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Abstract

Forty-seven couples who were first-time parents were assessed in late pregnancy and again at 6 and 18 months postpartum. Fifteen couples not yet decided about having a baby were assessed at equivalent times. Actual involvement in household, decision-making, and childcare roles was determined by responses to a 36-item "Who Does What?" questionnaire. Psychological involvement in parent, partner, and worker roles was also determined, as was each partner's satisfaction with behavioral and psychological involvement in each domain. On the basis of global analyses, previous studies have suggested that new parents adopt more traditional roles. Item analyses indicated that men's and women's roles change in both traditional and nontraditional ways during the transition to parenthood, depending on the item and the time of assessment. Measures of individual and couple adaption were also obtained: self-esteem, parenting stress, and marital satisfaction. Men's involvement in family tasks was correlated with their own or their wives adaption in pregnancy but became linked with adaptation at 6 months postpartum. However, at 18 months after birth husbands' involvement in family tasks was correlated only with wives' adaptation. For both parents, satisfaction with family task arrangements becomes correlated with self-esteem, parenting stress and marital quality after childbirth; these measures of adaptation are more closely linked with role satisfaction than with actual sharing of family work.
... Selain daripada itu, kajian juga menunjukkan bahawa kualiti hubungan kekeluargaan (Cowan & Cowan 1992), emosi negatif ibu bapa seperti takut dan marah, taktik yang menimbulkan konflik dan kemusnahan (Cummings, Goeke-Morey, Papp & Dukewich 2002) dan emosi timbal balik antara ibu dan anak dalam konflik perkahwinan (Lindsey, MacKinnon-Lewis, Campbell, Frabutt & Lamb 2002) adalah penyumbang utama kepada hubungan anak-anak dengan rakan sebaya dan pencapaian akademik. Penjelasan ini menunjukkan bahawa keluarga berperanan dalam membentuk emosi anak-anak. ...
Conference Paper
ABSTRAK Kajian kualitatif dilaksanakan untuk menerokai kelebihan teknologi digital sebagai medium dan inovasi yang boleh digunakan bagi tujuan latihan, terapi psikologi dan penyeliaan secara atas talian.Selain daripada itu adalah untuk mengenalpasti kepentingan terapi kreatif secara atas talian/menggunakan teknologi digital. Tiga puluh responden yang terlibat dibahagikan kepada tiga kategori : 1) 10 orang pengamal(practitioner) yang bekerja di berbagai seting perhubungan menolong, 2) 10 orang kaunselor pelatih, dan 3) 10 orang klien daripada penyelidikan kolaborasi dengan beberapa agensi luar. Responden terdiri daripada individu yang mengikuti latihan, penyeliaan dan sesi sokongan psikologi menggunakan pendekatan terapi kreatif secara atas talian dari seluruh Malaysia. Perkhidmatan atas talian menggunakan aplikasi teknologi digital yang berbeza merankumi Zoom, Webex, Microsoft teams , Telegram, Skype atau WhatsApp mengikut keupayaan capaian internet responden. Pengumpulan data dijalankan melalui kaedah temubual kualitatif atas talian secara individua atau kumpulan berfokus. Analisis menggunakan kaedah tematik telah dijalankan untuk mendapatkan tema-tema spesifik berkaitan objektif bagi kajian ini. Hasil kajian menunjukkan sepuluh tema utama yang berkaitan dengan kelebihan teknologi digital sebagai medium terapi psikologi dan kepentingan terapi kreatif menggunakan teknologi digital. Sepuluh tema tersebut ialah : 1) Membantu dalam komunikasi jarak jauh, , 2) Pengunaan pelbagai kaedah digital, 3) Perkhidmatan secara langsung dari rumah , 4) Peningkatan kemahiran penggunaan teknologi digital, 5) Kebolehan untuk access dari berbagai lokasi, 6) Kaedah luahan kendiri yang menarik, 7) Memudahkan penyimpanan hasil terapi kreatif (art works), 8) Berbagai manfaat terapi psikologi jarak jauh,9) berbagai teknik kreatif dan menarik dalam terapi psikologi, dan 10) Meningkatkan pengetahuan penjagaan terapi kendiri (self-care therapy). Penemuan kajian ini menunjukkan kepentingan inovasi teknologi digital sebagai alat kreatif untuk latihan, terapi dan penyeliaan secara jarak jauh yang dapat menjangkau khalayak yang lebih ramai di peringkat tempatan dan global.
... The questionnaire asked fathers about the relative division of child-related daily tasks (14 items) and organisational and non-daily tasks (seven items) with the child's mothers. We adjusted and extended the relevant parts of the 'Who Does What?' scale (Cowan and Cowan, 1988). Responses were recorded on a five-point scale ranging from 1=(almost) completely the mother to 5=(almost) completely the father. ...
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This study examines how multidimensional gender and fathering beliefs of fathers may explain their relative involvement in childcare after considering paid leave uptake. We draw on cross-sectional survey data from one German state, which allow us to distinguish three belief dimensions: (1) gender traditionalism and essentialism, (2) fathering attitudes, and (3) fathering self-concepts and self-efficacy. By means of multiple linear regression models we investigate how the different dimensions of gender and fatherhood beliefs relate to fathers’ relative involvement in basic and indirect childcare tasks. Our results show that gender (essentialist) ideologies and fatherhood attitudes were strongly associated with fathers’ relative involvement in both childcare domains. The higher fathers perceived self-efficacy in fathering, the more involved they were in basic but not indirect care. All belief dimensions mediated the positive association of fathers’ uptake of paid leave with their involvement in basic childcare.
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Current research demonstrates a gap between widely shared ideals of new fatherhood and men’s limited participation in childcare. Previous studies treat gender attitudes primarily in terms of work and family roles. In contrast, this study centers on perceptions of masculinity as a broader cultural-ideological construct. Specifically, it focuses on “new masculinity ideology,” a previously unexplored masculinity perspective associated with values such as authenticity, emotional expressivity, and holistic self-awareness. Using a sample of around 1,400 employed fathers in the United States drawn from the AmeriSpeak Panel conducted by the National Opinion Research Center, we examined how identification with new masculinity relates to gender role attitudes and three childcare involvement outcomes. Results from moderation analyses based on the computation of simple slopes show that new masculinity played an important role in emotional engagement and parental responsibility but not in routine care. New masculinity moderated the association between father involvement attitudes and childcare outcomes, suggesting that fathers who endorse this ideology are more likely to act in ways that are congruent with their inner beliefs. The breadwinning role appeared to remain important. This study highlights the ways in which the often confounded images of the “new man” and “new father” are conceptually distinct.
Book
Play for Health Across the Lifespan uses case studies to explore the impact of play and creativity on health and wellbeing throughout the lifecycle. While play at the start of life influences future development, the authors show play also has a role in improving prospects for health and wellbeing in adulthood and later life. A relational approach to health and wellbeing emphasizes the dynamic, mutually influential relationship between individual development and the changing contexts of our lives. Our personal play history is one feature of this dynamic process, and this book explores how the experience of play throughout the life course sculpts and resculpts the shape of our lives: our physical health, our mental wellbeing, and our relationship to the people and the world around us. Storytelling has been used since the beginning of time to communicate important life lessons in an engaging way. Taking inspiration from Shakespeare’s ‘Seven Ages of Man’, the book uses a case-story approach to differentiate the stages of development and to present evidence for how play and playful experiences impact on health and wellbeing from birth to the end of life in the context of temporal and situational change. Each chapter in Play for Health Across the Lifespan introduces relevant evidence-based research on play and health, before presenting several narrative ‘case stories’, which illustrate the application of play theory and the neuroscience of play as they relate to each life stage. With contributions from specialists in health and education, community organizations and the creative and performing arts, this book will appeal to academics, students, and practitioners who are interested in exploring the role of play in addressing contemporary challenges to our physical, mental, and social health.
Chapter
This overview describes the changes and challenges families commonly encounter during the transition to parenthood. Family theories are introduced as framework for conceptualizing prenatal family dynamics and relationships observed during pregnancy. We frame prenatal family dynamics within family systems and structural family theories as well as within less frequently invoked theories, such as the bioecological systems theory, family life course perspective, attachment theory, social-learning theory, family life cycle, and family stress perspectives. While none of these theories were expressly developed to explain prenatal family dynamics, they can be expanded to allow for predictions about and interpretations of prenatal interactions in different family systems.
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  • R Abiclia
Abiclia, R. (1980). Parettr ed~tcntit~ft nnrd inie~vct?tiorr hnttdba<tli, Springgeld: Thomas.