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Studies on the effect of abattior and industrial effluents on the heavy metals and microbial quality of Aba river in Nigeria


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Levels of lead, iron, zinc, copper, arsenic, cobalt, chromium, manganese, mercury and cadmium, as well as the microbial profile were determined in water samples from Aba River. Physico-chemical examinations revealed that manganese (0.03 mg/l), zinc (4.81 mg/l) and copper (0.19 mg/l) were below the maximum allowable levels set by the United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA), while lead (0.064 mg/l), iron (0.81 mg/l), arsenic (0.1 mg/l) chromium (0.006 mg/l) and mercury (0.009 mg/l) were high but not significantly. The implication is that waste assimilation capacity of the river is high, a phenomenon attributable to dilution, sedimentation and depuration. Quantitative examinations of the microorganisms present revealed that as many as 2.05 x 10 8 viable bacterial (cfu/ml) were present. The predominant bacterial forms include Staphylococcus species, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, Bacillus and Clostridium species implying that the abattoir wastes discharged into the river may have had a significant impact on the river ecosystem.
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African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 4 (3), pp. 266-272, February 2005
Available online at
ISSN 1684–5315 © 2005 Academic Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Studies on the effect of abattior and industrial effluents
on the heavy metals and microbial quality of Aba river
in Nigeria
Department of Biological Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike P.M.B. 7267, Umuahia, Abia
state, Nigeria.
Accepted 13 September, 2004
Levels of lead, iron, zinc, copper, arsenic, cobalt, chromium, manganese, mercury and cadmium, as
well as the microbial profile were determined in water samples from Aba River. Physico-chemical
examinations revealed that manganese (0.03 mg/l), zinc (4.81 mg/l) and copper (0.19 mg/l) were below
the maximum allowable levels set by the United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA), while
lead (0.064 mg/l), iron (0.81 mg/l), arsenic (0.1 mg/l) chromium (0.006 mg/l) and mercury (0.009 mg/l)
were high but not significantly. The implication is that waste assimilation capacity of the river is high, a
phenomenon attributable to dilution, sedimentation and depuration. Quantitative examinations of the
microorganisms present revealed that as many as 2.05 x 10
viable bacterial (cfu/ml) were present. The
predominant bacterial forms include Staphylococcus species, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli,
Salmonella species, Bacillus and Clostridium species implying that the abattoir wastes discharged into
the river may have had a significant impact on the river ecosystem.
Key words: Waste assimilation, effluent, low level metals, pollution.
Aba River is an important economic river in Nigeria. Aba
town lies between latitude 50 03’N to 50 07’ and
longitude 70 17’E to 70 24’E in Abia State of Nigeria.
The river is used for various human activities including
car washing and fishing. People living within the
upstream vicinity draw water from the river for drinking.
The river originates from the northern Ngwa hinterland of
Aba and stretches down to Cross rivers state where it
empties with its creeks into the Atlantic Ocean. The river
receives wastes from the industries and abattoirs sited
along its course.
Effluent discharges into receiving waters and the
*Correspondingauthor. E-Mail:
cumulative hazardous effects on the environment have
received much attention due to rapid industrialization in
modern society. Industrial and abattoir wastes containing
high concentration of microbial nutrients would obviously
promote an after growth of significantly high Coliform
type and other microbial forms, both in the effluent and
the receiving waters (Ezeronye and Amogu, 1998).
Process water from cosmetic, detergent and textile
industries contain a lot of heavy metals, which when in
super-abundance causes a disruption in the ecological
balance. Moreover, allochthonous and autochthonous
influences could make concentration of heavy metals in
the water high enough to be of ecological significance.
Furthermore, bio-concentration and magnification could
lead to toxic levels of these metals in organisms, even
when the exposure level is low.
Ezeronye and Ubalua 267
Figure 1.Total viable of micro-organisms isolated from Aba river in dry season.
The proven toxicity of high concentrations of heavy
metals in water to organisms and wild life poses the
problem of ultimate disequilibria in the natural ecological
balance (Babich and Stoczky, 1985) Under such
conditions the toxicity of a moderately toxic metal could
be enhanced by synergisms and organisms population
may decline (Laws, 1981). Apart from destabilizing the
ecosystem, the accumulation of these toxic metals in the
aquatic food is a potent threat to public health. The Mina
Mata Bay epidemics in Japan remain a classic example.
This work was carried out in order to establish the
existing levels and assess the pollution profile, as well as
to examine the assimilative capacity of the water body in
Aba River. Similar studies have been conducted in the
Lagos Lagoon, Igboba River in Benin and in Niger/Delta
River all in Nigeria (Okoye et al., 1989; Kakuku, 1985).
The data could be helpful in defining future waste
management practices in the area in terms of quantity of
waste to be discharged. This work could be of relevance
to the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA)
in the enactment of environmental protection laws in
Five different water samples were each collected with 1-liter sterile
polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic water bottles at a depth of 1 meter
below the water surface from the five designated sampling points in
Aba River. At each sampling point, three water samples were
drawn at random from three points and pooled. Dry season
(November/December to March) samples were collected in
January while Rainy season (March/April to December) samples
were collected in July. The time for the collection of the two
seasons’ samples was 11.00 am in the morning. The samples were
subsequently placed on ice in a cooler and transported to the
laboratory for analysis. The importance of samples collection at the
upstream and downstream points was for comparative studies.
Physicochemical analysis
Determination of heavy metals in the water samples was done
using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, Unican lab.
Services, York Street, UK) as described in the manufacturer’s
instruction manual.
Total viable count (cfu/ml x 10
0.07 0.07
0.07 0.07
Downstream 1
Downstream 2
268 Afr. J. Biotechnol.
Table 1. Seasonal mean values of the heavy msetal levels in surface sediments of Aba river.
stream 1
stream 2
stream 1
stream 2
Dry Season 0.04 0.12 0.08 0./08 0.06 0.38 0.08+0.03
Rainy Season
0.05 0.04 0.08 0.04 0.04 0.06 0.26 0.05+0.02
Dry season 0.82 0.96 0.88 0.84 0.84 4.34 089+0.06
Rainy season
0.1 0.84 0.68 0.68 0.88 0.64 3.72 0.74+0.12
Dry season 3.80 6.80 6.40 4.20 4.20 25.4 5.08+1.40
Rainy season
5.0 3.64 4.62 6.48 3.80 4.20 22.7 4.55+1.14
Dry season 0.18 0.24 0.24 0.20 0.18 1.04 0.24+0.03
Rainy season
1.0 0.08 0.20 0.12 0.18 0.12 0.7 0.14+0.05
Dry season 0 0.12 0.06 0.06 0.04 0.28 0.06+0.04
Rainy season
0.05 0 0.04 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.14 0.03+0.02
Dry season 0.65 0 0.12 0.06 0.06 0.04 0.28 0.02+0.02
Rainy season
0 0.04 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.4 0.03+0.02
Dry season 0.01 0 0 0.02 0.02 0.05 0.01+0.02
Rainy season
0.002 0 0 0 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.01+0.03
Key: All values are in mg/l
Co, Cr and Cd were not detected in all the samples for both seasons
a: source; EPA (1976) (EPA
Table 2. Seasonal total viable count (10
cfu/Ml) Of microorganisms Isolated From Aba river.
Dry season 0.06 0.06 102 0.08 0.07 102.28 20.5
Rainy season 0.06 0.06 109 0.07 0.07 109.25 54.6
TOTAL 0.12 0.12 211 0.16 0.12 211.5.52 75.1
MEAN 0.06 0.06 105 0.08 0.06 37.6
Dry season 0.07 0.06 98 0.09 0.07 98.28 19.7
Rainy season 0.06 0.07 104 0.07 0.06 104.26 20.9
Ezeronye and Ubalua 269
Table 2. contd.
TOTAL 0.13 0.12 202 0.16 0.13 202.54 40.6
MEAN 0.06 0.06 101 0.08 0.66 20.3
Dry season 0.07 0.06 106 6.09 0.06 106.29 21.3
Rainy season 0.06 0.07 90 0.75 0.07 90.26 18.1
TOTAL 0.12 0.12 196 0.16 0.13 196.54 18.1
MEAN 0.06 0.06 98 0.08 0.07 19.7
0.12 0.12 203 0.16 0.13 617.59
0.06 0.06 101 0.08 0.07 205.86
Key: Each value represents the mean of three replicates. 106 dilution factor was used for the upstream 1, 2 and
downstream 1 and 2 water samples but values were converted to a common dilution factor (106).
Microbiological analysis
Direct microscopic examination of each water sample was done by
the standard microbiological procedures (International Commission
on Microbiological Specification for Foods (ICMSF, 1988) before
culturing the samples on appropriate media. The total viable count
(TVC) of mesophilic aerobic bacteria was determined by the pour
plate technique. Serial (10- fold) dilution of each sample was done
prior to inoculation on plate count Agar (Merck) and incubation at
C for 48 h. The microbial load (cfu/ml) of each sample was
estimated by the method of Yongming et al. (1996).
Bacterial colonies (representing the most numerous colonial
types) were picked at random from plates containing the highest
countable dilution. Bacterial isolates were characterized by the
methods of Harrigan and McCance (1976) and Speck (1976).
Identification was based on Bergey’s Manual of Systemic
Bacteriology (Krieg and Holt, 1984). The ability of the organisms to
produce oxidase, catalase, coagulase and metabolize glucose by
both fermentation and oxidation were tested. Sugar fermentation
assays and the ability of the isolate to utilize exogenous nitrate
were also carried out. In addition the ability of the organisms to
produce indole-methyl red and utilize nitrate was determined.
Lipase hydrolysis, lecithinase and proteinase activities were also
carried out.
The result obtained from the analysis of the
physicochemical quality of the water samples are
presented in Table 1. The range of mean values of the
metals for both seasons are: Pb (0.05- 0.08 mg/l); Fe
(0.7-0.9 mg/l); Zn (4.6-5.1 mg/l); Cu (0.1-0.2 mg/l), As
(0.14-0.06 mg/l); Mn (0.02-0.03 mg/l); Cr (0.004-0.008
mg/l) and Hg (0.008-0.01 mg/l). The concentrations of
the heavy metals were observed to be higher between
the upstream 2 and Downstream 1.
Results of microbiological analysis of the various
samples are shown in Table 2. The mean total viable
count for the bacterial colonies ranged between 0.059 x
to 1.01 x 10
cfu/ml (Figures 1 and 2). The highest
bacterial count was observed at the abattoir site followed
by the downstream 1 (Figures 2 and 3) in the dry season.
The abattoir site recorded the highest number of
microorganisms isolated, followed by the downstream 1.
The same pattern was observed for rainy seasons
sample as represented in Figure 3. Bacillus species were
predominant while Vibrio species were the least in
number among all the isolates. Amongst the Gram-
positive bacteria isolates were Streptococcus faecalis,
Staphylococcus spp, Clostridium and Bacillus spp. All the
organisms isolated were coagulase positive with the
exception of Clostridium species.
The average levels of manganese (0.03 mg/l), zinc (4.81
mg/l) and Cu (0.19 mg/l) determined were below the
United States Environmental Protection Agency
maximum in marine waters (USEPA, 1976) and are
comparable to those obtained in the Niger Delta waters
(Kakuku, 1985). cobalt and cadmium were below
detectable limits. Levels of Pd (0.06 mg/l), Fe (0.81 mg/l),
arsenic (0.1 mg/l), chromium (0.01mg/l) and mercury
(0.01 mg/l) were high but not significantly (p 0.05). The
metal average seasonal levels are presented in Table 3.
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not reveal significant
spatial variations in the levels of any of the metals,
neither did the least significant difference (LSD) show
any significant seasonal variations (p 0.05). Anderson
270 Afr. J. Biotechnol.
Figure 2. Total Viable count of organisms isolated from Aba river in rainy season.
Table 3. Faecal microbial count (10
cfu/ml) of dry and rainy season water samples.
stream 1
stream 2
Abattoir Down
stream 1
stream 2
Total Mean
Escherichia coli
Dry season 0.06 0.05 0.01 0.09 0.09 0.30 0.06
Rainy season 0.04 0.04 0.09 0.06 0.04 0.27 0.05
Salmonella spp
Dry season 0.03 0.06 0.07 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.05
Rainy season 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.17 0.03
Dry season 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.12 0.02
Rainy season 0.04 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.03
Shigella spp
Dry season 0.09 0.06 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.22 0.04
Rainy season 0 0 0.09 0 0 0.09 0.05
Vibrio spp
Dry season 0.08 0 0 0 0.08 0.16 0.03
Rainy season 0 0 0.06 0 0 0.06 0.01
Clostridium spp
Dry season 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.05 0.03 0.14 0.03
Upstream 1
Upstream 2
Sampling points
Downstream 1
Downstream 2
Total viable count (cfu/ml x 10
0.06 0.06 0.06
0.07 0.07
0.06 0.06
Ezeronye and Ubalua 271
Table 3. contd.
Rainy season 0.02 0.02 0,08 0.03 0.12 0.17 0.03
Other Organisms
Staphylococcus spp
Dry season 41 40 43 32 26 182 36
Rainy season 39 37 40 26 22 164 33
Bacillus spp
Dry season 41 40 44 38 33 196 39
Rainy season 38 36 41 36 32 183 37
Key: The faecal organisms originally of (10
dilution factor) were converted to ( 10
) which is the dilution factor for other organisms.
(1987) reported that the toxicity of heavy metals occur
when present in superabundance. In addition, the
fundamental problem with heavy metals according to
Chapman (1996) is that some of them are needed by
microorganisms in trace amounts, when present in
excess they denature enzymes thus inhibiting the
microbial metabolism.
High lead levels in Aba River could be traced to urban
and industrial wastes and high petrol-lead used by
vehicles in Nigeria (Arah, 1985; Arah, 1987). Wastes
management in urban and industrial centers in Nigeria,
such as Aba has remained very unsatisfactory. Inflow
waters to the Aba River have been found polluted with
untreated industrial wastes, which are carelessly
discharged, directly, or indirectly into the river. One other
important source of industrial lead pollution is the expired
motor batteries. Lead and other pollutants, whether in the
air, or on land, ultimately end up in the aquatic systems.
There was no correlation between the individual
organisms in Table 2 and the heavy metals while the
correlation analysis between the heavy metals and total
count of microorganisms did not reveal significant effect
(p 0.05). The result indicated some variations in the
bacterial population of the station in the two sessions.
These variations suggest the impact of human activities
and natural changes. The low bacterial count at the
upstream 2 when compared to the other sites may be
due to reduced human activities, sedimentation and
depuration. The relatively high coliform counts at the
abattoir may be connected with high rate of cattle
defecation near the site. The introduction of wastes from
the abattoir and the surface run-off into the site during
the rains is also a contributory factor. The presence of
Escherichia coli, Streptococcus. faecalis and Shigella
spp in this study give credence to these findings. In
addition the presence of Clostridium spp in all the sites
further confirms the human faecal contamination of these
sites. Costridium spp have been shown to be better
indicator of human faecal contamination in tropical
surface waters (Fujioka and Shizumura, 1985). The
isolation of E. coli throughout the sites is an indication of
recent human contamination. The presence of Bacillus
and Clostridium species, which are mostly soil
inhabitants, showed contamination from overland run-off.
The presence of Salmonella and Shigella species at
most of the sites and Vibrio species at the abattoir and
the coliform counts of all the sites not falling within
internationally recommended standard is of public health
concern (Ezeama and Nwankpa, 2002).
The low levels of metals determined could be ascribed
to dilution, sedimentation and depuration. Although the
water flow in Aba River is limnethic in some area with
little or no upwelling during the rainy season, immense
volumes of fresh water passes through the river. The
Aba River forms the major outlet for water draining a vast
watershed, hence the influx has force and short
residence time in the river. The short residence time of
the influx means that most of the input materials are
discharged along with the water. Slow flow conditions
enhance sedimentation, especially in the presence of
high levels of iron and manganese in the system as
observed from the analysis of sediments (Okoye et al.,
1989). This sedimentation would likely become the more
important mechanism for removing heavy metals and
other pollutants from the water at low tide and during the
dry season when the influx of fresh water is very minimal.
Thus the cumulative impact is that heavy metal levels are
kept low in spite of high fluxes from industrial and urban
wastes, including the immense urban run-off.
Arah RO (1985). Lead-free gasoline in Nigeria by the year 2000
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Harrigan WF, McCance ME (1976). Laboratory methods in Food and
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... In conclusion, the authors recommended treatment measures and regulatory policies to checkmate the abuse of this river and the danger it might likely pose. Ezeronye and Ubalua (2004) examined the effect of abattoir and industrial effluent on water quality of Aba River. In achieving this, the duo of Ezeronye and Ubalua collected water samples from five points: two at upstream at different distance from the abattoir, one from the abattoir discharge point and two from downstream at different distance. ...
This study examines the effect of industrial effluents on the water quality of the Aba River. In order to achieve this, a total of six water samples were collected each season and was analysed for different wastewater characteristics of temperature, water pH, Conductivity, Alkaline, Chloride, BOD5, COD, DO, TS, THC, TDS, Zn, Cd, Fe, Pb, Cr, Total Coli-form and E-Coli. Using APHA Standard Analytical Method, the results shows that during dry season, temperature, pH, Chloride and Zn values were found to be lower than NESREA Standard. While TS, THC and Total Coli-form values were found to be higher than NESREA standard in dry season
... Some studies have been done on the pollution status of Aba River where focus was placed on the levels of heavy metals in the freshwater [13][14][15]. Ogoko and Donald attempted to use fish as an indicator for the estimation of metal pollution in Imo River but observed that the heavy metal concentrations were higher in sediments than in fish tissue and water respectively [10]. They also noted significantly high levels of lead, copper, zinc and manganese and stated that Imo River was contaminated and not suitable for drinking. ...
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The concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, As, Cr, Cu, Cd and Fe) were determined in the gills, liver and muscles of thirty-five fishes, water and sediment samples from Aba River using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Heavy metal concentrations varied markedly among fish species and organs. Results revealed that Pb, Cr, Fe had maximum concentration levels of 0.63±0.01, 0.81±0.01 and 16.91 ± 0.20 mg/kg in Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus respectively. As and Cd recorded the highest concentration of 0.18±0.03 and 0.87±0.02 mg/kg in Malapterurus electricus respectively, while Trachurus trachurus had 1.05±0.03 mg/kg of Cu. Orenchromis niloticus, Tilapia ziili and Malapterurus electricus had higher concentrations of As and Cr in the liver compared to gills and muscles. The gills had higher concentrations of these heavy metals than liver and muscles in the rest of fish species studied. The concentrations of Cd, Pb and As in freshwater samples were higher than the standard maximum permissible limit. The sediments had higher concentrations of these metals than in fish and water samples. Heavy metal concentrations in fish species exceeded the standard guideline limit in food substances for human consumption. Malapterurus electricus, Parachanna obscura and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus had bioaccumulation factors for Cd which ranged from 1.069-1.663, indicating potential Cd poisoning or contamination of the three fish species. The estimated daily intake in both adult and children ranged from 8.611 x 10−7 to 9.72 x 10−3 mg/kgbw/day and were within the standard limit of daily intake for the human population. The hazard quotient for adult and children populations ranged from 0.0041-1.3972 and 0.000287 - 0.2080 respectively. The hazard quotient was less than one in most of the metals except for iron, but hazard index was greater than one, indicating potential chronic health hazards. Incremental life cancer risk for the adult population was within safe limits.
... Ohimain et al. [14] isolated Pseudomonas spp, Corynebacterium spp, Aspergillus spp, Mucor spp, Fusarium spp and Penicillium spp from small holder Palm oil mill processing effluents in Nigeria while Okechalu et al. [15] reported Bacillus spp, Micrococcus spp, Enterobacter spp, Proteus spp, Staphylococcus spp, Aspergillus spp, Mucor spp, Penicillium spp and Candida spp from crude palm oil sold in Jos Metropolis, North Central Nigeria. Similar organisms were also reported by Ezeronye and Ubalua[16] and Adesemoye et al.[7]. ...
... The results of the present study fall in line with the works of Adesemoye et al. [13] and Ezeronye and Ubalua [14]. Bartha and Atlas [15] reported that when natural environments are contaminated with pollutants the indigenous microbial communalities are likely to contain microbial populations of different taxonomic characteristics which are capable of degrading the contaminating waste. ...
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Coir pith is being considered as the reject generated during the extraction of coir fibre from coconut husks. It is a light weight and fluffy material with dusts and bits of fibres. The coir pith has many undesirable components and hence it does not carry any value addition. It needs to be degraded for the effective utilization for further activities. Microbes have the ability to decompose coir pith. Coir pith itself posses its own native microbes. Hence in the present study, raw coir pith and the soil dumped with coir pith in the dumping yards along the vicinity of the coir fibre factories were subjected for the enumeration and characterization of microorganisms. The coir pith for the study was collected from two locations in Cuddalore District. The results exhibited the presence of huge quantity of microbes in the raw coir pith than the coir pith dumped soil. Furthermore, the percentage occurrence of bacteria was significantly higher when compared with that of the fungi and actinomycetes. Totally 12 species of bacteria, six species of fungi and three species of actinomycetes were recorded. The results showed significant variation in the quantity and quality of the microbes.
... Increase in the amount of heavy metals usually cause disruption in the ecological balance of a river. High concentration of heavy metals in water could be toxic to the aquatic organism as a result this could decline the fish population in the water body [5] . Their accumulation in aquatic food web is also a potential threat to public health. ...
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Human activities had been the major cause of pollution in water globally. The concentrations of heavy metals being a major pollutant could be assessed using aquatic vertebrate. Thus this study was carried out to evaluate the concentrations of some heavy metal (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb) both in gills and muscle of Synodontis schall and Synodontis membranaceus in River Zamare. Analyses were carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that, gills of the two fish species had highest concentration of heavy metals than the muscles. Nickel observed in these studies was considerably higher than the recommended limit for heavy metals with the gills of Synodontis schall having the highest concentration of 1.90±0.39mg/L. Lead was not detected in both gills and muscles of the two fish species, Chromium was also not detected in the gills of the two fish species. There was no significance difference (P>0.05) in the concentration of heavy metal in both muscles and gills. This study shows that, there is a need for proper monitoring of the river.
... Ibe and Njemanze (1999) working in Owerri identified untreated sewage and agricultural effluents as the most sources of contamination of water and land in Owerri. Studying the impact of abattoir and industrial effluents on Aba river, Ezeronye and Ubalua (2004), observe that the effluents were above WHO allowable limits probably due to the abundance of micro-organisms in the water. They noted that the abundance of micro-organism in water causes dysentery, diarrhea, and cholera in human population that consume such contaminated water. ...
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The study investigated the effects of industrial effluents discharges on water quality index (WQI) of stream water in Onitsha urban area of Anambra State. Water quality assessment was carried out on eleven (11) samples collected for the study. Three samples were collected at control sites while eight (8) samples were collected at discharge locations in Onitsha urban area from August to October, 2019. The control sites were located upstream 500 meters before contact with discharge effluents. The physico-chemical parameters analyzed for water quality index (WQI) were pH, total dissolved solids, Lead (Pb), Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Sulphate, Nitrate, Fluorides, Copper, Chromium, and Iron. From WQI values calculated from the study, the surface water bodies in Onitsha urban area has WQI values ranging from 56.14-184.37 at control sites and 108.01-414.56 at industrial discharge location indicating poor water quality category. Taken together the findings show that there are contaminations of the streams by industrial effluents which cause adverse water quality index and that the stream waters are not safe for drinking and domestic purposes. Appropriate management measures were suggested to minimize effluents contamination of surface water in the study area.
Heavy metals of sort Pb and Cd are of utmost importance significantly in Nigerian public health. Others such as Fe and Zn are available in the environment and typically contribute to sustenance of the ecosystem. The present study determined the bioaccumulation and health risks of some heavy metals which include Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Iron (Fe) and Lead (Pb) in Fish (Oreochromis niloticus) with their levels in sediment and water of Challawa River, Kano, Nigeria. The heavy metals were measured using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The water, sediment and fish samples analysed had mean concentration of Zn, Cd, Fe and Pb greater than the World Health Organization (WHO) and Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON) standard permissible limits except for Zn in sediment, fish and Cd in sediment. The amounts of the heavy metals in all samples between the dry and wet season varied significantly (p<0.05) with a positive relationship between the metals in water, fish, and sediment. Fe accumulates higher than Zn, Cd, and Pb from the values of bioaccumulation factors in sediment and water of Challawa river. Higher values for Estimated Daily Intake and Target Hazard Quotient of all the metals were recorded. These indicate that fish, water and sediment from Challawa river were contaminated to certain levels that has the potential health risks and hazards following the consumption of the fish species. Such has serious consequences in view of the massive population that rely on the river as a source of fish and water.
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Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by waste products from domestic and industrial activities. This study was aimed at determining the effect of wastewater discharge from University of Benin Halls of Residence on the receiving soil environment. Wastewater and soil samples were collected for a period of six months and were subjected to physicochemical and microbiological analyses using standard procedures. Findings show that electrical conductivity 1700.1(µS/cm), iron (111.62 ppm), zinc (7.395ppm), manganese (3.968ppm), phosphate (46.777ppm) and nitrate (35.139 ppm) were higher than the permissible limits of WHO and FEPA. The total heterotrophic bacterial and fungal counts for wastewater and soil samples were in the order of 1010 cfu/ml and 1010 cfu/g respectively. The highest percentage frequency of bacterial occurrence was recorded for Staphylococcus spp. (11.25 %) and Streptococcus spp (1.92 %) had the least frequency of occurrence. However, the highest percentage frequency of fungal occurrence was recorded for Fusarium spp (8.03 %) while Aspergillus versicolar and Rhizopus spp had the least frequency of occurrence (2.23%). The management of University of Benin should ensure adequate treatment processes of wastewater from the University Halls of Residence prior to discharge into the receiving environment as it will help minimize the risks to public health and the environmental degradation.
The longitudinal profile of the bacteriological quality of Aba River at six sampling stations (UP, UW, AB, CW, RL and DS) along the river course was studied. There was an upstream downstream bacterial variations (P < 0.05) with UP showing initial lower counts (log10 3.08 cfu m1-1), while the maximum was observed at DS (log10 5.60 cfu m1-1). Three stations: UW, AB and DS showed increase in heterotrophic bacterial counts throughout the six months study period (Feb July). Stations CW and RL showed decrease in bacterial counts after the third-month (April) of the investigation. Ten bacterial genera were isolated and the most prevalent in all the stations included Staphylococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Escherichia coli and Micrococcus sp. Klebsiella sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Bacillus sp. and Clostridium perfringens were not detected in UP station. Of all the sampling stations, AB and DS showed the greatest variation of isolates followed by CW and RL. Station AB showed the highest coliform counts (1.26 x 103 MPN 100m1-1) while the lowest was observed at UP (24 to 70 MPN 100m1-1). The high bacterial and or coliform counts obtained along the course of the river depicts the public health risk associated with the domestic use of the river water and the need to plan an adequate pollution control strategy for Aba River. Keywords: Longitudinal profile, Aba River, bacterial variation, bacteriological quality, pollution control strategy. (Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences: 2002 8(4): 471-476)
Because all streams in Hawaii contain high concentrations of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci, these indicator bacteria could not be used to determine which streams were contaminated with wastewater. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Clostridium perfringens was a better indicator of stream water quality than fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci. Bisson and Cabelli's membrane filtration method was a feasible and reliable method to specifically recover and enumerate C. perfringens from wastewater and stream samples. The concentrations of C. perfringens correlated with the presence of wastewater in streams; those of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci did not.
A study on biodegradation of five different types of lubricating oils in aquatic environment has been completed in the laboratory and a methodology has been developed. The results show that the light oils were degraded readily; however, the removal rates were low. Up to 36% removal for the selected lubricating oils were achieved biologically after 70 days of operation. The overall removal of lubricating oils in this study could be expressed by first‐order kinetics and the overall rate constants ranged from 0.0056 to 0.0084 I/day. This study indicated that the removal of the heavy oils by an abiotic process was higher than that in the light ones.
Concentrations of cadmium, cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc were determined in surface sediments of the Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria. The results revealed largely anthropogenic heavy metal enrichment and implicated urban and industrial wastes and runoff water transporting metals from land‐derived wastes, as the sources of the enrichment. Higher levels (F < 0.05) of cadmium, iron, manganese, nickel and zinc occurred in sediment samples collected near industrialized‐urban areas than in those from unindustrialized‐rural areas only in the wet season. While iron constituted about 1% of dry sediment by weight, the other metals were present in trace amounts.
Effluent collected from two very important industries in Nigeria, the Nigerian Fertilizer company, Port Harcourt and Star Paper Mill, Owerrinta, were examined for its chemical and microbiological quality. Quantitative examination of the microorganisms present in the effluent revealed that as many as 2.03 x 103 viable bacteria (cfu per ml) were present. The predominant bacterial forms include: Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter, Kleb‐siella, Pseudomonas, Aerobacter and Micrococcus. Yeast and mold isolated from the effluent include: Candida, Torula, Saccharomyces, Aspergillus, Pencillium, Mucor and Rhizopus species. Nitrate‐nitrogen and Ammonia‐nitrogen levels in the effluent range between 0.9–1.0 x 102mgNO3‐N/L and 0.8–1.0 x 103 mgNH3‐N/L, respectively. BOD level ranged between 1.44–1.28 x 103 mgDO/L. The study could be useful for designing an appropriate pollution control strategy in Nigeria.
Microorganisms are sensitive to heavy metal pollution as are other components of the biota. However, most studies on the interactions between microbes and heavy metals have been conducted in synthetic media or in altered (e.g., sterilized) environmental samples and usually have used only single species. Few studies have evaluated the effects of heavy metals on the activities of natural heterogeneous microbial populations, both autotrophic and heterotrophic, in terrestrial and aquatic environments. These latter studies have shown that heavy metals inhibit primary productivity, nitrogen fixation, the mineralization of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus, litter decomposition, and enzyme synthesis and activity in soils, sediments, and surface waters. The potential adverse effects of heavy metals on such microbe-mediated ecologic processes need to be incorporated into the methodologies used by regulatory agencies, such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to prepare environmental risk assessments which, in turn, are used to formulate environmental criteria, such as the Water Quality Criteria, and to evaluate the safety to the environment of exposure to "new chemical substances," as mandated by the U.S. Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976. To provide appropriate data that can be assimilated into regulatory policy, it is essential that microbial ecotoxicity tests be standardized, are neither costly nor difficult to train personnel to conduct, and produce data that can be quantitated.