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Small amounts of pesticides reaching target insects

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... Among the most representative and environmentally harmful practices are the excessive reliance on costly technology, the heavy dependence on non-renewable resources (Batie and Taylor, 1989), the misuse of direct energy inputs mainly in the form of fuels and oils and indirect energy inputs such as pesticides and fertilisers (Tabatabaeefar et al., 2009). Specifically, only the misuse of energy, pesticides and fertilisers is proved to cause degradation of soil (OECD, 2001), water pollutant runoff and leaching (OECD, 2012), negative effects on human health (Pimentel and Burgess, 2012;Wilson and Tisdell, 2001), loss of biodiversity (Mondelaers et al., 2009) and even a destructive interference with the nitrogen cycle at a global scale (Gruber and Galloway, 2008). ...
... Secondly, the monetary measurement of its annual expenditure is available from traditional accounting. Lastly, there is a vast amount of research specifically on the environmental impact of energy, pesticides and fertilisers consumption (Gruber and Galloway, 2008;Pimentel and Burgess, 2012;Wilson and Tisdell, 2001). Overall, we consider that the sum of expenditures on energy, pesticides and fertilisers is a plausible indicator of environmental costs. ...
Article
This paper addresses the need of finding new ways of measuring the environmental and economic consequences of farming. The aim of this study is to inquire into the impacts that excessive intensification has on productivity and environmental costs in the long term and additionally, to explore empirically the trend of these two indicators over time. The contribution of this paper is to perform an empirical study of the trends of productivity and environmental costs of farming in the long-term. To this end, this paper performs a panel data analysis of productivity and environmental costs on a farm accounting database across European regions over the 1989–2009 period. The models proposed take (i) farm output per hectare as indicator of productivity, and (ii) expenditures on energy, pesticides and fertilisers per hectare as proxy indicators of environmental costs. Results provide empirical evidence that the regions under study have a negative trend of productivity and a positive trend of environmental costs over the time frame mentioned. These results correlate negatively with both, economic and environmental sustainability of farms. Arguably, this is aggravated in the latter due to hidden environmental costs valued at zero in traditional accounting.
... A despeito da importância de tais produtos na prevenção e no controle de pragas agrícolas, eles têm sido motivo de preocupação em função da sua baixa especificidade, que os permite injuriar organismos não alvo (BHAT, 2012;PIMENTEL;BURGESS, 2012), como as próprias plantas em que são aplicados ou outras que não são o objetivo primário da pulverização ( BERNARDES et al., 2015;DIAS, 2012;SHAKIR et al., 2016). Nesse sentido, os agrotóxicos podem interferir nos processos de germinação e crescimento das plantas em virtude de diversos aspectos, tais como a ação sobre fatores fisiológicos delas, a toxicidade a organismos que a elas são benéficos e a interferência nos seus processos de absorção de nutrientes (PETIT et al., 2012;SHAKIR et al., 2016). ...
... A despeito da importância de tais produtos na prevenção e no controle de pragas agrícolas, eles têm sido motivo de preocupação em função da sua baixa especificidade, que os permite injuriar organismos não alvo (BHAT, 2012;PIMENTEL;BURGESS, 2012), como as próprias plantas em que são aplicados ou outras que não são o objetivo primário da pulverização ( BERNARDES et al., 2015;DIAS, 2012;SHAKIR et al., 2016). Nesse sentido, os agrotóxicos podem interferir nos processos de germinação e crescimento das plantas em virtude de diversos aspectos, tais como a ação sobre fatores fisiológicos delas, a toxicidade a organismos que a elas são benéficos e a interferência nos seus processos de absorção de nutrientes (PETIT et al., 2012;SHAKIR et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Considerando a necessidade de compreender os efeitos de agrotóxicos sobre organismos não alvo, os efeitos de dois agrotóxicos, comumente utilizados na cultura de tomate (Lycopersicon lycopersicum), foram analisados considerando a germinação e o crescimento de plantas como parâmetros de medida. Solo natural, seco e desfaunado foi inoculado com um substrato microbiano e contaminado com as doses recomendadas do inseticida (Ingrediente Ativo (IA) abamectina), do fungicida (IA difenoconazol) e a mistura de ambos. Após 0, 28, 56 e 84 dias da contaminação do solo, foram realizados testes de germinação e crescimento de plântulas, conforme adaptações dos protocolos OECD 208 e ISO 11269-2. Em cada teste, foram mensuradas a altura, a massa fresca e a massa seca das plântulas, além da biomassa microbiana de carbono do solo. Em todos os tratamentos, os parâmetros apresentaram um crescimento não evidenciando toxicidade para os organismos testados nas condições citadas.
... There are conventional large size analytical instruments such as gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) [6,9]. However, these suffer from some disadvantages like time consuming, expensive, large size, high maintenance cost and require trained technicians, which limit their field application [10]. ...
Article
We report on the sensing of a hazardous pesticide alphacypermethrin (ACM) using electrochemical technique through a nanocomposite film modified electrode. The nanocomposite film comprising of octadecylamine, chitosan, polyvinyl alcohol-silver nanowires and haemoglobin, shortly (OCPAH), was prepared by Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) film deposition technique on various substrates and electrodes. The composite LB film was characterised by UV-visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, which confirms the stable and multilayer film. The LB film modified electrode was used for sensing ACM pesticide by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and square wave voltammetry (SWV) techniques. The achieved sensing parameters such as limit of detection as 14 nM, 5 nM and 10 nM; linear range as 10–100 nM, 10–40 nM and 50–100 nM/10–100 nM; and sensitivity as 0.418 µA/nM/cm2, 0.259 µA/nM/cm2 and 0.271 µA/nM/cm2 for CV, DPV and SWV techniques, respectively. The reported sensor is found to have stability of 74% upto 20 cycles, the relative standard deviation (RSD) value for metal ion/organic interference species as 2% and for real samples are within 1.4% using CV technique. The reported nanocomposite-based ACM pesticide sensor will open up new options for research on LB film nanocomposite-based sensing of different organophosphorus groups of pesticides.
... Most studies using UAV have employed limited dataset collection and machine learning systems. Some research has reported that aerial applications result in only 50% of the targets being sprayed from altitudes of less than 1 m [10]. To the best of our knowledge, UAV-based sprayers were introduced to the market, and largely implemented in mountains and cropping areas, to enable spraying with precision. ...
Article
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Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based spraying systems have recently become important for the precision application of pesticides, using machine learning approaches. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop a machine learning system that has the advantages of high computational speed and good accuracy for recognizing spray and non-spray areas for UAV-based sprayers. A machine learning system was developed by using the mutual subspace method (MSM) for images collected from a UAV. Two target lands: agricultural croplands and orchard areas, were considered in building two classifiers for distinguishing spray and non-spray areas. The field experiments were conducted in target areas to train and test the system by using a commercial UAV (DJI Phantom 3 Pro) with an onboard 4K camera. The images were collected from low (5 m) and high (15 m) altitudes for croplands and orchards, respectively. The recognition system was divided into offline and online systems. In the offline recognition system, 74.4% accuracy was obtained for the classifiers in recognizing spray and non-spray areas for croplands. In the case of orchards, the average classifier recognition accuracy of spray and non-spray areas was 77%. On the other hand, the online recognition system performance had an average accuracy of 65.1% for croplands, and 75.1% for orchards. The computational time for the online recognition system was minimal, with an average of 0.0031 s for classifier recognition. The developed machine learning system had an average recognition accuracy of 70%, which can be implemented in an autonomous UAV spray system for recognizing spray and non-spray areas for real-time applications.
... Late attacks result in peduncle damage and plant breakage which also contributes the losses of grains and fodder. In this context, to check the yield loss due to stem borer (SB) infestation, application of chemical control, which is expensive, and leads to damage to environment particularly the target species (Pimentel and Burgess,2012) [31] . In addition, overuse of pesticides destroys natural enemies and leads to the insect developing resistance, which results in pest resurgence (Li et al. 2011) [23] . ...
Article
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Silicon confers stress either through physical barrier or by triggering the chemical resistance mechanism, but our understanding to silicon mediated plant resistance to pink stem borer through physiological and cytological mechanisms is underlying. Present investigation highlight silicon induced resistant against the pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker) in ragi plants. Si amendment to ragi plants much reduced the feeding ability of pink stem borer through modulation of leaf sheaths silicification. It also induces the chemical defense system by influencing the defense-related enzymes, syntheses of secondary metabolites, and concentrations of malondialdehyde, total phenol and soluble protein in a leaf sheath of infested susceptible (Suvra) and resistant (HR-379) ragi plants. Inclusion of silicon encouraged the increase of H2O2 concentration and suppressed the malondialdehyde concentration in both infested susceptible and resistant varieties. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activities were higher in both the varieties amended with silicon than in non-amended stem borer infested plants. Stem borer infestation activated synthases for secondary metabolites, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, β-1,3-glucanase and total phenol in silicon amended plants, but performance of polyphenol oxidase and soluble protein content was lower in Si-amended plants than in non-amended plants. The present study also indicates that Si amendment interacts with stem borer infestation to confer enhanced finger millet resistance to pink stem borer by priming the reduction in soluble protein content and cell silicification of leaf sheaths, and induction of plant defense responses.
... In 1985, Pimentel and Levitan reported that approximately 500 million kilograms of pesticides were applied to plants in the United States (U.S) each year, but only 0.1% of this reach its desired target to effectively eliminate pests (Pimentel and Levitan, 1986). Over 25 years later, in 2011, Pimentel and Burgess reinforced this statement, stating that 545 million kilograms of pesticides were applied to crops in the United States each year, and several applications show that <0.1% of these pesticides reach their target (Pimentel and Burgess, 2012). The use of pesticides including herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides is consistently increasing worldwide, but nowadays, we do not know exactly by how much. ...
Article
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The main challenges in drug delivery systems are to protect, transport and release biologically active compounds at the right time in a safe and reproducible manner, usually at a specific target site. In the past, drug nano-carriers have contributed to the development of precision medicine and to a lesser extent have focused on its inroads in agriculture. The concept of engineered nano-carriers may be a promising route to address confounding challenges in agriculture that could perhaps lead to an increase in crop production while reducing the environmental impact associated with crop protection and food production. The main objective of this review is to contrast the advantages and disadvantages of different types of nanoparticles and nano-carriers currently used in the biomedical field along with their fabrication methods to discuss the potential use of these technologies at a larger scale in agriculture. Here we explain what is the problem that nano-delivery systems intent to solve as a technological platform and describe the benefits this technology has brought to medicine. Also here we highlight the potential drawbacks that this technology may face during its translation to agricultural applications, based on the lessons learned so far from its use for biomedical purposes. We discuss not only the characteristics of an ideal nano-delivery system, but also the potential constraints regarding the fabrication including technical, environmental, and legal aspects. A key motivation is to evaluate the potential use of these systems in agriculture, especially in the area of plant breeding, growth promotion, disease control, and post-harvest quality control. Further, we highlight the importance of a rational design of nano-carriers and identify current research gaps to enable scale-up relevant to applications in the treatment of plant diseases, controlled release of fertilizers, and plant breeding.
... Zhang et al., 2015;Yu et al., 2019). Pesticides play a role in controlling pests and diseases, and the input of pesticide in China recently reached to 13.1 kg ha −1 in cropland (FAO, 2017), but 99.7% of pesticides remain as residues in the environment instead of acting on target pests (Pimentel and Burgess, 2012;Singh et al., 2015). These surplus fertilizers and pesticides affect the cropland N and P cycles (McDowell et al., 2006;Singh et al., 2015;Yu et al., 2019). ...
Article
As one of the important nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) pollution sources of waters, the paddy water N and P runoff losses are still poorly understood in the double rice cropping system under the interaction of chemical fertilizer and pesticide. In the subtropical hilly region of China, we conducted a 1.5-year continuous and high-frequency monitoring of paddy water N and P concentrations, runoff N and P losses, and grain yield in a double rice-cropping system with different chemical fertilizer and pesticide application rates. The results showed that the high-risk periods for N loss were in the first 5 days after the base fertilizer (BF) application and the first 10 days after the topdressing fertilizer application in both early and late rice seasons, while the high-risk periods for P loss were in the first 5 days after BF application in the early rice season and the first 15 days after BF application in the late rice season. The N and P runoff losses in the early rice season were greater than those in the late rice season, due to that the N and P fertilizers use efficiencies were lower, and thus paddy water N and P concentrations were higher in the early rice season. The paddy N and P concentrations and N and P runoff losses increased significantly with increased fertilizer application rates, while the pesticide application rate did not significantly affect N and P losses. Therefore, special effects (e.g., avoiding high irrigation, fertilizer deep application) should be taken during the high-risk periods of N and P losses to reduce the N and P runoff losses in the double rice cropping system, especially in the early rice season. There are also potentials to reduce fertilizer and pesticide input without reducing rice grain yield for the double rice cropping system in the subtropical hilly region of China.
... Million cases of pesticide poisonings have been documented every year around the world. In the USA, the Environmental Protection Agency reports an estimated 300,000 human pesticide poisonings as a part of the cost of their application (Pimentel and Burgess 2012). Worldwide, the number of severe pesticide poisonings is much higher, as Richter (2002) reports 26 million human pesticide poisonings with 220,000 deaths occuring each year, the majority in developing countries. ...
Chapter
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Synthetic pesticides are indispensable in intensive agricultural productions. For decades these compounds served as backbone in insect pest management. Due to persistence and pervasiveness of millions of tonnes of synthetic chemical pesticides applied, almost every ecosystem has received a negative impact. In the present chapter an effort has been made to highlight the environmental contaminations caused by synthetic chemical pesticides, their adverse effects on human health and other non target organisms, the development of resistance in target insect pests, along with the degradation of synthetic pesticides.
... In the wine sector, environmental sustainability represents one of the critical points for the advancement of knowledge for the growing relevance of innovative and eco-sustainable practices [11]. more treatments than expected with pesticides that undermine human health [12] and the environment [13,14], leading to a loss in the economic performance. Moreover, an excessive use of water resources represents a critical issue for viticulture and even for wine production phases [15,16]. ...
Article
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Nowadays, the wine sector’s entrepreneurs are increasingly aware of the relevance of sustainability representing a crucial point for society, economy and the environment. This paper aims to describe Conegliano Valdobbiadene Prosecco DOCG (Controlled and Guaranteed Denomination of Origin) firms’ behaviour focusing on how strategic incorporation of environmentally sustainable practices and social actions contribute to strengthen their competitiveness and deliver shared value for the community. Using partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM), survey data from 128 sparkling wine firms are analysed. The results highlight the roles of carbon footprint and employment as drivers in the creation of shared values (SVs), considering the major export markets of Prosecco Superiore DOCG. This empirical evidence may be of interest to firms in the wine sector when considering, in their business decisions, the added commercial value that is derived for the adoption of environmental practices and sustainable social actions. Hence, following this logic, they can manage more inclusive and virtuous paths towards positive social entrepreneurship and an environmental externality to the community.
... butachlor), etc. [1]. Pimentel reported that less than 0.1% of a herbicide reaches to the target, so a large amount of it releases in the environment resulting pollution of the soil, surface, and ground waters [2]. Degradation or decomposition of the herbicides by natural reagents can lead to produce various types of harmful intermediates such as aniline derivatives, phenolic compounds, aromatics, etc. ...
Article
Purpose: Degradation or decomposition of the chemical herbicides by natural reagents after using can lead to produce various types of harmful intermediates. Ultrafiltration by the mixed matrix membranes blended with the graphene oxide/TiO2 can remove the residual herbicides from aqueous solution. Methods: Graphene oxide/TiO2x% (x = 10, 30, 50%) was prepared by solvothermal method and blended by polysulfone to prepare GO/TiO2/PSf membranes for dynamic rejection of aqueous solutions of glyphosate, 2,4-D, butachlor, and trifluralin in a dead-end flow system. The blended membranes were also applied for the adsorption of herbicides in batch experiments. Results: Addition of GO/TiO2 nanocomposite increased water flux from 7.3 for pure membrane to 211-326 kg/m2 h for mixed matrix samples in order to increase of the membrane porosity and surface hydrophilicity. The herbicides rejections were found in the range of 50-70% related to GO/TiO2 content. It was found that the membrane blended with 0.5 wt.% of GO/TiO2(10%) demonstrated the most efficiency. Conclusions: Details of dynamic filtration showed that the blended membrane acted based on the size exclusion mechanism. Adsorption experiments indicated that the strong attractions between H-bond donor sites of the herbicide and GO/TiO2 nanoparticles in membranes played a key role in the increase of adsorption of herbicides on the membrane.
... However, despite the investment in pesticides, pests are calculated to destroy 50% of treated crops worldwide [19]. Yet, at the same time, millions of humans suffer the effects of pesticide poisonings each year [20]. The overuse of chemical pesticides, combined with monocropping, is also the cause of the loss of biodiversity [21], while the overuse of fertilisers is one of the main causes of water pollutant runoff and leaching [22]. ...
Article
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We perform an empirical analysis on the benefits of, and the challenges faced by, sustainability accounting in measuring the effects of climate change for a sample of Spanish rice farms. We use farm yields, revenues and incomes as indicators of economic performance, and greenhouse gas emissions, and direct and indirect energy consumption as indicators of climate change effects. According to our data, farms with higher yields, revenues and income are responsible for a greater environmental impact, measured in total gigajoules of energy consumed and tons of carbon dioxide emitted, than farms with a lower economic performance. Results show that in our sample the achievement of higher yields is attributable to the greater use of chemical inputs and fossil fuels and not to innovative and sustainable farming practices. The results indicate that accounting for climate change effects is not only possible but also necessary to provide more accurate information on the overall costs and benefits of farming. Greater transparency in accounting information should serve to highlight which farming activities are better able to reduce climate change impacts.
... The detected concentrations indicate that chlorpyrifos is mostly applied for treatment of crops in the agriculture activities near the canal. However, the application of pesticides treatment by aerial spraying which spreads the residues of the pesticides via air, leaching and runoffs after heavy rains was reported to result in supporting and increasing the presence of pesticides residues in the aquatic environment (Leistra et al., 2010;Pimentel et al., 2012). The effect of these residues in the environment can be even higher due to the presence of the contaminants caused by other resources which all have been detected in Egypt in several aquatic ecosystems; like pharmaceuticals and animal waste (Afifi, R. et al, 2016;Elnwishy and Sedky, 2016;Elnwishy et al, 2012), and organochlorine and organophosphorus Group Observation in 24 hours G1 ...
Article
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Monitoring of organophosphorus and heavy metals was carried out in Abd El-Aal Canal, Kerdasa agricultural area, Cairo governorate to investigate the level of pollution with these contaminants in the aquatic ecosystems feeding farms. Samples were collected from Abd El-Aal Canal and analyzed by ICP-AES to detect cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, lead and zinc, and analyzed by GC to detect organophosphorus pesticides. Results revealed that the highest detected concentrations of manganese were (0.108 ±0.008 mg/L) and lead (0.18 ±0.002 mg/L) both were found exceeding the standard accepted limits. Only chlorpyrifos insecticide was detected in tested samples, and it was above the standard limits as well. As a result, the increased levels of chlorpyrifos, manganese and lead in Abd El-Aal Canal may cause stress to the aquatic ecosystem. The high level of detected contamination indicates potential danger on aquatic animals, farm animals, agricultural crops, and eventually human health. simple and economical methodology to remove pollutants from aquatic systems is recommended.
... Three thousand Thirty five types of pesticides by trade name, one hundred and one seventy types of pesticides by common name have been registered in December, 2018under Pesticides Act 1991and Rules 1993(PQPMC, 2018. But less than 0.1% of pesticides applied for pest control reach their target pests (Pimentel & Burgess 2012). Thus, more than 99.9% of pesticides used move into the environment where they adversely affect soil biota, water and atmosphere of ecosystems. ...
... For example, a 33-fold increase in pesticide use in the United States since the 1940s, crop lost due to pest have not changed significantly (Raven et al., 2008). Only a small amount of the applied pesticide actually reaches the intended target organism and the vast majority ends up elsewhere in the environ-ment (Pimentel, 2005;Pimentel and Burgess, 2012). Less than one percent of pesticides applied to the agriculture reach their target pests, and more than 99% *Corresponding author. ...
... Since most pesticides are fat-soluble and cannot be eliminated from the biological systems easily, they become more concentrated in higher levels of the food chain [9]. Thus, many of the commonly used pesticides remain in the body for a long time [10]. ...
... Główną metodą aplikacji fungicydów jest oprysk [8]. Jak się szacuje, mniej niż 0,1% stosowanego pestycydu osiąga swój cel, co sprawia, że większość aplikowanych pestycydów dostaje się bezpośrednio, bądź pośrednio wraz z deszczem do gleby [42,43]. Oddziałując z jej elementami, stanowią potencjalne zagrożenie dla organizmów niebędących celem ich działania [52]. ...
Article
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Modern agriculture depends heavily on pesticides, including fungicides. Fungicides such as triazoles, when applied every year, may accumulate in soils leading to the development of resistance to the applied compounds and subsequently to the spread of resistance genes to other fungi. Additionally, fungicides can impact non-target soil microorganisms by reducing their biomass, changing microbial activity, and altering functional and structural diversity of bacterial and fungal communities. Soil quality is closely linked to the microbial activity, therefore, the effects of fungicides on non-target soil microorganisms increase concerns about the fertility of soil. This new knowledge about specific interaction between fungicides and soil microorganisms has to be taken into consideration in designing a new strategy for soil protection.
... Unfortunately the application of PPP may cause pollution of surface-and groundwater, contamination of non-target organisms as well as human hazards. More than 80% of pesticide may be lost during spraying due to drift (up to 15%), rebound (up to 30%), run-off (up to 20%) and other processes (up to 15%) including evaporation or photolysis and thus can affect public health as well as contaminate water, soil and the atmosphere of an ecosystem (Pimentel, 1995;Knowles, 2001;Pimentel & Burgess, 2012). Therefore their safe and efficient use is a major social and economic issue which is more and more regulated by international environmental laws while they play an important role in agricultural marketing. ...
Thesis
In recent years, advances in plant protection have contributed considerably to increasing crop yields in a sustainable way. Easy to apply and rather inexpensive, pesticides have proven to be very efficient. However, when pesticides are applied to crops some of the spray may not reach the target, but move outside the intended spray area. This can cause serious economic and environmental problems. Most of the pesticides are applied using agricultural sprayers. These sprayers use hydraulic nozzles which break the liquid into droplets with a wide range of droplet sizes and velocities and determine the spray pattern. Small droplets are prone to wind drift, while large droplets can runoff from the target surface and deposit on the soil. Therefore, efforts are being undertaken to come to a more sustainable use of pesticides which is more and more regulated by international environmental laws. One of the main challenges is to reduce spray losses and maximize spray deposition and efficacy by improving the spray characteristics and the spray application process. Because mechanisms of droplets leaving a hydraulic spray nozzle are very complex and difficult to quantify or model, there is a need for accurate quantification techniques. The recent improvements in digital image processing, sensitivity of imaging systems and cost reduction have increased the interest in high-speed (HS) imaging techniques for agricultural applications in general and for pesticide applications in specific. This thesis focused on the development and application of high speed imaging techniques to measure micro (droplet size and velocity) and macro (spray angle and shape, liquid sheet length) spray characteristics.The general aim was to show that the spray characteristics from agricultural spray nozzles can be measured correctly with the developed imaging techniques in a non-intrusive way. After a review of the spray application process and techniques for spray characterization (Chapter 2), two image acquisition systems were developed in Chapter 3 based on single droplet experiments using a high speed camera and a piezoelectric droplet generator. 58 combinations of lenses, light sources, diffusers, and exposure times were tested using shadowgraph (background) imaging and evaluated based on image quality parameters (signal to noise rate, entropy ratio and contrast ratio), light stability and overexposure ratio and the accuracy of the droplet size measurement. These resulted into development of two image acquisition systems for measuring the macro and micro spray characteristics. The HS camera with a macro video zoom lens at a working distance of 143 mm with a larger field of view (FOV) of 88 mm x 110 mm in combination with a halogen spotlight and a diffuser was selected for measuring the macro spray characteristics (spray angle, spray shape and liquid sheet length). The optimal set-up for measuring micro spray characteristics (droplet size and velocity) consisted of a high speed camera with a 6 μs exposure time, a microscope lens at a working distance of 430 mm resulting in a FOV of 10.5 mm x 8.4 mm, and a xenon light source used as a backlight without diffuser. In Chapter 4 image analysis and processing algorithms were developed for measuring single droplet characteristics (size and velocity) and different approaches for image segmentation were presented. With the set-up for micro spray characterization and using these dedicated image analysis algorithms (Chapter 4), measurements using a single droplet generator in droplet on demand (DOD) and continuous mode were performed in Chapter 5. The effects of the operating parameters, including voltage pulse width and pulse amplitude with 4 nozzle orifice sizes (261 μm, 123 μm, 87 μm and 67 μm) on droplet diameter and droplet velocity have been characterized (...)
... It is known that the long-term indiscriminate use of pesticides has led to the accumulation of them and brought about serious problems in food and the environment. 12 In fact, less than 0.3% of the pesticides applied actually reach their targeted pests, 13 and thus about 99.7% of the remaining forms are harmful to non-target organisms and cause secondary pollution after degradation. There have been various efforts to reduce or eliminate the use of pesticides, but the degradation mechanisms possessing crucial significance in decreasing their side effects remain unclear and challengeable. ...
Article
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Single nanoparticle analysis (SNA) technique with the aid of a dark-field microscopic imaging (iDFM) technique has attracted wide attention owing to its high sensitivity. Considering that the degradation of pesticides can bring about serious problems in food and the environment, and that the real-time monitoring of the dynamic degradation process of pesticides can help understand and define their degradation mechanisms, herein we real-time monitored the decomposition dynamics of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (NaDDC) under neutral and alkaline conditions by imaging single silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under a dark-field microscope (DFM); the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) scattering signals were measured at a single nanoparticle level. As a result, the chemical mechanism of the degradation of NaDDC under neutral and alkaline conditions was proposed, and the inhibition effects of metal ions including Zn(ii) and Cu(ii) were investigated in order to understand the decomposition process in different environments. It was found that Cu(ii) forms the most stable complex with NaDDC with a stoichiometric ratio of 1 : 2, which greatly reduces the toxicity.
... Pesticides which are used by man to improve the quality and quantity of crops find their way in aquatic environments via aerial drifts during spraying, leaching and as runoffs after heavy rains. In fact literature shows that of the pesticides applied by farmers only 50% gets to the target organisms [16] and the rest end up on nontarget organisms where they usually cause deleterious effects on these organisms. Literature reports show that metals and pesticides induce oxidative stress in cells of living organisms and this result from an imbalance between the generation and elimination of reactive oxygen species [17]. ...
Article
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Aquatic reservoirs remain the ultimate sink of chemical pollutants emanating from anthropogenic activities such as agriculture, mining and industry. Freshwater biota undoubtedly is at risk from the adverse effects of these water pollutants and there is therefore, a need to monitor effects of these chemical pollutants in order to safeguard the health of aquatic biota. We investigated the oxidative stress effects of chlorpyrifos and lead on the freshwater snail Helisoma duryi to assess the potential of using this enzyme system as a biondicator of exposure to environmental pollutants. Groups of snails were exposed to 5 ppb lead acetate and 25 ppb chlorpyrifos for 7 days after which half of the snails were sacrificed and the other half were allowed to recover in clean water and sacrificed after another 7 days. Post mitochondrial fractions were used to measure the activities of the following antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and diphosphotriphosphodiaphorase. Both pollutants enhanced the activities of all the antioxidant enzymes suggesting a defensive mechanism by the snail to combat the oxidative stress due to the organophosphate chlopryrifos and metal pollutant lead. There was a significant recovery of the antioxidant defense system of the snails allowed to recover in clean water shown by the reduced alteration of the antioxidant enzyme activities of the snails allowed to recover for 7 days. This suggests the need to minimize exposure of aquatic biota to chemical pollutants and remediate the polluted water reservoirs in order to safeguard the health of aquatic life.
... The indiscriminate use of pesticides has resulted in their accumulation in the environment. Less than 0.3% of all the pesticides affect their targeted pests, and the remaining 99.7% accumulates in the environment [1], which is hazardous not only to the environment but also to non-target organisms. The main route of pesticide removal from the soil is through the soil microbial community, which performs oxidation, reduction, conjugation and hydrolysis [2,3], thereby making major contributions to the soil's fertility. ...
Article
With increasing application of pesticides in agriculture, their non-target effects on soil microbial communities are critical to soil health maintenance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and a biological pesticide (azadirachtin) on growth parameters and the rhizospheric bacterial community of Vigna radiata. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and q-PCR, respectively, of the 16S rRNA gene and transcript were performed to study the impact of these pesticides on the resident and active rhizospheric bacterial community. While plant parameters were not affected significantly by the pesticides, a shift in the bacterial community structure was observed with an adverse effect on the abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts. Chlorpyrifos showed almost complete degradation toward the end of the experiment. These non-target impacts on soil ecosystems and the fact that the effects of the biopesticide mimic those of chemical pesticides raise serious concerns regarding their application in agriculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... The effect that chlorpyrifos has on the nervous system of organisms makes it one of the the world's leading pesticides [12]. Studies have shown that less than 5% of the sprayed pesticide reaches the target [13,14], and the rest remains in the environment. Researchers around the world have detected chlorpyrifos in different ecosystems [15][16][17][18], which is why the pesticide's degradation pathway needs to be studied. ...
Article
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For many decades, organohalide and organophosphate compounds have shown significant detrimental impact on the environment. Consequently, strategies for their remediation continue to be an area of emerging need. The reduction of the chlorpyrifos pesticide, a molecule that bears both organohalide and organophosphate functional groups, is an important area of investigation due to it toxic nature. In this report, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the biological molecule, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) toward chemically reducing chlorpyrifos. The FMN was found to be highly active when anchored to nanocrystalline TiO 2 surfaces. The results show new directions toward the remediation of organic contaminants under mild reaction conditions.
... Unfortunately the application of PPP may cause pollution of surface-and groundwater, contamination of non-target organisms as well as human hazards. More than 80% of pesticide may be lost during spraying due to drift (up to 15%), rebound (up to 30%), run-off (up to 20%) and other processes (up to 15%) including evaporation or photolysis and thus can affect public health as well as contaminate water, soil and the atmosphere of an ecosystem (Pimentel, 1995;Knowles, 2001;Pimentel & Burgess, 2012). Therefore their safe and efficient use is a major social and economic issue which is more and more regulated by international environmental laws while they play an important role in agricultural marketing. ...
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Spray characteristics play an important role in the application accuracy and efficiency of plant protection products. In this study, the spray angles, liquid sheet lengths and spray shapes of five hydraulic spray nozzles (Albuz ATR orange, Albuz ATR red, TeeJet XR 110 01, TeeJet XR 110 04 and TeeJet AI 110 04) were measured using a developed high speed imaging system. Results were compared with the results of existing measuring techniques using a flow rate test bench, a horizontal patternator and a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) laser.
... Three thousand Thirty five types of pesticides by trade name, one hundred and one seventy types of pesticides by common name have been registered in December, 2018under Pesticides Act 1991and Rules 1993(PQPMC, 2018. But less than 0.1% of pesticides applied for pest control reach their target pests (Pimentel & Burgess 2012). Thus, more than 99.9% of pesticides used move into the environment where they adversely affect soil biota, water and atmosphere of ecosystems. ...
Article
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Pesticide is one of the major inputs for commercial vegetable farming in Nepal. The study examined pesticides use pattern and farmers' knowledge, perception, awareness about pesticides and the handling practices. The study is based on survey data consisting of 150 samples collected randomly from Parsa district of Nepal. The results show that 54.7% of the cucumber farmers used pesticides as control measure of insect and fungus in Parsa district. Out of which insecticides was found to be applied more i.e.68% followed by the fungicides i.e. 22.33% of total application volume sprayed. Regarding toxicity level farmers were found to use Moderately Hazardous Pesticides (II). The research identified that farmers do 2 times spray as mandatory frequency of application however, nearly half of farmers were found to spray pesticide four to five times. Regarding their knowledge 53% of farmers found to read label on pesticide bottle/packages. More than half (57%) of the farmers has found to receive Integrated Pest Management (IPM) training but only 7% practiced alternative pest control measures. Regarding the disposal only 6% found to bury the empty bottles, packages after use and others throw the containers anywhere. The results show that, in Nepal, pesticide was mostly applied for the vegetable farming. If area under vegetable farming increases by 1% the probability of the pesticide application by household is increased by the 22%. Highlights m Study revealed that 54.7% of the respondents used pesticides. m Insecticides were dominant pesticides in use by volume. m Mostly respondents used Moderately Hazardous Pesticides (II). m Increase in area under cultivation by 1% increased pesticide application by 22%.
... Drift is a concern for adjacent areas considering that nontarget deposition has been detectable up to 100 ft in orchards and vineyards when applied with air-blast sprayers (Grella et al., 2017). Reducing nontarget deposition is critical because aerial drift, ground spray, and runoff can contaminate surface and groundwater and have toxic effects on nontarget species (Grella et al., 2017;Kasner et al., 2020;Pimentel and Burgess, 2012;Toccalino et al., 2014). Spray applications to sparse canopies increase drift and nontarget ground deposition, which can lead to deleterious human and environmental health effects (Kasner et al., 2018;Kim et al., 2017) and economic waste in terms of pesticide costs (Chen et al., 2013b;Manandhar et al., 2020). ...
Article
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To optimize pesticide applications to the canopies of deciduous perennial crops, spray volume should be adjusted throughout the year to match the changes in canopy volume and density. Machine-vision, computer-controlled, variable-rate sprayers are now commercially available and claim to provide adequate coverage with decreased spray volumes compared with constant-rate sprayers. However, there is little research comparing variable- and constant-rate spray applications as crop characteristics change throughout a growing season. This study evaluated spray volume, spray quality (e.g., coverage and deposit density), and off-target spray losses of variable- and constant-rate sprayers across multiple phenophases in an apple ( Malus domestica ) orchard and a grape ( Vitis vinifera ) vineyard. The variable-rate sprayer mode applied 67% to 74% less volume in the orchard and 61% to 80% less volume in the vineyard. Spray coverage (percent), measured by water-sensitive cards (WSC), was consistently greater in the constant-rate mode compared with the variable-rate mode, but in many cases, excessive coverage (i.e., over-spray) was recorded. The variable-rate sprayer reduced off-target losses, measured by WSC coverage, up to 40% in the orchard and up to 33% in the vineyard. Spray application deposit densities (droplets per square centimeter) on target canopies were typically greater in variable-rate mode. However, the deposit densities were confounded in over-spray conditions because droplets coalesced on the WSC resulting in artificially low values (i.e., few, very large droplets). Spray efficiencies were most improved early in the growing season, when canopy density was lowest, demonstrating the importance of tailoring spray volume to plant canopy characteristics.
... It can alter the nature of the soil microorganisms, which are accountable for soil health, plant growth, and the proper maintenance of the ecosystem. The interference of the chemical pesticides in the soil deteriorated soil fertility by spoiling the microflora and microfauna (Pimentel and Burgess 2012). Fungicide is harmful to the fungi present in the soil and to the actinomycetes by altering the structure of the microbial community. ...
Chapter
Industrialization, urbanization, and mining activities are the primary sources of soil contamination. Human-made and rare natural activities are disseminating potentially toxic elements and organic pollutants in the environment. Restoration of ecology also blends several related disciplines, including hydrology, geomorphology, and oceanography. The primary role of the restoration of ecology is to conserve or improve the soil ecosystem services and implement efficient environment-friendly techniques for the characterization of pollutants, risk assessment in problematic zones, and reclamation of polluted agricultural sites. Physical and chemical methods are widely in practice to restore the contaminated agricultural soil efficiently. There are also eco-friendly better techniques that comprehend the mobilization and immobilization of enzymes/microbes to reawaken the polluted soil. Restoration of agricultural soil is an important concept needed in the present and future to make the upcoming generation healthier and make the ecosystem stable.
... It can alter the nature of the soil microorganisms, which are accountable for soil health, plant growth, and the proper maintenance of the ecosystem. The interference of the chemical pesticides in the soil deteriorated soil fertility by spoiling the microflora and microfauna (Pimentel and Burgess 2012). Fungicide is harmful to the fungi present in the soil and to the actinomycetes by altering the structure of the microbial community. ...
Chapter
Increased industrial growth in the world serves a significant role in the water contamination with heavy metals. Heavy metals such as arsenic, copper, lead, chromium, mercury, nickel, and cadmium impart several health hazards to humans, plants, and animals. Moreover their accumulation potential disturbs the food chain. Freshwater demand is higher in the world which may lead to a severe water crisis in the upcoming years. Hence feasible water treatment technologies must be identified and its efficiency must be concentrated. Heavy metals bear the risk of biodegradation and transformation. Hence adsorption is found to be an attractive method nowadays for sequestration of such metals. It is an economically feasible and eco-friendly method. Biochar is advantageous over other adsorbents such as activated carbon, graphene, silica, etc. It is the product of a thermochemical process which possesses better adsorption capacity. It reduces the production time and in addition provides fuel. Different pyrolysis conditions influence the quantity and yield of char. The degree of biochar adsorption is mainly focused on the type of biomass used, metal species concentrated, functional groups, and surface area of the biochar. Regeneration of biomass is also an important phenomenon to be considered as the adsorbed biochar may cause secondary pollution if not disposed in a proper manner. In order to improve the surface properties, physical structure, and regeneration capacity of biochar, various modification technologies have been adopted. It will also pave way for the effective utilization of waste biomaterials in wastewater treatment. The modification may be carried out before pyrolysis or after pyrolysis. It is categorized under physical, chemical, magnetic, and mineral impregnation methods. This review focuses on the mechanism and improvements of the treated biochar in comparison to the pristine biochar for heavy metal sequestration.
... It has been estimated that more than 10 000 species of different insects, 30 000 weed species, and 100 000 diseases (caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, etc.) damage crops worldwide (Dhaliwal et al., 2015). Contrary to the huge amounts of pesticides applied to crops, only a very small portion could reach target pests (Pimentel and Burgess, 2012). Because of their excessive utilization, OPPs are released into the natural environment and are thus detected frequently in soil, sediments, and water (Zhu et al., 2017). ...
Article
Pesticides are an integral part in maintaining agriculture and horticultural productivity and play a vital role in meeting the increasing food, fiber, and fuel needs of the growing population. Globally, organophosphate pesticides (OPPs) are among the most common pesticides used due to their high proficiency and relatively low persistence in the environment. However, recent studies have reported problems due to pesticide use, e.g., phorate contamination of aquatic ecosystems (fresh and groundwater), sediments, fruits and vegetables, and forage crops. This review highlights many cases where phorate has been detected above its respective maximum residue limit values. Organophosphate pesticides, including phorate, have negative impacts on both the environment and human health. The ecological and public health concerns of recurrent pesticide utilization have encouraged the research related to environmental fate of pesticides. Bioremediation is an effective, eco-friendly, and financially viable approach for the decontamination and degradation of toxic OPPs from the environment, compared to the costly, unecological, and time-consuming physicochemical approaches, which lead to the generation of byproducts of higher toxicity. Researchers have recognized that a wide range of microbes, mainly bacteria, can degrade this extremely hazardous pesticide. Therefore, this review discusses the present pesticide scenarios, especially phorate contamination, its toxicity, biodegradation, and metabolic products via bacterial communities, both in India and globally. The latest and up-to-date literatures on the use, contamination, and bacterial application of phorate degradation are also summarized. This article offers national and international food safety organizations and public health authorities the ability to be involved in preventing the risks associated with the use of food and nutrition products contaminated with extremely toxic phorate pesticide. This article would also enable researchers to develop comprehensive and sustainable methods to effectively remediate pesticide-contaminated environments. In conclusion, it is envisaged that the successful application of bacterial communities for degradation of phorate would help in understanding the fate and persistence of such toxic pollutants in a better way.
... Unlike other pollutants, pesticides are deliberately applied to the environment to utilise their toxic properties to control pests and vectors of diseases. Less than 0.1% of applied pesticides reach their target pests, whereas the remaining 99.9% move into different environmental media to pose severe threats to the environment (Pimentel and Burgess 2012). Pesticides can drift in the air, persist in soil, water, and vegetation, and are toxic to a host of non-target organisms, including birds, fish, beneficial insects, and plants. ...
Article
The acute toxicity of the pesticides atrazine, mancozeb, chlorpyrifos and lambda-cyhalothrin, acting singly and jointly, was assessed on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings. Median lethal concentration (LC50), median lethal time (LT50), and mixture interaction were estimated, whereas survival analysis was used to model time-to-death. The most toxic single and joint mixture was lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorpyrifos-lambda cyhalothrin, respectively. The risk of death (RoD) of fingerlings exposed to 9.22 mg l⁻¹ atrazine-mancozeb mixture was 1.76 times higher than fingerlings exposed to 9.0 mg l⁻¹ atrazine (p > 0.05). However, RoD of fingerlings exposed to 9.95 mg l⁻¹ atrazine-chlorpyrifos was 5.59 times higher than fingerlings exposed to 9.0 mg l⁻¹ atrazine (p > 0.05). The risk of death of fingerlings exposed to 20.8 mg l⁻¹ atrazine-lambda cyhalothrin was 2.81 times higher than 21.0 mg l⁻¹ atrazine. The toxicity of 2.3 mg l⁻¹ mancozeb-chlorpyrifos was 254.25 higher than 2.2 mg l⁻¹ mancozeb (p < 0.01). Fingerlings exposed to 4.33 mg l⁻¹ mancozeb-lambda cyhalothrin and 0.177 mg l⁻¹ chlorpyrifos-lambda cyhalothrin mixture were 0.02 and 0.14 times less likely to die than those exposed to 4.8 mg l⁻¹ mancozeb and 0.17 mg l⁻¹ chlorpyrifos, respectively (p < 0.01). Atrazine-mancozeb, atrazine-chlorpyrifos, atrazine-lambda cyhalothrin, and mancozeb-chlorpyrifos interaction were synergistic, and their relative risk was >1. Both mancozeb-lambda cyhalothrin and lambda-cyhalothrin-chlorpyrifos mixtures were antagonistic, and their relative risk was less than 1. Survival analysis can show interaction in complex pesticide mixtures.
... It was observed that pesticides near the target organism, affect a large number of the nontarget organisms. These effects are not limited only to the death of the nontarget organisms, but are also linked to changes in organism fitness (reproduction, survival and longevity) [10][11][12][13][14][15][16]. Environmental pollutants can affect behavior and life history parameters including growth and reproductive functions of nontarget organisms. ...
Article
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Pesticides can induce changes in behavior and reduce the survival chance of aquatic organisms. In this study, the toxic effects of glyphosate suspension (Glyphosate Aria 41% SL, Tehran Iran) on behavior and tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were assessed. For this purpose, a 96 h LC50 of glyphosate suspension (68.788 mL•L −1) was used in the toxicity test. All individuals were divided into control and treatment groups with four replicates. Exposure operations were performed under two conditions: increasing concentration of suspension from 0 to 68.788 mL•L −1 ; then, decreasing to the first level. The swimming pattern was recorded by digital cameras during the test and tissue samples were collected at the end of the test. There were significant differences between the swimming pattern of treated individuals and control ones during both steps. The sub-lethal concentration of glyphosate led to hypertrophy, hyperplasia and hyperemia in the gill of fish. However, changes were obvious only after sampling. The exposed fish also displayed clinical signs such as darkening of the skin and increasing movement of the operculum. Moreover, glyphosate suspension affected swimming patterns of fish suggest that the swimming behavior test can indicate the potential toxicity of environmental pollutants and be used as a noninvasive, useful method for managing environmental changes and assessing fish health conditions by video monitoring.
... Wine has traditionally been considered a "green" product [12] that respects the environment [13,14], leading to the wine sector paying scant attention to environmental problems [14,15]. However, non-organic wine production, which requires the use of fertilisers, water, pesticides and energy, among others, has a negative impact on the environment [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]. From a broader perspective, the agri-food sector (which includes wine) has an evident effect on the environment, as agriculture exploits about 38% of Earth's terrestrial surface, consumes 70% of the water dedicated to human use and is responsible for about 29% of total greenhouse gas emissions [26,27]. ...
Article
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Spain is one of the leading wine-producing and -exporting countries and has traditionally been dominant in trade and world production in the sector. In an increasingly changing context, in which worldwide wine exports are growing exponentially, it is essential to study their impact on climate change as the transport of goods generates a significant volume of greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this work, then, was to analyse the variation in the carbon footprint generated by Spanish wine exports between 2011 and 2016. To this end, a multi-regional input–output (MRIO) model was used, showing that the emissions associated with wine operations have increased less than exports, which might suggest that sustainable growth has been included as a goal in the wine supply chain. The methodology used has the advantage of allowing the calculation of direct and indirect emissions. At the same time, the results can provide relevant information to practitioners and policy�makers due to the expected evolution of European environmental regulations and trades, in terms of carbon footprint. Keywords: international trade; wine; carbon footprint; multi-regional input–output mode
... Pesticides use has increased over the past decades [167]. Of what is applied to soil, only a small portion of the pesticide reaches the target organism [168] and the remainder royalsocietypublishing.org/journal/rstb Phil. Trans. ...
Article
Soil and soil biodiversity play critical roles in Nature's Contributions to People (NCP) # 10, defined as Nature's ability to regulate direct detrimental effects on humans, and on human-important plants and animals, through the control or regulation of particular organisms considered to be harmful. We provide an overview of pathogens in soil, focusing on human and crop pathogens, and discuss general strategies, and examples, of how soils' extraordinarily diverse microbial communities regulate soil-borne pathogens. We review the ecological principles underpinning the regulation of soil pathogens, as well as relationships between pathogen suppression and soil health. Mechanisms and specific examples are presented of how soil and soil biota are involved in regulating pathogens of humans and plants. We evaluate how specific agricultural management practices can either promote or interfere with soil's ability to regulate pathogens. Finally, we conclude with how integrating soil, plant, animal and human health through a ‘One Health’ framework could lead to more integrated, efficient and multifunctional strategies for regulating detrimental organisms and processes. This article is part of the theme issue ‘The role of soils in delivering Nature's Contributions to People’.
... Each year in response to these threats, ∼500 million kilograms of pesticides are applied to plants in the United States. Studies show that only 0.1% of this reaches the desired target to eliminate pests (Pimentel and Levitan, 1986;Pimentel and Burgess, 2012), and the total pesticide expenditures in the US for agriculture showed a 5-fold increase (adjusted for inflation) between 1960 and 2008, at a cost of $12 billion USD (Fernandez Cornejo et al., 2014). ...
Article
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We report on the development, evaluation, and efficient delivery of antisense oligonucleotide FANA (2′-deoxy-2′-fluoro-arabinonucleotide) RNA-targeting technology into citrus trees and potato plants for management of bacterial pathogens and arthropod pests. The FANA ASO technology is a single nucleotide strand of 20–24 nt in length that incorporates 2′F- chemically modifications of nucleotides, along with a phosphorothioate backbone and modified flanking nucleotides, in their structure called “gapmers,” produced by AUM LifeTech., Inc. These unique modified structures of FANA “triggers” enables gymnotic activity that self-delivers into cells, moving systemically in treated plants and insects, with significant suppression of their RNA targets. Reported is the FANA suppression of two plant-infecting bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, CLas (in citrus trees), and C. Liberibacter solanacearum, CLso (in potato and tomato). The CLas pathogen is associated with huanglongbing (a.k.a. Citrus Greening Disease), which causes severe loss of citrus trees, threatening global citrus production. The CLas bacterium is transmitted during feeding by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). CLso causes Zebra-Chip disease in potato and is transmitted by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Infected citrus trees or potato plants were treated with aqueous FANA solutions applied as a soil drench, root-infusion, topical spray, tree trunk injection or by absorption into cuttings, detached leaves, and leaf disks. Plants showed significant reduction of each pathogen or symptom development in response to FANA treatments. Similarly, ingestion of FANA solutions designed specifically to CLas by insects via artificial diets produced significant titer reductions in infected citrus psyllid adults that resulted in reduction of CLas transmission. The unique properties of FANA ASO solves many of the problems of stability, cell entry, and binding affinity that plagues exogenous RNAi strategies. Breakthroughs in production methods are reducing costs enabling these ASO to expand beyond medical applications into agricultural treatments. Thus, FANA ASO may provide viable treatments in the response to crop pandemics, like huanglongbing in citrus that threatens global food production.
... Conventional agriculture is largely based on the use of agrochemicals, such as pesticides, which are used to protect plants from diseases and pests [3]. Despite the importance of such products in preventing and eliminating agricultural pests, they have been a reason for concern as they can affect nontarget organisms [39]. Once applied, pesticides can reach the terrestrial environment and become bioavailable for assimilation by soil organisms, such as microorganisms and enchytraeids [33], which are of great importance for several ecological services (e.g. ...
Article
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Besides being toxic to enchytraeids, pesticides may also affect microbial communities, which are the main diet of enchytraeids. This study aimed to analyze the individual and combined effects of the insecticide Kraft® 36 EC (abamectin) and the fungicide Score® 250 EC (difenoconazole) to soil microbial communities and Enchytraeus crypticus populations. The abamectin and difenoconazole effects to the microbial community metabolism, as revealed by qCO2 increase in the first two periods of exposure, might indicate an acute effect of pesticides, which might result in lowered microbial biomass once microorganisms spend more energy in detoxification processes than in microbial growth. E. crypticus juvenile production was not affected at the different conditions tested. However, the importance of microorganisms on the enchytraeids diet was ratified. Besides, it is important to emphasize that only one recommended dose of the pesticides was tested in this study. Hence, other situations (e.g. pesticides over application or a slower process of pesticides degradation) may result in a different scenario of effects and should be further investigated.
... Poor accuracy and spray losses may reduce the effectiveness of the application and increase environmental contamination and operator risk (Matthews, 2000). More than 80% of the pesticide may be lost during spraying due to drift (up to 15%), rebound (up to 30%), and run-off (up to 20%) and other processes (up to 15%) including evaporation or photolysis and thus can affect public health as well as contaminate water, soil and the atmosphere of an ecosystem (Knowles, 2001;Pimentel, 1995;Pimentel and Burgess, 2012). ...
... Although harmful for non-target organisms, their use has continuously increased over time in order to improve crop yield and cover use, the persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic organochlorine pesticides have already been banned for years in many countries and substituted by more polar and less persistent substances of relatively low toxicity [3]. However, due to their extended use, the new pesticides placed in the market are not completely innocuous for the environment, and may also produce undesired effects in non-target organisms, especially considering that a substantial amount of the applied chemical is not uptaken by the crop and hence remains in the different environmental compartments [4][5][6]. ...
Article
The massive use of pesticides represents one of the main causes of environmental deterioration, as they have adverse effects on non-target organisms. Thus, the development of technologies capable of reducing their release into the environment is urgently needed. This study reports for the first time the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor as an alternative towards the degradation of medium to highly polar pesticides such as the organophosphate malathion, and the neonicotinoids acetamiprid and imidacloprid. Specifically, T. versicolor could completely remove 1 mg/L of malathion in an Erlenmeyer flask within 48 h, while experiments of acetamiprid and imidacloprid (4 mg/L), conducted in air-pulse fluidized bioreactors, resulted in degradation percentages of 20% and 64.7%, respectively, after 7 days of operation. Enzymatic exploration studies revealed that the cytochrome P450 system, instead of the extracellular enzyme laccase, is involved in the degradation of acetamiprid and imidacloprid. The degradation pathways were proposed based on the main transformation products (TPs) formed in the solutions: seven in the case of malathion, and two and one in the case of imidacloprid and acetamiprid, respectively. Although the TPs identified were predicted to be less toxic than the investigated pesticides, the toxicity of the individual solutions slightly increased throughout the degradation process, according to the Microtox assay. However, the solution toxicity was always below the threshold established in the local regulation. Although additional research is needed to implement this treatment at a pilot plant scale, this work highlights the potential of T. versicolor to bio-remediate pesticide-contaminated waters.
... It is evident from the literature that extensive work has been carried out to perform spraying operations through UAVs, but the primary focus remained on the task of spraying instead of onboard recognition systems, which is of utmost importance in spot spraying applications. It is estimated that only 50% of targets are being sprayed through UAVs when the altitude is less than 1m [30], which makes it even more important for such devices that a system for accurate recognition is in place. Pengbo Gao et al [31] developed a recognition system for crops and orchards for UAVs using a Mutual Subspace Method (MSM). ...
Article
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Agricultural production is vital for the stability of the country’s economy. Controlling weed infestation through agrochemicals is necessary for increasing crop productivity. However, its excessive use has severe repercussions on the environment (damaging the ecosystem) and the human operators exposed to it. The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has been proposed by several authors in the literature for performing the desired spraying and is considered safer and more precise than the conventional methods. Therefore, the study’s objective was to develop an accurate real-time recognition system of spraying areas for UAVs, which is of utmost importance for UAV-based sprayers. A two-step target recognition system was developed by using deep learning for the images collected from a UAV. Agriculture cropland of coriander was considered for building a classifier for recognizing spraying areas. The developed deep learning system achieved an average F1 score of 0.955, while the classifier recognition average computation time was 3.68 ms. The developed deep learning system can be deployed in real-time to UAV-based sprayers for accurate spraying.
... Agricultural use of pesticides has greatly increased worldwide over the last several decades (Sabatier et al., 2014). However, the amount of pesticides that reaches pests, in general, is a very small proportion of the total amount of pesticides applied (Pimentel and Burgess, 2011). Thus, a large amount of pesticides accumulates in soil, affecting soil microorganisms (e.g., Wu et al., 2015). ...
Article
Agricultural use of pesticides has greatly increased worldwide over the last several decades, affecting soil microorganisms. Microbial basal respiration and substrate-induced respiration rates are commonly used to assess the detrimental effects of pesticides on soil quality. The goal of the present study was (1) to compare the impact of different pesticides on soil microbial respiration under field conditions, and (2) to characterize the recovery time of soil microbial respiration after pesticide application. The following pesticides were used in the present study: chlorpyrifos, phosalone, dimethoate (organophosphorus insecticides), λ-cyhalothrin (pyrethroid insecticide), and kresoxim-methyl (fungicide). The application of all the pesticides at commercial doses led to a decrease in soil microbial respiration. The inhibition of basal respiration and substrate-induced respiration rate decreased in the following order: chlorpyrifos > phosalone > dimethoate > λ-cyhalothrin ≈ kresoxim-methyl. Among all the pesticides assessed, chlorpyrifos showed the highest toxicity as well as the highest persistence. Several of the observed results differed greatly from previous studies; thus, local assessments are highly advisable. Given that environmental concerns can be a key decision factor for pesticide selection, assessment of different pesticides—such as undertaken in this study—could help farmers to choose the most appropriate pesticide.
... Regardless of management approach, fungicide overuse is undesirable because it can lead to the development of pest resistance (Hahn 2014), environmental pollution (Zubrod et al. 2019), human health issues and economic loss to growers (Pimentel and Burgess 2012). One way to combat this is to grow/develop plants that are naturally resistant. ...
Article
This review focuses on the considerable amount of research directed at defining microbial diversity in the vineyard and the subsequent contribution to uninoculated fermentations, with an emphasis on the effect of fungicide applications. From this research it is clear that there are many factors affecting diversity in the vineyard including: sprays, climate, location and grape‐derived parameters. With their increasing affordability, next generation sequencing methods to measure diversity in environmental samples are now being adopted for studies of the grapevine microbiome. We bring together the results of these studies, discuss how diversity is measured and consider the potential applications of current knowledge. An in‐depth analysis of how fungicides affect yeast diversity in the vineyard and the mode of action of different fungicide groups are also discussed. Finally, we report on alternative treatments to maintain vineyard health and reduce fungicide applications in the future.
... It is expected to find pesticides contamination in different environmental matrices, such as air (Meire et al. 2016;Tominaga et al. 2016;Silvério et al. 2017;de Guida et al. 2018;Nascimento et al. 2018a, b), soil (Rissato et al. 2006;Kemmerich et al. 2015;Nascimento et al. 2018c) and water (River et al. 2004;de Armas et al. 2007;Dores et al. 2008;Jacomini et al. 2011;Casara et al. 2012;Caldas et al. 2013;Montagner et al. 2014). In fact, according to Pimentel and Burgess (2012), less than 50% of the total amount applied by farmers gets to the target organism. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, a multi-residue method was used to analyze 13 pesticides and 1 degradation product in surface and groundwater in the region with the largest sugar cane production in the world. The potential effects of individual pesticides and their mixtures, for aquatic life and human consumption, were evaluated. For the surface water, 2-hydroxy atrazine, diuron, carbendazim, tebuthiuron, and hexazinone were the most frequently detected (100, 94, 93, 92, and 91%, respectively). Imidacloprid (2579 ng L⁻¹), carbendazim (1114 ng L⁻¹), ametryn (1101 ng L⁻¹), and tebuthiuron (1080 ng L⁻¹) were found at the highest concentrations. For groundwater, tebuthiuron was the only quantified pesticide (107 ng L⁻¹). Ametryn, atrazine, diuron, hexazinone, carbofuran, imidacloprid, malathion, carbendazim, and their mixtures presented risk for the aquatic life. No risk was observed for the pesticides analyzed in this work, alone or in their mixtures for human consumption.
Article
The large-scale application of volatile and highly water-soluble pesticides to guarantee crop production can often have negative impacts on the environment. The main loss pathways are vapor drift, direct volatilization, or leaching of the active substances. Consequently, the pesticide can either accumulate and/or undergo physicochemical transformations in the soil. In this scenario, we synthesized alginate nanoparticles using an inverse miniemulsion template in sunflower oil and successfully used them to encapsulate a hydrophilic herbicide, i.e., dicamba. The formulation and process conditions were adjusted to obtain a unimodal size distribution of nanohydrogels of about 20 nm. The loading of the nanoparticles with dicamba did not affect the nanohydrogel size nor the particle stability. The release of dicamba from the nanohydrogels was also tested: the alginate nanoparticles promoted the sustained and prolonged release of dicamba over ten days, demonstrating the potential of our preparation method to be employed for field application. The encapsulation of hydrophilic compounds inside our alginate nanoparticles could enable a more efficient use of pesticides, minimizing losses and thus environmental spreading. The use of biocompatible materials (alginate, sunflower oil) also guarantees the absence of toxic additives in the formulation.
Article
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This article talks about the fundamentals of liposomes and niosomes that include preparation, characterization, current status and future scope of encapsulated liposomes and niosomes vesicular system for pesticides delivery. Vesicular frame-works are novel means of controlled or sustained release of active principles to enhance the bio-efficacy and get a controlling effect over a sustained period. Liposomes and niosomes are vesicular nano-structures that can encapsulate different sorts of pesticide molecules in delay release approach to a targeted place that increase the harvest yields and improve the harvest quality. It can be frozen or lyophilized to produce an efficient storable pesticide formulation that is less detrimental to the wider environment. Thus it resolve the current problem of synthetic pesticides associated with run-off, volatilization, microbial degradation, UV- degradation, or residue persistence, etc. are summarizes in this review.
Article
Rationale: Pesticides are a group of micropollutants that persist for a long time in the environment and pose threats to life. Much effort has been devoted to developing pre-concentration methods capable of producing samples suitable for the detection of pesticides. However, better methods are still required to detect tthese compounds when they are present in trace concentrations in soils. Method: Spray assisted fine droplet formation-based liquid phase microextraction was used to prepare soil samples containing three different pesticides, fenpiclonil, nitrofen and fenoxaprop-ethyl, for subsequent analysis by GC/MS. A spraying apparatus was used for the dispersion of the extraction solvent into the sample/standard solution to improve the extraction efficiency. Optimization studies were performed to lower the detection limits of these analytes and the results obtained by the application of the newly developed system were compared with those obtained using the converntional GC/MS method. Results: A calibration curve over the range 5.0-100 μg L-1 was obtained under the optimal conditions. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.56-1.80 μg L-1 and 5.21-5.98 μg L-1 , respectively. The enhancements in detection ability over the conventional method for the three tested pesticides were 188.01, 176.96 and 517.14 for fenpiclonil, nitrofen and fenoxaprop-ethyl, respectively Recovery studies performed in soil samples were satisfactory reflecting accurate applicability of the developed method. Conclusion: The developed microextraction method is a time saving and simple version of the traditional dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method that also reduces the use of dispersive solvents.
Conference Paper
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O objetivo deste trabalho é discutir que atualmente muitas das práticas agrícolas para a produção de alimentos são insustentáveis socialmente e ambientalmente, com consequências nefastas sobre a manutenção da biodiversidade, e o bem-estar humano. A agricultura também tem responsabilidade sobre a atual mudança climática e, além disso, é uma das atividades mais afetadas por essas mudanças, colocando em risco a segurança alimentar em muitas regiões, o que necessariamente demandará novas formas de produção de alimentos e de manejo dos serviços ecossistêmicos. As reflexões apresentadas fazem parte das teses de doutorado dos autores quem analisam, por separado, a relação entre agricultura e mudanças ambientais no Brasil e na Colômbia. São analisados os resultados de estudos de casos de estratégias que consorciam a produção de cultivos agrícolas com a silvicultura como forma de explorar as sinergias socioeconômicas e ambientais e como configuração alternativa para
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Nano-based delivery technology with its improved use has entered into the food production chain. In agriculture, massive production of nano-carriers is required, which imposes economical boundaries limiting the production costs and potential revenues for producers. Long-term environmental risks and economic viability should be taken into consideration besides the fate of nano-encapsulation materials, and their physicochemical and biological performance. By 2050, the world's population will reach 9.7 billion challenging the food production chain at various levels such as social, economic as well as environmental. The scientific community and governmental bodies are looking for novel and new strategies to bring the quality and quantity of food supply sustainable to essentially meet the demands of a rapidly growing population.
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The complications associated with excessive use of synthetic pesticides are well known. Synthetic pesticides are lethal to a host of living organisms, be it insect, weed, rodent, etc. At the same time, they are also accountable for degrading soil quality. The adverse impact of pesticides on non-target organisms is quite noticeable because it disrupts the entire natural ecosystems, particularly soil and aquatic ecosystems. Because of this, the application of several pesticides has been banned. Most of the pesticides like organochlorine are significantly resistant to biodegradation, and therefore, they have high risk of entering into the food chain, thus causing adverse impact on non-target species like pollinator insects, birds, fishes, beneficial microorganisms, etc. In this chapter, the emphasis has been laid upon the impacts of synthetic pesticides on the health of soil as well as non-targeted flora and fauna.
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Insecticides have saved millions of human and animal lives since the date of their synthesis and use. They have played an important role that brought revolution in the field of agriculture and human health on control of insect pests of crops and vector-borne diseases. More than 80,000 chemical substances are now commercially available in agriculture and industry. About 4.6 million t of pesticides are applied into the environment and insecticides accounted for the largest portion of total use in the world to increase the productivity of food and fibre as well as to prevent the incidence of vector-borne diseases.
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A importância econômica das espécies da família Annonaceae no México é diversificada e inclui espécies com propriedades: aromáticas para a extração de óleos essenciais, medicinais, inseticidas e tóxicas para os peixes. Em geral, esta família não tem sido formalizada quer agronômica ou economicamente, no entanto, tem grandes perspectivas em programas de melhoramento genético, em uso como porta-enxertos ou como cultura alternativa. As principais pragas que estão associadas com o gênero Annona são: Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead, Cerconota anonella Sepp, Corythuca gossypii Fab., Planococcus citri, Chrysobotris sp., Talponia batesi Heinrich., Acantocephala femorata Fab.. Os principais fungos reportados são: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz, Rhizopus stolonifer Ehr, Phyllosticta sp., Pestalotia sp., Macrophoma sp., Fusarium sp. e Phytophthora sp.. O primeiro é o principal fungo e tem grande importância no cultivo de graviola, uma vez que diminui o rendimento e a qualidade dos frutos. Em cherimóia e graviola existe pouca informação documental sobre pragas e doenças, e em outras espécies de Annona são nulas. Não houve avaliação dos prejuízos causados pragas e doenças nas anonáceas, resultando em completo desconhecimento sobre os danos causados pelo fator biótico.
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This chapter introduces to conventional agrochemicals that have played a remarkable role in modern agriculture. It starts by defining them as commercially produced, usually synthetic, chemical compounds used in farming and recalling their contribution to the increase in agricultural productivity since the middle of the 20th century. It then emphasizes fertilizers and pesticides as key types of conventional agrochemicals and presents their advantages and disadvantages, and benefits and risks connected with their use, including health and environmental problems. By the end of the chapter, future prospects for conventional agrochemicals are presented, as well as recommendations for minimizing hazards arising from their use.
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An efficient and sensitive analytical method for simultaneous determination of trace amounts of a new insecticide broflanilide and its metabolites (S(PFH‐OH)‐8007 and DM‐8007) residues in five typical Chinese soils (red soil, black soil, fluvo‐aquic soil, cinnamon soil and paddy soil) was developed. The samples were prepared by a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method. The determination of broflanilide and its metabolites was conducted by ultrahigh‐performance liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry with an electrospray ionization source in the positive ion mode. This is the first report for the determination of broflanilide and its metabolites in different soils. Broflanilide and its metabolites were extracted from all soils with acetonitrile and purified by a mixture of primary secondary amine and graphitized carbon black. The average recoveries of the three compounds in five types of soil ranged from 85.3 to 111.8% and the relative standard deviations were less than 13.6%. The limit of quantification was 0.1 μg kg⁻¹ for all three compounds. This method was successfully used to determine broflanilide and its metabolites in five types of soil. The method was validated to be simple and effective for the determination of trace residual broflanilide and its metabolites in five types of soil. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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Less than 0.1% of pesticides applied for pest control reach their target pests. Thus, more than 99.9% of pesticides used move into the environment where they adversely affect public health and beneficial biota, and contaminate soil, water, and the atmosphere of the ecosystem. Improved pesticide application technologies can improve pesticide use efficiency and protect public health and the environment.
Acute pesticide poisonings Boca Raton
  • E D Richter
Acute pesticide poisonings
  • E D Richter
  • ED Richter