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Abstract

Ableism is a form of prejudice that is common in schools and society but is often unrecognized or overlooked in analyzing why students with disabilities have difficulties being included. In this article, the author provides suggestions for recognizing and acting against ableism in schools. The author offers suggestions in terms of ability awareness, disability content in curricula and school activities, teacher in-service, disability literature, the use of role models, and hiring teachers with disabilities.
... Ableism can take many forms. Storey (2007) suggests that ableism occurs at individual, institutional, and cultural levels. At the individual level, poor attitudes toward disability can present barriers for students who have disabilities. ...
... The ti is a 12-lesson intervention aimed at enhancing students' attitudes toward disability to help counter ableism in elementary schools. There is an extensive body of literature on ableism in schools and efforts aimed at enhancing students' attitudes toward disability (e.g., Connor & Bejoian 2007;Lindsay & Edwards 2013;Storey 2007). ...
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Students with disabilities face attitudinal barriers to social inclusion. Poor attitudes toward disability can impact friendship development between students with and without disabilities and result in social exclusion. Fortunately, a body of literature exists, which suggests that educational interventions can help to enhance students’ attitudes toward disability. Such interventions, however, vary in both their approach to teaching students about disability experiences and their effectiveness. This paper presents the Tripartite Intervention, a 12-lesson intervention created for junior-level elementary students that targets cognitive, behavioural, and affective dimensions of attitude. This paper provides a high-level overview of the intervention lessons, as well as, offers readers some practical considerations for implementation. Those interested in utilizing the Tripartite Intervention for educational or research purposes are encouraged to contact the author for intervention materials and training opportunities.
... Institutional ableism. Ableism refers to attitudes and practices that discriminate against and devalue people with disabilities (Linton 1998;Storey 2007). Institutional ableism, thus, is marked by systemic and pervasive policies and practices that adversely affect people with disabilities (Fierros 2006). ...
Article
Parents with disabilities and their families experience pervasive inequities within the child welfare system. However, existing conceptual frameworks do not adequately explain or address the unique needs and experiences of parents with disabilities and their families involved with the child welfare system. Accordingly, we present a conceptual framework that incorporates empirical findings from existing literature while integrating and expanding extant frameworks and models. The conceptual framework, which is aimed at being a starting point from which to investigate child welfare system inequities experienced by disabled parents, includes interrelated factors measured at the contextual, institutional, and individual levels. The paper discusses areas for further research, challenges for researchers, and implications for reducing child welfare system inequities.
... Designers of VR technology presume that the user is sighted, having full use of their limbs, particularly the dextrous use of the arms, hands, fingers, and thumbs. Such variable relations of bodies and tools point to some of the ableist assumptions that are embedded in the VR technology development (Storey, 2007). ...
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Immersive virtual reality (VR) technology is becoming widespread in education, yet research of VR technologies for students’ multimodal communication is an emerging area of research in writing and literacies scholarship. Likewise, the significance of new ways of embodied meaning making in VR environments is undertheorized—a gap that requires attention given the potential for broadened use of the sensorium in multimodal language and literacy learning. This classroom research investigated multimodal composition using the virtual paint program Google Tilt Brush™ with 47 elementary school students (ages 10–11 years) using a head-mounted display and motion sensors. Multimodal analysis of video, screen capture, and think-aloud data attended to sensory-motor affordances and constraints for embodiment. Modal constraints were the immateriality of the virtual text, virtual disembodiment, and somatosensory mismatch between the virtual and physical worlds. Potentials for new forms of embodied multimodal representation in VR involved extensive bodily, haptic, and locomotive movement. The findings are significant given that research of embodied cognition points to sensorimotor action as the basis for language and communication.
... Ableism remains an active system of oppression in American schools, resulting in the stigmatization of disability and exclusionary educational practices (Broderick & Lalvani, 2017;Lalvani and Broderick, 2013;Hehir, 2002;Storey, 2007). The limited preparation of teachers on "issues of student disability identity development or the stigmatization of disability labels…contributes to dysconscious ableism" (Mueller, 2021, p. 3). ...
Conference Paper
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Through time-series graphs, both special education and general education teachers often evaluate progress monitoring data to make both low- and high-stakes decisions for students with and at risk for disabilities. The construction of these graphs–specifically the presence of an aimline and the data-points per x- to y-axis ratio (DPPXYR)–may impact decisions teachers make. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of graph construction manipulations on preservice teachers’ accuracy with instructional decision making. Participants included 94 preservice teachers enrolled in an introductory course focused on students with disabilities at two universities. Following instruction on progress monitoring, students evaluated 48 graphs representing eight data sets with six manipulations (i.e., with and without aimline; DPPXYR set at 0.05, 0.10, 0.15). Results suggest the presence of an aimline increased accuracy; whereas, the manipulation of the DPPXYR led to mixed findings. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
... At the heart of disability hate crime is the socialisation and internalisation of ableism, 16 which is 'the belief that it is better or superior not to have a disability than to have one and that it is better to do things in the way that nondisabled people do'. 17 The effect of ableism is: a pervasive system of discrimination and exclusion that oppresses people who have mental, emotional and physical disabilities … Deeply rooted beliefs about health, productivity, beauty, and the value of human life, perpetuated by the public and private media, combine to create an environment that is often hostile to [them]... 18 Ableism is a form of oppression that takes place between individuals, in institutions (education, health and employment settings for example) and social systems. 19 The introduction of disability hate crimes in the law is one way of addressing, at a symbolic level, ableism that manifests in crime and violence. ...
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When contemplating whether to introduce disability hate crime as a new substantive offence or as a penalty enhancement of existing crimes, legislators should consider the peculiarities of reporting, investigating and prosecuting hate crimes perpetrated against disabled people. This article argues that existing laws on sexual offences, domestic violence, harassment, and unfair discrimination should be strengthened, and research should be conducted to identify the appropriate initiatives to prevent and attend to disability hate crime by and with persons with disabilities. Creating a substantive hate crime based on disability has symbolic value, but should only be considered if the existing challenges to full and meaningful participation by persons with disabilities in investigative and court proceedings are addressed through appropriate procedural accommodations.
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Disability identity development is an important part of the experience of people with disabilities. Participation in disability community activism and advocacy for the goals of the disability community is related to self-advocacy and plays a fundamental role in shifting individuals’ views of themselves and their disabilities. This article explores a political disability identity conceptual framework and provides recommendations for teachers to develop an understanding of disability in school focused on self-worth and pride; awareness of discrimination, common cause within the disability community, and policy alternatives; and engagement in political action.
Presentation
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This interactive, practical session for PK-12 educators and librarians will provide a brief overview of ableism within children’s literature and its lingering impact on the educational expectations and outcomes for students with disabilities. Participants will learn how to incorporate disability culture into the content area curriculum, review a selection of titles in four developmental areas (board books, picture books, middle grade readers, and young adult literature), and receive a list of recommended titles. Educators will learn how to use literature as an advocacy tool to combat harmful ableist perspectives and encourage students with disabilities to embrace who they are.
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The inclusivity of neurodiversity conferences is a new field of research. Utilising Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) as an example, this study aims to critically investigate issues of inclusivity in the flyers advertising these conferences. This exploratory research is informed by 22 conference flyers and 14 scholarly articles retrieved from respective internet and Google Scholar enquiries. These articles offered evidence-based justifications for a greater inclusion of OCD-focused content in neurodiversity conferences. The study cautions that the lack of explicit inclusion of OCD as a topic among conferences can be harmful to persons who identify with this particular type of neurodivergence. This study offers a sound base from which future research focusing upon other forms of neurodivergence and issues of neurodiversity conference inclusivity and intersectionality can develop.
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The present qualitative interview study explored disability identity development, a unique aspect of identity, and its relationship to school and special education. Adults with disabilities ( n = 9) reflected on their schooling experiences in special education through a life history interview and semi-structured interview about their schooling experiences. The participants identified a lack of disability representation in curriculum, lack of connections to disability community, and lack of teachers and school community members as important factors to their sense of disconnection from disability identity and distancing themselves from their disability label during school. This study suggests the power and potential of special education to develop disability community and identity in students with disabilities. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
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Low social awareness of disability issues maintains discriminatory attitudes in society and does not contribute to improving the position of persons with disabilities. The media play a significant role in this because they produce new or reproduce existing meanings through representation. The media represent different identities and act as a forum for the social construction of reality, they construct and reproduce the social definition of disability. A highly discriminatory society is the main reason for the difficult life of people with disabilities, but objective media coverage of the topic of disability and persons with disabilities can improve this situation. Such reporting would contribute to changing the stereotypical attitudes towards which a person with a disability is viewed as one who needs help and pity, without considering physical and cultural barriers created in society. If living conditions were adapted to people with disabilities to the extent that they were adapted to all other persons, the quality of life of persons with disabilities would be significantly improved. In the research conducted for the purposes of this paper, we came to the conclusion that print media in Serbia do not devote sufficient space to the topic of disability, and generally report stereotypically.
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In an effort to counter discrimination and powerlessness, the disability community has espoused sociopolitical and cultural factors as defining characteristics of disability identity. This view of disability has replaced the historical medical model of disability as a deficit, and has had important implications for social action, political agendas, legislation and overall quality of life for individuals with disabilities. This article reviews current multicultural thinking, and offers a critical view of the advantages and disadvantages of positioning disability within the emergent multicultural discourse. Implications for future thinking and action to promote equal opportunity and self-determination for persons with disabilities as a cultural group with a political agenda are then advanced.
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In this article, Thomas Hehir defines ableism as "the devaluation of disability" that "results in societal attitudes that uncritically assert that it is better for a child to walk than roll, speak than sign, read print than read Braille, spell independently than use a spell-check, and hang out with nondisabled kids as opposed to other disabled kids. "Hehir highlights ableist practices through a discussion of the history of and research pertaining to the education of deaf students, students who are blind or visually impaired, and students with learning disabilities, particularly dyslexia. He asserts that "the pervasiveness of ... ableist assumptions in the education of children with disabilities not only reinforces prevailing Prejudices against disability but may very well contribute to low levels of educational attainment and employment." In conclusion, Hehir offers six detailed proposals for beginning to address and overturn ableist practices. Throughout this article, Hehir draws oil his personal experiences as former director of the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs, Associate Superintendent for the Chicago Public Schools, and Director Of Special Education in the Boston Public Schools.
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In this updated edition, Doris Zames Fleischer and Frieda Zames expand their encyclopedic history of the struggle for disability rights in the United States, to include the past ten years of disability rights activism.The book includes a new chapter on the evolving impact of the Americans with Disabilities Act, the continuing struggle for cross-disability civil and human rights, and the changing perceptions of disability. The authors provide a probing analysis of such topics as deinstitutionalization, housing, health care, assisted suicide, employment, education, new technologies, disabled veterans, and disability culture. Based on interviews with over one hundred activists, The Disability Rights Movement tells a complex and compelling story of an ongoing movement that seeks to create an equitable and diverse society, inclusive of people with disabilities.
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Despite the widespread growth of professional development schools (PDS), few reports have examined the professional development school context — and the role of special educators within these contexts — as catalysts for the professional growth of inservice and preservice teachers with respect to meeting the needs of students with disabilities. The present study sought to expand the knowledge base in this area by examining the perceptions of special educators in professional development schools regarding their contributions to the preparation of preservice general educators, as well as their perceptions of how the PDS relationship has enhanced their own professional growth.
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In this article, Thomas Hehir defines ableism as "the devaluation of disability" that "results in societal attitudes that uncritically assert that it is better for a child to walk than roll, speak than sign, read print than read Braille, spell independently than use a spell-check, and hang out with nondisabled kids as opposed to other disabled kids." Hehir highlights ableist practices through a discussion of the history of and research pertaining to the education of deaf students, students who are blind or visually impaired, and students with learning disabilities, particularly dyslexia. He asserts that "the pervasiveness of . . . ableist assumptions in the education of children with disabilities not only reinforces prevailing prejudices against disability but may very well contribute to low levels of educational attainment and employment." In conclusion, Hehir offers six detailed proposals for beginning to address and overturn ableist practices. Throughout this article, Hehir draws on his personal experiences as former director of the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs, Associate Superintendent for the Chicago Public Schools, and Director of Special Education in the Boston Public Schools.
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To determine how mental retardation and related issues are portrayed in juvenile literature, sixty-eight children's and adolescent books that included characters with mental retardation were analyzed. The majority of the characters were considered supportive (n = 47, 61 %), rather than the main character of the book. In addition, most of the characters were static (n = 42, 54%), meaning the character was believable, but did not change throughout the course of the story. Few of the books were written from the perspective of the character with mental retardation (n = 9, 13%). In addition to analysis of the character with mental retardation, themes relating to the relationship among characters with and without mental retardation and character changes within the individuals with mental retardation were examined. The books were also evaluated in terms of topics in the field of mental retardation (e.g., schooling, employment, residence) included as part of the story.
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Provides guidance for teachers and administrators in developing and implementing ability awareness programs designed to foster greater understanding of people with disabilities and increase students' sensitivity toward individual differences. Topics include choosing a program coordinator, establishing a committee, planning meetings, clarifying program objectives, setting the timetable, designing program content and process, and evaluating program effectiveness. (CR)