Article

Composition, Nutrition, and Utilization of Okara (Soybean Residue)

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Abstract

Okara is a byproduct generated during tofu or soymilk production processes. It contains about 50% dietary fiber, 25% protein, 10% lipid and other nutrients. The huge quantities of okara produced annually pose a significant disposal problem. Extensive studies have been done on the chemical composition, nutritional values and biological activities of okara and on its potential utilization. Due to its high fiber content and low production costs, okara is a good raw material and rich source for preparing fiber and could also be used as a dietary supplement to prevent diabetes, obesity and hyperlipidemia. Chemical or enzymatic treatment, fermentation, extrusion, high pressure, and micronization can increase the content of soluble fiber of okara, which improves its nutritional quality and processing properties. Fresh okara putrefies quickly due to its high moisture content, so it should be dried as early as possible. This review focuses on the application of okara in the food industry as partial replacement for wheat or soy flour to increase fiber and protein contents of foods. Okara can also be used as a fermentation substrate to produce a variety of products (natto, fibrinolytic enzymes, α-glucosidase inhibitor, β-fructofuranosidase, edible fungi, iturin A, chitosan, alcohol, etc.) for human consumption and nonfood production. In addition, the application of okara in feed and environmentally friendly material has also been documented.

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... High demand for soybean-derived products, particularly in the Asian countries, has led to huge biomass production of okara annually across the world. The annual generation of okara in China, Japan and Korea measured 2,800,000 tons, 800,000 tons, and 310,000 tons, respectively [1]. Okara contains a high nutritional value, which is comprised of: 55% fiber, 26% protein, 10% lipid, 4% carbohydrate and abundant minerals and vitamins [2]. ...
... Okara contains a high nutritional value, which is comprised of: 55% fiber, 26% protein, 10% lipid, 4% carbohydrate and abundant minerals and vitamins [2]. However, the nutrients in okara are largely under-utilized at present, the majority of okara is discarded as waste, and only a minor portion is used as an animal feed, leading to economic loss [1]. The fact remains that okara is underutilized as an alternative food product, the bulk of okara waste is still treated as a non-salvageable waste, which sheer size of production cannot be sufficiently absorbed into secondary product stream and is eventually discarded. ...
... Much research has been conducted to utilize the rich nutrient content in okara [1,2,4]. Yet, successful applications using okara are limited due to its insolubility, attributed to its high fiber content. ...
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Despite the rich nutritional content of okara, the majority remains underutilized and discarded as food waste. In this study, solid-state fermentation of okara with food-grade fungi was performed to extract and solubilize any remnant nutrients locked within the lignocellulosic matrix to produce a nutrient-rich okara fermentate. Fermented okara media (FOM) was used as the sole nutrient source for growing marine diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Results have shown a two-fold increase in biomass production when grown on FOM (0.52 g L−1) as compared with conventional Guillard’s F/2 media (0.25 g L−1). Furthermore, cellular fucoxanthin content was enhanced significantly by two-fold to reach a final concentration of 15.3 mg g−1 compared to 7.3 mg g−1. Additionally, a significantly higher amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was produced, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) which yield has increased by nearly three-fold. Metabolomics analysis of intracellular contents in fermented okara culture revealed a significantly enhanced accumulation of nitrogenous metabolites, alongside the decrease in sugar metabolites as compared to F/2 culture, thus indicating metabolic flux towards pathways involved in cellular growth. This study demonstrated an innovative and low-cost strategy of using fermented okara as a nutritious substrate for achieving a sustainable media replacement for high density algal growth with a simultaneous enhancement of production in highly valued nutraceuticals, including fucoxanthin and EPA.
... Its relevant protein (15-47% d.b.) and dietary fiber content (46-60% d.b.), in addition to a considerable amount of isoflavones (~ 3.4 µmol/g d.b.), have attracted interest in using okara as a food ingredient considering its technofunctional properties and also its nutritional aspects (Li et al., 2012;Villares et al., 2011;Yoshida & Prudencio, 2020). However, the high moisture content of fresh okara (> 80%) makes it susceptible to deterioration very fast which hinders its utilization by the food industry (Lazarin et al., 2020;Li et al., 2012). ...
... Its relevant protein (15-47% d.b.) and dietary fiber content (46-60% d.b.), in addition to a considerable amount of isoflavones (~ 3.4 µmol/g d.b.), have attracted interest in using okara as a food ingredient considering its technofunctional properties and also its nutritional aspects (Li et al., 2012;Villares et al., 2011;Yoshida & Prudencio, 2020). However, the high moisture content of fresh okara (> 80%) makes it susceptible to deterioration very fast which hinders its utilization by the food industry (Lazarin et al., 2020;Li et al., 2012). ...
... The isoflavones occur in four distinct chemical classes of structures: aglycones, acetylglycosides, malonylglycosides, and β-glycosides, which are susceptible to interconversion between them. The interconversion reactions, which are influenced by the moisture content and the thermal treatment, play an important role during soy-product processing because the different isoflavone forms possess different bioavailability (Chien et al., 2005;Li et al., 2012). In addition, okara contains trypsin inhibitor, an antinutritional factor that reduces the bioavailability of trypsin. ...
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This manuscript studied the effectiveness of microwave-assisted rotating-pulsed fluidized bed to dry okara and its effect on bioactive compounds. The microwave (MW) power (100‒400 W) and application time (throughout the drying process and only the first 10 min of drying) were evaluated. The MW application accelerated the moisture losses of okara and the equilibrium moisture content was achieved earlier. Moreover, MW was effective in partially inactivating trypsin inhibitors present in okara due to the higher temperature inside the drying chamber. Such higher temperatures (> 75 °C) resulted in higher isoflavone losses without affecting the interconversion of isoflavones forms. We successfully applied a microwave-assisted rotating-pulsed fluidized bed to dry okara with a significantly high drying rate. Nevertheless, more studies are required to adjust the process parameters aiming to preserve isoflavone and to favor the interconversion of conjugated isoflavones to aglycones that present high bioavailability.
... The Japanese word "okara" means "honorable hull" or "soy pulp." Okara is often referred to as soy pulp or tofu dregs [13,14]. This large amount of agricultural waste has become a potential hazard to the environment because it has high moisture and protein contents that are highly susceptible to decomposition. ...
... These findings are correlated to Yoshida et al. (2020) [25], who studied the okara and described its nutritional composition. Li et al. (2012) also found okara's major components are dietary fiber (42-58%), protein (15-33%), and fat (8-10%) [13]. All the values are taken as the average of 3 (n = 3). ...
... These findings are correlated to Yoshida et al. (2020) [25], who studied the okara and described its nutritional composition. Li et al. (2012) also found okara's major components are dietary fiber (42-58%), protein (15-33%), and fat (8-10%) [13]. All the values are taken as the average of 3 (n = 3). ...
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Soybean has good nutritional and functional properties, which are essential for human physiology. Okara, a residue from soybean processing industries has a distinct profile of nutrients and phytochemicals. Therefore, the current study was planned to investigate the functional importance of okara. In the first phase of this study, okara was isolated from soybean and characterized in terms of protein, fat, ash, soluble dietary fiber, and insoluble dietary fiber. Furthermore, the okara flour was characterized using FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), and micrograph images were obtained using SEM (scanning electron microscope). In the second phase of study, synbiotic (prebiotics + probiotics) yogurt was prepared with 3% concentrations of okara. Treatments were named as OFYo (control), OFY1 (probiotics), and OFY2 (3% okara + probiotics). Yogurt was subjected to physicochemical, antioxidant, microbiological, and sensory analysis. The addition of okara significantly affected nutritional and antioxidant attributes of yogurt (p < 0.05). The results indicated that adding 3% okara affected the protein, fat, water holding capacity, and color. Total phenolic contents, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) activity and ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) activity increased due to the addition of okara. Likewise, the highest total viable count (8.25 log CFU/mL) and probiotic count (8.98 log CFU/mL) were noted in yogurt with 3% okara. Okara has dietary fibers; this dietary fiber acts as a prebiotic source for probiotic L. Rhamnosus. This shows that okara has a different prebiotic potential. The addition of okara has promising potential for the development of functional food.
... therefore, this meal can be a potential alternative to replace FM in aquafeeds. On dry matter basis, contents of crude protein, crude lipid, crude fiber, nitrogen free extract, and ash of SR range from 15.2 to 32.2%, 6.9 to 10.9%, 9.1 to 18.6%, 27.5 to 46.3%, and 3.0 to 4.5%, respectively (Bourne, 1976; Van der Riet et al., 1989;O'Toole, 1999;Li et al., 2012). Soybean reportedly contains anti-nutritional factors, such as β-conglycinin, glycinin, trypsin inhibitors, stachyose, raffinose, saponins, lectins, and phytate, which negatively influence growth performance, feed utilization, and physiological conditions of aquatic animals, including fish species (Francis et al., 2001;Krogdahl et al., 2003;Iwashita et al., 2008). ...
... The diets were named as follows: FMD (FM diet, the reference), SR35D (35% SR diet), FSR35D (35% FSR diet), SR50D (50% SR diet), and FSR50D (50% FSR diet). Because the content of methionine in SR was relatively low (Li et al., 2012), this amino acid was added in the SR35D and FSR35D at the level of 7 g/kg diet and in the SR50D and FSR50D at the level of 10 g/ kg diet in order to equalize its content to FMD. All of the experimental diets were supplemented with chromium oxide (5 g/kg diet) as an inert marker for determinations of nutrient ADCs. ...
... Some studies have demonstrated that soybean fiber also decreases growth and feed performances in fish (Dioundick and Stom, 1990;Amirkolaie et al., 2005;Lekva et al., 2010;Zhonga et al., 2020). Fermentation has been suggested to be an effective method to improve the nutritional quality of soybean meal by reducing the amount of oligosaccharides, fiber, soy antigens, trypsin inhibitors, phytate, and breaking down β-conglycinin into smaller peptides (Hong et al., 2004;Feng et al., 2007;Li et al., 2012;Nguyen et al., 2020). It has been reported that growth performance, feed utilization, and physiological conditions of fish are elevated by feeding with fermented soybean meal-included diets as compared to unfermented soybean meal-included diets (Azarm and Lee, 2014;Nguyen et al., 2020;Mai et al., 2021). ...
Article
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This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary replacement of fish meal (FM) by raw soybean residue (SR) and fermented soybean residue (FSR) on growth performance, biological parameters and nutrient apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.). FSR was obtained by fermenting SR with Bacillus subtilis V37. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to replace 35% or 50% of FM by SR or FSR. The diets were denoted as follows: FMD, SR35D, FSR35D, SR50D, and FSR50D. The FMD (the reference diet) contained FM as a main source of dietary protein. A total of 300 fingerling red tilapia with an initial body weight (BW) of 13.7 g were randomly distributed into 15 tanks (20 fish/tank, 3 tanks/dietary treatment) and fed the experimental diets twice daily, for 8 weeks. Results showed that fish fed SR35D and SR50D had significantly lower final BW, weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR), but higher feed conversion ratio (FCR), than fish fed FMD (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, no significant differences in growth performance and feed utilization between the FSR35D and FMD groups were detected. Fish fed FSR-included diets showed significantly better growth performance and FCR than those fed SR-included diets (P < 0.05). Feeding the fish with SR35D and SR50D reduced digestive enzyme activity, bile juice secretion, and nutrient ADCs. These parameters of the experimental fish were markedly improved by feeding with FSR35D and FSR50D, and no statistical differences were observed between FSR35D-and FMD-fed fish. The results of the current study indicated that SR interfered with digestive enzyme activity, bile juice secretion, nutrient ADCs, and growth and feed performances. The enhancements of these parameters in fish fed FSR-included diets suggested that fermentation of SR with Bacillus subtilis V37 benefited digestive physiology, growth performance and feed utilization of red tilapia fed soybean protein-based diets.
... 86 For instance, one metric ton of soybeans generates seven metric tonnes of soymilk and two metric tonnes of okara as byproducts. 87 Okara is a white or yellowish pulp with a moisture content of 80−85%, which on a dry-matter-basis contains crude protein (20.9−39.1%), fiber (12.2−61.3%), ...
... and ash (3.4−5.3%). 87 Although almost half of the currently produced okara is used as livestock feed or fish food, its rapid putrefaction and high drying cost result in the majority of it being directly disposed of by incineration or dumped in landfills. 86 More recently, some techniques have been proposed to transform okara into higher-value products. ...
... 314 While most commonly employed as livestock feed due to its protein content between 20−30%, 314 okara is consumed in China and Japan as a side dish and human dietary supplement to control diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, as it is rich in fibers, isoflavones, and minerals. 87 Additionally, fermented okara can be used for the production of bioactive compounds and other nutritional ingredients. 315 Okara has also shown improvements in nutrition through fermentation with different bacteria strains, increasing accessibility to macronutrients and improving digestibility. ...
Article
For each kilogram of food protein wasted, between 15 and 750 kg of CO2 end up in the atmosphere. With this alarming carbon footprint, food protein waste not only contributes to climate change but also significantly impacts other environmental boundaries, such as nitrogen and phosphorus cycles, global freshwater use, change in land composition, chemical pollution, and biodiversity loss. This contrasts sharply with both the high nutritional value of proteins, as well as their unique chemical and physical versatility, which enable their use in new materials and innovative technologies. In this review, we discuss how food protein waste can be efficiently valorized not only by reintroduction into the food chain supply but also as a template for the development of sustainable technologies by allowing it to exit the food-value chain, thus alleviating some of the most urgent global challenges. We showcase three technologies of immediate significance and environmental impact: biodegradable plastics, water purification, and renewable energy. We discuss, by carefully reviewing the current state of the art, how proteins extracted from food waste can be valorized into key players to facilitate these technologies. We furthermore support analysis of the extant literature by original life cycle assessment (LCA) examples run ad hoc on both plant and animal waste proteins in the context of the technologies considered, and against realistic benchmarks, to quantitatively demonstrate their efficacy and potential. We finally conclude the review with an outlook on how such a comprehensive management of food protein waste is anticipated to transform its carbon footprint from positive to negative and, more generally, have a favorable impact on several other important planetary boundaries.
... Fermentation with aspergillus strains produces metabolites like free sugars, amino acids, proteins, fibers, and polyphenolic compounds [84]. Okara is a Japanese soy food product that has been fermented by probiotic aspergillus strains from the koji culture [85]. Short-term consumption of okara can reduce body weight, fat content, improve blood and liver lipid profile, and lipid metabolism; however these changes occur without a significant effect on SCFAs in the intestine [39]. ...
... Exercise has been proposed to improve glucose tolerance and body fat-free mass; however, increases oxidative stress damage and pro-inflammatory markers in the muscle. Fermented foods in combination with exercise may exert enhanced beneficial effects on calorie intake and body fat mass as well as immune-related myokines compared to separate administration of fermented food or exercise alone [45,85]. Fermented soy alone reduces body fat and expression of TLR4, MyD88, and IL-6 in muscle cells compared to resistance exercise alone or control group. ...
Article
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Fermented foods are part of the staple diet in many different countries and populations and contain various probiotic microorganisms and non-digestible prebiotics. Fermentation is the process of breaking down sugars by bacteria and yeast species; it not only enhances food preservation but can also increase the number of beneficial gut bacteria. Regular consumption of fermented foods has been associated with a variety of health benefits (although some health risks also exist), including improved digestion, enhanced immunity, and greater weight loss, suggesting that fermented foods have the potential to help in the design of effective nutritional therapeutic approaches for obesity. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of the health effects of fermented foods and the corresponding mechanisms of action in obesity and obesity-related metabolic abnormalities.
... Soybeans are legumes with a high protein content that bind nitrogen from the soil. Despite the high protein loss during the milk pressing process, the soy pulp still contains a high protein concentration (± 25%) (Li et al., 2012). Okara is ideal and widely used as feed for livestock as a supplemental protein source and plant fertiliser due to the high fibre content (>50%) (Li et al., 2012;Rahman et al., 2021). ...
... Despite the high protein loss during the milk pressing process, the soy pulp still contains a high protein concentration (± 25%) (Li et al., 2012). Okara is ideal and widely used as feed for livestock as a supplemental protein source and plant fertiliser due to the high fibre content (>50%) (Li et al., 2012;Rahman et al., 2021). Furthermore, fermentation can boost the nutritional value of soy pulp by reducing the fibre content and increasing the protein level. ...
Article
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Million tonnes of agricultural waste are generated annually worldwide. Agricultural wastes possess similar profiles to the main products but are lower in quality. Managing these agricultural wastes is costly and requires strict regulation to minimise environmental stress. Thus, these by-products could be repurposed for industrial use, such as alternative resources for aquafeed to reduce reliance on fish meal and soybean meal, fertilisers to enrich medium for growing live feed, antimicrobial agents, and immunostimulatory enhancers. Furthermore, utilising agricultural wastes and other products can help mitigate the existing environmental and economic dilemmas. Therefore, transforming these agricultural wastes into valuable products helps sustain the agricultural industry, minimises environmental impacts, and benefits industry players. Aquaculture is an important sector to supply affordable protein sources for billions worldwide. Thus, it is essential to explore inexpensive and sustainable resources to enhance aquaculture production and minimise environmental and public health impacts. Additionally, researchers and farmers need to understand the elements involved in new product development, particularly the production of novel innovations, to provide the highest quality products for consumers. In summary, agriculture waste is a valuable resource for the aquafeed industry that depends on several factors: formulation, costing, supply, feed treatment and nutritional value.
... The fresh SCR has high moisture content (~80%), which makes it easily deteriorate and therefore; it is normally used as animal feed, fertilizer or dumped in a landfill. However, this waste is rich in nutritional value as it contains high dietary fiber (~50%) and protein (~25%), unsaturated fatty acids, monosaccharides and oligosaccharides, considerable vitamins, minerals and isoflavones (Li et al., 2012). Various health functions of SCR were reported by researchers and the main focus was its dietary fiber which can prevent constipation and colon cancer, lower blood pressure, reduce the level of cholesterol in the blood, regulate blood sugar levels, and also protect against coronary heart disease . ...
... As described in various studies, a major constituent of SCR especially in its dried form is total dietary fiber dominated by the insoluble fiber (IDF) (O'Toole, 1999;Lu et al., 2013;Colletti et al., 2020). The amount of TDF in SCR depends on the soybean cultivar and also the amount of water phase extracted during the tofu or soymilk processing (O'Toole, 1999;Li et al., 2012). It is depicted in Figure 1 (Dini et al., 2014). ...
Article
Soybean curd residue (SCR) or okara is a by-product generated during the production of soy milk or tofu. It contains high dietary fiber and protein that are beneficial for the maintenance of normal bowel function and also for building and repairing body tissues. However, it is used as stock feed and fertilizer or dumped in landfills. Therefore, this study was conducted to incorporate the SCR into traditional cassava crisp (opak) to produce healthier snacks and add value to this nutritious waste. Thirteen formulations with different proportions of grated cassava/SCR powder/tapioca flour were generated by Doptimal Mixture Design. Dietary fiber, protein content and sensory scores were the responses. Higher proportions of SCR increased the protein and dietary fiber content but decreased the organoleptic scores. Thus, the optimum formulation (85% grated cassava, 6% SCR powder and 6% tapioca flour) was selected for the high dietary fiber content and the highest scores of sensory properties (taste, texture and overall acceptability). Incorporation of the SCR powder in the final product enhanced the dietary fiber and protein content of the traditional opak and reduced the fat content by approximately three, six and 1.5 times. Hence, this improved formulation of opak will be a better choice for consumers for their healthier snacking.
... The glucose is diverted toward trehalose production, and cells must acquire energy for cellular processes (such as the import of osmoprotectants) solute that is also important for osmoadaptation in Salmonella (Balaji et al. 2005); (Csonka & Hanson 1991); (Kempf & Bremer 1998); (Strom & Kaasen 1993). An upregulation in the trehalose biosynthetic genes has also been observed after the desiccation of Salmonella on paper disks and stainless steel (Finn et al. 2013); (Li et al. 2012). ...
... Another mechanism by which Salmonella survived under desiccation stress is the catabolism of fatty acid. Since the peda is rich in fat content, the production of more ATP per carbon atom from fatty acids is in comparison to glucose (Finn et al. 2013); (Li et al. 2012). Besides, Salmonella appears to become quite heat resistant under low-water activity stress. ...
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Food-borne outbreaks associated with low water activity (a w ) foods involve Salmonella contamination, and its control is a significant challenge. In India, milk (doodh) peda is a low a w traditional and popular food. Accordingly, it is essential to determine the prevalence and survival of Salmonella spp. in artificially spiked milk peda stored for an extended period at different a w . Salmonella spp. was not detected in any of the 25 indigenous peda samples. Salmonella did not grow in low a w . However, S. Typhimurium ATCC 25241, which was inoculated artificially at a level of 1.5x10 ⁴ CFU/g, survived in the spiked peda sample at 0.75, 0.56, and 0.32 a w . Survival of S . Typhimurium ATCC 25241 was observed for a more extended period (19 days) at lower a w than higher a w . These results confirmed that even though Salmonella spp. was not detected in milk peda samples, but can survive for a long time in contaminated samples. Salmonella survived for a long time by the osmoadaptation mechanism. These results revealed that the survival of S. Typhimurium is influenced by a w , and the prevalence of Salmonella in the peda sample was inversely proportional to a w .
... This finding is comparable to soybean byproducts, whereby the soybean meals contain lower DF content ranging from 17-20.70%, compared with okara (50-55.48%) (Grieshop et al. 2003;Redondo-Cuenca et al. 2008;Li et al. 2012). Furthermore, Li et al. (2012) suggested that okara was a good source of DF because DF made up about 50% of its composition. ...
... (Grieshop et al. 2003;Redondo-Cuenca et al. 2008;Li et al. 2012). Furthermore, Li et al. (2012) suggested that okara was a good source of DF because DF made up about 50% of its composition. In addition, Redondo-Cuenca et al. (2008) found that the beneficial properties of soybean seeds fiber are attributed to its okara due to their similar monomers composition comprising of glucose, galactose, arabinose, xylose and uronic acids. ...
... Soybean dregs, also known as okara, are the by-product of soybean products, with about 2.8 million tones annually produced in China (Li et al., 2012). Although the soybean products mainly make use of the protein in soybean, there is still a lot left in soybean dregs. ...
... Although the soybean products mainly make use of the protein in soybean, there is still a lot left in soybean dregs. Many studies have shown that protein accounts for 15.2-37.5% of dry weight of soybean dregs and contains all essential amino acids necessary for good health (Li et al., 2012;Fayaz et al., 2019). So far, soybean dregs mainly are discarded as waste, with a small amount used as animal feed or fertilizers, resulting in environmental pollution and waste resources. ...
Article
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Proteases are important for decomposition of proteins to generate peptides or amino acids and have a broad range of applications in different industries. Herein, a gene encoding an alkaline protease (AprBcp) from Bacillus circulans R1 was cloned and bioinformatics analyzed. In addition, a series of strategies were applied to achieve high-level expression of AprBcp in Bacillus subtilis . The maximum activity of AprBcp reached 165,870 U/ml after 60 h fed-batch cultivation in 50 l bioreactor. The purified recombinant AprBcp exhibited maximum activity at 60°C and pH 10.0, and remained stable in the range from pH 8.0 to 11.0 and 30 to 45°C. Metal ions Ca ²⁺ , Mn ²⁺ , and Mg ²⁺ could improve the stability of AprBcp. Furthermore, the recombinant AprBcp displayed great potential application on the recovery of protein from soybean dregs. The results of this study will provide an effective method to prepare AprBcp in B. subtilis and its potential application on utilization of soybean dregs.
... 15,16 Okara is a high fiber by-product of soymilk or tofu production, with vast quantities being generated globally. 17 Dietary fiber makes up 42 -67% of okara (dry weight), with most of it being insoluble fiber. 18,19 It also contains a variety of soy specific phytochemicals, such as isoflavones, which was previously shown to have a health-beneficial effect against T2DM. ...
... 20,21 However, human consumption of okara has been minimal, mainly due to its rapid putrefaction, poor digestibility, and unpalatable taste. 17 Okara is instead usually discarded in large amounts. We have previously applied biotransformation on okara with Rhizopus oligosporus to form biovalorized okara and formulated biovalorized okara-containing biscuits that were more nutritious while retaining comparable sensorial properties against biscuits not containing okara. ...
Article
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Okara is a high-fiber food by-product that can be biotransformed with Rhizopus oligosporus to improve its nutritional value and palatability. This research aims to assess postprandial changes in glycemic-related and lipid-related outcomes in middle-aged and older Singaporeans following okara- and biovalorized okara-containing biscuit consumption. Fifteen participants (58 ± 6 years old, mean ± SD) completed the randomized crossover study. Participants were provided control (C), okara (AOK)-, and biovalorized okara (RO)-containing biscuits in separate 4 h mixed meal tolerance tests. Serum glucose and insulin, insulin indices, serum short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lipid-lipoprotein panels, and sensory analysis were assessed. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was significantly lower for RO than for C (p: 0.035) while log insulin incremental area under the curve (AUC) was significantly lower for AOK compared to that for C (p: 0.023). The estimated insulin sensitivity index and estimated metabolic clearance rate were significantly higher for AOK compared to that for C (p: 0.025 and 0.016 respectively). Normalized AUC for total SCFA was significantly higher for RO compared to that for C (p: 0.038). Normalized AUC for LDL-cholesterol was significantly higher for AOK than for C (p: 0.010). No significant difference was noted for glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations. RO had greater flavor and overall liking than AOK (p: 0.007 and 0.017 respectively). Biscuits incorporated with okara or biovalorized okara can attenuate postprandial insulin responses. RO offered a greater SCFA response than C, indicating improved SCFA concentrations upon consumption of okara improved with fermentation. The trial was registered under https://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03978104, 25 May 2019).
... Soy and soy pulp have high nutritional values, but also antinutritional factors. In order to improve soy and soy pulp nutritional values, fermentation is applied to reduce the antinutritional values (Bo et al 2012). Hence, in the present study, the effect of fermented soy pulp on the growth performance of Syrian hamster was investigated in order determine if it can be an alternative food source for the Syrian hamster. ...
... According to Feldman et al (1982), hamsters that received feed with a crude protein content of 18% can present increased growth, but this can also lead to severe kidney lesions. Bo et al (2012) reported that soy pulp is a by-product from tofu and soymilk production processes, containing almost 50% fibers, being a potential supplement in animal feeds. Hence, soy pulp can be applied in animal feeds in moderate proportions to avoid kidney disease. ...
Article
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This study aims to reveal the potential of fermented soy pulp on the growth performance of the Syrian hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Soy pulp is a byproduct in soy milk production. It was reported to contain high nutritional values. The feeding experiment was carried out for 28 days in triplicates and one group of Syrian hamster which received commercial pellets was used as a control group. At the end of the experiment, growth performance parameters such as weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and specific growth rate (SGR) were recorded and analyzed. The results of the experiment showed that the growth performances of Syrian hamsters that received fermented soy pulp were lower compared to those of the control group with significant differences (p<0.05). The findings of the present study revealed that fermented soy pulp alone cannot be used as a supplement feed for Syrian hamster.
... Soybean curd residue (SCR) is the main byproduct in the process of producing bean curd (tofu) and soymilk. SCR has a high nutritional value, provides a rich source of fiber, protein, and lipids, and has potential for use in ruminant feeds [1]. In addition, SCR is a rich source of bioactive compounds, such as unsaturated fatty acids, isoflavones, phenolic lignans, phytosterols, coumestans, saponins, and phytates, which not only have biological activity including antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, but could potentially contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease and even certain types of cancer [2]. ...
... In addition, SCR is a rich source of bioactive compounds, such as unsaturated fatty acids, isoflavones, phenolic lignans, phytosterols, coumestans, saponins, and phytates, which not only have biological activity including antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, but could potentially contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease and even certain types of cancer [2]. The annual production of SCR reached 2.8 million tons in China in 2012 [1]. Such a large amount of SCR could result in serious environmental pollution if discarded improperly. ...
Article
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The objective of this study was to investigate the fermentation quality and microbial community of corn stover (CS) or rice straw (RS) silage mixed with soybean curd residue (SCR). In this study, SCR and CS or RS were mixed at ratios of 75:25, 70:30, and 65:35, respectively, and measured for nutrient content, fermentation indices, and bacterial diversity after 30 days of ensiling. The results showed an increase in lactic acid (LA) concentration (p < 0.01) and crude protein (CP) content (p < 0.0001), a decrease in pH value (p < 0.01), the content of NDF (p < 0.01) and ADF (p < 0.01), and ammonia nitrogen (AN) concentration (p < 0.01) as the proportion of SCR in raw materials (CS or RS) increased. The addition of SCR to silage led to a decrease in bacterial diversity and contributed to an increased relative abundance of beneficial microorganisms, such as Lactobacillus, and a corresponding decrease in the relative abundance of undesirable microorganisms, such as Clostridium and Enterobacter. Collectively, the mixed silage of soybean curd residue with corn stover or rice straw preserved more nutrients and helped improve fermentation quality.
... A large accumulation of okara residue has become a potential environmental hazard because okara is highly susceptible to decomposition and has a high moisture content (Olofsson & Börjesson, 2018;Salemdeeb et al., 2017), which makes it to be difficult to handle and has a high cost of drying to produce organic fertilizer. The okara is considered an inexpensive source of carbohydrates and proteins because of its high nutrient contents, such as dietary fiber (50%), protein (25%), lipids (10%), vitamins, and trace elements (Colletti et al., 2020;Li et al., 2017). Not only does the use of okara as a source of dietary fiber in food increase economic benefits, there is also minimal contribution to potential environmental pollution. ...
... by reducing ice recrystallization during the static freezing phase. In this study, the composition of protein in okara was recorded at 10.67%. Okara is potentially a solid fermentation substrate to produce microbial protein feed, which can reduce or discompose certain anti-nutritional factors such as saponin, lectin, and trypsin(Mok et al., 2019).Li et al. (2017) reported that the probiotic bacteria incorporated into okara fiber led to an increase in protein. The increased protein content in ice cream would result in the production of small-sized ice crystals and firmer textures using either whey protein or milk protein concentrates (Cavender & Kerr, 2019; Daw & Hartel, 2015; Mostafavi et al., 2 ...
Article
Synbiotic ice cream offers sufficient viable probiotics and value‐added nutrients to satisfy health needs. This study aimed to formulate the optimum synbiotic ice cream incorporated with okara (1‐3%) and the probiotic, Lactobacillus plantarum (ATCC 8014). Results showed a viscous texture was produced when more than 2% okara was added to ice cream. This formulation also minimally caused ice cream to melt for around 90 minutes at a melting rate of 19‐76%. Furthermore, ice cream incorporated with okara had an increase in protein content (> 5%), and a decrease in fat content (>13%) compared to the control (no okara), indicating that it is a low‐fat item. The addition of more than 2% okara increased the viability of L. plantarum on day 60. Overall, 1% okara addition showed significant acceptability for potential symbiotic ice cream formulation.
... Tofu dregs (internationally termed "okara") is a soybean waste from tofu processing [2]. Although the tofu dregs is a by-product of tofu production, the nutritional content of the tofu dregs is still quite high. ...
Article
Okara (tofu dregs) is a soybean waste product from the tofu and soymilk processing industry. To create a useful product, the remaining protein content in okara must be used. The goal of this study was to determine the enzyme-substrate (E/S) ratio capable of producing the highest antioxidant activity from okara protein hydrolysate, as well as the amino acid composition of such a protein hydrolysate (especially the amino acid potential as antioxidants). To produce protein concentrate, the protein of okara was isolated using an alkaline extraction method followed by isoelectric precipitation. The protein concentrate was then hydrolyzed for six hours with papain enzyme at 50-55 °C and pH 7, with E/S ratios of 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, and 7%. Using the DPPH method, the antioxidant activity of the obtained okara protein hydrolysate was determined. The HPLC method was used to determine the amino acid composition of the protein hydrolysate. The E/S ratio of 4% had the highest antioxidant activity (98.86%); the composition of amino acids L-Phenylalanine, L-Isoleucine, L-Valine, L-Glycine, L-Lysine, L-Tyrosine, L-Proline, L-Histidine, L-Cysteine and L-Methionine potentially contributed to the antioxidant activity effect. These findings suggest that okara protein hydrolysate has the potential to be used as an antioxidant-rich food ingredient. Keywords: antioxidant, okara, protein hydrolysate, amino acid
... This contributes to the low utilisation of this industrial by-product, along with other compounding factors. As a result, the majority of wet SMB is dumped in land fills or incinerated, with minor volumes being used as animal feeds [7], thereby creating financial and environmental concerns. With the increasing production of such large volumes of soy milk and other plant based milks, their residues continue to be of increasing concerns. ...
Article
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The commercial production of soy milk renders a large quantity of wet soybean by-product (SMB), which is typically dumped, incinerated, or partially used as animal fodder. This wet SMB has a high moisture content that is rich in nutritional and biologically active compounds. This study aimed to characterise the composition and properties of a flour milled from SMB dried at 100 °C (SMB100) and assess its possible application as a fibre substitute in white bread. The results showed that SMB100 has high levels of dietary fibre (40.6%) and protein (26.5%). It also contains high levels of saponins (31.4 mg/g) and isoflavones (698.0 µg/g). SMB100 has a light-yellow colour with low moisture content and water activity (8.2% and 0.55, respectively). The results also indicated that replacement of wheat flour with SMB100 at 10 or 12.5% by flour weight negatively impacted the raising volume, density, and texture of white bread. Alternatively, substituting wheat flour with 5% of SMB100, did not significantly impact the physical properties of white bread, while significantly improving its dietary fibre content in comparison with the control, revealing that SMB100 is a potential substitute of wheat flour for improvement of dietary fibre in bread. Future studies are needed to optimise bread formulation and improve the processing condition which produces quality white bread with high dietary fibre using SMB100.
... Le tofu est un aliment traditionnel bien connu dans de nombreux pays d'Asie de l'Est (Rossi et al., 2016). Le tofu a été distribué dans le monde entier en raison de sa haute teneur en nutriments et de plusieurs avantages potentiels pour la santé humaine (Li et al., 2012;Yang et al., 2012). ...
Thesis
En Afrique de l’ouest, la graine du Néré (Parkia biglobosa) est utilisée en pharmacopée traditionnelle et surtout en alimentation humaine sous forme d’un condiment. Cette légumineuse très riche en protéines et en lipides demeure une source de protéines encore mal exploitée. Notre thèse porte sur la valorisation des graines du Néré pour le développement de nouveaux produits riches en protéines d’origine végétale comme alternative à l’usage du soja comme ingrédient de base. Les objectifs visés ont été : (i)la caractérisation biochimique et physico-chimique d’isolats protéiques issus de farine de graines de Néré en fonction du procédé d’extraction, (ii) la sélection de bactéries lactiques protéolytiques capables de fermenter le jus de Néré, réduire les facteurs antinutritionnels afin d’accroître la biodisponibilité des nutriments, (iii) obtention d’un modèle alimentaire riche en protéines.A partir d’une farine de graines de Néré, les rendements d’extraction en protéines par extraction en solution aqueuse ont été déterminés en fonction du pH, de la force ionique et de la présence de la matière grasse. Les protéines isolées présentent une solubilité maximale à pH bas 2-3 et pH élevé 8-10. Le profil des protéines par SDS-PAGE est similaire à celui d’autres légumineuses à graines : albumines, globulines et leurs sous-unités.Les effets de l’utilisation de souches de Lactobacillus plantarum sur la réduction des facteurs antinutritionnels et l’amélioration de la digestibilité des protéines contenues dans le jus cru et fermenté de la graine du Néré ont été étudiés. Le traitement thermique réduit considérablement les facteurs antinutritionnels comme les phytates, les tanins, les inhibiteurs de la trypsine. Toutes les souches de Lactobacillus plantarum utilisées ont amélioré la digestibilité des protéines (in vitro) et contribué, de façon variable, à la réduction des teneurs en facteurs antinutritionnels.L’aptitude à la gélification thermique des isolats protéiques d’albumines et globulines du Néré a été déterminée en fonction du pH. A pH 7, la concentration minimale pour la formation de gel thermique est comprise entre 100-120g/l. Il apparait que le développement d’un modèle alimentaire à partir d’isolats de protéines est peu adapté à l’Afrique de l’ouest, car il semble préférable de limiter les pertes de protéines dans un long processus de séparation/purification des fractions protéiques. Ainsi un modèle permettant de maximiser l’utilisation des protéines disponibles dans la graine de Néré a été mis en place. Sur la base de la technique du tofu de soja, des jus de Néré et de soja ont subi un traitement thermique en présence de sels bivalents (MgCl2 et CaCl2) à différentes concentrations. Les échantillons de tofu préparés avec les concentrations 20 et 40 mM de MgCl2 et CaCl2 respectivement, présentaient un coagulum important et permettaient l’obtention d’un type de tofu « ferme ». L'analyse en compression uni-axiale a révélé que la dureté et la cohésion des échantillons sont fonction de la nature et la concentration en sels bivalents, tandis que l’adhésion n'est pas affectée de manière significative. La rhéologie à contrainte imposée a permis d’observer une prédominance du caractère élastique sur le caractère visqueux. La meilleure combinaison a permis d’obtenir un tofu de Néré avec une matière sèche de 30,9 % et des teneurs de 13 % en protéines et 7,2 % en matière grasse.Les travaux de cette thèse montrent une voie de valorisation des potentialités nutritionnelles de cette légumineuse tropicale et de développement de produits alimentaires de type boisson et tofu destinés à l’alimentation humaine en Afrique.
... It is a waste product and yet still useful as a substrate for microbial growth, yielding some microbial products. Soybean residue is high in protein, isoflavones, soluble and insoluble fibers, soyasaponins, nutrients and other minerals [30], [31]. ...
Article
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Auxin is a useful compound which has an effect on plant root and shoot elongation. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine a suitable medium formula to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Adding various nitrogen sources such as beef extract, chicken manure solution, soybean residue, yeast extract, soybean powder and casein, supplemented with and without inducible substances such as tryptophan, optimized incubation temperature. IAA content in crude extraction was detected by TLC chromatography. Moreover, both the optimum concentration of IAA crude and the most suitable method (spreading or dipping) for application on Jerusalem artichoke were investigated. Five isolates revealed positive results on IAA product. The alternative medium for IAA production in the formula that consisted of soybean residue showed significantly highest contents of substances like IAA product when the rhizobacteria was cultured at 25 and 30 °C. Sixty µg/ml of crude extracted IAA was the optimum concentration, promoting Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), growth with 100% germination. In addition, the root and shoot lengths exhibited were 3.79 and 7.14 cm, respectively. Dipping seed method was the most effective approach for encouraging seedling development, with a percentage of germination of 86.67 and root and shoot lengths of 4.48 and 5.39 cm, respectively. Our results demonstrated that a simple approach and appropriate concentration of crude extracted IAA could boost Jerusalem artichoke seedling development. Graphical Abstract
... This is true for the soy okara, whose composition and properties are well investigated, together with the technological and biotechnological processes to valorize such by-product. [8][9][10] Instead, the studies on the residues from the production of plant-based beverages, except soy milk, are surprisingly scarce. ...
Article
Background: The okara is the water-insoluble residue derived from the production of plant-based beverages, including almond milk. Information on almond okara is scarce, with no scientific references. In this study, the almond okara was characterized, and used to replace wheat flour at 15%, 25% and 35% for biscuit preparation. Results: The contents of protein, lipid, and dietary fiber of almond okara were 140.08, 421.16 and 407.90 g kg-1 dry matter, respectively. The lipid fraction of almond okara showed a content of triacylglycerol oligopolymers and oxidized triacylglycerols of 0.12 and 5.14 g kg-1 , respectively, which were significantly lower than the levels observed in the sunflower oil used in the formulation of biscuits. Consequently, the biscuits containing okara showed a content of triacylglycerol oligopolymers lower than control biscuits. The texture analysis revealed that the addition of the okara at 25 and 35% caused a significant increase of biscuit hardness and a reduction of the brittleness, compared to the control. The sensory evaluation confirmed these data, and it highlighted the little impact of the almond okara on the almond odor, taste, and flavor attributes. Conclusion: Almond okara is a valuable by-product that can be easily used as an ingredient for biscuit preparation, exploiting its fiber, protein and lipid content to improve the nutritional value of food, with a limited impact on the sensory properties. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... According to the publication by Li Bo et al. (2012), the chemical composition of okara depends on the soaking stage and milk extracted from soybeans. It also depends on soybean varieties and production methods but includes 46.3% fibre, 17.8% protein, 5.9% lipid, 3.9% ash, 2.6% reducing sugar, 0.22% flavone, and 67% moisture. ...
... Soy press cake is a by-product of plant-based drink production and is usually applied as feedstocks or directly discarded as waste, leading to the loss of useful nutrients (Li, Qiao, & Lu, 2012), and environmental problems (O'Toole, 1999). Soy press cake contains around 27% protein, 20% fat and 33% dietary fibre on a dry basis (Rashad, Mahmoud, Abdou, & Nooman, 2011). ...
Article
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The aim of the present study was to improve the properties of soy press cake to be utilized as an ingredient of meat analogues. Soy press cakes were fermented with lactobacillus strains, and separately hydrolyzed by cellulase/xylanase mixture and α-amylase. Meat analogues were produced with 10% fermented or hydrolyzed soy press cakes. The effect of applied processes on protein oxidation, physical and functional properties of soy press cakes were analyzed, as well as sensory and textural properties of meat analogues. The results indicated that soy press cake was a suitable source of fibre and energy with low content of saturated fatty acids, and provided plant-based proteins and essential amino acids. The study demonstrated the potential of lactic acid fermentation, and enzymatic hydrolysis to improve water- and oil-holding capacity and reduce protein oxidation in soy press cakes. L. acidophilus 336 and cellulase/xylanase mixture were recommended for fermentation and hydrolysis of soy press cakes, respectively, regarding reduction of protein oxidation. Fermentation of soy press cakes with L. plantarum P1 improved the texture of meat analogues. Press cakes fermentation reduced bitterness, increased juiciness, and balanced the taste of meat analogues. Fermented soy press cake was recommended for the production of meat analogues.
... Furthermore, the soybean processing to produce soy milk and tofu also yields soy pulp and such by-product known as okara which comprises of significant residual proteins in a range of 25-33%. Massive production of okara causes serious disposal issues until revalorization of the legume by-products (Oomah et al. 2011;Lu et al, 2016;Li et al. 2012). ...
Chapter
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Consumers demand for proteins is rising and therefore, many food manufacturers are formulating products enriched with wide range of plant-based proteins. As many industrial stakeholders are trying to increase their market share of plant-based protein foods including formulation of pseudo-grains, such as flax, quinoa, pulses, hemp and nuts. The manufacturers are finding their way to innovate dairy alternatives; plant-ingredients based bakery, snack and beverage products. This chapter was aimed at providing an updated overview of the identification of innovation needs to develop plant-protein based foods across protein supply for supporting ever-increasing demand surge in plant-based prions products and functional ingredients. The supply chains across the plant-based proteins must catch to keep pace with technological innovations in food science and technology keeping in view novel protein sources. Evolving innovative technologies like extrusion, shear cell technology and 3D printing have widen the spectrum to produce plant-based protein products by manufactures to mimic the taste, flavor, appearance, texture as well as eating experience resembling to that of animal-based proteins. The application of plant-protein delivery systems through micro and nanoparticles has gained popularity for various purposes like protection, encapsulation and controlled release of protein ingredients.
... A co-product of soymilk and tofu production is okara. Okara has limited uses 19 so was assumed to be applied to wheat paddocks avoiding the need for N fertilisers on a 1:1 N mass basis. Irrigated soybeans and unirrigated wheat annually. ...
Preprint
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Climate change and water scarcity are major challenges facing the planet. Agriculture generates considerable GHG emissions and consumes water from rivers, streams and lakes. Reducing consumption of agricultural products with a relatively high carbon or water footprint, such as dairy, is often promoted as a mechanism to reduce the environmental impacts of food production. Using footprints to inform decisions is problematic because they represent the impacts of current production and not the consequences of re-allocating constrained resources such as land and water when demand for products change. We used consequential life cycle assessment to assess the water and climate change consequences of replacing NSW dairy production, and co-products of dairy production, with plant-based alternatives. Ceasing dairy production required the production of 125 kt of soybeans for soymilk and tofu, 38 kt of soymeal to replace meat meal and 8 kt of vegetable oil as a cream alternative and also increased demand for agricultural land. We concluded that water savings associated with the change would be limited and emissions reductions would be ~ 70% of that as estimated by the C footprint of production. We also assessed the climate change consequences of replacing NSW dairy production with plant-based alternatives when two GHG emissions reduction strategies, enteric methane inhibitors and flaring methane from effluent ponds, were implemented across the industry. Results from this analysis suggested that replacing NSW dairy production if emissions reductions strategies are put in place will result in a net increase in GHG emissions of 0.57 Mt CO 2 -e. This work has important messages for setting climate change mitigation strategies including net-zero targets.
... As the intake of protein from soybeans increases, the enormous quantities of okara have produced pose a serious disposal problem if not properly treated. [1]. Okara contains approximately 50% fibre, 25% protein and 10% lipid in addition to water. ...
Article
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PurposeOkara is a solid waste of soybean-processed foods; it is normally used as a low-priced product, such as fertiliser and feed. An alternative method for the convertion of okara to valorized products is required. Methods This research employed Rhizopus azygosporus with fast-growing property to ferment bean dregs using solid-state fermentation technology and examined the functional composition and the physiologically effective bioactivities for comparison with unfermented okara.ResultsRhizopus oligosporus BCRC 33956 and R. azygosporus BCRC31158 were cultivated on potato dextrose agar plates for 72 h after which they were used for comparison, and R. azygosporus exhibited approximately 1.3 times of growth rate than R. oligosporus. The contents of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and crude polysaccharide in two days ferment accumulated to 696 mg/kg and 40.6%, respectively. During fermentation by R. azygosporus for 2 days, 74.6% genistin, a type of isoflavone glucoside, was depleted and 106.7 mg/L genistein was detected in the extracts. The results also showed that the proliferation of R. azygosporus enhanced several bioactivities in the okara fermentation. The relative angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory effects in the extracts of unfermented and fermented okara were 74.9% and 132.3%, respectively, compared with those of 10 mM captopril. The antioxidant capacity, including free radical scavenging activity and reducing power, was also significantly increased in okara accompany the growth of R. azygosporus. An animal study showed that GABA and functional characteristics and contents enriched by R. azygosporus in the okara fermentation were likely to have an obvious synergistic effect on the reduction of cortisol concentration in stimulated zebrafish, revealing the anti-stress function of fermented okara. Our work provides the process for development as a functional product, especially in anti-stress, which will further increase the value of okara and reduce waste, enabling sustainable consumption and production patterns.Graphical Abstract
... and ash (3.0-3.7%) (Li et al. 2012). ...
Article
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The Monascus fermentation industry has gained global attention. Its key products, i.e., pigments, functional food ingredients, food supplements, and medicinal use, are growing in the world’s market. Efforts to find the cost-effective substrate for Monascus fermentation have remained the target. This paper aimed to appraise the utilization of agro-industrial by-products (cereal, starchy tuber and root, legume, fruit, and coffee processing) as a cost-effective substrate for Monascus fermentation. The specific objective was to review the by-products pre-treatment, the fermentation process, product yield, and the bioactivity of the fermented products. Among all the by-products that could be used as the fermentation substrate, cereal brans do not need pre-treatment, but others need a suitable pre-treatment step, e.g., cassava peel, okara, and jackfruit seed to list a few, that need to be powdered beforehand. Other substrates, such as corn cob and durian seed, need soaking and size reduction through the pre-treatment step. During fermentation, Monascus produce many pigments, monacolin K, associated with rise in phenolic and flavonoid contents. These products possess antioxidant, antihypercholesterol, antidiabetes, and antiatherosclerosis activities which underpin their health significance. In conclusion, we report in this review the agro-industrial by-products which have potential prospects for pigments, functional food ingredients, food supplements, and therapeutic usages produced from Monascus fermentation.
... Okara is a by-product of the manufacture of soybean protein, soymilk, tofu and other soybean products (Sun, Zhang, & Fang, 2020). With the development of the soybean processing industry, the quantity of okara is increasing every year (Li, Qiao, & Lu, 2012). Approximately 20 million tons of okara are produced worldwide in a year (Jiang et al., 2019). ...
Article
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This study aims to reduce beany flavors and gain new aromatic flavors of okara by using edible fungi. Four edible fungi (Wolfiporia cocos CGMCC 5.55, Wolfiporia cocos CGMCC 5.528, Wolfiporia Cocos CGMCC 5.78 and Tremella fuciformis CGMCC 5.466) were chosen to ferment okara. The volatile compounds in original and fermented okara were investigated by head space-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry. Before fermentation, 13 off-flavor compounds were detected in the okara. Hexanal and cis-6-nonenal were the main off-flavor substances with a relative content of 54.31% and 1.64%, respectively. After fermentation, the content of off-flavor compounds decreased, and new aromatic compounds were generated. The relative content of hexanal decreased to 0.37%, and cis-6-nonenal was not detected. After fermentation with Wolfiporia cocos CGMCC 5.528, phenethyl alcohol and linalool were generated (182.07 μg/L and 83.23 μg/L, respectively). All fermented products had very little characteristics of beany flavor. In conclusion, the use of edible fungi, especially Wolfiporia cocos CGMCC 5.528, can provide an effective and sustainable way to reduce the beany flavor and improve the flavor quality of okara.
... In present study, phytate content increased with increase in supplementation with soy okara in the biscuit samples. This might be due to the high amount of phytate content found in okara [35]. However, the quantity of phytate in the biscuit samples is below the recommended limit in the diet (250-500 mg/100g) as reported by Ekop et al [36]. ...
... The reducing sugars released during hydrolysis (as glucose equivalents) were measured by a modified 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) assay method [12]. The concentration of reducing sugars produced was measured according to glucose equivalents using a glucose standard curve. ...
Article
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Purpose Okara is a highly perishable food processing by-product from soymilk and tofu manufacture. The present study aimed to optimize the pre-treatment of okara on the extraction of reducing sugars by applying a multi-enzyme complex, Viscozyme, containing a variety of carbohydrases to hydrolyze the okara cell walls. The chemical composition and the morphological structure of enzymatic-treated okara (ETO) were scrutinized. Methods Enzymatic hydrolysis pre-treatment was carried out under different enzyme concentrations (5–8%), temperatures (50–60 °C) and pH values (3–4) according to a central composite rotatable design, in which the ranges were chosen based on preliminary study. Results The optimal conditions for maximum reducing sugars extraction (4.78 mg/mL) were 8.0% (w/w) of enzyme, 50 °C and pH 3.0 for 4 h hydrolysis time, representing a 158.33 times increment, compared to the sample without enzymatic pre-treatment. The chromatogram from high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed that the carbohydrates such as glucose, fructose, raffinose and stachyose increased after hydrolysis. Surprisingly, arabinose which was not detected in raw okara (RO) was present in ETO. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the highly structured matrix of okara was unfolded and broken by the action of enzyme pre-treatment while energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) imparted the changes of elemental components in ETO. The ETO showed higher antioxidant capacity than the control by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP tests. Conclusion Enzymatic hydrolysis proved to be an efficient way to enhance the physicochemical properties of okara for possible uses, making this residue into a newly added value product. Graphic Abstract
Article
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of okara on the quality of silver carp surimi gels. The characteristics of surimi gels without and with okara (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% w/w) were evaluated by measuring water-holding capacity (WHC), color, sensory, textural, and rheological properties. With further addition of okara, WHC, breaking force, textural properties, and whiteness were decreased (P < 0.05), while springiness of surimi meatballs had no significant difference in sensory evaluation. Storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″) decreased along with increasing okara concentration. However, the sensory evaluation showed it was acceptable for surimi meatballs with 6% okara or less. Among different particle sizes (375, 805, 509, 387, 190, and 34 μm) of okara, surimi gels with 6% okara of larger particle sizes had higher values of hardness, gumminess, chewiness, and breaking force, while those with smaller particle sizes showed higher whiteness, but there was no significant difference on WHC of surimi gels. The storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″) of surimi pastes also decreased with increasing particle sizes of okara. However, sensory evaluation showed no difference on surimi meatballs with different particle sizes of okara. Results demonstrated that okara could be used as an ingredient to improve the quality and nutritional value of surimi-based products.
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Soybean residue (SR) becomes the excess output after making soybean-based product such as soy-sauce, soybean milk or sweet tofu, Later, it would be dumped, becoming fertilizers or contributes to animal feeds. SR believes to still retaining fiber, fat, protein, vitamins, and trace elements. It has the potential for value-added food products; an option that simultaneously promotes great economic value as well as decreases waste consumption. The use of SR as the source of fiber in bread formulation promotes sustainable usage which fully utilized all parts of the soybean. When added to bakery products, it could improvise the nutritional value, mainly increasing the protein contents. This research was developed to look at the sensory evaluation in the making of healthier bread through modified formulation in substituting 20% SR flour, which compared to regular bread formulation. Samples were evaluated in terms of texture, taste, aroma, colour, and overall acceptance using a hedonic scale with a scale of 0 for very bad up to a scale of 5 for very good. The sample of respondents for this study contains 110 respondents including students and staff at Pasir Salak Community College and its surroundings. The overall acceptance of the parameters has shown that more than 70% of the respondents gave a scale of 5 in terms of color, taste, texture, and aroma using 20% SR premixed formulation in the production of bread products. The use of SR in developing new value-added products for commercialization will be appreciated by the nature and educate t sustainability.
Article
In this study, whole bean tofu (WBT) was manufactured by high-speed crushing with calcium sulfate as the coagulant. Then the features of whole bean tofu were compared with commercially available calcium sulfate and lactone tofu in terms of color, water-holding capacity, textural properties, gel structure, aroma composition, moisture distribution, and sensory evaluation. The results revealed that whole bean tofu possessed a greater variety and complexity of aroma components than the two types of tofu produced via the traditional process. Meanwhile, water holding capacity did not significantly differ between the two types of commercially available tofu (p > 0.05). In addition, the gel structure was marginally weaker than traditional tofu, and the color of the product was closer to that of soybean, primarily attributed to the absence of bean residue. The sensory evaluation confirmed from the consumer's perspective that WBT had delicate color and flavor as well as elastic characteristics. Collectively, these findings demonstrated whole bean tofu production using high-speed crushing could enhance the nutritional value of tofu and minimize resource waste.
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One of the aims of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) is to end hunger and ensure access by all people to safe, nutritious, and sufficient food all year round. An obvious synergy exists between the second SDG “Zero Hunger” and SDG target 12.3 which focuses on halving food waste and reducing food losses. In addition to helping improve global food security, reducing food waste provides financial and environmental benefits. Upcycling food is a technical solution for food waste reduction that retains the nutritional and financial value of food by-products. However, many of the upcycled foods produced are discretionary foods such as biscuits, crackers, and other snack food that are not part of a healthy dietary pattern, and should only be eaten sometimes in small amounts. Given the importance of ensuring a sustainable healthy diet, this paper discusses opportunities for upcycled food manufacturers to produce more nutritious products.
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A by-product from processing of soy into drinks and tofu is the insoluble portion of soybeans, a high-fiber product called okara. With the growing interest in plant substitutes for meat and milk, which are produced mainly from soy, the amount of this by-product, which is often considered waste, is also increasing. Its processing then causes considerable financial and environmental problems. In addition to fiber, okara is rich in proteins, fats, micronutrients, and various phytochemicals. However, these are often in an unavailable form and, in addition, due to okara's high water content, it is easily perishable. Therefore, this review article aimed to gather information on the nutritional composition of the okara, possible adjustments to make unavailable nutrients available, and stabilization at the end of its new incorporation into the food chain either in the capacity of soil amendments and fertilizer to improve food quality and size or directly as a food ingredient.
Article
Okara is a perishable and waste byproduct that is mostly discarded or used as feed. This research focused on increasing the value of its valuable components through a safe and simple process in order to solve overproduction issues and improve okara utilization value. Because of its high concentration of through fibers and phytochemicals, it could be used in ball milling, a powerful technique for improving structure and characterization. Okara waste was mesh for the control sample, and it was also ball milled at five different speeds: 100 rpm, 200 rpm, 300 rpm, 400 rpm, and 500 rpm. The particle size was reduced around 80–140 µm after ball milling treatment. Okara's functional groups included OH bonds, CH bonds, and CO bonds. According to EDX analysis, the adsorbents were primarily composed of C (66 %), O (17 %), Na (7 %), and Cl (9 %). Because okara waste has a high carbon content, it can be used as a natural precursor for graphene synthesis.
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This study provides a new idea for the design of an advanced foaming agent with soybean residue protein (SRP) as a potential protein source. In order to achieve the most effective foaming performance, we employed the novel approach of response surface methodology (RSM) to improve important process parameters in a hot-alkali experiment. The experimental results showed that the optimum reaction parameters of pH and temperature were pH 10.2 and 50.5 °C, respectively, which, when continued for 3 h, led to the highest foaming property of the SRP foaming agent (486 mL). Based on the scheme, we also designed an experiment whereby we incorporated 1.0g/L FS-50 into the SRP foaming agent (SRP-50) to achieve higher foaming capacity compared with the commercial foaming agent. This foaming agent was cheaper than commercial vegetable protein foaming agents (12 USD/L) at 0.258 USD/L. Meanwhile, the properties of foam concrete prepared using SRP-50 were studied in comparison with a commercial vegetable protein foaming agent (PS). The results demonstrated that the foam prepared using SRP-50 had better stability, and the displacement of the foam decreased by 10% after 10 min. During the curing period, the foam concrete possesseda compressive strength of 5.72 MPa after 28 days, which was an increase from 2.95 MPa before. The aperture of the foam ranged from 100 to 500 μm with the percentage increasing up to 71.5%, which indicated narrower pore-size distribution and finer pore size. In addition, the shrinkage of the foam concrete was also improved. These findings not only achieve the utilization of waste but also provide a new source for protein foaming agents.
Chapter
Health-benefiting snacks can serve as substitutes for conventional snacks. The approaches for making healthy snacks include the use of appropriate technologies and healthy ingredients, and reduction in unhealthy items by employing suitable technological interventions. Furthermore, examples of already available healthy snack foods are discussed. The special snacks, having unique shapes and appearances, are mentioned that include the concept of artistic snacks.
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Entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) is an environmentally friendly alternative biocontrol agent for crop protection. Mass production of EPN is important for efficiency of such biological control. This is the first report exhibiting use of an available low-cost substrate, coarse ground soybean residue, in semi-solid media for culturing an EPN, Steinernema sp. NR01. The semi-solid medium containing 20 ml of basal medium along with the blend of soybean residue and yolk saline solution in ratio 1:1 increased the total number of EPN around 7-fold (1.47×10⁴ nematodes/ ml) relative to the basal medium (0.20×10⁴ nematodes/ ml) within 10 days post inoculation (dpi), with a significant difference at alpha level 0.05. The highest reproductive performance of females was found when EPN was cultured in the soybean residue and yolk media in 3:1 combination (0.50×10⁴ nematodes/ ml), followed by 1:1 (0.49×10⁴ nematodes/ ml) and 1:3 (0.42×10⁴ nematodes/ ml) at 20 dpi. Moreover, in vitro cultured EPN could infect the wax moth (Galleria mellonella) and cause mortality within 48 hr post inoculation. Symbiotic bacteria were re-isolated from the infected wax moths. Thus, the combination of soybean residue and egg yolk in culture medium has improved the mass production of effective EPN and could be beneficial, adding value to soybean residue, and solving environmental problems from soymilk production waste.
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Sugar beet pulp (SBP), the main by-product of the beet sugar industry, has gained increasing attention due to its potential functional properties as a clean-label food ingredient. The aim of the present work was to optimize a food-grade approach for SBP micronization via harsh thermal pretreatment and ultrasonication, after which the micronized SBP was using as an emulsifier. Harsh thermal pretreatment substantially softened the compact particle structure of SBP, thereby improving breakage efficiency by reducing the ultrasonication time to 10 min (suspension stability of ∼100%). During ultrasonication, the particle size of SBP declined from ∼34 to ∼25 μm, which showed long and tangled morphology as fibers (diameter of 50–300 nm). The increased solubility enlarged the specific surface area of SBP from ∼0.6 to ∼3.5 g/m², endowing it with a porous structure for improved ultrasonic energy adsorption, thereby preventing the degradation of the dissolved pectic polymers. The dissociation of SBP particles contributed to the enhancement of emulsification and was correlated with an increase in suspension stability. These findings provide a feasible strategy for the high added-value utilization of SBP.
Conference Paper
This study evaluated the effect of fermented soy pulp (FSP) as a partial substitute for fish meal (FM) in the diet of red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) on the fish’s growth performance via feeding assessment. The feeding trial was conducted for 56 days (eight weeks) based on five dietary treatments at varying proportions of FM and FSP (T1: 50% FSP, 30% FM; T2: 60% FSP, 20% FM; T3: 70% FSP, 10% FM; T4: 75% FSP, 5% FM; T5: 80% FSP, 0% FM), with the commercial pellet (Starfeed) serving as control. Chemical analyses showed that both T1 and T3 had the highest protein content (18.1%). Meanwhile, the control group showed the best performance in terms of specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and these values were significantly different (p < 0.05) from the five dietary treatments. In contrast, the survival rate of T1 group (82.5%) was comparable to the control group (85.0%). All the dietary treatments showed histological changes in fish liver: < 25% changes for T1, T2, and T3, whereas < 50% changes in T4 and T5. However, the control group did not exhibit any histological changes in the liver. Therefore, FSP is recommended as a dietary supplement for red hybrid tilapia.
Chapter
Solid and liquid plant-based foods are produced by a complex set of operations and processes. The equipment used to obtain high-quality and safe plant-based alternative foods (e.g., dairy and meat analogs) is typically adopted from traditional food production. Some of the operations used include size reduction, separation, thermal processing, fermentation, thermomechanical processing (extrusion, shear cell), and additive manufacturing. In this chapter, we review the main operations, processes, and equipment used to produce plant-based foods and highlight innovative developments in the field, such as molecular structuring approaches, as well as advanced particle technologies.
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In this work, the insoluble soybean fiber, which was derived from okara facilely prepared by alkaline assisted steam-cooking treatments (AST-ISF), was used to prepare emulsion gels through regulating oil volume fraction (φ, 0.1–0.6) and ISF concentration (c, 0.05%–0.5%). AST-ISF was mainly composed of insoluble fiber (82.99 ± 0.24%), and most proteins were removed by alkaline treatment. AST endowed ISF with a higher crystallinity index (47.30 ± 0.82%) and moderate interfacial wettability (87.2 ± 1.2°), which facilitated the adsorption of AST-ISF at the oil-water interface and the formation of a stronger gel-like network structure. Raw okara and alkaline treated ISF could not form emulsion gels. In contrast, the emulsion gels could be formed by AST-ISF, and it was enhanced by AST-ISF adsorbing and entrapping with the oil phase. Oil volume fraction was a crucial factor affecting the microstructure. Especially when φ = 0.5, the degree of droplet aggregation was particularly prominent, and the elastic modulus increased up to about ten times compared with that at φ = 0.1. The minimum AST-ISF concentration to form emulsion gel was 0.3%. The study revealed that the structure of AST-ISF stabilized emulsion gel was characterized as a hybrid network structure composed of tightly packed oil droplets with cross-linked ISF in the continuous phase.
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Okara is a major by-product of soymilk and tofu production. Despite retaining abundant nutrients after the process, okara is often under-utilized. In this study, solid-state fermentation (SSF) of okara was carried out using a koji starter (containing both Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae) with the intention of releasing its untapped nutrients. Its effects on lipid metabolism in diet-induced obesity (DIO) were observed. The nutritional profile of fermented okara was elucidated using the following parameters: total phenolic content (TPC), pH, protein content, dietary fiber, amino acid content, and free sugar content. In vivo experiments were conducted using high-fat diets supplemented with unfermented okara and fermented okara over three weeks. Supplementation with fermented okara reduced body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, the serum triglyceride profile, and lipid accumulation in the liver, and altered the mRNA expression levels related to lipid metabolism; however, it did not affect pH and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in this study. In conclusion, high-fat diets supplemented using okara fermented with Aspergillus spp. improved the lipid metabolism in mice, due to their high nutritional value, such as TPC, soy protein, and amino acids, and their synergistic effects without altering the gut microbiota.
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Soy okara contains high levels of insoluble dietary fiber (IDF). The objective of this work is to investigate the composition, structure changes, and functionality of okara residues after the modification by ultracentrifugal milling (M), milling + steam heating (M + S), or milling + steam heating + enzymatic (M + S + E) treatment. The results showed that the combination of M + S could significantly convert okara IDF into soluble ones, and the highest conversion rate (59%) was achieved with the smallest size (147 µm). The structural characterization revealed that size reduction altered the functional groups and crystallinity of the modified okara residues with irregular and enlarged morphology. More importantly, the functionalities, including water and oil holding capacities, swelling capacity, as well as cholesterol and bile acid binding capacities were improved remarkably in okara residues pretreated by M + S prior to cellulase hydrolysis. The findings provide new insights on the effective biotransformation of okara into valuable food ingredients.
Article
A neutral polysaccharide (SSPS‐N) and an acidic polysaccharide (SSPS‐A) were isolated from Okara by anion‐exchange chromatography. The physical and chemical properties of polysaccharides were studied by HPLC, FT‐IR and SEM. The results exhibited that SSPS‐N might be a galactomannans with a lamella‐like structure, and SSPS‐A might be a arabinogalactan with a complete porous structure. Furthermore, a new neutral soybean soluble polysaccharide (SSPS‐N‐b) with a molecular weight of 8.6 kDa was isolated from SSPS‐N, and its fine structure was analyzed by GC‐MS, enzymatic analysis and NMR. The results showed that SSPS‐N‐b was a mixture of β‐1,4‐Galactan and Glucomannan, which (1→4)‐β‐D‐linked mannose and (1→4)‐β‐D‐linked glucose were connected alternately, and it was in parallel with β‐1,4‐Galactan. The antioxidant activity results showed that β‐1,4‐Galactan in SSPS‐N‐b was identified as the main activity domain. This result will be utilized for the development of SSPS as novel functional foods and medicine.
Article
Agricultural waste okara (OA) was selected as a precursor to prepare low-cost adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB). Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), as a kind of anionic surfactant, was loaded onto okara (SOA) to achieve high adsorption ability. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and X-ray diffraction were investigated for the materials characterization. The effect of pH, contact time, initial concentration, adsorbent dose and ionic strength was determined to explore the adsorption properties. The adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms, cost analysis of adsorbent and adsorption mechanism were discussed. And the adsorption equilibrium data fitted well with Langmuir model, while the calculated maximum adsorption capacity was 238.10 mg g−1 for OA and 334.83 mg g−1 for SOA, respectively. The kinetics data followed the pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔHo, ΔGo and ΔSo) indicated the spontaneous and exothermal nature. This research reveals that SOA is an effective, low-cost and promising adsorbent on the adsorption of MB on aqueous solution.
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Lipoxygenase-based and lipoxygenase-deficient okara were modified by Kluyveromyces marxianus fermentation, then adding modified okara back to the corresponding soymilk to prepare soy yogurt. The physicochemical properties, texture, and volatile components of soy yogurt were characterized. The results showed that okara modified by Kluyveromyces marxianus fermentation was rich in soluable dietary fiber and was imparted better water-holding capacity, swelling capacity, and oil-holding capacity. The soy yogurt with the modified okara was greatly enhanced in its appearance, texture and was relatively stable during storage. Moreover, lipoxygenase-based soy yogurt had a unique soybean flavor while lipoxygenase-deficient soy yogurt had a slight beany flavor and soybean flavor. This article guides a bio-modified method for okara and provides a theoretical basis for the further development and application of soy yogurt with high dietary fiber as well as lipoxygenase-deficient soy yogurt. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10068-021-01003-w.
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The bean dregs were treated by ultrafine grinding (U), high pressure (HP), microwave (M), high temperature cooking (HTC) and their combination techniques (U-HP, U-M and U-HTC). The water distribution, viscosity, stability, rheological properties and chrominance and whiteness of bean dregs were analyzed. The results showed that the combination treatments of U-HP, U-M and U-HTC greatly reduced the viscosity, and the slurry of bean dregs treated by U-HP combination had the best stability. After the HTC, U-HP, U-M and U-HTC treatments, the proportion of bound water of bean dregs increased and the proportion of immobile water decreased after rehydration. Different treatments could obviously affect the rheological behavior of bean dreg slurry. The HTC sample and all the combined treatments had low G′, G″ and tan δ values. Different methods had great influences on the chrominance and whiteness index of bean dregs. Therefore, in view of the increasing attention given to the preparation of food containing bean dregs, combined treatments are the appropriate methods for improving the physicochemical properties of bean dregs for high-quality functional dietary fiber food.
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Soyamilk and milk-based products are nutritionally rich, promising food products in local and international markets. Okara, the residue remaining after soyamilk extraction is the main by- product of the soyamilk industry. Currently okara is being utilized as a miscellaneous food ingredient, feed ingredient, or as a source of fertilizer. Although okara is a rich source of nutrients, it has not been fully exploited as an important food source. This study was conducted to evaluate the proximate composition of okara and to investigate the possibility of utilizing okara in bread making to improve the nutritional quality of bread. Fresh okara was analyzed for proximate composition. Fresh okara was dried in a cross flow cabinet dryer (Pheonix TK - Mini 10) at 60 0C, 20 m/s air flow velocity for 3 hours. The dried okara was ground into flour and sieved (standard test sieve (ASTM), size 20). Bread was prepared by substituting okara for wheat flour (w/w) at 10, 20 and 30 % levels. Sensory evaluation was conducted by 30 untrained panelists using five-point Hedonic scale on crust colour, crumb colour, taste, odour, appearance, mouth feel and overall acceptability. Results were analyzed by Freedman nonparametric test (MINITAB). Based on preliminary results, level of substitution was narrowed down to 10, 15, and 20 % and prepared bread was subjected to sensory evaluation. The results revealed that the optimum level of substitution was at 10 % okara flour. Moisture content of fresh okara was 79.7 %. The proximate composition of dried okara was crude fat (11.8 %), crude fiber (6.7 %), crude protein (34.3 %) and total ash (3.6 %). Trypsin inhibitor activity of okara was 6.6 %, 81 % lower than that in whole soyabean. Volume/ mass ratio of the control and okara (10 %) substituted bread were 2.51 and 2.5 respectively. There was a significant difference in crust colour between the control (white) and okara (10 %) substituted bread (red) (P
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Okara, a soymilk residue, was characterized and used as a supplement to enrich dietary fiber in rats. Okara comprised 49% total dietary fiber, of which only 0.55% was soluble, protein (33.4%), fat (19.8%), and ash (3.5%). Okara as a diet supplement had no influence on food intake, but the growth rate and feeding efficiency were lower in the okara-fed group than in the control group. Okara increased fecal weight and moisture. In okara-fed rats, in vivo colonic fermentation of okara resulted in a lower pH, but a higher cecal weight and higher total short chain fatty acid production, compared to controls. There were no significant differences (P≤0.05) between groups in albumin, protein, uric acid, bilirubin, or glucose content in rat serum. The okara-supplemented diet produced a nonsignificant reduction in HDL-lipids and triglycerides. Okara, a rich source of low-cost dietary fiber and protein, might be effective as a dietary weight-loss supplement with potential prebiotic effect.
Article
In the past several years, soy and its constituents have garnered considerable attention, from both researchers and health practitioners. Epidemiological data which indicated people from Asian cultures have lower rates of certain cancers, including cancer of the breast, prostate and colon, sparked an interest in soy as a contributing factor. While soy constituents, including saponins, lignans, phytosterols, protease inhibitors, and phytates, have come under investigation, the constituents which seem to hold the most promise from a therapeutic standpoint are the two isoflavones, genistein and daidzein. Numerous epidemiological, human, animal, and in vitro studies have demonstrated that soy isoflavones are effective chemopreventive agents for certain types of cancer. Mechanisms involved include antiangiogenesis, estrogen receptor binding, modulation of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, and inhibition of the enzymes protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) and 5 alpha-reductase. Interaction with many other enzymes has been suggested. Evidence also points to the beneficial effects of soy, particularly the isoflavones, in prevention of cardiovascular disease. Isoflavones appear to inhibit platelet activating factor and thrombin formation. They also increase HDL cholesterol and decrease triglyc rides, LDL, VLDL, and total cholesterol. Other potential health benefits of soy include prevention of osteoporosis, via the phytoestrogen effects of isoflavones, and prevention of neovascularization in ocular conditions, via inhibition of angiogenesis.
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Optimized technology for preparing soluble dietary fiber from extruded soybean residue was studied by the central composite rotatable design with four variables of the ratio of liquid to solid, temperature, time and alkali concentration. The yield of soluble dietary fiber was the evaluation index. The results indicated that the effect order of four factors on the yield of soluble dietary fiber was as follows: alkali concentration, ratio of liquid to solid, temperature and time. The canonical analysis revealed that the optimal conditions for preparation of soluble dietary fiber were: ratio of liquid to solid 26:1, temperature 89°C, time 68 min and alkali concentration 1.12%. Under optimal conditions, the predicted yield of soluble dietary fiber from extruded soybean residue was 33.96%, whereas, the experimental yield of soluble dietary fiber was 34.12%. The RSM-predicted yield and the experimental yield of soluble dietary fiber were not significantly different from each other. The results showed that the empirical model developed by response surface methodology was adequate to describe the relationships between the factors and response values. Under optimal conditions, the yield of soluble dietary fiber from extruded soybean residue (34.12%) was significantly more than that from soybean residue (13.51%).
Article
Corn gluten meal (CGM) first blended with bean dregs, the mixtures were extruded into pellets using a twin-screw extruder, and the pellets were extruded again as specimens. Tensile strength, thermal stability and morphology of the specimens were investigated. When 20% (w/w%) of the bean dregs were blended, the specimen had a maximum tensile strength. In addition, the specimen had a uniform phase based on observations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The result of thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the specimen (containing 20% bean dregs) can keep thermal stability below 240°C. The specimen can be applied in agriculture due to its low cost and biodegradability.
Article
Protein was extracted from soy residue (okara) at alkaline pH, and was modified by mild acid treatments. The degree of deamidation and peptide bond hydrolysis ranged from 10 to 70% and 6 to 15%, respectively. Size exclusion gel filtration chromatography revealed that there was a progressive degradation of the okara protein. Solubility was increased markedly by the modification, while other functional properties such as emulsifying and foaming properties were also improved. The okara protein products have good essential amino acid profiles, and acid modification also increased the in vitro digestability and available lysine content of okara protein. The results indicate that changes in functional properties of okara protein by acid modification were attributed to changes in physicochemical properties such as decreases in molecular size, higher net titratable charge and surface hydrophobicity. The low solubility of okara protein makes it difficult to be incorporated into many food systems. Improved solubility and other functional properties by acid modification will enhance the utilization okara protein as food ingredient.
Article
Protease hydrolyses of an Okara protein yielded antioxidative activity against the peroxidation of linoleic acid in an aqueous system at pH 7.0. Four antioxidative peptides were isolated from the hydrolysate prepared with Protease N by size exclusion chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC. The peptides were composed of two and three amino acid residues, including aromatic amino acid at the C terminal end. Their amino acid sequences were determined to be Ala-Tyr, Gly-Tyr-Tyr, Ala-Asp-Phe, and Ser-Asp-Phe, respectively. The antioxidative activity of Gly-Tyr-Tyr is nearly equal to that of carnosine.
Article
Disposal of by-products generated by plant food processing represent an important problem in the industry, but these by-products are also promising sources of compounds which may be used for their technological or nutritional properties, and today they are considered as a possible source of functional compounds. This work has contributed to the knowledge of three legume by-products, pea pod (Pisum sativum L.), broad bean pod (Vicia faba L.) and okara from soybean (Glycine max L.). These three by-products have in common that their major fraction is dietary fibre (pea pod: 58.6g/100g; okara: 54.3g/100g; broad bean pod: 40.1g/100g). Sucrose, glucose and fructose are the most important soluble sugars in both pods; however α-galactosides (stachyose and raffinose) are in greater concentration in okara. Protein is also a considerable component, although in higher amount in okara than in pods. Okara presents a large quantity of fat however both pods show similar low contents. Linoleic acid is the most important fatty acid; oleic acid is remarkable in okara and pea pod and linolenic acid in broad bean pod. Mineral amount is major in by-product pods than in okara, and the most important minerals are potassium, calcium and iron.
Article
Okara or soy residue is a byproduct of soymilk and tofu production process. Okara has high protein content and can be used as an ingredient in many food products or can be used as animal feed. However, okara deteriorates rapidly; hence raw okara must be dried as early as possible under appropriate conditions. Drying could also help eliminating undesirable antinutritional factors in okara. The present study investigated the feasibility of drying okara using a combined convection-sorption drying, i.e., the use of a jet spouted bed of sorbent particles. The effects of various parameters such as drying air temperature and velocity, mass ratio of sorbent particles to okara, and initial bed height of okara on the drying kinetics were investigated. Also, various quality attributes of okara viz. color, oxidation level, rehydration ability, urease activity and protein solubility as well as the specific energy consumption during drying were investigated in both low- and high-temperature ranges.
Article
The changes in the drying process and the appearance of an okara cake dried with an electrohydrodynamic (EHD) technique were investigated in an oven at 105°C. During drying, the voltage was kept constant, the number of the needles in the point electrodes were 1 and 3 and the electrode gap were 35, 50 and 65mm. The results showed that the drying time under the high electric field (HEF) condition reduced by 15–40% compared to the control at the final moisture content of 10% wb. Comparing with the drying rate at the same drying time in the different HEF conditions, the initial drying rate were found 1.7–3.2 times higher than that of the control. In addition, the electric field also had an influence on the appearance of the okara cake. The okara cake after drying kept a whole shape and there was no cranny in the surface when the HEF was supplied to, but there were some crannies and cracks in the surface of the control. However, the color of the sample exposed to the HEF became distinctly browner than that of the control, especially the part just under the needle electrode.
Article
In Tucumán (Argentina) a registered trade marked soy food is manufactured. The industrial residue named “okara” has a standard protein content. A candy (nougat) with okara, peanut, glucose, hydrogenated oil, sugar and natural essences was produced. Modifying the okara and peanut contents, three samples were prepared: A (18.3% okara and 27.4% peanut); B (27.4% and 18.3%) and C (36.6% and 9.1%), remaining the other components constant. The nougat was given to persons of both sexes and of different ages. The nonparametric Friedman test was used to evaluate the acceptance and preference. It concludes: (1) samples with lower okara content have a higher acceptance; (2) the acceptance of A differs significantly with regard to taste and texture from B and C; (3) C differs of A and B with regard to the acceptance. The production of this candy would increase the available vegetable proteins for human consumption and would increase the output of soybean products factories.
Article
To evaluate the antioxidant activity of Chinese traditional fermented okara (Meitauza), Bacillus subtilis B2 was used to ferment okara to obtain the Meitauza in the present study. The peptide content, proteinase activity, degradation of protein of the water extract of okara koji (WEOK) and the antioxidant activities in different in vitro models were investigated. Compared with the water extract of soybean koji (WESK), WEOK showed higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and reducing power, and both the linoleic acid radical scavenging activity and 2,2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) scavenging activity of WEOK were almost equal with those of WESK. The peptide and the antioxidant activity in WEOK are significantly correlated (P
Article
Cell wall material (CWM) from three legume by-products: okara (O), pea pod (PP) and broad bean pod (BBP) were isolated. CWM was sequentially extracted with a chelating agent to obtain S1, and with dilute alkali (S2), 1M alkali (S3), 4M alkali (S4) and NaClO2/acetic acid (S5) to leave a cellulose-rich residue (RES). The S1 fraction was different in each by-product (O: 7.2%; PP: 5.5%; BBP: 29.4 %). S2 (O: 7.4%; PP: 3.2%; BBP: 8.1%) and S5 (O: 9.8%; PP: 5.6%; BBP: 10.8%) were low in pea pod and similar in okara and broad bean pod. S1, S2 and S5 were characterised as pectin-rich fractions, whereas S3 and S4 were hemicellulose-rich fractions. There was a high percentage of S3 in pea pod (O: 8.9%; PP: 11.5%; BBP: 6.8%) and S4 in okara (O: 17.8%; PP: 7.1% BBP: 5.7%). RES was the fraction with the highest percentage of cellulose, and the remainder was pectin and hemicellulose material (O: 48.9%; PP: 67.1%; BBP; 39.2%). In addition, the swelling and water retention capacity of these by-products indicates their potential application as a texturing additive.
Article
This study examined production of α-glucosidase inhibitors by Bacillus subtilis B2 in Luria-Bertani (LB) fermentation with okara, soy powder, starch or pectin as additional source of carbon and nitrogen. All the fermentation broths of B. subtilis B2 exhibited gradual increase in α-glucosidase inhibitory activity during the fermentation process with or without supplemented source of carbon or nitrogen. Addition of okara into the LB medium greatly enhanced the strength (nearly twice as much of that without okara supplement) of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of fermentation broth. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of B. subtilis B2 fermentation broth was positively correlated (p<0.05) with the bacterial populations grown in LB medium containing okara. Glucose and sucrose were not detected in LB medium during the entire fermentation process and were both reduced drastically in media containing okara, soy powder, starch or pectin after 6days of fermentation. The fermented LB medium containing okara by B. subtilis B2 possessed very strong α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and contained little glucose and sucrose, suggesting that fermentation of B. subtilis B2 in LB added with okara might be considered as a strategy for preparing functional foods for diabetic patients. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
Production of iturin, an antifungal peptide effective at suppressing phytopathogens, by Bacillus subtilis NB22 was investigated in solid state fermentation (SSF) using soy bean curd residue (okara). In scale-up from 15 g to 3 kg, aeration, temperature, and moisture content were controlling factors for the efficient production of iturin. It was found that solid state fermentation was 6–8 times more efficient with respect to iturin productivity than submerged fermentation on the basis of unit wet weight. Higher productivity in selective production of specific components of iturin which are stronger inhibitors of plant pathogens was also confirmed in SSF.
Article
Isoflavones present in soybean (Glycine max) have been credited with performing several health-promoting functions, such as, prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and menopausal symptoms. In this study, the effect of the processing of soybean on the total content of isoflavones (including aglycones and glucosides) and the relative concentrations of 12 isoflavone compounds during the preparation of soy beverage and tofu were investigated. The mean recoveries of isoflavones in soy beverage and tofu in relation to their initial concentration in the raw soybeans were 54 and 36%, respectively. The estimated percentage of total isoflavones lost in the water used to soak raw soybeans, the okara (waste from heat-treated slurry), and whey were 4, 31, and 18%, respectively. The isoflavone profile of raw soybeans was altered as a result of processing. During processing, the detectable levels of aglycones, glucosides, and acetyl glycoside groups increased, whilst the corresponding malonyl glucosides decreased. The loss of isoflavones through the by-products, such as, okara and whey, was considerable. Appropriate techniques should be developed to recover and utilize these functional constituents from soybean by-products. In addition, processing techniques have to be optimized, so that the final products contain the nutrient and nutraceutical content of the starting material as much as possible.
Article
A novel method of Pt catalyst direct deposition on polypyrrole (ppy)-modified Nafion composite membranes for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is proposed in this paper. Proton conductivity and methanol permeability of polypyrrole-modified Nafion composite membranes were investigated. The Pt particles were directly deposited on the PPy-modified Nafion composite membranes by using chemical reduction of platinic chloride at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy measurements showed that Pt particles with a porous structure uniformly exist in the Pt/PPy/Nafion electrodes. The roughness factor and the active surface area of the Pt catalyst increased with increasing PPy loading. The performance of the Pt/PPy/Nafion electrodes was evaluated in a single DMFC.
Article
The combined effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and controlled temperature on total (TDF), soluble dietary fibre (SDF) content, and its associated hydration properties were assayed in okara, a rich-in-insoluble dietary fibre residue from the soydrink- and tofu-making process of soybean. TDF in starting unprocessed okara was 45.7% and its SDF to TDF ratio was 4.6. When dry, hydrated and autoclaved okara samples, were subjected to HHP-treatment (200 and 400MPa) at 30 and 60°C, the amount of SDF went up by more than 8-fold. At 200MPa, TDF was not significantly different from control, but at 400MPa values varied from 38.1 to 64.8%. In vitro physicochemical properties of okara were also modified by HHP-treatment. Therefore, the effect of a combined treatment with hydration, temperature and HHP-technology on the improvement of the soluble fibre fraction (%) and functionality of certain vegetable by-products from the food industry could be very useful for the elaboration of food ingredients with potential health-promoting effects.
Article
Drying characteristics of bean-curd refuse were investigated using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer in order to determine the drying rate. Drying temperature and the physical sample size were the controlled experimental variables. The drying mechanism of bean-curd refuse was found to closely follow the unreacted core model that considered the zero order on gas reactant concentration and a solid particle of unchanging size. The drying reaction step was found to be the dominant factor in the drying mechanism. The activation energy of the drying rate was 21.25kJ/gmol. The following empirical correlation was proposed for the fractional conversion of dryingt=4.644×106Rp2.628eE/RT{1−(1−X)1/3}.
Article
A new solid state fermentation reactor (SSFR) for solid substrate was used for the production of lipopeptide antibiotic iturin A using Bacillus subtilis RB14-CS. Solid state fermentation (SSF) is the technique of cultivation of microorganisms on solid and moist substrates in the absence of free water. SSF has shown much promise in the development of several bioprocesses and products because of their several advantages like absence of free water that allows simplified downstream processing and low cost. SSFR allows agitation of the SSF culture with improved temperature control and air supply. Interestingly, when okara, the widely available waste product from the tofu industries, was used as the solid substrate for the SSFR, no iturin A production was observed. However, without agitation, production of iturin A was observed in the SSFR but the production level remained low. The low production of iturin A was found to be due to the heat generation and excess temperature rise inside the reactor system during the fermentation process. Maintaining the temperature within a range of 25–30°C, production of iturin A was significantly improved in the SSFR. This was comparable to the laboratory scale production, and signifies the potential application of the SSFR for SSF.
Article
Drying of okara, an insoluble pulp residue waste byproduct of tofu production, was investigated in a continuously moving bed of inert particles subjected to vortex-like motion. The experimental variables in their respective ranges included the mass of Teflon pellets used as inert particles (0.4–1.2 kg), feed rate (0.5–1.4 kg/h), inlet air temperature (100–145°C) and airflow rate (195–271 m3/h). The dryer showed good performance in general and produced dry okara with moisture content ranging from 5 to 33% wb depending upon the operating conditions. The product recovery ranged from 80 to 90% on dry basis in most experiments. The specific water evaporation rate in okara drying increased with increasing of the feed rate and mass of Teflon pellets. However, the specific heat consumption decreased with an increase in the okara feed rate. Results showed that specific heat consumption for okara drying in a bed of inert particles was about 3 to 4 times higher in comparison with that of free water.
Article
The objective of this study was to investigate experimentally the effects of various drying parameters, i.e., inlet air velocity, inlet air temperature, initial bed height and heating duration, on both the drying kinetics and various quality attributes of dried okara viz. percentage changes of the total protein content, color, urease index, as well as the specific energy consumption during drying in a jet spouted-bed dryer. It was observed that all drying conditions tested could reduce the amount of urease to an acceptable level and increasing the heating duration, air velocity, and hot air temperature led to a significantly higher rate of reduction of urease activity. The percentage change of the total protein content of okara undergoing different drying conditions was not significantly different, however. After drying, the redness of okara was the highest changing color index, but its absolute value was still much lower than those observed for the lightness and yellowness. Hence, dried okara appeared light-brown. The specific energy consumption of the process was found to be in the range of 3.69 to 5.89 MJ/kg evaporated water.
Article
Protein was extracted from okara at pH 9.0 and 80 °C for 30 min, giving a recovery of 53% protein. The extracted protein was isolated by isoelectric precipitation at pH 4.5, and the dried, defatted protein isolates (prepared at 25 and 80 °C) had over 80% protein.The okara protein isolates have essential amino acid profiles similar to the FAO scoring pattern, and high in vitro protein digestibility, with methionine and cysteine as the limiting amino acids. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate showed that okara protein isolates had a large quantity of high molecular weight components suggesting protein aggregation. Differential scanning calorimetry and hydrophobicity data suggested extensive protein unfolding in the okara products.Okara protein isolates had lower solubility than a commercial soy protein isolate at both acidic and alkaline pH, probably due to protein aggregation. Other functional properties, including emulsifying, water and fat binding, and foaming properties, were found to be comparable to the commercial soy isolate.
Article
ABSTRACT30 Cultivars of soybeans grown in the Philippines were made into soy-milk using the boiling water-grind technique. An experienced taste panel found that the milk made from six cultivars had a strange flavor; two had low extractibility of protein. All the other cultivars made an organoleptically acceptable product, with a good extraction of the protein. The mean protein content of the raw soybeans was 33.3% with a range of 27.3-36.2%. The mean protein content of the soymilk was 2.72% with a range of 2.29-3.55%. The mean protein content of the insoluble residue (dry matter basis) was 24.0% with a range of 18.2-29.6%. The mean value for extraction of protein of the raw bean into the soymilk was 78.5% with a range of 63.9-93.1%. The mean value for the extraction of the fat into the soymilk was 52.4% with a range of 15.5-83.7%.
Article
An industrial waste, soybean residue, was used for the production of a useful microbial enzyme, β-fructofuranosidase, by fermentation. The enzyme was produced by Aspergillus japonicus using soybean residue (3–15%, w/v) as the only medium component other than sucrose. Sucrose at 15% (w/v) was the best carbon source for enzyme production. The maximum enzymatic activity reached approximately 9 × 103 U/50 ml medium after 48 h. The cell growth reached at least 0·6 g dry cells/50 ml medium after 120 h. The fermentation by Asp. japonicus to produce β-fructofuranosidase was suggested as a method to recycle soybean residue.
Article
This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of mango peel, roselle seed, okara (by-product of soya milk industry), cocoa shell and pink guava (by-product of pink guava industry) in comparison to 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox). The β-carotene bleaching, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and reducing power assays were used to determine the antioxidant capacity of selected by-products by measuring the absorbance at 470, 520 and 700 nm, respectively. The results showed that methanolic extracts of pink guava and cocoa shell exhibited the highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity compared to other studied samples. Roselle seed water extract exhibited the highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging when extracted with water. Pink guava possessed the highest reducing power in methanolic extract at a concentration of 0.16 mg mL−1. At the same concentration, mango peel exhibited the highest reducing power when extracted with water. The present study shows that pink guava, roselle seed and cocoa shell are potential sources of antioxidant components that can be exploited as food preservative agents or nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2006 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
An alcohol insoluble residue (AIR) from okara, a byproduct from soymilk, was mainly composed by indigestible carbohydrate (55.7%). After sequential extraction, three alkali-soluble fractions (12.7% yield) and an insoluble residue (RES, 58.7% yield) were obtained. Soluble polysaccharide fractions showed in vitro reduction power (11–26 μmol Trolox Equivalent (TE)/g dry weight (dw)) and free radical scavenging activity (63–78 μmol TE/g dw). The highest antioxidant activity was exhibited by 0.05 M NaOH-soluble fraction, rich in pectins. The 1 M KOH-soluble fraction had a mixture of hemicellulosic and pectic polysaccharides, and 4 M KOH-soluble fraction contained the bulk of xyloglucans, although some pectins could also be present. RES contained cellulose along with residual pectins. FT-IR spectra of okara and AIR exhibited an absorption band at 1740 cm−1 of carboxylic ester from pectins, which lacked in the fractions. Moreover, they showed absorption bands at 1650 and 1550 cm−1 of proteins, and at 900–890 cm−1 of β-glycosidic linkages. Potential antioxidant activity of okara cell-wall polysaccharides could be attributed to pectins, although the contribution of residual proteins cannot be ruled out.
Article
The composition of soybean seeds and its by-product okara has been studied in this work. Dietary fibre was analysed by Englyst et al. method, by enzymatic-gravimetric methods of AOAC and by the quantification of the monomers obtained from the AOAC residues after acid hydrolysis (AOAC plus hydrolysis). Total dietary fibre by the enzymatic-gravimetric methods of AOAC in okara (55.48g/100g dry matter) is more than twice that of soybean seeds (24.37g/100g dry matter). The proportion IF/SF is 11 in okara and 6 in soybean seeds. Dietary fibre results from enzymatic-gravimetric AOAC methods are higher in okara and soybean seed samples than those from the Englyst method (okara: 41.14g/100g dry matter; soybean seeds: 15.05g/100g dry matter), and AOAC plus hydrolysis (okara: 44.91g/100g dry matter; soybean seeds: 16.38g/100g dry matter). In the case of the insoluble fibre from both samples, AOAC plus hydrolysis gives significantly (p<0.001) higher values than the Englyst method, whilst for soluble fibre the opposite occurs (p<0.001). The main monomers in soybean seeds and okara fibre are glucose, galactose, uronic acids, arabinose and xylose. The proportion of each monomer is similar in soybean seeds and okara, so the healthy properties of soybean seeds fibre are also claimed for okara. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
The objective of this study was to compare the effect of hot and cold grinding as well as the effect of direct and indirect ultra high temperature (UHT) treatment conditions on the level of isoflavones during the manufacture of soymilk. Soymilks were manufactured from dehulled soybeans by hot grinding or cold grinding processes. After inactivation of lipoxygenase at 85 °C, the resulting slurries were decanted and supernatants were held at 120 °C for 80 s to inactivate the trypsin inhibitor. The decanted soya bases were cooled and subjected to different temperature/time regimes by direct and indirect UHT treatments. Samples were drawn at different points in the processing operation and a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography method was used to determine the concentration of isoflavones. Results showed that hot grinding caused a higher extraction of isoflavones into the soymilk than the cold-grinding process. However, direct or indirect heating in the UHT process did not significantly influence the concentration of isoflavones.
Article
Heating is very important to inactivate anti-nutritional factors and enhance quality of soybean products. Four heating techniques i.e. extrusion, fluidized bed, spouted bed and infrared radiation have been investigated along with their performances, regarding moisture reduction, urease inactivation, protein solubility and lysine. The rate of moisture diffusion for soybean kernel in the spouted bed and infrared dryer was described by a semi-empirical drying equation for which the drying constant was determined using non-linear regression. The experimental results have shown that the water mobility is more rapidly accelerated by infrared radiation. Every technique has a potential to reduce the urease activity to the standard range, with the quantity of remaining lysine being insignificantly different (p<0.05) under the testing conditions. The extent of urease inactivation in each technique depends on the moisture content, time and temperature, the latter being the most important factor. High moisture content induces rapid urease inactivation for the soybeans treated by the convection and radiation-type equipments. Conversely, inhibited inactivation is encountered with the extruded soybeans due to the strong cohesive forces amongst ground soybeans at a higher moisture content of 24% d.b., inducing poor mixing behaviour in the barrel. The results from the lab- and commercial-scale equipment are shown to have higher soluble protein content in 0.2% KOH for the infrared-treated soybeans, comparing to the other techniques. Extrusion consumed the largest quantity of energy followed by the fluidized bed with no recycled air and the micronizer becomes the most effective energy utilization.