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Abstract

Ableism is a form of prejudice that is common in schools and society but is often unrecognized or overlooked in analyzing why students with disabilities have difficulties being included. In this article, the author provides suggestions for recognizing and acting against ableism in schools. The author offers suggestions in terms of ability awareness, disability content in curricula and school activities, teacher in-service, disability literature, the use of role models, and hiring teachers with disabilities.
... Pritchard 2010;Rousmaniere 2013), and on the other hand, calling attention to their under-representation in schools (e.g. Storey 2007), and the need to develop specific accommodations in the teacher training process (e.g. Antilla-Garza 2015;Brulle 2006;Knight and Wadsworth 1996). ...
... The last topic identified in this literature review is related with the under-representation of persons with disabilities in research and in the teaching profession (Anderson 2006;Keane, Heinz, and Eaton 2018;Pritchard 2010;Rousmaniere 2013;Storey 2007), including in the field of Disability Studies (Campbell 2009), reflecting on the impact of the disabled bodies in the classroom (Anderson 2006;Campbell 2009). ...
... Papers addressing this research topic also highlighted the importance of the presence of teachers with disabilities for twofold reasons: first, to convey positive representations of these professionals to students and other stakeholders; second, because their daily presence inside schools and classrooms can build and foster a more inclusive culture (Campbell 2009;Pritchard 2010;Storey 2007). ...
Article
The development of an inclusive education system is regarded as a fundamental pillar for the full participation of persons with disabilities in society. To date, research on inclusive education has been mainly focused on students with disabilities, special education teachers and the role of legislation with less attention being paid to another important player in the implementation of a truly inclusive education system: teachers with disabilities. To address this knowledge gap, in this article we present a literature review, analysing the main findings and contributions from research that examines issues pertaining to teachers with disabilities. Drawing from 53 articles published in English in peer-review journals, the paper identifies four main research topics: (1) Teachers’ life trajectories, educational practices, and challenges; (2) Teacher's training; (3) Perspectives about teachers with disabilities (among students and school principals), and (4) the under-representation of teachers with disabilities in the literature. We conclude arguing that the research agenda on inclusive education would benefit from including the perspective of teachers with disabilities.
... Ableism can take many forms. Storey (2007) suggests that ableism occurs at individual, institutional, and cultural levels. At the individual level, poor attitudes toward disability can present barriers for students who have disabilities. ...
... The ti is a 12-lesson intervention aimed at enhancing students' attitudes toward disability to help counter ableism in elementary schools. There is an extensive body of literature on ableism in schools and efforts aimed at enhancing students' attitudes toward disability (e.g., Connor & Bejoian 2007;Lindsay & Edwards 2013;Storey 2007). ...
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Students with disabilities face attitudinal barriers to social inclusion. Poor attitudes toward disability can impact friendship development between students with and without disabilities and result in social exclusion. Fortunately, a body of literature exists, which suggests that educational interventions can help to enhance students’ attitudes toward disability. Such interventions, however, vary in both their approach to teaching students about disability experiences and their effectiveness. This paper presents the Tripartite Intervention, a 12-lesson intervention created for junior-level elementary students that targets cognitive, behavioural, and affective dimensions of attitude. This paper provides a high-level overview of the intervention lessons, as well as, offers readers some practical considerations for implementation. Those interested in utilizing the Tripartite Intervention for educational or research purposes are encouraged to contact the author for intervention materials and training opportunities.
... However, these language choices can have lasting adverse implications. Accordingly, it is necessary to address ableism and rhetoric through the lens of SJE in order to mitigate oppression (Cherney 2011;Dolmage 2014;Garland-Thomson 2002;Storey 2007). ...
... Service-learning courses should be constructed in a way that acknowledges the challenges and opportunities participants face when confronted with new knowledge and perspectives, and that supports them in a learning process that is personally and intellectually challenging. (Adams 2016, 28) Given that ableism is both pervasive and taken for granted (Storey 2007), students need to process both their assumptions and experiences within the context of the course. ...
Article
While social justice is a well-recognized concept, it is less frequently examined through the lens of disability. In order to address existing gaps within social justice education, this qualitative case study investigates how participation in a semester-long Introduction to Disability Studies (IDS) course affected students’ orientation toward disability justice, or the conception of disability as an issue of social justice. The framework underpinning this research merges Cipolle’s theory of critical consciousness development with disability-based constructs. Findings reveal that participation in IDS allowed participants to develop an awareness of their ability privilege, understand the experiences of peers with disabilities, increase their social awareness of disability, and consider their work as disability allies. This article concludes with recommendations for social justice educators who are interested in applying disability justice practices.
... There are many ways that ableist microaggressions occur. Some examples include; making jokes to wheelchair users about speeding around in their wheelchairs (Storey 2007), grabbing a blind person's arm to direct them without their consent; informing someone that they are well spoke for a Deaf or hard of hearing person; assuming that everyone can stand in a line for a period of time ; joking that someone is 'lucky' because they have a disabled parking permit; praying over someone who is disabled without their consent; or speaking to a disabled person's companion instead of the disabled person. An example of ableist microassault is saying that anyone with a learning disability is never going to graduate college. ...
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Microaggressions perpetuate inequalities and stereotypes against people from marginalized communities. Research demonstrates that ongoing experiences of identity-related microaggressions can negatively impact mental health outcomes, increase somatic symptoms, and increase negative affect. This study explores the relationship between experiences of ableist microaggressions and mental health outcomes among disabled adults by using a quantitative cross-sectional survey of 311 U.S. adults who identify as disabled/having a disability, to examine the correlation between ableist microaggressions (using the AMS-65) and mental health (assessed by the MHI-18). Findings indicate that increased experiences ableist microaggressions are negatively correlated with positive mental health outcomes, and that the visibility of disabilities/impairments are correlated with experiencing ableist microaggressions. These findings can inform the work of counselors, therapists, social workers, and other human service professionals when supporting disabled individuals, recognizing that their mental health may be related to these common and often unintentional oppressive interactions.
... The danger of Dis-Regard is that it upholds oppressive structures within schools because counselors have not explicitly or intentionally addressed issues around disability within their comprehensive school counseling programs or other interventions. An ideology of Dis-Regard leads to a type of ableism because ideology of this type reifies power structures that discriminate and exclude people with disabilities from equitable opportunities (Storey, 2007). ...
... Some authors consider provision for learners with additional learning needs in the music classroom (Ferguson, 2001;Gallegos, 2006;Hehir, 2007;Storey, 2007). Some reference elements of the learning profile (Darrow & Adamek, 2012;Jaquiss & Paterson, 2005;Salvador, ...
Article
This article reflects upon the potential mediation of medical and social interpretations of disability through informing instrumental tuition with the strengths recognised in the learning profile of children with Down Syndrome. The learning profile is explored and critically discussed, and its reductionist, deficit-based potential identified; before considering the potential value of applying the evidence-based phenotype to musical provision. While a medical model of disability may interpret this learning profile as a list of deficiencies, this paper proposes that an informed, strength-based approach to teaching could empower students and challenge barriers to participation through suitably tailored provision, providing a relevant and constructive learning experience. This framework therefore aligns more closely with a Nordic relational model of disability that mediates the medical and social models, recognising disability as an interaction between impairment and the environment. Three case reports are presented to demonstrate and emphasise the range of personalities and individual differences between musicians with Down Syndrome, but also how this evidence-based approach can be applicable to many students, potentially contextualised within a “Universal Design for Learning” framework. A summary considers how raising awareness of constructive strategies for informed provision could develop confidence amongst practitioners, and thus in turn increase provision of relevant musical opportunities to students with additional learning needs, including Down Syndrome. In a critical conclusion, the notion of “differentiation” as perpetuating a dominant ableist discourse is considered and recommendations made with regard to furthering connections between critical social practices associated with Critical Disability Studies and music education.
... In the classroom, ableism might be as simple as a preference to not teach "those kids down the hall" or resistance toward collaborating with special educators. As Storey (2007) notes, "Although schools often advocate multiculturalism and acceptance of differences, disability and ableism are overlooked in this advocacy" (p. 56). ...
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McQueston illustrates how peer-mediated strategies were used with the Special Olympics "Young Athletes" program. These modifications allowed teachers to implement this program more readily, thereby promoting the inclusion of students with disabilities. Using pillars of collaborative strategic reading, all group members can contribute to the success of the group, thus disrupting the idea that students with disabilities can receive only help.
... Some authors consider provision for learners with additional learning needs in the music classroom (Ferguson, 2001;Gallegos, 2006;Hehir, 2007;Storey, 2007). Some reference elements of the learning profile (Darrow & Adamek, 2012;Jaquiss & Paterson, 2005;Salvador, ...
Article
This paper reflects upon the potential mediation of medical and social interpretations of disability through informing instrumental tuition with the strengths recognised in the learning profile of children with Down Syndrome (Fidler, 2005; Dykens, Hodapp and Evans, 2006; Davis and Escobar, 2013). The learning profile is explored and critically discussed (Kendall, 2017), and its reductionist, deficit-based potential identified; before considering the potential value of applying the evidence-based phenotype to musical provision. While a medical model of disability may interpret this learning profile as a list of deficiencies (Goodley, 2017), this paper proposes that an informed, strength-based approach to teaching could empower students and challenge barriers to participation through suitably tailored provision, providing a “maximally supporting learning environment” (Wishart, 2002, p. 18; cited in Germain, 2002, p. 53). This framework therefore aligns more closely with a Nordic relational model of disability that mediates the medical and social models, recognising disability as an interaction between impairment and the environment (Kristiansen and Traustadóttir, 2004; cited in Goodley, 2017). Three case studies are presented to demonstrate and emphasise the range of personalities and individual differences between musicians with Down Syndrome, but also how this evidence-based approach can be applicable to many students, potentially contextualised within a ‘Universal Design for Learning’ framework (Rose, Meyer and Hitchcock, 2006; Darrow, 2015). A summary considers how raising awareness of constructive strategies for informed provision could develop confidence amongst practitioners, and thus in turn increase provision of relevant musical opportunities to students with additional learning needs, including Down Syndrome. In a critical conclusion, the notion of ‘differentiation’ as perpetuating a dominant ableist discourse is considered (Moore and Slee, 2012; Penketh, 2016), and recommendations made with regard to furthering connections between critical social practices associated with critical Disability Studies and music education (Darrow, 2015; Howe et al., 2016; Bolt, 2016).
Article
Exclusionary discipline practices are used disproportionately in the punishment of Black students with a disability compared to White and Black students with or without a disability. One potential mechanism leading to the disproportionate use of exclusionary discipline is the manifestation determination review (MDR) process, a process mandated under the Individuals with Disabilities Act that is tasked with determining whether students’ offending behaviors were related to their disability. Using a disability studies/critical race theory (DisCrit) lens, the MDR process can be understood as a mechanism that serves to sustain these inequities through vague guidance in critical elements of the MDR process, lack of clarity about the composition of the MDR team, and perpetuation of a race-neutral framework. Implications for policy, educators, and school psychologists are discussed.
Article
Approximately 20% of U.S. residents are currently living with a disability. Ableism values a specific type of physical, mental, and/or emotional capital as well as supports socially constructed expectations of ability, valuing these expectations over different types of ability and disability. One way in which ableism is perpetuated is through microaggressions, or acts of aggressions that occur at the more interpersonal—or micro—level. Microaggressions are everyday interactions that perpetuate inequalities and stereotypes against people who belong to marginalized communities. Experiencing multiple microaggressions has been referred to as “death by a thousand paper cuts,” indicating the severity of the sum total of these casual types of prejudice and oppression. Research demonstrates that experiences of identity-related microaggressions can negatively impact mental health outcomes, increase somatic symptoms, and increase negative affect. This mixed methods study explores how to measure ableist microaggressions by developing the 65-item ableist microaggression scale using qualitative interviews with stakeholders (N = 13) and a nationwide survey in the United States (N = 984).
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In an effort to counter discrimination and powerlessness, the disability community has espoused sociopolitical and cultural factors as defining characteristics of disability identity. This view of disability has replaced the historical medical model of disability as a deficit, and has had important implications for social action, political agendas, legislation and overall quality of life for individuals with disabilities. This article reviews current multicultural thinking, and offers a critical view of the advantages and disadvantages of positioning disability within the emergent multicultural discourse. Implications for future thinking and action to promote equal opportunity and self-determination for persons with disabilities as a cultural group with a political agenda are then advanced.
Article
In this article, Thomas Hehir defines ableism as "the devaluation of disability" that "results in societal attitudes that uncritically assert that it is better for a child to walk than roll, speak than sign, read print than read Braille, spell independently than use a spell-check, and hang out with nondisabled kids as opposed to other disabled kids. "Hehir highlights ableist practices through a discussion of the history of and research pertaining to the education of deaf students, students who are blind or visually impaired, and students with learning disabilities, particularly dyslexia. He asserts that "the pervasiveness of ... ableist assumptions in the education of children with disabilities not only reinforces prevailing Prejudices against disability but may very well contribute to low levels of educational attainment and employment." In conclusion, Hehir offers six detailed proposals for beginning to address and overturn ableist practices. Throughout this article, Hehir draws oil his personal experiences as former director of the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs, Associate Superintendent for the Chicago Public Schools, and Director Of Special Education in the Boston Public Schools.
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In this updated edition, Doris Zames Fleischer and Frieda Zames expand their encyclopedic history of the struggle for disability rights in the United States, to include the past ten years of disability rights activism.The book includes a new chapter on the evolving impact of the Americans with Disabilities Act, the continuing struggle for cross-disability civil and human rights, and the changing perceptions of disability. The authors provide a probing analysis of such topics as deinstitutionalization, housing, health care, assisted suicide, employment, education, new technologies, disabled veterans, and disability culture. Based on interviews with over one hundred activists, The Disability Rights Movement tells a complex and compelling story of an ongoing movement that seeks to create an equitable and diverse society, inclusive of people with disabilities.
Article
Despite the widespread growth of professional development schools (PDS), few reports have examined the professional development school context — and the role of special educators within these contexts — as catalysts for the professional growth of inservice and preservice teachers with respect to meeting the needs of students with disabilities. The present study sought to expand the knowledge base in this area by examining the perceptions of special educators in professional development schools regarding their contributions to the preparation of preservice general educators, as well as their perceptions of how the PDS relationship has enhanced their own professional growth.
Article
In this article, Thomas Hehir defines ableism as "the devaluation of disability" that "results in societal attitudes that uncritically assert that it is better for a child to walk than roll, speak than sign, read print than read Braille, spell independently than use a spell-check, and hang out with nondisabled kids as opposed to other disabled kids." Hehir highlights ableist practices through a discussion of the history of and research pertaining to the education of deaf students, students who are blind or visually impaired, and students with learning disabilities, particularly dyslexia. He asserts that "the pervasiveness of . . . ableist assumptions in the education of children with disabilities not only reinforces prevailing prejudices against disability but may very well contribute to low levels of educational attainment and employment." In conclusion, Hehir offers six detailed proposals for beginning to address and overturn ableist practices. Throughout this article, Hehir draws on his personal experiences as former director of the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs, Associate Superintendent for the Chicago Public Schools, and Director of Special Education in the Boston Public Schools.
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To determine how mental retardation and related issues are portrayed in juvenile literature, sixty-eight children's and adolescent books that included characters with mental retardation were analyzed. The majority of the characters were considered supportive (n = 47, 61 %), rather than the main character of the book. In addition, most of the characters were static (n = 42, 54%), meaning the character was believable, but did not change throughout the course of the story. Few of the books were written from the perspective of the character with mental retardation (n = 9, 13%). In addition to analysis of the character with mental retardation, themes relating to the relationship among characters with and without mental retardation and character changes within the individuals with mental retardation were examined. The books were also evaluated in terms of topics in the field of mental retardation (e.g., schooling, employment, residence) included as part of the story.
Article
Provides guidance for teachers and administrators in developing and implementing ability awareness programs designed to foster greater understanding of people with disabilities and increase students' sensitivity toward individual differences. Topics include choosing a program coordinator, establishing a committee, planning meetings, clarifying program objectives, setting the timetable, designing program content and process, and evaluating program effectiveness. (CR)