &, %
( %%   %4&  C %, 
$,&(%4%,
(,%4%,0
   (  4    & %
,,M4 @47BB8 .&!/ %
     %  5 7?A8 0
0  L $,  (  % ,
,   % ( (%   
%, (% ,    %,
(% , 7N8 4 % % 
0  0  ,   0  0
, -(  %, .%/ (%
,& C  , % 
%,(%L7BB8(
 & %    %
0,%40O&O
&   %,  4 %, (% 
     (  0 
%,,%,&%
  , &  % , &
&(,,
 %, %       
 & 0 (     &
(0,&&%,(%
04& %% 0     , (
, %  ,%   % ( ,












!"#$"%&$'
0&  % (    0   
,%P % ,J
 (      (% % &
7B?8
=%&  %  .(  % %,
 0 (  %  & ,&
,(7?!A"8/0
& %   7BB8 - 0  
%,   (   ,,  
(%,<&%$(-
I &% ,,    
%, (   & %  C 
%,>$(
%,,,@4
 7B8 %&       $, 
 0  4 ( &  &  
 % & 1&  (
%,&,,(%%,&
 12 ,  4  0 0 ( &&
 ( I   ,  (
,   & %  0  
$,(%,,((-
 @&  I> 7G8  ,, 
%   (( (  (4 ,  
,( , 0&  0& %
    $, %
  % 4 (  (  ,
<(%,%F00
($(
-  4 ,(%  %,  
&(& 0%, 
7A8%,(&
J(&
,,(%
 %%>  &% 0 %   Q&
7G80,,(0&%
    &  0 &0 
% (%    (0 - 
  %,$ & ,  4 
%%0%(,
%  . &  (  0& %/
  &  C   
%%%%(
,%((7?G8

   ,, ( % & 0
,&% ,&   %% 0  
(  ,   ,(%   < - 
,, ,&%   (%  
0% (&%
(0($,%
 0 %  , % 
 ,(%&  , <&% 7B?8 -  %
 ,(%  !!A $,% @4 4
DIS 2012 • In the Wild June 11–15, 2012 • Newcastle, UK
752
 M4 7B8 0 0  &   &
,,%0,%
 ,  ( % 0  
,   , 0 ,
 0  (  %% ,
M4 7B?8      ( 0& ,, 
%  ,(%&  ,, 
<&%  0& %    
%%(%

   %%  0  % 
 %        
007!#8
  (( ( ,%   ,
,%(%%&%(
%%(14,%((
0    & % %% .6/  
((, %%%.I6/-(
     ((    
$& !#  ?E     ,(% ( 
(&  7!?8 = ,  (
  ,  (0&  (&  0
(   ,   ,% ((
,,,%
 0   0  ,  
,%((

@44RM47B8%%,
( &   % <&% , 6
04(O(((%,$
(   &>  
(O7B8SK+J(7??8(%
    %  , 0
,(%&49O%04(,
(  ,K % , C  
,(%  , 4O =&  M4 7B?8
&  % ((  , 0
,(%&4-(,(4C&(
(% ,&     %
%,(%(,&
%,(%
5 (&  0 &   ( 
,, ( 0& %    % ( 
<    ( ,  2 
I7B!8&<%,(%
%  ,& %   &
 I< % 0    ,
(0% (( (& 
 < % 4  %,
<&%4%%(&
<% =%& %%
7B!8
0  0    , 9 
%   I6;T 7B#8  
%%9F=I= 27!8
 I6;T .I< 6 ;(( T/
(& %&0&
&%.&97E!#E8/
 (   12    &  
   %  % (  
((7!?8
F=I= 4  -$ .2/  $ % 
%049%%,%
%, % ,(% ((  (
0 , ,      & (
%=(%E!EE
 7?B8 =& %% > (  4 (
7!!8F=I= 2(%0
&<,&
      


(  - 0 ,
0& % % &   ( (  !E 
  F 7?8 ( $%, ( 
!E  %  0    ( ((
4%-(
   0&    0 @   7#8
J,%
,-&%0F7?8@
7#8 %   &  !E 0
(-%&(
((04

-00,(40&%
%,   (   % 7? ?#8
(4,4%(%9,&
 $ %&  -     0&
%F7?!84(((4J
(&%0:
7!B8  @   7#8 0   , ( 
(4,&%&0
  0&  0 4 (%  
%,  ( (  0  % 
0%4%0
%,0(((
 (4 ,  ,& (% 
0&%&&&&,
0(4(%
(40,0%((0
 ,,  && %    ,& ( 
&&, %4 0%& 78-
%((%&0
,   ,, ( 0& % =  
,  % %&
DIS 2012 • In the Wild June 11–15, 2012 • Newcastle, UK
753
 %,   0& , 0 % 
% &  0& , & (0 
7G8  (&   0  % ( 
 &   7G8 .& !/   
 (4   (  ,J  
%, &  ,&   & 
& ( ,&  % ,   0 
04&%%000&
%&&

&  7?E8  (    %, %,
(  && ,    , 
 (& , & (% EU  !EEU %,
I%0%&((,(
(4 &   ,&    
 %( ,( 
(J,(7G!"E?867?E80
 , (  ,&  &  0& %
%,( ((  (&( 
 4   ,&    40  
,, 0  ,  ,(% 
(   %   & %  0
4(,&(
4(
S (  % (  ,,     (
((  % , 0 &  0 ( 
0(&,(,&(
0(%(
7G8 ;&    (( (   
 (&   0 
 % ((,& 
,,(0&%7!G8

@    &   -  
,, ( 0& % 0    , 
(J,,&(&
0& % 0     78  % (
   (   12 & 0&
%-
,%,%&
, (%  & %   
,%,%9
!9,0
 0&   , 0& %
6 0 %  ,  0
0&  0& %  &
(
  9  (%  ( 
(40(,0&%
(  % 50
(%    0& % 0 $, 
,0&% (
 0 5  & (%  0 
$,  , 0& %   &  
(   &  %, &&
,0& %& (% &
% 0  %, && (
&(%-
?  9  (  $, 
0 $& % ( % ,,  (
,  &&   , ( &
04 % %, % ,,   $ (
 %    ((  
<&% , 5 %   & 
& 04  0 % (0&
(&(0


(%,(
(0&%,0
  0  %  ,  C
 , (  (4 , ,& 
$,0&%
1&  0 < &  ,,
$,$,%
&% ( ,,  ,(  0
%,(%,,
 ,  0 %,9 0&
%  .E # !E !# E / , ( 
(4  . %   % / 
(%((4.0&/
F      , (  (4
   ,, ( &  $,%
(&04,>
0(  &, ((0&
&(&&%(&04
&I6;T.V!AEB.AAE/V!EE"WE!/
F=I=X2&.V!!A!.AAE/VBWE!/

%($,%0%%&%
-,0%
 $,%0 %% &% ,&
    4  &%  
%%&  , ( %&    &
$%&0%&(#
C . & 0 , ( ? / 
,,,%&%%4
&&%0,#%%00
&  %% @(   (  &% 
,% & %0 ,,   ,,
   & & (   =(
%,        
&%,&%
%0,$0&
,,,(4+,&
DIS 2012 • In the Wild June 11–15, 2012 • Newcastle, UK
754
(0(%E.
/  # !E  !#  ;$, (  
0&%(4
0,&&%.0&
&   4 &  % /  0
((. %/6
(40&(%.0
,&&,&(%,
& $ L&N 0Y V & (%
 /  , (% .  & $
L&NYV0(%/
F  & ( 0    4 ( ,,
0 %4& & 0& % %,(
,(04&
%,>(0&
%  ((  %   &&  0
(
=(   (  &% ,, 0 4 
%,  C & %&,
(% .& &  &&/   
$,0%A ,4
(%!LY
ALY
&040%&09
/ & %% I6;T 7B#8L 
      Y .  !#E ,
(%ELY!#EL!Y/
/ $!EE ,  ,(%  F=I= 2
7!8 , &9 % % ,
% %, % ,(% (( 
(P 0 E %   % 0 0 
!EE & = & F=I= 2  0 %,
."#  $ V"E/  0 %, 0 
I6;T
,0(C0&
%%(0&%
&(%&&(%E?E
A ,49(0.(%!
L   YAL Y/ 
(0.(% !L  Y
ALY/(
0.(%!L   YAL
Y/<((0.(%!L
<(YAL%,<(Y/
,,04(&%0%&
.A ,  (% E L   YAL
Y/(,(?E
, (  0 ( 0   .A , 
(%!LYALY/
&%%>,(
#&$
*)%%
%)#
!%*+),+!&%*
)#!$!%)/
+)!%!%!+$
')*%++!&%
)#!$!%)/
+)!%!%!+$
&$'#+!&%
)*%++!&%
&+)!%!%
!+$**&)
+)+&
+ $






!+!%+!$*
!+!%+!$*
!+!%+!$*
!+!%+!$*
!+!%+!$*
!+!%+!$*
!+!%+!$*
!+!%+!$*
!+!%+!$*
!+!%+!$*
!+!%+!$*
!+!%+!$*
!+!%+!$*


,*+!&%%!)


)*%++!&%
&+ 
%)#
*&)!%
!+!&%#
(,*+!&%
+!#
')*%++!&%
&%*-)*
%
$!*+"*
%&$.')!$%+#&%!+!&%.
%(

 $,%   0  
%,%%.(%04
%& / #E  < . -
/0&##0%
B# %  % & (  %, 0 ?!# 
.V""#/ 6 (  ,, .?U/ 0 
,4( 0& &
."BB U  #  A   A ,  &
$,0%/
(,,&
0!
5&
%+
-(%(
(4
 & %
E
(
(4
F= F= F= )*
#
(
(4
 % AG A# +
 % "E #? &&
 +, %* %*#
!E
(
(4
 % # # 
 % GG G" &#
 %+ %- %#+
!#
(
(4
 % #! GG )
 % G GB %,
 & &- %#&

(
(4
 % !"G !? &).
 % E" !"# &.&
 &.# &)* .+-
/0/

DIS 2012 • In the Wild June 11–15, 2012 • Newcastle, UK
755


&(%%&%0&.&V
A  ?E V??/  0   ( 
.&V#AA  A V!#"/  %&  ( 
&% 0   %% .&VBAE  A V!GG/
F%%&%0%((
((
((&%( 40&


S    % (  0&
,   &   .& % 
6VB$&/
5%

5
;%
.
/
5
(

./
5


5

(
5
<(
E
6  GBE G?B G!" ##
I+ BB !! !! !# !B"
#
6 # BB BA ?B ?G
I+ BE E E EA !?
!E
6 "EG ?" ?A ??G ?E
I+ B? ! !"G !"E !
!#
6 !E#A ?"! ?A " ?EE
I+ G?! !# !A" !A !!

6 GA BBB BG ? ?AE
I+ ##A E" E" ! !!
/%012
2!)3
425)45'
=  %   0 (  &
   0& %    &
 .WE!/ = & ( 
%, (     
'   ( 0 %, .J
, Z V "A/ .&   &VBE"
V!AA/
=$,,!,,%&
% (&  .).?BG/V!!"" WE!/F
0%(# 0&
0 C     % &
.!E !#/ - % 0
,,  0 (  %,  ( 
47E80,($,%
&  0  0&  0 &  
$ (  ,% 4   (    
0   4  <   &  (
   0& %,  %  (& 
 0  % (   & 7#8 
,&&%,
%,%%&&%,
(&0
, <&  0 % , 
&  .).?BG/V!#AE WE!/    
& (   .  ,  
WE!/ F ,& ,, <& 0&
,   %   & 
.).?BG/V!!?E# WE!/   % (&
.).?BG/V!BG" WE!/ % <( .).?BG/VA?E
WE!/     (> %   0&
,.).?BG/V"B"WE!/(
(%&(0&
%.,WE!/
 ,,   (   %
 7#?! ?8 6 FJ 7?8  
,0&%-(%$
 0  (  !E    
(0 0&
 (   .&V?A V!"G/ . &,
((,&(WE!
/
 0  04 & 0
0& %    ( .V !!#
WE!/ -    4  0& % % 
%, % $, , (   @&
(0(&
 0& ,     ((   
$,(4(4((%
& & (0&, %
 0 1 2, &&  ,( 
(  , 0  @& R I>
7G8

-0%,
  &  (%  (  (4
 =&    & % ( %
,,7B8%,,%,
&  %   & , & 
% , & &   ( 
,   ,   %, %  
&0(
&,&&
&&%,(0&,
= $,  ,    0 
&( 4 0(%  (  (4
 0&%% .V A? .AAE/V
!"? WE#/ 1 %  0& %  &
&    (  & (%  ,
.&V" VGEA/   ( 0(%
,.&VABAV#E?/
% , (0 ,% 
$,   % ( (%   
&  0& ,    ,, (
0& % I    ,  %
DIS 2012 • In the Wild June 11–15, 2012 • Newcastle, UK
756
%&     %,   0&
, 0 %    &   
0& , & (0  7G8 @ ,&
,(%&&,.,&[
& %& [ ,& ( %/  &
 (4 ,   % ( 
,     (&   
0 % ( & 7G8
.&!/-0(4
 (  %, &  ,&  
& &( ,&% ,
   04& %% 0   
0&%&&
I&(%%4,&
 0   0 (% ,   
,&  (%     0& 
&,
0 % ,& .  (0& 
%, /0&(
((( (%( (4 
  ( % .& / @ &
( .V ?E .AAE/V G" WE!/  0&
% ( .V ?! .AAE/V ? WE#/ 0
  ( & (4 &
 (4     4 (
&  0& ,   .V B?
.AAE/V ?! WE!/   (&  0& %
.V # .AAE/V B? WE!/ F &( 4 $
0 (%    ( ( & 
0<(
&
/6
- &% 0  (& ( @& R I>
7G80,(%(4
   (  %4  0 %  
  ,    %, & 
(4   % 0 , &%
%% - 7?#?8 I 7!B #8
0   , (  (4 , &
  % & 0    0&  0
 %       (  
0%0(%
 (  ,  & .0 (4 &V?#A
V!"#&(4&VBV/
040(4
  (    %% &% 4 
 ( % ,  &% 
(

= %  %&   
   , (  (4   
,, ( &  $,%  ( 
&04,>0(
   &, (( 0 & &(
&&%(&04&
 I6;T .V!AEB .AAE/V!EE" WE!/  
F=I=X2 &  .V!!A! .AAE/VB WE!/
S , ( , (  (4 
$, ,,$% !EU (    &
.;((/
5    & 04 0
  C 0 . ?/ 0  & & (
&V??B!#E.VBE/I6;T.,
 %        
 /   &  ( &V?GA  !EE
.V!A"/   F=I= 2   0 %
&.VG"WE!/0,&
&(
&  $ F=I= 2  . ?/ %
% 0  0  & % .&*#!G/
(0  ;(( %  
(%(+%.&*!"A!/
5((0%0%&&
< &  %  (  I6;T
.VA!#.B"/V BGWEE!/F=I= 2&
 .VG! .B"/V #? WEE!/ I& 
&( (( 0 & && 
&%   .V!!E .B"/V#EB WE!/   
((
&&   ,  < &  
0& % ,,  0  & 
.I6;T/,0&%.).?BG/V??
WE!/  &      &,
.&VB""V!AA"/0(0(
.&V?#B(# &
V?BE?(
!E &V?GE?(!# /
DIS 2012 • In the Wild June 11–15, 2012 • Newcastle, UK
757
7
!'
8 9
!+-3
'
:83;!--3'
;

;
(
;

;

;

;

;
/
E
6 B"" BE !#?# B" G? B!GA ?? ?#
F !A" !A" !A" !A" !A" !A" !A" !A"
I+ !AA" # !"?" GA BB# BB# #? !GGA
#
6 ?#B? #!"B !? BB" ?E"A B?A? ?GGE ?A"G
F "B "B "B "B "B "B "B "B
I+ BB# #G# !AB GE BGE B#B GG !A!
!E
6 ?BE? #E#? !"! BEAE ?!#G BE" ??! ?G#
F B# B# B# B# B# B# B# B#
I+ ? G" E!# GGG G?! B?? #"# !ABA
!#
6 ?GE? #?E !B# ?GAB ?# B#" ?G#G ?A
F B? B? B? B? B? B? B? B?
I+ G#B A? EGE A#G A!" GEB AB !!!

6 ??B #!G !"A! B## ?EA! B?E? ?B#? ?G"E
F #E #E #E #E #E #E #E #E
I+ B!E G! !"G A?E #AA B"" G#! !A"
/&0126222
26
5    ,  0 &
 .I6;T/   % ( 0& % .V!?
WE!/ &&  4
&%(0&%
&&,?
 &   &  0
%(J(.B/=&&
   0 0 0  0
(0%(<((
0 6  & &    
0%,(0&%
<


8 9 :83;
5(./ V E!\\ V !B\\
5 V G"\\ V E\\
5( V GA\\ V !!\\
5<( V !?#\\ V !\\
:( V #"\\ V !A\\
/#/2
<!==>-'
=&M47B?8%&4.&&
/(<
 0 ,    %, (% S
%,0%&
    & %,   0& %
%  (J % , ? 
(  (%    0 
I%  +] 7!#8 0  % 
,&$(
  0 < 0 4    @
,&    0   0  
% 0 0 .0 (  ,,
(%/ 0%, ( 
( $ 4 ,, ,- 
(4,,&%.
  %  0   & &
/%%,%,,
%&      $ 6
(0& @& R I> 7G8 & ( 0 %
 0  0   &
 ( ,, %&   %&
0%7G8

 ,  %  &  & 0
&&&,
((-@&,
 $, (  12 ,  % 
  ((  %, 04 %  
    ( ( - 4  
%, (&%%
,    0  (  %
%,%,((&
 , & 
 0 0&  (4 ,
& 04   (   0&
,  $%, ,$    
(%((4.(4
   & % ( 0& %  
&(/
&&(1$,% (
,,&, %% ((
  % &  & ,<    0 
 0      0 (  %, (
-%(%
DIS 2012 • In the Wild June 11–15, 2012 • Newcastle, UK
758
  %  (   0  %
(((((%
%%
=& ,,00&% -
,,7!?8-%,
0(0&,,
0& ( %,  , - ( 0&
,   ,(%&  4 @ 
%,% ((4 ,% 
(&&(00 ,
%4    (  0& % L= ,&
Y       ( E!! ,
 0 ( & %    %,
&0.&(
%& (%
0  0/ =&  (   
,($0
,0,,
((--(&
(  0 %4& 0 % ,
($,%(,&
  %   ,  0
%4& ( 0 4,&  % 
( 4& 4 ,%4 
 0& %   -  $,%  %
%4& 0        
0,,,%4(0&
%&(0
 % ,, %   $,  
(&12,%
,,(00%%
0((&%&(
(4 ,  -   < (  (( - 
 &  $ (    40& 
&0,%&
,0120&0
%

 40&  & ( 
L- I,]  =%  C
J;%IY.-I=;I/00
$,%

! =:,,(%,
,G.!A/?BE ?#B
 =:((%&%
%%&@BB!
.!"/!E! !!A
? @4=6(,&%-&
6(&%;%=
@4;.!E/! ?#
B @4=4=M4+=
&0&((
<&%9=% 0=&
!?B?.E!E/??E ?B?
# @=4=@FT
(9%&^C%(
-C(&(I-:-
(%(%,&%
=6.EEE/A ?EB
G @&I>=4
,(%,(0&%
#!B.EE/#" #?"
A 66,,,
&$(4&
@B#! ?
.!/A? "#
" +3=F%F
+,%(%%&
((% %,(
&(I-:-(1%
%,&I%1I=5&
.!"/!? !"
 6@==
,(%%&?A
! .!E/## "!
!E+6I6I&%
%&9=00%&(
&!".!/BE BG#
!!+=6++I&(
F=I= 2%,(I5=%
040,&&
,;&%#?A.E!E/"B" "#A
!16(1;$,
-&0%,#.E!E/?? ?A
!?:^+&6]%
(%&(9%]%9
=%EEE
!B:;(I
(%,,(%,
%(%,&% -J#=6
.!#/A A?
!#:I$,5J0
%%&&0"B?.!AA/A
?#
!G:6,+:
0&(%,&9
&,&A
.!A/!AE !"B
!A:I%&%,,9=0(
(&
=,R
,A?.E!E/#G! #"
!":::%I;%],
%,,,%,^E_%
DIS 2012 • In the Wild June 11–15, 2012 • Newcastle, UK
759
(],J-%%
66> #I,%.EE"/E# E"
!I:I;+,%(F=I=
2.4-$/9(%,
%%04!
.!""/!? !"?
E=%@>I@
4&,&&(E
=6%,%1((0
& 1-IJEA=6.EEA/
!QMI;,&
9%,&,0
&%=6-^E!E.E!E/
>6>&,%9+
<&% %
@R-(%&!!.EEE/
B
?:=F
=,&9(&0
%,=6-JE!!6A !
3@.E!!/! G
B-IS!EEA# 9!G;&%,,
%04 9+&,,
#563$,
<%,R,,G"A
.EEG/!!!? !?
G%+QQ&3(
%9%;((%
,=%?#!
.EEA/B? BB
AI%@+5&%
+64&9-%46`(
%!.!#/!!E
"<I0&&&`
&&%(,&%
@BB.!"/!A !B#
6:I
&(%%6%R
&.!B/GA? G"G
?E6@=%,(, ,&
(%, %(=6-J"#
&.!"#/!! !A
?!F =0&%90
&50&0`@R
-(%&??.EEB/!#? !G?
?F1;&&6&(%
I!B
??Sa++;&&%54
%%&-@(((%
%.;/4(,,%
,(%93%--&,
,(%.!"G/B BF0Q495
?BI+>;66
;(<%049%,
(I5=F=I= 204,(%
=,,&#?!.EEB/G! "G
?#I,+@6;&%(
&&%
C(%
@R-(%&!GB.!A/E
?!
?GI%+,,(
$,90$,,
0(@+
64&!G!.EE?/?# #
?A%;=55@&
,&%,,,R
,!AB.!A#/?G? ?GA
?"%6%,%
((9%,(%(
b4&6&,9:
=,,AA!?.!G?/! !?
?3I4&($
,,((0,&%
-(% %,IGA!
.EE/A "
BE
5@(0409$,&
,&%&@
B#! ?.!/? !
B!2@I@(%04
&%,4%-
(&;&%B?.EE!/!? B
BM4+:&0&`:&%
(,,%&.,b0&
&&`J</@,# ?
.EEE/G? G
B?M4+=<&%%,&
c#E!.EE#/G# A
BBM4+@4=%,&
+&IG!.!A/! !G
B#M<;((049&
,,(%+(1
+(F!?
DIS 2012 • In the Wild June 11–15, 2012 • Newcastle, UK
760
... 'Happy time is always short', correspondingly, users tend to overestimate the online waiting time since the waiting experience is always considered as boring and anxious [3]. It is inevitable that hardware quality (CPU, memory), software performance (code) and other objective factors result in the online wait. ...
... Text or various visual forms are generally used to provide feedback in the waiting screen. The visual feedback [12] can provide more continuity for the human-computer interface [3], reduce the users' perceived waiting time [13,14], and enhance users' waiting satisfaction and user intention [15,16]. Moreover, it is found that the visual feedback of online waiting screen is related to users' emotion, that provide more pleasure [17] and acceptance [8,12] for users, so that it can improve users' tolerance [18] and user experience in online wait. ...
Article
This study aims to understand the effects of visual feedback designs on time perception and user perception in online wait. We manipulated the salience (implicit/explicit) and framing (hedonic/function) of visual feedback, and the music (exist or not). 23 subjects participated in the two experiments. 8 (2*2*2) visual feedbacks were compared directly in pairs to rank how these augmentations of visual feedbacks compare to one another. We also tested the effects of visual designs on waiting perception such as attention, perceived control, and emotion in the online waiting. In addition, we discussed the potential effects of music and immersion for time perception. MANOVA and subsequent ANOVA tests were conducted. The study findings indicate the salience of visual feedback may significantly affect users’ time perception, explicit visual feedback provides users with more perceived control as well as more attention. The hedonic of visual feedback is important to affect users’ waiting perception such as. The hedonic designs provide more perceived entertainment. However, inappropriate embellishment design may have a negative effect on user experience. Music plays a significant role in affecting users’ time perception and deep involvement. Appropriate music accompaniment will make the whole waiting faster and easier.
... In this section, we experimentally evaluate our portfoliobased parallel constraint acquisition system. As finding an assignment satisfying the constraints of L and violating at least one constraint from B is an NP-complete problem, we use a time limit, denoted by TL, once reached, the acquisition process returns a premature convergence on L. The only parameter we will keep fixed in all our experiments is TL, that we set to 5 seconds as it corresponds to an acceptable waiting time for a human user (Lallemand and Gronier 2012). The implementation of PACQ were carried out in Java using Choco solver 4.10.2. 1 The code is publicly available at (gite.lirmm.fr/constraint-acquisition-team). ...
Article
Constraint acquisition systems assist the non-expert user in modelling her problem as a constraint network. QUACQ is a sequential constraint acquisition algorithm that generates queries as (partial) examples to be classified as positive or negative. The drawbacks are that the user may need to answer a great number of such examples, within a significant waiting time between two examples, to learn all the constraints. In this paper, we propose PACQ, a portfolio-based parallel constraint acquisition system. The design of PACQ benefits from having several users sharing the same target problem. Moreover, each user is involved in a particular acquisition session, opened in parallel to improve the overall performance of the whole system.We prove the correctness of PACQ and we give an experimental evaluation that shows that our approach improves on QUACQ.
... Same observation can be made on the other datasets where RankingSVM.1 can be hampered by overall waiting time even with queries of size 2, where AHPRank.1 shows an instantaneous behavior (less than 0.1 seconds between two queries). This represents a limitation in the use of RankingSVM.1 especially when the learning is integrated to an interactive data mining process, where a reasonable latency time for a human user is around few seconds [33]. Table 7: Qualitative evaluation of RankingSVM.1 vs AHPRank.1. ...
Preprint
Discovering relevant patterns for a particular user remains a challenging tasks in data mining. Several approaches have been proposed to learn user-specific pattern ranking functions. These approaches generalize well, but at the expense of the running time. On the other hand, several measures are often used to evaluate the interestingness of patterns, with the hope to reveal a ranking that is as close as possible to the user-specific ranking. In this paper, we formulate the problem of learning pattern ranking functions as a multicriteria decision making problem. Our approach aggregates different interestingness measures into a single weighted linear ranking function, using an interactive learning procedure that operates in either passive or active modes. A fast learning step is used for eliciting the weights of all the measures by mean of pairwise comparisons. This approach is based on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), and a set of user-ranked patterns to build a preference matrix, which compares the importance of measures according to the user-specific interestingness. A sensitivity based heuristic is proposed for the active learning mode, in order to insure high quality results with few user ranking queries. Experiments conducted on well-known datasets show that our approach significantly reduces the running time and returns precise pattern ranking, while being robust to user-error compared with state-of-the-art approaches.
... Whether increasing transparency in the process might help in increasing trust has not been verified in the literature, but there is ample evidence in the HCI field that waiting time is a source of frustration (e.g. Lallemand and Gronier 2012). ...
Article
The insurance industry is being challenged by increased adoption of automated decision-making. AI advances could conceivably automate everything: marketing, customer service, underwriting and claims management alike. However, such automation challenges consumer trust, as there is considerable public and scholarly debate over the ‘black box’ character of many algorithms. Insurance being a business of trust, this suggests a dilemma. One suggested solution involves adopting algorithms in a transparent manner. This article reports a study of how Swedish insurers deal with this dilemma, based on (i) eight interviews with insurance professionals representing four companies with a joint market share of 45–50% of the Swedish property insurance market and (ii) a questionnaire answered by 71 professionals in a Swedish insurance company. The results show that while transparency is seen as potentially valuable, most Swedish insurers do not use it to gain a competitive advantage or identify clear limits to transparency and are not using AI extensively.
... Further, research suggest that users are most willing to tolerate negative progress behavior (e.g., stalls and inconsistent progress) at the beginning of an operation. However, some researchers claimed that more user feedback is not always better, as when people focus attention on temporal information, duration is perceived as longer [31,45,46]. In summary, previous research shows that it is essential to indicate that the system is working and that the information is correct. ...
... Since the objective waiting time is mentally transformed into users' perceived waiting time, long waits can lead to a negative waiting experience [1]. In general, users tend to judge shorter waiting times to be more positive than longer ones [12]. Li and Chen [13] pointed out the importance of visual feedback design that has an influence on users' wait evaluations. ...
Article
Process digitization and integration is an increasing need for enterprises. At the same time, process platform-as-a-service (PPaaS) vendors (e.g., business process- or integration-as-a-service) and their customers strive to minimize the cost of operation of platforms and processes. While current PPaaS technology mainly runs in single-clouds, multicloud settings are gaining importance. However, their promised freedom of selecting the best option for a specific problem is currently not realized. Moreover, important cloud-aspects like security constraints are handled in a cost-intensive manner for PPaaS vendors (e.g., by isolating tenants at container level). This leads to security vs. costs goal conflicts, while costs remain intransparent to process modelers. In this work, we propose a design-time placement method for processes in multiclouds that is cost-optimal for PPaaS problem sizes, and respects configurable security constraints of their customers. To make the solution tractable for larger, productive PPaaS processes deployments, it is relaxed by using a local search heuristic, and complemented by correctness-preserving model decomposition. This allows for a novel perspective on cost-aware process modeling from a process modeler’s perspective. The multicloud process placement is evaluated on real-world integration processes with respect to cost- and runtime-efficiency, resulting in interesting trade-offs. The process modeler’s perspective is investigated based on a new cost-aware modeling process, featuring the interaction between the user and the PPaaS vendor through ad-hoc multicloud cost calculation and correctness-preserving, process cost reduction proposals.
Article
Design of loading screens needs to be optimized given its impact on user experience. This study explored the influence of four commonly used loading feedback types on users’ mental state and behavior regarding waiting using a questionnaire survey. Users’ data (N = 90) was collected using Psychopy and Wenjuanxing. The results suggested that using a logo as the loading feedback enabled better emotional experience, time perception, preference, and higher tolerable waiting time compared with the empty screen or circle icon loading feedback. Users indicated a preference for the combination of a slogan plus a logo loading feedback. These findings can have implications on how to design for improving user experience.
Chapter
Long waits and disruptive loading breaks can evoke negative emotions, like frustration. While there is a lot of research on 2D-based loading scenarios, it is unclear how people react to loading screens in an immersive virtual reality (VR) environment. In this paper we conducted a user study to investigate the effects of interactive and passive loading screens on the users’ loading screen experience (LSE) in VR. We measured perceived speed, enjoyment and frustration for long and short waiting times. Results show that interactive loading screens improved participants’ LSE through increasing perceived speed and enjoyment, and decreased their frustration while waiting. Thus, previous findings of 2D-based research were confirmed. Therefore, our research provides a first approach for further investigations of different loading screens in VR.
Article
As the Internet of Things (IoT) proliferates, the potential for its opportunistic interaction with traditional mobile apps becomes apparent. We argue that to fully take advantage of this potential, mobile apps must become things themselves, and interact in a smart space like their hardware counterparts. We present an extension to our Atlas thing architecture on smartphones, allowing mobile apps to behave as things and provide powerful services and functionalities. To this end, we also consider the role of the mobile app developer, and introduce actionable keywords (AKWs)---a dynamically programmable description---to enable potential thing to thing interactions. The AKWs empower the mobile app to dynamically react to services provided by other things, without being known a priori by the original app developer. In this paper, we present the mobile-apps-as-things (MAAT) concept along with its AKW concept and programming construct. For MAAT to be adopted by developers, changes to the existing development environments (IDE) should remain minimal to stay acceptable and practically usable, thus we also propose an IDE plugin to simplify the addition of this dynamic behavior. We present details of MAAT, along with the implementation of the IDE plugin, and give a detailed benchmarking evaluation to assess the responsiveness of our implementation to impromptu interactions and dynamic app behavioral changes. We also investigate another study, targeting Android developers, which evaluates the acceptability and usability of the MAAT IDE plugin.
Article
Full-text available
This study is a part of a research effort to develop the Questionnaire for User Interface Satisfaction (QUIS). Participants, 150 PC user group members, rated familiar software products. Two pairs of software categories were compared: 1) software that was liked and disliked, and 2) a standard command line system (CLS) and a menu driven application (MDA). The reliability of the questionnaire was high, Cronbach's alpha=.94. The overall reaction ratings yielded significantly higher ratings for liked software and MDA over disliked software and a CLS, respectively. Frequent and sophisticated PC users rated MDA more satisfying, powerful and flexible than CLS. Future applications of the QUIS on computers are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
A “percent-done progress indicator” is a graphical technique which allows the user to monitor the progress through the processing of a task. Progress indicators can be displayed on almost all types of output devices, and can be used with many different kinds of programs. Practical experience and formal experiments show that prograss indicators are an important and useful user-interface tool, and that they enhance the attractiveness and effectiveness of programs that incorporate them. This paper discusses why progress indicators are important. It includes the results of a formal experiment with progress indicators. One part of the experiment demonstrates that people prefer to have progress indicators. Another part attempted to replicate earlier findings to show that people prefer constant to variable response time in general, and then to show that this effect is reversed with progress indicators, but the results were not statistically significant. In fact, no significant preference for constant response time was shown, contrary to previously published results.
Conference Paper
During the Human-Computer Interactions (HCI), the user is sometimes faced with waiting periods. Presentations of metaphors like icons or progress bars often improve these waiting periods. This current research will examine the influence of time's metaphors on user satisfaction and their perception of waiting periods. The hypothesis supported in this article consists of some metaphors giving the user an impression of a shorter waiting period than others, displaying an equally long period. Based on collected data through experimentation, it is then possible to differentiate between interfaces with high or low "waiting period improvement" for the design of human-computer interfaces.
Article
The role of attention in human’s duration judgment processes is analyzed. Empirical evidences which indicate that a dissociation exists between prospective and retrospective duration judgments are presented. Attention is directly involved in prospective duration judgments processes. Attentional-based models, which can explain prospective duration judgments are presented together with empirical evidences which validate the general attentional model on the levels of both regular cognitive processes and high level executive-control processes. Waiting is presented as a natural situation during which prospective duration judgment processes are evoked. The attentional model is used for explaining why a duration spent waiting seems to pass slowly, in contrast to a situation to which one is interested in a book or a movie and in which time flies fast.
Article
Software-ergonomic system analysis often reveals numerous usability problems. Given that system design suffers from limited resources, the prioritization of usability problems seems inevitable. Surprisingly enough, prioritization is not in the focus of scientific interest. Within this paper, approaches to prioritization relying on severity estimates will be presented. Two of the approaches, namely priorities based on data about the impact of a problem (data-driven) and priorities based on judgements of interest group members (judgement-driven) will be further explored. In the data-driven approach total problem-handling time caused by a usability problem is presented as a measure of severity. The major disadvantage of the data-driven approach is its costs. A possible alternative are severity estimates based on judgements by members of involved interest groups. The first of two studies shows how to obtain judgement driven severity estimates and reveals a fundamental lack of correspondence between data-driven and judgement-driven severity estimates. The second study supports the notion that the lack of correspondence may stem from a difference between assumptions of the data-driven approach and the naive judgement model of interest group members in the judgement-driven approach. A hypothetical model for severity estimates by interest group members is presented.
Article
This research aimed to develop and validate a practical framework for predicting mental workload in both single- and multitask environments with particular consideration of individual factors. To describe mental workload more precisely and completely, a framework for mental workload measures, containing instantaneous workload, average workload, accumulated workload, peak workload, and overall workload was proposed. To model individual factors, 2 new variables (effective workload and ineffective workload) were introduced to conceptually model task- and individual-generated workloads. Under the conceptual model, the operational models for predicting human mental workload for human-computer interaction tasks were developed. The model used a multidimensional approach and allowed the quantification of different aspects of load. Two experimental studies were conducted to validate the proposed model. The results revealed that (a) the framework, which consisted of average workload, accumulated workload, and instantaneous workload could describe workload more precisely than a single overall workload; (b) the proposed mental workload model, which explained 42% of the variance associated with NASA-Task Load index subjective mental workload ratings and explained 78% of the variance associated with performance time, was supported and could be used to predict mental workload; (c) the relationships between the effective/ineffective workload and the 4 independent variables were partially validated. The results showed that both task-related factors and individual-related factors could significantly affect mental workload; (d) mental workload was significantly affected by time pressure. The workload in a self-paced multitask environment was 29% lower than the workload in a system-paced multitask environment in the experiment. The workload in a self-paced, multitask environment was 19% lower than the workload in a system-paced, single-task environment.
Article
The process of mental scanning corresponds to the systematic shifting of attention over visualized objects. The 1st part of this article focuses on the role of mental scanning as an empirical method to assess the structural properties of the representations that underlie visual mental imagery. One theory of imagery posits that the metric properties of the surfaces of objects are made explicit in visual images. If so, then the time to scan across imaged objects should increase linearly with the distance scanned, and such results have been reported. But these results are controversial and alternative accounts are not compelling. Results from image scanning studies are best interpreted as reflecting the metric properties of imagery representations; imagery uses mechanisms that are used to encode and interpret objects during perception. The 2nd part of this article focuses on the use of image scanning to examine whether verbal descriptions may be used to construct images with structural properties similar to those of images of previously seen objects. Newly constructed images have been shown to possess a structure very much like the representations arising from visual perception. The use of mental scanning paradigm in neuroimaging studies also is considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Prior research (cf. Soman & Shi, 2001) has shown that obstacles and periods of low progress in an experience reduce the evaluation of that experience. In this research, we propose that the temporal distance between the obstacle and the time of making the evaluation moderates the effect of the obstacle. Consequently, an early (late) obstacle reduces prospective (retrospective) evaluation more significantly than a late (early) obstacle. In two experiments, we find support for this temporal proximity hypothesis. Further, differences between prospective and retrospective evaluations disappeared when the data were analyzed in terms of temporal distance, suggesting that the judgment policies underlying prospective and retrospective evaluations were the same. We also show that it is possible to create pairs of paths such that one of the two paths would be preferred when viewed in prospect, but the other path might be preferred in retrospect. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.