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Humor in Pedagogy: How Ha-ha can Lead to Aha!

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Abstract

Several studies have examined the pedagogical implications and cautions concerning the use of humor in teaching. Humor has been associated with a host of positive physiological and psychological effects. Researchers have identified that educators who use humor in their instruction are more positively rated by their peers and their students; others have suggested that humor may enhance learning. Although much of this evidence has been anecdotal, the present study assesses the impact of curriculum-specific humor on retention and recall, as well as student evaluations of the course and the instructor. The appropriate use of humor in a classroom setting is discussed and cautions against tendentious humor are addressed.

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... It can be used as a communication tool to alleviate anxiousness and to improve learning abilities [5]. Humor can create a more relaxed atmosphere and genuine enjoyment, which leads to a cognitive break for students, leading them to assimilate what they have learned more easily [22]. In order for teaching to be effective and for the learners to internalize the subject, it is important for them to think about learning in a positive way, which can be eased by having a laugh or even a snicker [5]. ...
... If you are experiencing positive emotions, it is also more likely that you will be doing what you are doing for longer periods of time [42]. Humor in formal classrooms is a straightforward way of increasing retention of information [22] and motivation of the students [21]. Humor can also close the bridge between students and educators, and give students the impression that the educator has gone the extra mile in their background work [22]. ...
... Humor in formal classrooms is a straightforward way of increasing retention of information [22] and motivation of the students [21]. Humor can also close the bridge between students and educators, and give students the impression that the educator has gone the extra mile in their background work [22]. Berk [5] warns, however, that educators should not be entertainers and should only employ low risk humor techniques. ...
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In this exploratory study into the world of 8-17-year-old children’s non-formal technology education, two different types of technology education with varying levels of non-formality were investigated to see how participants find fun in these situations as it is apparent that if something is non-mandatory to attend to, there should be some type of enjoyment found in the process. The results of the analysis suggest that there are three main ways children and teenagers have fun in non-formal education: fun from the tasks they are doing, social fun by sharing with other attendants, and pedagogical fun that has been embedded in the learning process. Based on our findings, we offer suggestions for how to add elements of fun in the non-formal technology education, to make it more motivating and enjoyable to the participants.
... Although humor has a positive effect on the learning process, studies including actual implementations are quite limited. Most of the applied studies were carried out in face-to-face educational environments and focused on the teacher factor (Bieg, Grassinger, & Dresel, 2018;Garner, 2006;Hellman, 2007). The very limited number of studies in the literature on humor usage in online learning environments indicates a gap in both research and application. ...
... Maralani (2016) designed a creative learning environment with humorous elements and found that this environment had a positive effect on cognitive, emotional, and motivational self-regulation. Garner (2006) states that the use of humor in lectures makes students recall concepts more easily. In this study, humorous textual expressions and word games integrated within the course content helped students recall. ...
... Due to the humorous elements specific to the target audience in the assignments, the assignments attracted more attention. Moreover, while humor can reduce fear and stress, it has the potential to increase self-confidence and motivation (Garner, 2006). Providing attention, motivation, and self-confidence are primary reflections of emotional engagement. ...
Article
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The primary goal of the study is to investigate the effect of the usage of humor on behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement in online learning. Humorous elements were integrated into the online learning components. The mixed-method study was conducted over 14 weeks with the participation of 74 university students in an online university course. As a result, elements of humor can be integrated into materials for attention grabbing, recalling, feedback, and humor breaks. A diversity of humorous elements created a significant difference and improved behavioral engagement for course materials, discussions, and assignments. However, humorous elements did not contribute to the behavioral engagement for quizzes. It was additionally observed for emotional engagement that the use of humor created a significant difference and improved emotional engagement. As for cognitive engagement, a positive influence of the usage of humorous elements in course materials, discussions and assignments was observed.
... Teachers are the real warriors have to win the war (effective teaching) with their weapons (teaching techniques) with language as the only armour. Until recently, minimal attention was given to the effects of humour by language researchers; humour should begin with the fields of education and other related disciplines and perspectives (Garner, 2006). ...
... His findings listed three criteria, viz., student affect, pupil behavioural commitment and cognitive learning. Garner (2006) reports that humour removes tension and aggression, elevates boredom and stimulates interest. Pupil and language tutor are well connected through humour. ...
... In innovative language methodologies such as Desuggestopedia and Communicative Language Teaching Creating a positive, safe and stress-free atmosphere in the class is a must for the language learning process to occur. humour, by decreasing anxiety and stress, can contribute to class unity among the language learners and make the learning process more effective and fun (Garner, 2006). Education and psychology researchers have focused on humour as a componential element of a larger set of affective behaviours impacting learning in the classroom that is generally referred to as immediacy behaviours. ...
Article
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Humour is an effective tool for foreign language teaching and EFL classes. Humour is a vital aspect of human life, language teachers may often utilize humour to facilitate dual beneficiary both socially and psychologically. Humour is an authentic tool at all levels of proficiency and for the presentation of a language. L2 classrooms are life classrooms, where students taste the essence of life ‘humour’ since humour is the food of learning. One English teacher can teach literature interestingly, the other teaches grammar, some others may be well versed in linguistics but all English teachers can teach well with the help of ‘humour’. This paper aims at presenting the role of humour in teaching English as a foreign language. Data was collected through the answered questionnaires of junior students in the English Department of Balkh University. As a result, the researcher found that the majority of students prefer the use of humour because they believe that using humour in the class fosters the learning environment, students are better engaged, and encourages class participation.
... The study of humor in the school context has mainly been carried out on the types of humor used by teachers in the classroom (Bryant et al., 1980;Gorham and Christophel, 1990) and the reasons why teachers use this strategy (Aylor & Opplinger, 2003;Bryant & Zillmann, 2014;Conkell et al., 1999;Davies & Apter, 1980;Downs et al., 1988;Frymier & Weser, 2001;Kaplan & Pascoe, 1977;Sadowski et al., 1994;White, 2001), without emphasizing the understanding of this concept. In pedagogy, some authors suggest that the use of humor is a practice that makes a course more interesting (Berk, 1996;Garner, 2006). In fact, teacher's humor positively influences students' motivation to learn (Conkell et al., 1999), the classroom climate (Kosiczky & Mullen, 2013), and the quality of the teacher/student relationship (Aylor & Oppliger, 2003;Kosiczky & Mullen, 2013). ...
... Since humor began to arouse interest in the scientific community in the 1970s (Cousins, 1979), we have mainly considered the documentation from that time by taking into account several disciplinary fields, as advocated by Walker and Avant (2011). In the end, we mainly retained the documentation spanning from 1970 to 2018 within fields such as educational sciences (Aylor & Opplinger, 2003;Banas et al., 2011;Berge, 2017;Conkell et al., 1999;Frymier et al., 2008;Garner, 2006;Kosiczky & Mullen, 2013;Petitjean & Priego-Valverde, 2013;Ziyaeemehr et al., 2011), psychology (Avtgis & Taber, 2006;Martin et al., 2003;Martin & Ford, 2018;Mindness, 1974) and, to a lesser extent, sociology (Kuipers, 2006) and health sciences (McCreaddie et al., 2010). Following the first review of the literature, a careful reading was conducted to target more definitions. ...
... Educational strategy. In addition to being considered a coping mechanism (McCreaddie et al., 2010), humor is above all an instructional strategy that has benefits for teachers (e.g., psychological well-being) and students (e.g., school engagement) (Garner, 2006;Kosiczky & Mullen, 2013). In sum, educational researchers have integrated the educational value of humor into their definitions (Ziyaeemehr et al., 2011). ...
Article
Humor is a concept that has been examined so far in several fields of study such as health, philosophy, or history, to name a few. In education, the use of humor has been presented as a strategy which, when used sensitively, can create a pleasant atmosphere in the classroom that is not only conducive for student learning, but also for their personal growth. This article provides a conceptual analysis of this concept in the particular context of educational sciences. The objective of this study is to identify the defining attributes of the concept of humor in the field of education in order to better understand it and to foster its use by teachers. Walker and Avant’s (2011) framework for concept analysis was used to analyze the concept. Humor can be identified by five attributes: (1) a skill; (2) a way to communicate; (3) an educational strategy; (4) a personal perspective; and (5) a positive emotional and behavioral response. Our findings nonetheless lead to a more comprehensive understanding of humor in school, thereby constituting the first step in the study of its related concepts.
... Furthermore, they are usually the starters of humor in conversations, even in their own language and culture; therefore, they tend to be good humor initiators. However, this result runs counter to a number of studies (e.g., Abdullah & Akhter, 2015;Garner, 2006), which showed that half of the instances of humor used by the male teachers were appropriate. To put it another way, in the present study less than one-fourth of the humor used by the male teachers was considered inappropriate. ...
... Other types of humor only had one or two inappropriate instances. By contrast, with regard to the types of inappropriate humor observed from the male teachers, the current study is incompatible with some previous studies (e.g., Abdullah & Akhter, 2015;Garner, 2006;Wanzer, Frymier, Wojtaszczyk, & Smith, 2006), who found that inappropriate humor consisted of the teachers sarcastically and humorously talking about sex, race, religion, or sexual orientation. ...
Article
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The present study examined the manifestations of Iranian male and female EFL teachers’ use of humor in the classroom environment. To this end, a qualitative study with 30 participants was implemented in two English language institutes in Iran. Equally, 15 male and female EFL teachers were selected by convenience sampling and their classes were audio-recorded and later transcribed for the examination of the types of humor they used and their frequency. Wanzer, Frymier, Wojtaszcyk, and Smith’s (2006) method of humor analysis and categorization of appropriateness was exploited for the analysis of the types of humor collected from the participants of the study. The results suggested that the use of humor by male teachers was more frequent than that of female teachers. It was revealed that 57% of the humor production was by male EFL teachers and 43% was produced by female EFL teachers. The results revealed that the most frequent humor type in male teachers’ classrooms was “funny comments” (27%), with “teasing students” (3%) being the least frequent one. In the case of appropriate humor use, similarly, female teachers used “funny comments” (52%) as the most frequent one, while there was no instance of “providing humorous examples”. Considering inappropriate humor use, both male and female teachers used “funny comments” (45%) as the most frequent type. The findings of the present study can be of use to EFL teachers and suggests the need for workshops and training courses on the integration of humor into EFL classes.
... Therefore, tacit and practical uses of educational humour involves, as proclaimed by a number of researchers (Bryant et al., 1980;Garner, 2006;Wanzer et al., 2010), direct effects on remembering information and language learning in general. In addition, if used appropriately, humour can facilitate class management through holding students' concentration and attention for longer periods of time. ...
... Such a finding is fruitful for non-humorous teachers and for those who are still reluctant to try humour, or even for the ones who believe that they have no sense of humour. This is because the more humorous the teacher is, the more friendly and approachable they become in the eyes of their students, and as Garner (2006) affirmed "a strong sense of humor plays a major role in developing a positive learning environment" (p. 178). ...
Conference Paper
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This study investigates the possible benefits of using humour in the classroom for teaching and learning purposes. It is intended to prove whether humour facilitates and creates appropriate conditions for teaching and learning or not. In this manner, it explores teachers' perceptions of and attitudes towards classroom humour and the types of humour devices they involve in their day-today teaching and instructional practices. The study used a qualitative method that comprised 31 open-ended questionnaires delivered to teachers of various school subjects. The findings revealed that most of the respondents believe that humour facilitates teaching, does not make it difficult, does not contradict with teachers' appropriate behaviour, is not a waste of time and is not associated only with teachers' who have a sense of humour.
... Notwithstanding these difficulties in humor integration in their classes, most of the respondents held positive views concerning the cognitive and affective functions of humor in teaching and learning. The reported benefits of humor in this study fall into the two categories of cognitive (Garner, 2006;Tocalli-Beller & Swain, 2007;Chabeli, 2008;Margoob, 2017) and affective (Petraki & Nguyen, 2016;Cruz, 2019) as outlined by previous research (see 2.3). What is, however, noticeable in the Tunisian teachers' responses is limiting the rewarding uses of humor to a sole function which pertains to the cognitive category: better retention of content and easier assimilation of input. ...
... What is, however, noticeable in the Tunisian teachers' responses is limiting the rewarding uses of humor to a sole function which pertains to the cognitive category: better retention of content and easier assimilation of input. This finding does not rally with previous research which mirrored firm beliefs in the affective gains of humor in learning (Askildson, 2005;Garner, 2006;Kovar, 2017). Much emphasis on these emotional functions is rather traced in the students' answers that praised the affective role of humor in motivating them (Chabeli, 2008), reducing their anxiety (Martin, 2007) and strengthening their rapport with their teachers (Margoob, 2017). ...
Article
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This study examines lecturers’ and learners’ perceptions on humor use in Tunisian tertiary classrooms, focusing specifically on the English major. The ultimate aim is to explore the types and frequency of humor use on the one hand and whether teachers regard humor in the same light as their students on the other. To this purpose, a mixed-methods approach consisting of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews is adopted to collect quantitative and qualitative data for analysis. The findings revealed that, in terms of frequency, humor is used by all interviewed teachers irrespective of their gender. Yet, the general percentage of humor use remains moderate and limited to specific oral subjects as confirmed by the students. The results also indicated the participants’ agreement on the efficiency and preference of verbal, spontaneous and relevant humor types. However, it has been shown that the lecturers use a very limited repertoire of humor forms, neglecting jokes which are more appreciated by their students. Inconsistencies between the participants’ responses are further traced at the level of their attitude towards humor use in class. While most of the teachers believe that the merits of humor are undeniable, they expressed skepticism and discomfort in dealing with this tool in class. To overcome these lacunas, this study builds on the students’ recommendations to improve their teachers’ practices and can therefore be a starting point for EFL curriculum designers in Tunisia to revise current materials for a better humor integration in higher education.
... Therefore, not everything or all is lost for classroom practitioners as the consequence of the 21th century technology advancements as classroom teachers as well as researchers are now exploring in the form of action research new ways of teaching and learning, such as the classroom teachers' creative-innovative teaching techniques and strategies that emphasize, for example, understanding, enjoyment and connection to everyday real world life experiences. Exploring new ways of teaching and learning [3][4][5] is essential if the classroom teachers are to survive the 21th century technological revolutionary changes, combined along with the open attitude of welcoming and embracing such emerging technological trends instead of resisting them. Indeed, teachers cannot only survive but can even thrive and flourish in the face of the fierce competitions with those machine based-driven technological advancements, by not only welcoming or embracing the technological advancements, but also by being versatile, transformative, cooperative, innovative and relying more on alternative-innovative effective teaching technique and strategies, areas where machines are not known to do well on their own. ...
... Besides the rewarding experience, humor use shows students that the teacher is immediately one of them, that is, the teacher is indeed closer, approachable, and friendly both in and outside the classroom environment. This is because "humor can serve as a bridge between educators and students by demonstrating a shared understanding and a common psychological bond" ( [4], p. 177). ...
Chapter
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This chapter expresses the views of a teacher-researcher who advocates and argues for the use of humor in the classroom setting, especially in the mathematics classroom. While existing research based literature has shown the use of humor to be promising and encouraging effecting teaching and learning tool, very little instructional humor or classroom humor–an appropriate type of humor often related to the content materials being discussed–has been used in the classroom setting–especially in the mathematics classrooms. The chapter explores, surveys and highlights ways in which the existing-related literature about the effective and appropriate use of humor in the classroom setting can be implemented in practice, especially in the teaching and learning of mathematics, in this challenging era of the increasingly rapid technological advancements referred to as 21th century technological revolution or the re-engineering of industrial education 5.0 relative to STEM subjects study areas. The use of humor as teaching and learning tool in the classroom setting has been shown to have so many associated benefits ranging from but not limited to a conducive-relaxed learning environment, enhanced students’ learning experience, motivating and inspiring the students to learn more and even the improvement of student-teacher classroom rapport, just to mention a few. Hence, the literature recommends that classroom teachers should make more use of humor as an effective teaching and learning tool, especially the contextualized-appropriate humor types that are related to the content materials being discussed.
... This was obviously reflected in the increased rate of participation and the apparent level of continuous concentration they showed in class. Besides, it was discovered that students' retention of information was developed, for they were unusually able to retain key classroom vocabulary material (related to clothes and parts of the body) on the spot and in later sessions.This finding is corroborated by other researchers, particularly Schmidt (1994) and Garner (2006). ...
... This explains that the learning activities based on which humour was created did not appeal much to students. Moreover, Garner (2006) contended that humour is "highly personal, subjective, and contextual and we cannot always predict the way it will be received" (p. 178). ...
Article
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This study examines the benefits of using humour in the language classroom. It investigates the incorporation of humour in the classroom and how it can facilitate and create pertinent conditions for learning and teaching. It probes students' attitudes towards their teachers' humour, and whether they consider it a learning aid or not. The study used a quasi-experiment that involved two tests and two groups of students: a treatment group and a control one. The pre-test and post-test results and findings revealed that humour facilitates learning and teaching by reducing anxiety, increasing motivation, encouraging participation, boosting concentration and improving retention.
... Educators with a sense of humour are perceived as having a genuine concern for their students [9]. Effectiveness of using humour to increase selfmotivation, improve test performance, develop divergent thinking, help to illustrate and reinforce what is being taught, reinforce interest in learning, reduce anxiety and stress when dealing with difficult material, create positive social and emotional learning environment have been noted in other studies: R. A. Berk [10]; R. Deiter [11]; R. L. Garner [12], J.P. Powell& LW. Andresen [13]. ...
... From the point of view of pedagogy, humour is such a pedagogical tool, which is based on the awareness of communication participants of various types of inconsistencies (between the expected and what happened, between the visible and the real, etc.) associated with a comic effect, relieving psychological stress, contributing to creation of friendly relationship [18]. Educators who use humor are more positively assessed by students, use of humour is associated with students' perception that their teacher has "a positive attitude toward students", and "wants students to succeed" [9] and humour itself can improve learning [12]. ...
Article
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The article examines the issue of humour development as a professionally significant competence of a teacher. Conducted theoretical and empirical studies among students of secondary schools, tertiary education students, teachers and university professors have shown that students of secondary schools and university students, in comparison with school and university teachers, used humour more often in complicated situations. There were also differences in the choice of types of jokes by the respondents. The results of the study of humour reflects the ambiguous attitude towards humour that still exists in the teaching environment. The researchers have recorded the insufficient use of the possibilities of humour by teachers as an effective tool of pedagogical activity. The reason might be found in the current educational paradigm. A teacher is perceived as serious and even authoritarian. The development of this professionally significant quality is not given much attention in the process of training of future teachers. The use of humour as a pedagogical tool will help create conditions for the development of an individual style of professional activity, contribute to an increase in professional competence, pedagogical skills and will become one of the conditions for the effectiveness of solving various professional problems.
... This chimes with studies which lent support to the positive effects of using humor on improving the quality of teacher-student interaction (Praag, et al., 2017), relieving language learners' stress (White, 2001), and enhancing the efficacy of language teaching (Kehr,Molstad, & Donahue, 1999). Teachers reported that building humor into teaching not only helped learners to comprehend and grasp the lessons more efficiently, as Lucas (2005) claimed, but also enabled them to remember and recall the lessons better, a result which upholds Garner (2006) and Kaplan and Pascoe's (1977) research findings. ...
Article
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The present paper deals with the perception of Iranian EFL teachers and learners in using humor in language classrooms. To this end, 10 English classes with a population of 70 female and male students and 5 male and female teachers in English language institutes in Esfahan were observed during spring and summer 2019. Using an ethnographic approach, the data were collected through observation and interview. The results showed that both teachers and learners had a positive attitude towards the use of L2 humor in the classroom. Language learners reasoned that having a sense of humor is one of the important qualities a language teacher should possess. The teachers and language learners acknowledged the positive effects of humor such as reducing the distance between teachers and learners, lowering learners' anxiety, boosting learners' retention of the lesson, as well as increasing their concentration and motivation. Moreover, language learners showed a preference for the use L2 humor, course-related humor, and L1 norm-oriented types of humor in their classroom.
... This was a salient criticism, that was also articulated in feedback in the appeal section. As well as the social benefits of humor in learning environments, many studies also maintain that humor can improve levels of focus and attention, enhance critical thinking, stimulate a desire to learn more, and heighten the recall of lesson details (Bell 2009;Garner 2006;Hill 1988;Kaplan and Pascoe 1977;Ziv 1988). However, Banas et al. (2011) advises that, although humor is an effective means of gaining attention when it comes to interrogating the positive effects of humor on information retention, empirical evidence is far less unequivocal. ...
Article
Cross-reality technologies are quickly establishing themselves as commonplace platforms for presenting objects of historical, scientific, artistic, and cultural interest to the public. In this space, augmented reality (AR) is notably successful in delivering cultural heritage applications, including architectural and environmental heritage reconstruction, exhibition data management and representation, storytelling, and exhibition curation. Generally, it has been observed that the nature of information delivery in applications created for narrating exhibitions tends to be informative and formal. Here we report on the assessment of a pilot scene for a prototype AR application that attempts to break this mold by employing a humorous and playful mode of communication. This bespoke AR experience harnessed the cutting-edge live-action capture technique of volumetric video to create a digital tour guide that playfully embellished the museological experience of the museum visitors. This applied research article consists of measuring, presenting, and discussing the appeal, interest, and ease of use of this ludic AR storytelling strategy mediated via AR technology in a cultural heritage context.
... Vantagens: Esta foi uma forma simples e eficaz de explicar conceitos técnicos tais como a conservação do habitat, a reprodução em cativeiro ou a reintrodução de espécies, ilustrando-os com um exemplo prático. Uma vez que estes temas foram abordados usando o drama e a comédia, esta peça de teatro também foi considerada um modo lúdico de fazer comunicação de ciência (Dowell and Weitkamp, 2012 (Roth et al., 2011;Garner, 2006). Assim, os espectáculos foram apresentados em áreas dedicadas à comunicação da ciência, como museus e centros de ciência, mas também em outros locais mais destinados à stand-up comedy, tais como festivais de comédia, teatros, feiras do livro e hotéis, podendo chegar assim a um público mais amplo (Bultitude and Sardo, 2012). ...
Article
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II. Economia de Fronteira Sérgio Ferreira e Xerardo Pereiro Nesta sessão, o grupo de trabalho foi desafiado a perspetivar o conceito de fronteira segunda a ótica das ciências sociais e humanas. Assim, procurou-se explorar a íntima relação entre território de fronteira, entendido como espaço dotado de caraterísticas próprias, e agentes sociais nele presentes, contribuindo para a sua dinâmica e transformação social. Ao explorarem a economia de fronteira, centraram-se em aspetos distintos, com pressupostos oriundos da sociologia e da antropologia, recorrendo a exemplos práticos a partir de estudos centrados na língua e cultura mirandesas (Sérgio Ferreira) e da potencialidade do turismo em regiões de fronteira (Xerardo Pereiro). No processo de construção social da fronteira, destacou-se a permeabilidade e plasticidade dos movimentos transfronteiriços, superando as tradicionais definições de fronteira marcadas pela rigidez e formalidade jurídico-legal. Ficou demonstrado que a organização política e administrativa, especificamente em zonas de fronteira, não se sobrepõe inteiramente à organização social dos grupos e indivíduos que procuram desenvolver estratégias de cooperação económica (indubitavelmente assimétricas). Para além disso, concluiu-se que este é um espaço pautado por fortes constrangimentos produtivos e por baixos níveis de dinamismo económico. As línguas minoritárias e todo o manancial cultural e patrimonial que as contextualiza, quer no espaço português, quer no espaço espanhol, permite-nos reequacionar o conceito de turismo de fronteira. Finalmente, ressalvou-se a transversalidade deste tema a outros como a multiculturalidade, cooperação transnacional, a par dos processos de reinvenção dos espaços fronteiriços (reinvenção dos próprios modos de vida rurais) através da patrimonialização e turistificação que advém do aproveitamento e maximização das potencialidades dos locais e das gentes que neles ainda habitam.
... That is, the Show as an edutainment adopts humor to teach and motivate viewers across the world to learn English and its culture. This reduces anxiety, tension, and stress (Berk, 2000) critical for successful passive learning of English among the viewers (Garner, 2006). ...
Article
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To develop a reflective tool for promoting teacher effectiveness among preservice EFL teachers, this article seeks to investigate the effectiveness degree of an EFL teacher as it is being depicted in a popular TV show. This is conducted using the Stronge teacher evaluation system to assess the main character’s level of effectiveness as an EFL teacher (Mr. Brown) in the Mind Your Language TV show. Drawing upon the intersection of the character’s effectiveness within the framework of characterization, representation, and perceived realism theory, a qualitative research method involving seven performance indicators of the Stronge teacher evaluation system was adopted to assess the main character. The findings showed that the character is a highly effective EFL teacher because his personal and professional characteristics are evidenced in the evaluation system’s seven performance standards. This suggests that the Show can be used as a reflective tool by preservice EFL teachers to construct and enhance their professional identities and instructional practices. This work contributes to the existing knowledge of teachers’ representation in movies and its implication in preservice EFL education by providing the first study on the representation of EFL teachers in a TV show. A future research direction is also presented.
... There are as many humour types out there in various classroom settings as there are corresponding contextual situations where they apply appropriately and effectively (Gadanidis, Gadanidis, & Huang, 2005;Garner, 2006;Grawe, 2016). So far, successful attempts have been made to identify and classify the various types of humour used by teachers in classroom settings and at least thirteen (13) distinct categories of humour have been identified, all derived from teachers' various humorous behaviours in the classroom setting (Banas, Rodriguez, & Liu, 2011;Weimer, 2013;Chesser, 2013). ...
Article
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While there has been appreciable consensus among humour researchers as well as classroom teachers that the use of humour in the classroom setting can be an effective teaching tool, there is still, however, a dearth of literature available that classroom practitioners could use as a guide in actual practice. Most of the literature currently available tends to address the potential use of classroom humour in general, and does not go into the specifics of exactly “what types of humour forms” are effective. This article addresses this question in the context of a secondary school mathematics classroom in South Sudan’s displaced and re-settled communities, where the lesson plans used in the intervention were infused and laced with instructional humour–humour related to the mathematics concepts being discussed–for the purpose of generating and maintaining student interest in mathematics. Using a researcher constructed observation sheet (RCOS) as the research instrument for capturing the desired qualitative data, five specific literature recommended humour types or categories (namely: mathematical jokes, puns, riddles, related stories and funny-multiple choice items) were used and identified as the ones that generated and maintained interest among the South Sudanese secondary school students. Classroom teachers who would like to use classroom humour for the purpose of motivating and inspiring their students may find the information contained in this article useful, as a practical-reference classroom guide.
... However, it can also provoke exclusion of some groups (Stephenson, 1951), as well as provide camouflage for derogatory comments (Holmes & Marra, 2006, p. 124). From a pedagogical perspective, physiologically, it can assist learning through improved respiration and circulation (Garner, 2004). Cognitively, it can illustrate and reinforce already acquired cultural and linguistic knowledge (Deneire, 1995;Askildson, 2005), reduce anxiety and stress (Consalvo, 1989), increase mental Litera Volume: 31, Number: 2, 2021 sharpness (Cousins, 1991), soften an instruction/criticism (Ross, 1992), and contribute to creative thinking in learning (Ziv, 1988). ...
... In education contexts, this effect creates a more positive emotional and social environment in which students can pay better attention [2,23]. Research also demonstrates that material taught with humour can lead to better retention and recall [6,8,21,65] and humour can increase student interest and ability to engage in divergent thinking [12,64,65]. ...
Preprint
Previous studies have highlighted the benefits of pedagogical conversational agents using socially-oriented conversation with students. In this work, we examine the effects of a conversational agent's use of affiliative and self-defeating humour -- considered conducive to social well-being and enhancing interpersonal relationships -- on learners' perception of the agent and attitudes towards the task. Using a between-subjects protocol, 58 participants taught a conversational agent about rock classification using a learning-by-teaching platform, the Curiosity Notebook. While all agents were curious and enthusiastic, the style of humour was manipulated such that the agent either expressed an affiliative style, a self-defeating style, or no humour. Results demonstrate that affiliative humour can significantly increase motivation and effort, while self-defeating humour, although enhancing effort, negatively impacts enjoyment. Findings further highlight the importance of understanding learner characteristics when using humour.
... 3. Disparaging humor: "other "target any humor attempts that are clearly disparaging in nature and are targeted at individuals or groups other than students. 4. Selfdisparaging humor; type of humor involving the professor criticizing, poking fun of him/herself (9,10) . ...
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Background and objective: Humor makes us think-it creates a relaxed environment where instructors and students contribute to learning. The use of humor is a key teaching strategy that builds the instructor/student relationship and deeply impacts the student learning experience. The current study aims to determine the influence of content-based humor on nursing students' intellectual stimulation, interest, and engagement within a course of obstetric and gynecological nursing. Methods: Quasi-experimental design was utilized. The study was carried out in the obstetrics and gynecology skills lab at the Faculty of Nursing, Damanhour University, Elbehera Governorate. It comprised a purposive sample of 160 undergraduate nursing students, enrolled in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Nursing Department (second semester of the third year in academic year (2018-2019). They were equally randomly assigned to either one of two groups, intervention group (80) and control group (80).Five tools were used: First, socio-demographic characteristics questionnaire sheet. Second, Student Intellectual Stimulation Scale. Third, Student Interest Scale. Fourth, Student Engagement Scale. Fifth,Students' Perception of Instructor Humor Questionnaire.Results:It was found that there was a statistically significant difference in Student Intellectual Stimulation score, Student Interest score, Student Engagement score among the study and control group, where the study group reported high perception about humor in the classroom than the control group.Conclusions:students using humor teaching strategy had better nursing students' intellectual stimulation, engagement and increasing their level of interest in the nursing classroom than conventional learning. The study recommended that humor teaching strategy should be incorporated in obstetric clinical nursing education to increase the level of nursing students' intellectual stimulation, engagement and their level of interest in the nursing classroom.
... As Milner (2013) points out, processes of meme production and exchange bypass problems of access associated with traditional forms of media, since anyone with minimal computer skills and an internet connection can participate. 5 The research cited is from educational contexts, and claims are made that humour increases information retention and other learning outcomes (Kaplan and Pasco 1977, Ziv 1988, Garner 2006. 6 The perspective referred to here is that of studies which suggest a form of covert persuasion through mediated exposure to political views, e.g. ...
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This paper problematises political satire in a time when the COVID-19 virus has provoked numerous deaths worldwide, and had dramatic effects on social behaviour, on a scale unknown in western nations since World War II. Most populations have endured lockdown, periods of enforced domestic imprisonment, which led to images of the empty streets of big cities appearing in media, symbols of the drastic changes that the health emergency was making necessary. Yet, from the outset, comic memes began to circulate across (social) media, while in mainstream print media political satirists continued to lampoon official responses to the ongoing crisis. The paper thus aims to explore the connection of political satire and humour, asking two principle research questions: firstly, how to explain the humorous effects of these multimodal artefacts in such depressing circumstances; secondly, from a pragmatic perspective, to account for their overall socio-political function.The study uses memes taken from various online sources (Facebook, Twitter, Google) during the crisis, analysed according to a mixed approach that blends notions from Humour studies, especially incongruity (Morreall 2016), with insights from linguistic pragmatics (e.g. Kecskes 2014). The findings emphasise the emotional dimension of this form of satire, as the memes work against the backdrop of a range of feelings (anger, bitterness, disappointment, frustration, despair, etc.), many of which have been widely generated by the COVID-19 crisis and political responses to it. In short, to paraphrase Walter Benjamin (2008: 378), man may run out of tears but not of laughter. The findings contribute to our understanding of online satire as an emergent genre, one that uses the affordances of new media to extend the social potentialities of a traditional subversive discourse form.
... (Joseph Janes, et al) If used judiciously, classroom humour has the capability to "humanize, illustrate, defuse, encourage, reduce anxiety, and keep people thinking" (Torok, et al., 2004, p. 19). As explained by Garner (2006), "Well-planned, appropriate, contextual humor can help students ingrain information". According to James, a great deal of benefits can be accrued through the judicious employment of "content-related, non-hostile humour" (2004, p. 93). ...
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The multiplicity of needs and interactions among the diversity of people of the world make it imperative, especially for the Developing World, to learn other language(s). In order to make learning of English as foreign language a success, in a Pakistani scenario, ways and means are required to make it enjoyable, easy, and fast. This research is intended to explore the views and observations of students and teachers regarding the use of humour in language institutes so that informed decisions may be taken regarding the appropriate use of humour in the context of teaching English in Pakistani setting. Humour is one such strong factor, which can help us in learning it efficiently, without much conscious effort in an imperceptible manner. But the use of humour involves some risks. Sometimes because of inappropriate use, humour proves counter-effective and instead of facilitating the teaching-learning process hampers it. At times it becomes offensive or degenerates into careless fun and leads to a circus-like environment. In order to get an idea about the mode of using humour in terms of appropriacy in English language institutes of Pakistan, the researcher conducted a study of 45 students and 11 teachers of the English department of Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, by using a questionnaire employing Likert-scale. Results obtained from the data help us identify the loopholes in its use; they alert us to its improper usage so that humour can be utilized to enhance the language teaching-learning process manifold, instead of disrupting it.
... Modern pedagogy, however, defines teaching and learning as an interactive discourse and emphasizes the role of personality in the process of knowledge construction. Accordingly, today, the role of humor is explored side by side with other communicative and affective factors of the process [6]. ...
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The paper deals with ways of using humor in mathematics teaching and learning. It thus concerns three areas of human activity: mathematics, pedagogy, and humor. Because we are must try to establish some meaningful relationships in the absence of precise definitions for each area, we will rely on the phenomenological approach and use some of the characteristics of each area that have been considered in the professional literature to describe each one. Accordingly, one would be prudent to accept everything written in this article with a certain reservation. As Bertrand Russell said concerning mathematics: “… we never know what we are talking about, nor whether what we are saying is true
... Humor in pedagogy tentunya bukan untuk merusak atmosfir pembelajaran dan juga tidak untuk menjadikan ruang kelas menjadi ajang stand-up comedi. Prinsip yang digunakan, bagaimana humor mampu mendorong peserta didik konsentrasi dan menguasai materi (Daumiller, Bieg, Dickhäuser, & Dresel, 2019;Garner, 2006;Stroud, 2013). Senada dengan itu, beberapa hasil riset terkini menekankan pentingnya integrasi humor dalam proses pembelajaran, bahkan data empirik menunjukkan penyisipan humor dalam kegiatan pembelajaran di kelas dapat meningkatkan hubungan emosional yang baik guru dengan para peserta didik (Attardo, 2020;Bolkan et al., 2018;Embalzado & Sajampun, 2020). ...
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Riset tentang humor in pedagogi merupakan ‘sesuatu’ dan ‘sisi lain’ yang ada dalam kegiatan pembelajaran, namun kurang banyak diperhatikan pendidikan, guru dan dosen. Naskah ini bertujuan untuk mengungkap persepsi mahasiswa tentang humor in pedagogy terhadap minat dan motivasi belajar, serta mengapa humor in pedagogy berdampak pada minat dan motivasi belajar. Riset campuran ini ditopang data survey dan wawancara. Partisipan riset melibatkan 320 mahasiswa FITK. Hasil menunjukkan humor in pedagogy berdampak positif terhadap minat dan motivasi belajar mahasiswa. Hasil wawancara menunjukkan, mahasiswa menyukai dosen yang mengajar dengan menyisipkan humor in pedagogy, sebaliknya mayoritas mahasiswa partisipan riset tidak menyukai dosen yang anti humor in pedagogy.
... Professors that use humor in the classroom as a pedagogical technique increase their credibility, likability, image, and overall teaching effectiveness (Deiter, 2000). When there is an increase in teaching effectiveness, students typically improve academically, and it could be concluded that using humor in the classroom can improve the retention and recollection of the material by the students (Garner, 2006). Previous research has also shown that the use of humor while teaching positively influences and improves the average student engagement levels with the professor and within the class (Nienaber et al., 2019). ...
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Great teachers have the extraordinary ability to inspire and motivate even those students who resist learning. The top educators are not only knowledgeable about the content of the course they are teaching but also of the information, literature and practice of instructional delivery to their audience. Many exemplary educators have been profiled and studied; however, there is a paucity of information pertaining to how the top animal science teachers teach. The objective of this study was to identify and describe characteristics of award-winning animal science teachers. The inclusion criterion for selecting faculty was being bestowed an excellence in teaching award through their professional organization. Each teacher answered a series of questions about themselves, their students, and the class being taught. Lecture was captured using a digital all-inclusive camera and later analyzed for pedagogical trends and instructor-student interactions. Despite a variety of topics being taught by award-winning teachers, there were multiple trends emerging from their classrooms. Common events included, reviewing highlights of previous lectures, distributing something to students, posing questions during class and calling on students by name. Each teacher taught differently, but they all understood their audience; they grasped the subject matter and most importantly, they valued students learning. Collectively, these findings can be utilized and applied by animal science teachers in their own environments in an attempt to foster improved student learning through excellent teaching.
... Despite this dearth of research-informed practice, the literature on pedagogical humor (see e.g., Banas et al., 2011;Bell, 2011;Heidari-Shahreza, 2020 indicates humor, among other things, can (a) enhance students' motivation, satisfaction, class engagement and enjoyment; (b) contribute to more immediacy behaviors, higher class interaction, and a more agreeable class ambience; (c) provide opportunities for peer teaching and student-centered learning; and (d) aid in learning and retaining content knowledge more effectively. In short, as Garner (2006) contended, "[t]he 'ha-ha' of humor in the classroom may indeed contribute to the 'aha!' of learning from the student" (p. 180). ...
Article
In this article, I intend to reflect on my five-year experience of engaging in ‘pedagogical humor’. These personal reflections are written from the perspective of a teacher and researcher who works in the adult language education of Iran. The beneficial effects of humor in adult education are discussed against a backdrop of academic burnout.
... It can distract students in class, reduce their motivation to teach and thus hinder learning (Poirier & Wilhelm, 2014). When used correctly, humor has the potential to increase self-esteem, self-motivation, and engagement in the learning process by creating a positive learning environment (Garner, 2006). Moreover, humor is a powerful tool as an icebreaker for relationships with students and teachers. ...
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Humor is considered an educational method that can be implemented in educational processes with a wide range of educational variables. Examining the scope of research on educational humor has the potential to guide future studies. Therefore, the aim of this study is to show the conceptual trend in humor research in education over the past decade. 989 publications on the subject of humor in education were analyzed using the text mining method. A text analytic tool was used for the analysis, and the titles, abstracts, and keywords were included in the text analytics. As a result of the study, humor was studied in terms of various variables in different educational fields. In addition, the reflections of humor in education base on technological developments and the target groups applied were also revealed. The findings revealed the conceptual relationships and concept maps by year. It was concluded that the concept of humor in educational research is particularly related to the variables of motivation, attention, skill, creativity, engagement, and interest. Upon comparing 2010 and 2019, it has been observed that concepts related to online education, science, collaborative learning, and technology in humor studies have spread in recent years. In addition, humor has also emerged as a research phenomenon in language, health, and science education.
... Pourtant, certains enseignants évoquent également avoir recours à l'humour dans les échanges qu'ils entreprennent avec les garçons, ce qui nous laisse penser qu'ils entretiendraient des relations plus informelles ou plus spontanées avec eux. En effet, l'humour demeure apprécié par les élèves (Archambault et Chouinard, 2016) et son utilisation permettrait d'améliorer la qualité de la REE sur le plan affectif (Davis, 2006) ainsi que de favoriser l'engagement personnel des élèves (Garner, 2006). Bien que des enseignants disent se montrer respectueux et ouverts à la discussion auprès des garçons, il n'en demeure pas moins qu'ils sont portés à moins intervenir directement auprès de ceux-ci, mais plutôt à impliquer les parents ou la direction dans le processus de gestion de classe. ...
... Berk (1996Berk ( , 1998, Glenn (2002), and Pollio and Humphreys (1996) note that the use of humour in teaching has both psychological and physiological effects on learners. Although Garner (2003) previously cautioned against the use of humour in teaching, as humour has potential of causing as much harm as good, he also noted in that when used appropriately, humour carries sufficient power to have positive effects on students learning and retention (Garner 2006). Some educators may argue that issues of social justice and global citizenship education are too serious to use humour to teach, as such an approach has the potential of trivializing and disrupting learning (Ascham 1969;Cantor and Venus 1980;Gutek 1970;Terry and Woods 1975). ...
... Studies have shown that incorporating humour in a lesson that is taught using an Information Communications Technology (ICT) tool has a positive impact on learners' attitude towards the lesson. This is because the use of humour provides a cognitive break for learners to absorb the information presented (Garner, 2006). In this way, learners are more likely to be motivated to learn (Panaoura, 2012). ...
... Humor tied to course content was positively associated with learning (Hackathorn et al., 2011;Wanzer et al., 2010). Garner (2006) found support for the benefits of humor on statistics content retention; students who were in the humor condition retained more information while also reporting more positive opinions of the class and the instructor. ...
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Journal on Excellence in College Teaching https://eric.ed.gov/?q=source%3A%22Journal+on+Excellence+in+College+Teaching%22&ff1=subCase+Studies&id=EJ1185678
Article
The focus of this study was on how students created and shared humor in an online multimodal learning environment. Across two semesters of a graduate course on psycholinguistics in education, 28 students posted 1006 pins on a social-networking webpage (Pinterest) that were subjected to a multimodal content analysis. The Pinterest boards provided a dialogic space for students to engage in on-going collaborative exploration of notable ways of using language in authentic sociocultural spaces. Many examples of humorous uses of language attested to students’ playful and creative application of course concepts. Through participants’ comments on pins and multimodal aspects of pins that transformed the nature of student-shared examples, some pins, originally not intended to be funny, came to represent examples of humor. Students took risks in pinning what they envisioned as possibly misconceived or even provocative content in pursuit of refining their understanding of psycholinguistic concepts.
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Smalltalk mit einem Statistiker: F: “Wie ist dein Verhältnis zu deinen Eltern? A: “1:2.” Solche und ähnliche, kurze oder lange Witze, aber auch Cartoons und andere humorvolle Mittel erheitern nicht nur Statistiker*innen, sondern schaffen auch für Studierende einen einfachen, positiven Zugang zu einem allgemein als schwierig empfundenen Fach wie Statistik. Dieser Artikel soll die Relevanz und die positiven Effekte von Humor im Unterricht im Allgemeinen, aber vor allem von einfach einzusetzenden Materialien wie Witze und Cartoons hervorheben. Es werden Hinweise und Vorschläge zum richtigen Einsatz gegeben, der Umsetzung im Unterricht sind aber natürlich keine Grenzen gesetzt. Darüber hinaus enthält der Artikel eine Sammlung von frei verfügbaren Onlineressourcen, die sich sofort im Statistikunterricht einsetzen lassen und in denen jede*r, die für die konkrete Unterrichtssituation passenden Materialen finden kann. Als Beispielanwendung werden Materialien für den Einsatz in einer Einführungsveranstaltung zu einer Unterrichtseinheit zu Linearer Regression gezeigt und die persönlichen Erfahrungen der Autorin kurz zusammengefasst. Wir als Statistiker*innen wissen natürlich, dass Statistik Spaß macht – nun sollten wir dies auch genauso an Studierende vermitteln, wieso nicht mithilfe von Witzen und Cartoons?
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Students of all ages develop best in the context of caring relationships, and this chapter discusses why it is true from the neurobiological perspective. The chapter covers the historical highlights of collaborative work in neuroscience and education; the neurobiology of human development in the context of nurturing or problematic relationships from infancy through early adulthood; latest research that shows how supportive and secure relationships stimulate brain development and promote emotional regulation that enhances learning; neurobiology of childhood trauma, and pedagogical and counseling implications; and wider applications of the presented findings in fostering student support in schools and on college campuses.
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Parallel with the invention of new media and devices, the problem of achieving and sustaining attention in the classrooms and during individual work of students, increases. Using comics is one approach to address this problem. In this paper the analysis of comics usage in learning materials for German language classes for fifth – eight grade of elementary school is given. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the usage of comics in presentation and practising. Forty textbooks and workbooks from different authors and publishers have been analysed. The appearance of comics with a single picture and with several pictures has been counted. It was established that the authors recognized the possibility of using comics in German language teaching. Single picture comics have been used more often than comics with multiple pictures. It was also noticed that the authors recognized the usefulness of comics in practice tasks.
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The uses of verbal humour in teaching language has change the face of education. Over the years, types of humour used evolve as it delivers different impacts towards learners' comprehension. In developing countries like Malaysia, little researches were done to investigate the learners' preference on the usage of verbal humours as they revealed to be influencing factors to the process of learning second language. The research analyses quantitative and qualitative data with theoretical analysis of scholarly sources in determining the impacts of verbal humour in education. The findings indicate that humour increases cultural awareness and language comprehension while learning language although teacher needs to be wary with the types of humour chosen as it may obstruct the learning process if used insensitively. The funding of the research is mainly from MARA research fund administered by Research and Innovation Centre (RICE) of Kolej University Poly-Tech MARA Kuala Lumpur (KUPTMKL). This paper investigates the use of verbal humour in teaching English as a second language among secondary schools in Klang Valley.
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This article discusses the use of humour and explores the impact of emotionally charged material used in nursing education, putting forward suggestions about the use of stand-up comedy techniques to enhance presentation skills. It further explores neurobiological evidence that may support these suggestions. As the landscape of nurse education is changing, the article discusses how larger class sizes, online delivery via virtual learning environments and other technology-enhanced learning methods may impact on how lessons are presented.
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This chapter aimes to provide theoretical and practical knowledge on how humor-based STEM education can be implemented.
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This study investigated the effect of humor in religious stories on a child’s ability to remember, understand, and paraphrase content, as well as on enjoyment. Ages of the children were also considered. Participants watched one of two videos teaching the story of Saul’s conversion found in Acts 9:1–22. Although inclusion of humor did not have a significant impact, there was a significant effect of age on remembering, understanding, and paraphrasing. Previous exposure to the story increased overall scores, which suggests that repetition is key to a successful learning experience.
Chapter
Humour, a positive psychology (PP1.0) construct (Fischer, Carow, & Eger, 2020) is a central component of resiliency. Having a sense of humour is a sign of human strength, intelligence, and psychological maturity (Abel, 2016; Ghaemi, 2011). Humour allows individuals to emotionally distance themselves from a stressful event in order to cope. Humour is considered as a crucial job resource for individuals across cultures. It has been further credited for several positive outcomes such as resilience and well-being (Billig, 2018). The objective of the chapter is to present a critical review of the moderating role of resilience in adaptive humour styles (self-enhancing and affiliative humour) and well-being at work from a PP1.0 perspective. The findings of the study of Bhattacharyya, Jena, and Pradhan (2019) indicate a significant association between the adaptive humour styles and well-being at work, with resilience as a moderator.
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As educators around the world are exploring new approaches to keep students involved in remote learning during the pandemic, we investigated the utility of memes in promoting engagement in the online environment. Medical students enrolled in human physiology course at the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sohar, Oman were provided with an option to create memes related to the learning outcomes in renal physiology. 146 out of 280 students chose to create memes (52%) and the remaining students chose to submit either a labelled diagram or a concept map. Students uploaded their work in the discussion forum of the learning management system. All students enrolled in the course were given an opportunity for interaction with the uploaded content by commenting and upvoting thereafter. Students were requested to give anonymous feedback on their experience specifically on the activity related to memes. Feedback received from 142 out of 280 students through anonymous comments were subjected to thematic analysis. Based on the analysis of the data, we found that memes elicited interest in the topic, facilitated peer interaction, simplified complex ideas, enhanced retention of associated concepts and fostered a positive learning environment.
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We investigated the relationship between teacher-humour types and academic performance in online learning and the role of student academic interest in that relationship. Our study participants were 2 401 college students from 22 universities across China (female =68.1 %, mean age = 19.73 years, SD =1.08 years). The students completed a measure of teacher- humour types (content, non-content-related, self-disparaging, aggressive) and an academic interest measure. We accessed the student’s academic records as academic performance measure. Path analysis indicated that all types of teacher-humour predicted higher student academic achievement with online teaching. Furthermore, academic interest mediated all teacher- humour types and academic performance, enhancing the teacher-humour effect. These findings suggest that teacher- humour styles would improve the quality of online teaching, enhancing achievement through higher learning engagement.
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Online learning is an established and growing segment of higher education. Instructors, instructional designers, and leadership should focus on establishing instructor and social presence to overcome student feelings of isolation and boredom which can lead to disengagement and have negative effects on learning. The use of humor is an effective tool to combine with instructor presence to help improve student engagement, satisfaction, and memory retention. This chapter will review recent literature on the subjects of instructor presence, boredom, and humor and make recommendations for its use.
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This article examines the role of humor in educational process of the university. There is a generally accepted opinion that humor is a positive characteristic of teaching and learning. However, it is quite difficult to determine its positive value as far as helping students. Therefore, the subject of this research is the analysis of using humor in the educational process, psychological grounds of its impact, pros and cons of using humor, as well as peculiarities of students’ perception of humor and their response. The methodological framework is comprised of systematization and analysis of scientific publications; generalized practical experience in determination of the key trends and problems using humor in the educational process. The author examines the role of humor in different aspects of the educational process, the impact humor upon motivation and emotional state, use of humor in educational games and nonverbal communication, as well as peculiarities of students' perception of humor, miscomprehension of jokes, and negative humor. It is demonstrated that the proper use of humor in the educational process contributed to position emotional state of students, increases their motivation and interest in learning, reduces anxiety and stress, strengthens confidence, improves performance, and encourages divergent and logical thinking. However, the improper use of humor may entail negative results.
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This paper draws on a study that examined the experiences of four high-achieving Pasifika physiotherapy degree level students to identify factors contributing to their success. As peer students, they identified five approaches that assisted them to become high achievers within the tertiary environment. This paper refers specifically to these approaches as peer-based Pasifika pedagogies (PbPP) and broadly as culturally responsive practices. The aim of this paper is to examine how Pasifika pedagogies, such as PbPP provide culturally responsive practices that can address the ‘culture of silence’ while promoting the vā relationality, the cultural nuances and norms of their worldview as well as aligning it with modern pedagogies or tools to enhance success among Pasifika students in the New Zealand tertiary education context.
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Provocation three: from space to (embodied) place: a manifesto for sensory learning In site-specific practices
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Classroom humor is still a subject of spirited debate in (formal) language settings. While some language teachers frown upon humor as a distraction from the serious business of learning and teaching, it is regarded as an insightful phenomenon, conducive to pedagogical benefits, by some others. In light of the relevant literature, this article initially conceptualizes humor in the language classroom. Then, under the purview of several common TESOL paradigms, the use of humor in language contexts is justified and its beneficial effects are elaborated on. The paper elucidates how focus on form and fun can coincide during class interaction, offering valuable opportunities for language acquisition. Finally considering the double-edged nature of humor, the paper warns against the practical pitfalls and puts forth guidelines for successful implementation of classroom humor. In doing so, special attention is paid to issues such as teachers’ concerns, learners’ sociocultural and individual differences, and humor linguistic demands.
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This three-year study evaluated the effectiveness of 10 system-atic strategies for using humor as a teaching tool: (a) humorous material on syllabi; (b) descriptors, cautions, and warnings on the covers of handouts; (c) opening jokes; (d) skits/dramatiza-tions; (e) spontaneous humor; (f) humorous questions; (g) humorous examples; (h) humorous problem sets; (i) Jeopar-dy! ™ -type reviews for exams; and (j) humorous material on exams. Student ratings at the end of three undergraduate and five graduate statistics courses assessed the extent to which each strategy reduced anxiety, improved the ability to learn, and made it possible to perform at one's best on problems and exams. Median student ratings of the three outcomes for all of the strategies across all of the classes over three years indicated consistent evaluations of Very Effective to Extremely Effec-tive.
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This study quantifies the effects of student behavior, teacher attributes, and course characteristics on class attendance and performance. Several notable factors that influence attendance and grades are motivation, prior grade point average (GPA), self-financing by students, hours worked on jobs, quality of teaching, and nature of class lectures. This study provides strong empirical evidence of the positive influence of class attendance on student performance.
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The use of humor by teachers in the college classroom was examined through a systematic content analysis of sample presentations from university classes. In addition to an assessment of the frequency with which humor was employed, characteristics of the type of humor used by college teachers were examined. It was determined that a substantial proportion of college teachers employ humor in presenting educational material. Moreover, several patterns of humor usage were discovered.
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The biographical and educational backgrounds, the teaching careers, and classroom performances of nine professors who had won teaching awards were studied, based on interviews and classroom observation. Five of the professors were male, four were female, and they ranged in age from the early forties to late sixties. Six had doctorates and three had masters degrees. Common background elements noted were nonaffluent families, strong academic preparation, and motivation to seek a teaching career through an inspiring teacher. Common classroom performance elements were an enjoyment of teaching, an enthusiasm for the subject, excellent command of the language and delivery, the injection of humor, and the comparison of teaching to a theatrical performance. All subjects made an earnest attempt to make their students learn and tried to actively involve them through questions and discussions. Little use was made of notes or the lecture method. The teachers were divided on the necessity for them to conduct research and to publish. They questioned the priority given to research/publishing over teacher excellence in salary and promotion considerations. Attention is also directed to the way these professors would have been rated for merit salary increases at their university. (Author/SW)
Article
In a field study, 70 college students unobtrusively tape-recorded 1 class presentation and evaluated the teacher as to appeal, competence, delivery, and teaching effectiveness. The presentations were content analyzed to identify key features relating to humor usage. Following a factor analysis of aspects of evaluation, correlation coefficients were computed between the teachers' frequency of use of the various types of humor and students' evaluations of their professors. Results indicate that for male teachers, usage of humor was generally positively related to appeal, delivery, and teaching effectiveness. For female teachers, only the use of hostile humor was associated with enhanced appeal. In contrast, female teachers' usage of some nonhostile forms of humor was associated with loss of appeal. (36 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Unless a relational base is developed, the teacher's effort to incorporate humor into instruction may go unrewarded.
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Two studies investigating the influence of a humorous atmosphere on students' creativity scores are presented. In the first study 78 adolescents were shown humorous film clips and given a task requiring them to write captions for cartoons. A creativity test was subsequently administered to these students and to a control group. In the second study, Form A of the Torrance creativity test (TCT) with standard instructions was given to 130 adolescents. These were then divided into two groups, one experimental and one control. The experimental group was instructed to complete Form B of the TCT with humorous responses, while the control group was instructed to proceed as before. Results of both experiments showed that a humorous atmosphere significantly increases creativity scores. Several explanations for the findings were proposed and the practical applicability of the results in education were stressed.
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A famous writer and editor uses a novel approach to recover from a crippling disease in which he had a 1 in 500 chance of recovery. The method he uses offers new evidence that Vitamin C may have virtues unrealized. His account has raised many eyebrows in medical circles.
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Lectures and other class meetings are a primary means of instruction in almost all undergraduate courses. Yet almost everyone who has taught an undergraduate course has probably noticed that attendance at these meetings is far from perfect. There is surprisingly little systematic evidence, however, about attendance and its effects. There are three natural questions: What is the extent of absenteeism? How much, if at all, does absenteeism affect learning? Should anything be done about absenteeism? This article presents quantitative evidence on the first two of these questions and speculative comments on the third.
Using humor in the college classroom to enhance teaching effectiveness in "dread courses
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Professors are from Mars, students are from Snickers
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Which came first, the chicken or the egg? A foul metaphor for teaching
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Humor in the classroom
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Best and worst university teachers: The opinion of undergraduate students
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Brain research: Practical applications for the classroom
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Humor in the classroom: A handbook for teachers
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