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Environmental Education in Graduate Professional Degrees: The Case of Urban Planning

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Abstract and Figures

Environmental education (EE) is a prominent aspect of graduate-level master's programs in urban and regional planning. This article draws on the results of a survey of 66 environmental planning educators in urban and regional planning programs to show what types of EE are most prevalent in these graduate professional programs and in planning practice. The authors examine the relative importance of foundational and applied knowledge topics in both master's-level planning education and in seeking employment in the field of environmental planning. Environmental planning educators generally believe that applied knowledge topics are more important than foundational topics for students.
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REPORTS
&
RESEARCH
Environmental
Education
in
Graduate
Professional
Degrees:
The
Case
of
Urban
Planning
Stacey
Swearingen
White
andJames
M.
Mayo
ABSTRACT:
Environmental
education
(EE)
is
a
prominent
aspect
of
graduate-level
master's
programs
in
urban
and
regional
planning.
This
article draws
on
the
results
of
a
survey
of
66
environmental
planning
educators
in
urban
and
regional
planning
programs
to
show
what
types
of
EE
are
most
prevalent
in
these
graduate
professional
programs
and
in
planning
practice.
The
authors
examine
the
relative
importance
of
foundational
and
applied
knowledge
topics
in
both
master's-level
planning
education
and
in
seeking
employment
in
the
field
of
environmental
planning.
Environmental
plan-
ning
educators
generally
believe
that
applied
knowledge
topics
are
more
important
than
foundational
topics
for
students.
KEY
WORDS:
environmental
education,
environmental
planning,
planning
pedagogy,
planning
practice
nvironmental
education
(EE)
is
a key
element
of
many
graduate
programs
in
urban
and
regional
planning.
The
Association
of
Collegiate
Schools
of
Planning
(ACSP)
describes
envi-
ronmental
planning
as
one
of
five
primary
substantive
areas
of
planning
practice
(ACSP,
2000).
Of
the
69
schools
accredited
by
the
Planning
Accreditation
Board
(PAB)
and
the Canadian
Institute
of
Planners,
86%
offer
environmental
planning
as
an
area
of
specialization
at
the
master's
degree
level
(ACSP).
Whereas
environmental
planners
may
focus
on many
different
aspects
of
prac-
tice,
EE
is
clearly
a
significant
aspect
of
the
academic
and
professional
training
provided
in
these
graduate
professional
programs.
Despite
this
curricular
prominence,
there
has
been
little
discussion
as
to
how
urban and
regional
planning
programs approach
environmental
planning
education.
Is
there
a
particular
emphasis
within
these
graduate
specializations?
Deknatel
(1984)
and
White
and
Mayo
(2004)
have
pointed
to
a
distinct
diversity
of
approaches
for
teaching
environmental
planning.
What
remains
is
further
analysis
of
how
SPRING
2005,
VOL.
36,
NO.
3
Stacey
Swearingen
White
is
an
assistant
professor
in
and
James
M.
Mayo
is
professor
and
chair
of
the
Graduate
Program
in
Urban
Planning
at
the
University
of
Kansas.
31
planning
educators
have
adapted
EE
to their
needs
and
what
that
information
suggests
about
the
role
of
EE
in
graduate
professional
education.
As
we
report in
this
article,
our
survey
of
planning
educators
asked
what
types
of
EE
are
most
prevalent
in
graduate
professional
planning
programs
and
in
planning
practice.
By
making
distinc-
tions
between curricula
and
practice,
we
illustrate
how
current
discussions
of
EE
effectiveness
are
reflected
in
the
field
of
urban
and
regional
planning.
The
sections
that
follow
discuss
the
emergence
of
environmental
planning
curricula
and
debates
surrounding
them with
respect
to
similar curricula
in
environmental
studies,
the methodology
and
results
of
the
aforementioned
survey,
and
an
assess-
ment
as
to
how
these
results
contribute
to
larger discussions
of
EE,
particularly
at
the
graduate
pro-
fessional
level.
Curriculum
Development
and
Debate:
Environmental
Studies
and
Environmental
Planning
Environmental
studies
became
prominent at
the
college
and
university
level
following
the
surge
in
public
concern
over
environmental
issues
that
arose
in
the
1970s
(Schoenfeld
&
Disinger, 1978).
Unlike the traditional
resource
management
fields,
the numerous
environmental
studies programs
formed
during
the
1970s
attempted
to broaden
the
scope
of
analysis
to
include
multidisciplinary
per-
spectives.
Although
environmental
studies
and
EE
are
not
equivalent,
the former
represents
a signif-
icant
application
of
the
latter.
This
period
of
burgeoning
public
environmental
awareness
also
coincided
with
a
more
clearly
focused emphasis
on
the natural
environment
in planning
education
than
in
the
past.
Ian
McHarg's
landmark
work,
Design
With
Nature
(1969),
strongly
influenced
both
the
pedagogy
and
practice
of
environmental
planning.
McHarg
showed
how
community planning
could
and
should
be
guided
by
ecological
processes;
as
these
ideas
took
root,
opportunities
to
study
environmental
planning
increased.
By
1984,
nearly
half
of
all
graduate
planning
programs
recognized
by
the
ACSP
offered
some type
of
environmental
planning
specialization
(ACSP,
1984).
Already drawing
from
many
disciplines,
planning
has
shown
that
it
is
capable
of
successfully
inte-
grating
environmental
concerns
into
its
purview
(Deknatel,
1984).
By
2000,
in
fact,
the
ACSP
described
environmental
planning
as
one
of
the
five
primary
areas
of
planning
practice
(ACSP,
2000).
Environmental
planning
curricula
thus
presumably
provide
the
knowledge
and
skills
necessary
to
enter
professional practice.
As
both
undergraduate-
and
graduate-level
environmental
curricula
continue to
develop
and
thrive,
environmental
educators
are
increasingly
debating
the
desirable
characteristics
of
such
pro-
grams
of
study.
Most
of
this
debate
has
focused
on
degree
programs
in
environmental
studies,
but
the
issues
are
applicable
to
environmental
planning
as
well.
Commentators
such
as
Soule
and
Press
(1998),
for
example,
have
questioned
what
constitutes
a
proper
environmental
studies
curriculum.
As
these
authors
point
out, such
questions
are
complicated
because
there
is
no
readily
identifiable
canon to
inform
environmental
curricula.
Moreover,
the
value-laden
nature
of
some
environmental
concepts
complicates
decisions
as
to
what the
essential
elements
of
study
should
be (Jickling,
1994,
2003).
Soule
and
Press
urged
environmental
studies
programs to
strive
for
clear
depth
and
focus
so
as
to avoid
becoming
"hyper-diverse
shallow curricula"
beset
by
ideological
differences
(p.
397).
Graduate
programs
in
urban
and
regional
planning
have
been
comparatively
quiet
in
these
partic-
ular
debates.
Although
planners
have
provided
general
views
in
a
sizeable
literature
that
addresses
the
proper
core
components
of
planning
education
(e.g.,
Alexander,
2001;
Baum,
1997;
Carter,
1992;
Friedmann,
1996;
Ozawa
&
Seltzer,
1999;
Seltzer
&
Ozawa
2002),
specific
examinations
and
rec-
ommendations
concerning
the
content
of
planning
specializations,
such
as
environmental
planning,
are
uncommon.
THE
JOURNAL
OF
ENVIRONMENTAL
EDUCATION
32
Among
the
pedagogical
analyses
of
environmental
planning,
two
of
the
most
comprehensive
are
the
work
of
Deknatel
(1984)
and
White
and
Mayo
(2004).
Based
on
surveys
of
faculty
members
in
graduate-level
planning
programs,
Deknatel
and
White
and
Mayo
showed
that
environmental
plan-
ning
curricula
are
quite
diverse.
Deknatel
examined
what
he
called
"substantive,"
"area,"
and
"pro-
cedural
and
functional"
orientations
in
environmental
planning
courses.
His
survey
found
that
"there
does
not
appear
to
be
a
dominant
orientation
in
the
teaching
of
environmental
planning....
Approaches
are
more
diverse
than
might
have
been
expected"
(p.
123).
White
and
Mayo
revisited
and
extended
Deknatel's
study
by
developing
an
explanatory
model
for
predicting
the
learning
expec-
tations
for
various
types
of
environmental
planning
knowledge.
They
discovered
that
faculty
mem-
bers
in
larger
universities,
those
housed
in
schools
of
architecture,
and
those
offering
a
separate
spe-
cialization
in
environmental
planning
found
the
knowledge
topics
explored
in
the
survey
to
be
more
important
than
their
counterparts
found
them
to
be.
Deknatel
and
White
and
Mayo,
however,
illus-
trated
that
planning
programs
continue
to
offer
a
variety
of
approaches
to
understanding
the
envi-
ronmental
implications
of
planning
activities.
As
to
appropriate
curricular
trajectories,
Martin
and
Beatley
(1993)
suggested
that
environmental
ethics
should
serve
as
a
touchstone
for education
in
environmental
planning.
Other
commentators
have
argued
for
an
emphasis
on
environmental
justice
(Washington
&
Strong,
1997)
or
negotiation
(Susskind,
2000)
within
courses
and
curricula.
Susskind
conduded,
"In
the
final
analysis,
it
is
extremely
difficult
to
organize
a
complete
environmental
planning
curriculum
within
a
single
academic
program
or
profes-
sional
school.
Students
need
access
to
faculty
from
a
panoply
of
fields"
(p.
169).
This
lack
of
common
ground
within
environmental
planning
pedagogy
may
well
be
rooted
in
the
fact
that
the
work
of
environmental
planners
(much
like
the
work
environmental
studies
graduates
will
ultimately
pursue)
is
quite
diverse.
Their
work
may
include
air
quality
management,
brownfields
redevelopment,
or
watershed
and
open
space
planning.
Work
in
any
of
these
areas
may
occur
at
the
local,
state,
national,
or
international
level
(Susskind,
2000).
As
a
result,
although
environmental
planning
has
become
a
common
aspect
of
both
education
and
practice,
some
observers
have
described
the
field
as
"highly
fragmented"
(Ortolano,
2000,
p.
144).
What
remains
is
to
investigate
further
how
graduate
planning
programs
have
organized
their
envi-
ronmental
planning
specializations
and
how
they
approach
the depth
and
focus
of
study
that
others
have
recommended.
The
research
issues
here
examine
environmental
planning
curricula
that
have
a
primarily
foundational
or
a
primarily
applied
focus.
Because
professional
degree
programs
such
as
those
in
urban
planning
prepare
students
to
become
practitioners,
we
examined
respondents'
per-
ceptions
of
emphases
both
within
curricula
and
in
the
workplace.
Theoretical
Construct
As
shown
in
Table
1,
the
theoretical
taxonomy
illustrates
the
relationships
between
types
of
knowl-
edge
with
learning
and
employment
expectations.
As
we
hypothesized,
foundational
knowledge
top-
ics
related
to learning
address
theoretical
principles,
whereas
those
topics
related
to
employment
focus
on
actual
problem
analysis.
Applied
knowledge
topics
related
to learning
involve
implementa-
tion
methods,
and
those
same
topics
related
to
employment
involve
practice
applications.
This
structure
of
what
planners
need
to
know
and
for
what
purpose
is
akin
to
how
accredited
plan-
ning
programs
operate
today.
At
the
beginning
of
their
studies,
planning
students
learn
theoretical
principles
as
a
cogent
means
to
introduce
them
to
environmental
planning.
For
environmental
plan-
ning
students
in
particular,
ecological
concepts,
environmental
economics,
environmental
philoso-
phy,
environmental
psychology,
and
sustainability
provide
rational
constructs
that
enable
them
to
conceive
what
theoretically
constitutes
environmental
planning.
Later,
they
learn
how
to
apply
envi-
SPRING
2005,
VOL.
36,
NO.
3
33
TABLE
1.
Contingent
Relationships
Between
KnowledgeTypes
With
Learning
and
Employment Expectations
Knowledge
type
Learning
Employment
Foundational
Theoretical
principles
Problem
analysis
Applied
Implementation
methods
Practice
applications
ronmental
topics
to
their
world
of
practice
through
implementation
methods.
Environmental
design,
geographical
information
systems (GIS),
environmental impact
assessment
(EIA),
environ-
mental
policy
and
law,
and
site
planning
each
have
rational
methods
for
analyzing
problems
that
enable
students to
prepare alternative
actions
and
plans.
But the world
of
learning
is
separate from
the
world
of
employment.
Environmental
planning
academicians
realize
that
the
knowledge
priori-
ties
students
have
for developing
an
understanding
of
environmental
planning
in
their
education
are
not
necessarily
what
they
need to
get
a
job and
to
succeed
initially
in
practice.
In
professional
practice,
environmental
planners
must
balance
the
theories
they
espouse
with
the
actions
they
take
(Argyris
&
Schon,
1976).
On
the
one
hand, foundational
knowledge
topics
pro-
vide
both
scientific
as
well
as
ideological
perspectives
to
analyze
issues.
On
the
other
hand,
environ-
mental
practitioners
face
real
problems
that
require
them
to
apply
specific
skills
to
solve
specific
prob-
lems. As
a
result,
they
must
constantly
reevaluate
how
they plan
in
order
to
become
effective.
Method
We
designed a
survey,
pretested
it,
and
sent
it
to
136
planning
academics
(see
White
&
Mayo,
2004).
Survey
recipients represented
the
total
number
of
persons
listed
in
the
most
recent
ACSP
school guide
(ACSP,
2000) who
were
part
of
the
core
faculty
in
accredited
planning
programs
that
offered
a
master's
degree
specialization
in
environmental
planning.
Also,
each
of
the
recipients
had
indicated
that
environmental
planning
was
one
of
his
or
her
areas
of
specialization.
The
survey
explored
individual, organizational,
and
curricular
characteristics
with
respect
to
the
respondents
themselves,
their
universities,
and the
environmental
planning
curricula
their
programs
offered.
Sixty-six
usable
surveys
were
returned,
for
a response
rate
of
49%.
The
survey
asked
respondents
to
assess
10
knowledge
topics
using
a
4-point
scale
of
importance
ranging from
1
(not
important),
2
(somewhat
important),
3
(important),
to
4
(very
important).
We
developed these topics
on
the
basis
of
the
aforementioned
environmental
studies
and
environmental
planning
literature,
our
own teaching
experience,
and
informal
discussions
with
others
who
teach
environmental
planning
at
the
graduate
level.
Respondents
were able
to
list
additionally
important
curricular
elements
in
an
open-ended
question.
The
10
topics
in
the
survey
are
categorized
as
either
foundational
knowledge
or
applied
knowl-
edge.
Foundational
knowledge
provides
the
basis
of
an
understanding
of
environmental
problems.
The
foundational
topics
are ecological
concepts,
environmental
economics,
environmental
philoso-
phy,
environmental
psychology,
and
sustainability.
Applied
knowledge topics
are
subjects
that
put
basic
knowledge
into
practice.
They
are
environmental
design,
GIS,
EIA,
environmental
law
and
pol-
icy,
and
site
planning.
This
distinction
between
foundational
and
applied
knowledge
is
important
to
professional
degree
programs,
such
as
those
in urban and
regional
planning.
Just
as
medical school
students
study
anato-
THE
JOURNAL
OF
ENVIRONMENTAL
EDUCATION
34
my
prior
to
studying
surgery,
planning
students
must
master
basic
knowledge
concepts
before
they
learn
to
apply
those
concepts.
The
PAB,
which
governs
the
accreditation
process
for
urban
and
regional
planning
programs,
highlights
this
distinction
as
one
between
"knowledge
components"
and
"skill
components"
(PAB,
2001).1
Respondents
ranked
the
importance
of
the
foundational
and
applied
knowledge
topics
in
two
ways.
First,
they
indicated
how
important
each
topic
is
for
the
knowledge
that
environmental
plan-
ning
master's
students
are
expected
to
gain
in
their
degree.
Second,
they
indicated
how
important
the
same
topics
are
for
attaining
successful
employment
in
environmental
planning.
Results
Table
2
illustrates
the
knowledge
topics
that
environmental
planning
educators
consider
important
contingent
on the
types
of
knowledge
that
planning
graduates
will
use
in their
work,
either
in
school
or
with
an
employer.
Table
2
reveals
overall
patterns
by
reviewing
the weighted
averages
for
the
four
contingencies
within
the
theoretical
taxonomy.
Environmental
planning
educators
generally
believe
that
applied
knowledge
topics
are
more
important
than
foundational
topics
for students.
These
acad-
emicians
also
generally
believe
that
applied
knowledge
topics
are
more
important
for
students
acquir-
ing
a
job
than
for
what
they
learn
during
their
planning
education.
In summary,
the
applied
skills
that
environmental
planning
students
accrue
toward
the
end
of
their
professional
education
are
more
valu-
SPRING
2005,
VOL. 36,
NO.
3
TABLE
2.
Importance
of
Knowledge
Topics
With
Expectations
for
Environmental
Planning
Importance
for
Learning
Employment
M
Topic
M
M
df
difference
t
Foundational
knowledge
topics
Ecological
concepts
2.91
3.08
60
-0.18
-1.59
Environmental
economics
2.97
3.23
63
-0.26
-2.79*
Environmental
philosophy
2.41
2.49
60
-0.08
-0.74
Environmental
psychology
1.62
2.09
57
-0.47
-4.44*
Sustainability
3.32
3.29
64
-0.04
0.34
Weighted
average
2.67
2.85
-0.18
Applied
knowledge
topics
Environmental
design
2.60
2.83
59
-0.23
-1.35
Geographical
information
systems
3.06
3.54
62
-0.48
-5.13*
Environmental
impact
assessment
3.09
3.45
63
-0.36
4.79*
Environmental
law
and
policy
3.56
3.23
63
0.23
-1.09
Site
planning
2.89
3.24
62
-0.35
-3.84*
Weighted
average
3.05
3.26
-0.21
Note.
The
verbal
and
numerical
scales
for
each
knowledge
topic
ranged
from
I
(not
important),
2
(somewhat
impor-
tant),
3
(important),
to
4
(very
important).
We
used
a
paired
t
test
in
which
the
df=
N-1.
*Significant
at
the
.01
level.
35
able
to
their
learning
and
potential
employment
than
the
foundational
learning
they
usually
receive
at
the
beginning
of
their
graduate
education.
2
There
are
finer
interpretations
of
these
generalized
results because
some
knowledge
topics
explain
these
generalized
results,
whereas
others do
not.
For
foundational
knowledge
topics,
environmental
planning
educators
believe
that
environmental
economics
and
environmental
psychology
are
signif-
icandy
important
for
students acquiring
a
job.
However,
these
same educators
do
not
have
different
expectations
berween
learning
and
employment
for
ecological
concepts,
environmental
philosophy,
and
sustainability.
Planning
educators may
find environmental
economics
to
be
important
to
employment
because federal
environmental
statutes, such
as
the
National
Environmental
Policy
Act,
require
practitioners
to
conduct
various
economic
efficiency
analyses
(Randolph, 2004).
Environmental
psychology
merits
attention
because
it
was
significant
but
rated
lowest
for
both
learning
and
employment.
Although
environmental
psychology
had
the
lowest
rating
among
all
the
knowledge topics for
employment
expectations,
planning
educators
may
feel
that
adjusting environ-
mental
plans
to meet
the
psychological
needs
of
real
clients
is
more
important
in
practice
than
in
the
classroom.
For applied
knowledge topics,
planning
educators consider
students
developing
skills
in
GIS,
EIA,
and
site
planning
to
be
significantly
more
important
for
employment
than
for
learning
about
envi-
ronmental
planning.
There
are
no
important
differences
for
environmental
design
or
environmental
policy
and
law.
Planning
educators
often
hear
from
both
students
and
practitioners
that
GIS
is
essen-
tial for
obtaining
an
entry-level
planning
job,
regardless
of
specialization,
although
some
evidence
suggests
this
is not
the
case
(Ozawa
&
Seltzer,
1999).
This
significant
difference
is
likely
explained
by
the dissonance between
what
educators
believe
is
necessary
for
learning
and
for getting
a
job.
Skills
in
EIA
and
site
planning
are
technical
abilities
that
enable
environmental practitioners
to justify
their
planning
recommendations
for
site-specific
problems
(Randolph, 2004).
Environmental
planning
educators
particularly
value
EiA and
site
planning
skills
because these
techniques
are
easily
transfer-
able
from one
planning
problem
to
the
next.
Discussion
The
results
of
our
survey
show
that
the importance
of
learning
expectations
is
less
than
employ-
ment
expectations
and
that
foundational
knowledge
is
less
important than
applied
knowledge,
but
these
findings
are
only
part
of
the
story.
Environmental
planning
educators
were
asked
what
it
takes
for
students to
become
employed,
but
as
planners
progress
in
practice,
the
skills
they
draw
on
most
heavily change.
New
environmental
planners may
spend
a
great
deal
of
time
with
GIS,
EIAs,
and
SP
because
they
are
often
expected
to
perform
as
technicians.
But
environmental
planners
who
move
into
management
positions
must
assess
how their
agencies
and
firms can
become
more
effective.
In
this
light, developing
new
philosophical
positions,
understanding
sustainability
issues,
and
reassess-
ing
ecological
concepts
may
be
more
critical
than
the
technical
skills
needed
at
the
onset
of
profes-
sional
careers.
These
planners
will
increasingly
blend
technical
and
political
skills.
They
become
hybrid
planners.
The
results
of
this
survey
reveal
the
short-range
need
of
knowledge topics
rather
than
environmental
planners'
long-range needs
of
these
forms
of
knowledge
in
practice.
Environmental
planning
educators
who
focus
on
their
students'
short-range
knowledge needs
are
not
necessarily
short-sighted.
They
realize
that
most
environmental
planning
graduates
will
enter the
profession
in
a
primarily
technical
capacity;
only
later
will
these
students
develop
the
need
for
more
advanced
political
skills.
But
continuing
education
may
be
necessary
to
meet
long-range
needs.
Many
environmental planners
need
to
update
technical
skills,
but
as
they
enter
management,
their
techni-
THE
JOURNAL
OF
ENVIRONMENTAL
EDUCATION
36
cal
skills
will
not
offer
them
the
solutions
that
they
will
need
to
address
broader
and
more
complex
issues.
At
that
point,
the
foundational
knowledge
topics
will
likely
provide
the
basis
for
not
only
answering questions
to
key
issues
but
also,
and
perhaps
more importantly, shaping
the
key
questions
that
need
to
be
asked.
Environmental
planners may need
continuing
educational
courses
that
require
them
to
return
to
the
foundational
knowledge
they
gained
in
their
graduate education.
To
the extent
that
academic
programs
in
environmental
studies
and
environmental
planning
have
evolved
in
tandem
over
the
past
30+
years,
similarities
between
their
pedagogical
approaches
are
evi-
dent. Educators
in
both
environmental
studies
and
environmental
planning
programs
seek
to
pro-
vide
their
students
with
an education
that
fits
the
broad
and
diverse
nature
of
environmental
prob-
lems.
At the
same time,
they
appear
to
recognize
the
need
to
maintain
an internal
coherence
to
their
curricula.
Because
environmental
planning
is
a
specialization
within
an
urban
planning
professional
master's
degree,
it
is
not
surprising
that
environmental
planning
educators
place
considerable emphasis
on
knowledge
and
skills
that
will
best
help
students
transition
into
the
workplace.
The
survey
results
described here
show
that
these
educators
place
a
clear
priority
on
the
applied
knowledge
that
they
see
as
most
important
to
a
beginning
planner's
career.
Foundational
knowledge
may
serve
more
as
a
crit-
ical
"bookend,"
in
that
it
appears
to
be necessary
for
both
a
planner's
entry
into
more
applied
methodologies
and
for
that
person's
eventual
career
development.
That
continuing
education
may
play
a
role
here
is
a
point
worthy
of
further
investigation.
Future
research
could
also
explore
the
ways
that
other
disciplines
view
the
relative
importance
of
foundational and
applied
environmental
knowledge. Such
research
would
need
to
attend
to
four
potential limitations
of
the
current
study. First,
the
actual topics
for foundational
and
applied
knowl-
edge
may
differ
substantially
from
one
environmental
field
to
the
next.
Second,
research
at
a
level
other than
higher
education,
such
as
elementary
or
secondary
education,
may
find
these
knowledge
topic distinctions
less
useful.
The
desired
end
product
of
a
particular
level
of
EE
will
influence
the
specific
knowledge
topics
to
achieve
that
end.
Third,
simply
asking
environmental
educators
to
rate
the
relative
importance
of
these
knowledge
topics
provides
only
part
of
the
story.
Determining
the
actual knowledge
and
skills
environmental
professionals
need
in
their
careers,
for
example,
would
require
investigation
of
employers
as
well.
Finally,
surveys
themselves
may
provide
only
limited
insight
into
the
choices
described
here.
Interviews
with
environmental
educators
could
provide
a
much
richer
understanding
of
the
decisions
that
guide curricular
development.
Ongoing
discussions
concerning the
proper
focus
of
environmental
curricula
are vital
because
environmental
educators
will
be
able
to
engage
important
questions
as
to
the
substance
and
breadth
of
knowledge
that
will
serve
students
best.
In addition,
these
educators
can
respond
to
changes
in
the
field.
Environmental
planning
master's
degrees offer
one
model
for developing
a
curriculum
that
trains
students
in
the
substantive
topics
they need to
grapple
with
environmental
problems,
both
as
students
and
as
practitioners.
Of
course,
each
academic
program
with
an
environmental
emphasis
must
assess
its
own
strengths
and
capacities
in
order to
shape
curricular
specifics
most
effectively,
but
this
task,
if
performed
with
care,
can
yield
effective
results.
NOTES
'The
nexus between
foundational
and
applied
knowledge
are
the
strategies we
use,
singularly
or in combination,
to
intervene
in
a
particular problem.
In
planning,
these
strategies
include
(a)
comprehensive
rational
planning
(b)
advocacy
planning,
(c)
apolitical politics,
(d)
critical
planning
theory,
(e)
strategic
planning,
and
(f) incrementalism
(Benveniste,
1989).
2
1n
the
open-ended
question,
survey
respondents
mentioned
nine
topics
more than
once.
The
foundational
topics
were
environmental
history,
environmental
justice,
international
issues,
and
natural
hazards.
The
applied
topics
were
commu-
nication
skills;
negotiation,
collaboration,
and
conflict management;
public
involvement;
risk
analysis;
and
watershed
plan-
SPRING
2005,
VOL.
36,
NO.
3
37
ning.
Although
applied
topics
were
mentioned
more
frequendy than foundational
topics,
it
should
be
noted
that
only
eight
of
the
survey
respondents
(12%) selected
the
most
frequentdy
mentioned
topic-negotiation,
collaboration,
and
conflict
management.
This
suggests
that
our
preselected
knowledge
topics
were
indicative
of
current environmental
planning
edu-
cation.
For
additional
discussion
of
this
element
of
the
survey, see
White and
Mayo
(2004).
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THE
JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL
EDUCATION
38
COPYRIGHT INFORMATION
TITLE: Environmental Education in Graduate Professional
Degrees: The Case of Urban Planning
SOURCE: J Environ Educ 36 no3 Spr 2005
WN: 0510502391006
The magazine publisher is the copyright holder of this article and it
is reproduced with permission. Further reproduction of this article in
violation of the copyright is prohibited. To contact the publisher:
http://www.heldref.org/
Copyright 1982-2005 The H.W. Wilson Company. All rights reserved.
... As a result, there is also no readily available canon for environmental planning education (e.g. White & Mayo, 2005;Soule & Press 1998). Furthermore, environmental planning education has also gained rather modest academic attention (e.g. ...
... Environmental planning is often seen as being among the central disciplines within (land use) planning. In the USA the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning, for example, identified environmental planning as one of the five primary areas of planning practice already back in 2000 (White & Mayo 2005). Similarly, Sandercock (1997) recognizes planning to be based on five core literacies, where next technical, analytical, multi-cross cultural and design she also highlights the ecological dimension as central. ...
... Similarly, Sandercock (1997) recognizes planning to be based on five core literacies, where next technical, analytical, multi-cross cultural and design she also highlights the ecological dimension as central. In the meantime, uptake of environmental planning is also rather common, with for example 86% of planning programmes in the USA including environmental planning (White & Mayo 2005, but see Gunder 2006 for a contrasting picture in Australia and New Zealand). ...
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Thesis
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