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A Scots Orpheus in the South Seas: Encounter music on cook's second voyage

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In Marcel Beyer’s celebrated Flughunde (1995), the discovery of an underground archive of sound in the aftermath of the Cold War—preserved despite strategies apparently calling for its mechanical destruction—reassigns agency and voice to instrumentalized victims of National Socialism. By highlighting the close connection between an alleged security custodian of the archive, the actual National Socialist sound cartographer Hermann Karnau, and Moreau, a character bearing a strong resemblance to the protagonist of H. G. Wells’s 1896 novel The Island of Doctor Moreau, Beyer’s novel draws attention to a utopian experiment with life that was carried out in the wake of the colonial enterprise in the Pacific and posits additional historical undertones manifested in Karnau’s National Socialist experiments with sound. Karnau’s attempt to master vocal timbre in particular foregrounds technologies that make it possible to manipulate voice and memory in the post-Fascist and post-Communist present. In spite of technological alteration, archived voices of colonial and National Socialist subjects manifest a vitalist aesthetic. With its concern for race, sound, and memory, the novel breaks new ground in telling the story of the National Socialist and colonial past in the aftermath of the Cold War.
Article
Fringed by extensive mainland coasts and comprising tens of thousands of islands, the Pacific Ocean may be thought of in the terms proposed by one of its well-known writers: a “sea of islands” (Hau‘ofa 1993, 8). This singular geography accounts for the region’s predominantly maritime character and its great cultural diversity. Yet Oceania is also marked by patterns of cultural influence and exchange and increasingly by the forging of collective identities, often through the medium of music. Historically, Oceania referred to Polynesia (“many islands”), Melanesia (“black islands”), and Micronesia (“little islands”), but the term was also applied to coastal Australia, Aotearoa New Zealand, Indonesian Papua and West Papua, and maritime Southeast Asia. The terms “Polynesia,” “Melanesia,” and “Micronesia” themselves made up a tripartite division dating to late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century European contact, when European observers grouped Oceanian peoples according to phenotypical and cultural characteristics. Implicit in this categorization was always a hierarchical ordering: Polynesians were assigned the pole position among Oceanian peoples, while Melanesians and Micronesians were typically construed as subordinate and inferior.
Article
Renowned for his influence as a political philosopher, a writer, and an autobiographer, Jean-Jacques Rousseau is known also for his intense interest in music. He composed operas and other musical pieces,invented a system of numbered musical notation, engaged in public debates about music, and wrote at length about musical theory. Critical analysis of Rousseau's work in music has been principally the domain of musicologists, rarely pervading the work of scholars of political theory or literary studies. In Rousseau Among the Moderns, Julia Simon argues for new interpretations of The Social Contract, The Discourse on the Origin of Inequality, and The Confessions, as well as other texts, linking Rousseau's understanding of key concepts in music, such as tuning, harmony, melody, and form, to the crucial problem of the individual's relationship to the social order. The choice of music as the privileged aesthetic object enables Rousseau to gain insight into the role of the aesthetic realm in relation to the social and political body in ways often associated with later thinkers. Simon argues that much of Rousseau's "modernism" resides in the unique role that he assigns to music in forging communal relations through the aesthetic. Copyright
Article
This paper investigates the ways Protestant hymnody, a tool of evangelisation and colonisation, served as an agent in establishing, mediating and transforming relationships between Melanesians and outsiders, and among Islanders themselves. It concentrates on early transmission strategies and the initial reception of hymnody, the role of women missionaries in the establishment of hymn culture, the subsequent increase in participation in hymnody among the second generation of evangelised Islanders, and the nascence of a local, Melanesian form of hymnodic expression. A tension is identified whereby as Islander congregations became ever more proficient hymnodists and thus increasingly more capable of producing a sound acceptable to Europeans, they came to assume a broader-based ‘Melanesian’ identity – a new, wider collective self-understanding based on emergent hybrid expressive practices. The paper argues that Islanders drew on hymn culture as they remade their societies in the light of the new ideas and experiences to which they were being exposed, to the extent that to them it became a key symbol and register of their social and cultural transformation and regeneration.
Article
The article observes two shifts in Enlightenment ideas about the power of music. First, although neo-Platonist thought declined in significance towards the end of the eighteenth century, ideas about musical agency continued to be espoused about non-Europeans. Second, music came to be seen as a potentially dangerous rather than ameliorative force. Focusing on European encounters with Polynesia during the Cook voyages, the article partially attributes these shifts to scholars' increased engagement with non-European music and the challenges posed to aesthetics by the cross-cultural encounter. The article argues that the performative use of music gave rise to new ethnomusicological insights yet also exposed the susceptibility of Europeans to the instrumental effects of non-European music. German scholars responded by minimizing the sophistication and emotional content of Polynesian music, a gesture that would be preserved in nineteenth-century musicological thought.
Book
Captain James Cook's first two voyages of exploration, in 1768-71 and 1772-75, had drawn the modern map of the South Pacific Ocean and had opened the door on the discovery of Antarctica. These expeditions were the subject of Volumes I and II of Dr J.C. Beaglehole's edition of Cook's Journals. The third voyage, on which Cook sailed in 1776, was directed to the Northern Hemisphere. Its objective was the discovery of 'a Northern Passage by sea from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean' - the North-west Passage, sought since the 16th century, which would have transformed the pattern of world trade. The search was to take Cook into high latitudes where, as in the Antarctic, his skill in ice navigation was tested. Sailing north from Tahiti in 1778, Cook made the first recorded discovery of the Hawaiian Islands. On March 7 he sighted the Oregon coast in 44â° N. The remarkable voyage which he made northward along the Canadian and Alaskan coasts and through Bering Strait to his farthest north in 70â° nearly disproved the existence of a navigable passage towards the Atlantic and produced charts of impressive accuracy. Returning to Hawaii to refit, Cook met his death in a clash with the natives as tragic as it seems unnecessary. Dr Beaglehole discusses, with sympathy and insight, the tensions which led Cook, by then a tired man, into miscalculations alien to his own nature and habits. The volume and vitality of the records, both textual and graphic, for this voyage surpass those even for Cook's second voyage. The surgeons William Anderson and David Samwell, both admirable observers, left journals which are also here printed in full for the first time. The documentation is completed, as in the previous volumes, by appendixes of documents and correspondence and by reproductions of original drawings and paintings mainly by John Webber, the artist of the expedition. In Dr Beaglehole's words, 'no one can study attentively the records of Cook's third, and last, v.
Book
This presents the previously unpublished journal of the principal naturalist on Cook's second voyage. The main pagination of this volume and the three previous volumes in the set (Second series 152-154) is continuous. Overshadowed for nearly two hundred years in European scholarship by the achievements and reputation of his eldest son George Forster, J. R. Forster - principal naturalist on James Cook's second voyage - was nevertheless recognised by many contemporaries as one of the ‘universal geniuses’ of the late 18th century. His journal of the voyage offers many new insights, expressed at times in quite unrestrained language, into the day-to-day relationships, life and thinking and theory-testing on the second, and the most scientific and the most epic of Cook's voyages. However, the circumstances of Forster's career and personality were such that his work was dogged by debilitating disputes and vendettas. Consequently, important works such as this journal, which would have established him as the leading comparative anthropologist, linguist, geographer and zoologist of the Pacific, have thus far remained obscure and seldom-used manuscripts. Anthropologists, ethnolinguists, geographers, botanists, zoologists and medical and literary historians will find here much new observation and theory; for the two Forsters fashioned forces to influence Alexander von Humboldt and foretell Charles Darwin. This is a new print-on-demand hardback edition of the volume first published in 1981.
Book
Terry Eagleton once wrote in the Guardian, 'Few post-colonial writers can rival Homi Bhabha in his exhilarated sense of alternative possibilities'. In rethinking questions of identity, social agency and national affiliation, Bhabha provides a working, if controversial, theory of cultural hybridity, one that goes far beyond previous attempts by others. A scholar who writes and teaches about South Asian literature and contemporary art with incredible virtuosity, he discusses writers as diverse as Morrison, Gordimer, and Conrad. In The Location of Culture, Bhabha uses concepts such as mimicry, interstice, hybridity, and liminality to argue that cultural production is always most productive where it is most ambivalent. Speaking in a voice that combines intellectual ease with the belief that theory itself can contribute to practical political change, Bhabha has become one of the leading post-colonial theorists of this era.
Article
This Apish nation, for take them in gener(a)l they are the most ugly and illproportioned people I ever saw and in every respect different from any we had yet seen in this sea. They are rather a Diminutive Race and almost as dark as Negros, which they in some degree resemble in thier countenances, but they have not such fine features (Beaglehole 1961: 466). [Their vociferous talk]… together with their slender form, their ugly features, and their black colour often provoked us to make an ill-natured comparison between them and monkies. We should be sorry, however, to supply Rousseau, or the superficial philosophers who re-echo his maxims with the shadow of an argument in favour of the Orang-outang system. We rather pity than despise these men who can so far forget and abuse their own intellectual faculties, as to degrade themselves to the rank of baboons… They were the most intelligent people we had ever met with in the South Seas; they understood our signs and gestures, as if they had been long acquainted with them, and in a few minutes taught us a great number of words (G. Forster 1777, ii: 207).
Article
Marvelous Possessions is a study of the ways in which Europeans of the late Middle Ages and the early modern period represented non-European peoples and took possession of their lands, in particular the New World. In a series of innovative readings of travel narratives, judicial documents, and official reports, Stephen Greenblatt shows that the experience of the marvelous, central to both art and philosophy, was cunningly yoked by Columbus and others to the service of colonial appropriation. He argues that the traditional symbolic actions and legal rituals through which European sovereignty was asserted were strained to the breaking point by the unprecedented nature of the discovery of the New World. But the book also shows that the experience of the marvelous is not necessarily an agent of empire: in writers as different as Herodotus, Jean de Léry, and Montaigne—and notably in Mandeville's Travels, the most popular travel book of the Middle Ages—wonder is a sign of a remarkably tolerant recognition of cultural difference. Marvelous Possession is not only a collection of the odd and exotic through which Stephen Greenblatt powerfully conveys a sense of the marvelous, but also a highly original extension of his thinking on a subject that has occupied him throughout his career. The book reaches back to the ancient Greeks and forward to the present to ask how it is possible, in a time of disorientation, hatred of the other, and possessiveness, to keep the capacity for wonder from being poisoned? "A marvellous book. It is also a compelling and a powerful one. Nothing so original has ever been written on European responses to 'The wonder of the New World.'"—Anthony Pagden, Times Literary Supplement "By far the most intellectually gripping and penetrating discussion of the relationship between intruders and natives is provided by Stephen Greenblatt's Marvelous Possessions."—Simon Schama, The New Republic "For the most engaging and illuminating perspective of all, read Marvelous Possessions."—Laura Shapiro, Newsweek
Article
Charles Burney (1726–1814), was the foremost music historian of his day. The General History, his most famous work, was published in four volumes between 1776 and 1789 and is still of great value today. Burney wanted to write something which would appeal to and inform the musician and the general reader. Research for the History was undertaken during two European tours, in 1770 and 1772, consulting original sources and meeting the great musicians of the time. The resultant work is engaging and elegantly written, offering the reader a fascinating view not only of Burney's own musical preferences and enthusiasms, but also a reflection of contemporary fashionable taste. All four volumes contain generous musical examples, quotations from original sources and an index. The fourth volume, published 1789, is an account of the birth and development of opera and the contemporary music scene in England.
Article
Includes detailed instructions on the treatment of native peoples, the aims of the expedition and the observations to be made and objects to be collected. The expedition is to "exercise the utmost patience and forbearance with respect to the natives of the several lands where the ship may touch" and the shedding of blood is a crime of the highest nature. "They are the natural and, in the strictest sense of the word, the legal posessors of the several regions thay inhabit. No European nation has the right to occupy any part of their country ..." It is natural for them to defend their land and if they are hostile there are to be no reprisals. Detailed suggestions are given on how to approach the natives peacably.The primary object of the expedition is to observe the transit of Venus. Once this has been achieved, attention can be turned to other matters "particularly the discovery of a continent in the lower temperate latitudes". Gives clues on how to determine whether a land mass is a continent rather than merely an island, e.g. high mountains and large river mouths. The aim is to observe and describe the peoples, their customs and beliefs, the flora and fauna and the "natural productions of the country". Vegetables are to be sought, particularly those with a medicinal use or use for dyeing. Minerals and fossils and the vocabulary of the names given by the natives are also of interest.
Book
On September 11, 2001, members of Osama bin Laden's AI Qaeda terrorist network apparently hijacked four civilian passenger airplanes and flew them into the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, killing approximately 3000 innocent civilians from more than 80 different countries. In the days since, I have been struck by how many Americans-and how many lawyers-seem to have concluded that, somehow, the destruction of four planes and three buildings has taken us back to a state of nature in which there are no laws or rules. In fact, over the years, we have developed an elaborate system of domestic and international laws, institutions, regimes, and decision-making procedures precisely so that they will be consulted and obeyed, not ignored, at a time like this.
Quoted in Grassineau, James. op. cit., p. 22. [back to reference 90 in text] 91. The anonymous reviewer of Georg Forster's Voyage, translates the same phrase, 'Departed, dead, alas! Tupaya!
  • J J Rousseau
  • Dictionnaire
  • Musique
Rousseau, J. J. Dictionnaire de Musique. Quoted in Grassineau, James. op. cit., p. 22. [back to reference 90 in text] 91. The anonymous reviewer of Georg Forster's Voyage, translates the same phrase, 'Departed, dead, alas! Tupaya!.' Anon. Review. The Monthly Review. op. cit., p. 466. [back to reference 91 in text]
Gods and Mortals: Understanding Traditional Function and Usage in Marquesan Musical Instruments Auckland: Auckland UP 1996. On the theoretical underpinnings of the discipline, see Treitler, L. 'The Early History of Music Writing in the West
  • Jane Moulin
  • Freeman
  • Mclean
  • Maori Mervyn
  • Music
For the convincing use of travel accounts by historical ethnomusicologists, see the work of the following: Moulin, Jane Freeman. 'Gods and Mortals: Understanding Traditional Function and Usage in Marquesan Musical Instruments.' JPS, pp. 250-83, and McLean, Mervyn, Maori Music. Auckland: Auckland UP 1996. On the theoretical underpinnings of the discipline, see Treitler, L. 'The Early History of Music Writing in the West.' JAMS, xxxv (1982), pp. 237-79, and Nettl, Bruno. 'Some Historical Thoughts on the Character of Ethnomusicology' in Exploration on Ethnomusicology. Ed. C. J. Frisbie. Detroit 1986. [back to reference 10 in text]
Review of 'A Voyage round the World, in his Britannic Majesty's Sloop, Resolution, commanded by Capt. James Cook, during the Years 1772, 3, 4, and 5
  • Anon
Anon. Review of 'A Voyage round the World, in his Britannic Majesty's Sloop, Resolution, commanded by Capt. James Cook, during the Years 1772, 3, 4, and 5.' By George Forster. Monthly Review; Or, Literary Journal. Vol 56, January 1777, pp. 266-70, 457-67. [back to reference 77 in text]
The Royal Marines. London: Sphere Books 1973, p. 29. The Marines were first designated 'Royal' by order of King George III in 1802
  • J Moulton
Moulton, J. L, The Royal Marines. London: Sphere Books 1973, p. 29. The Marines were first designated 'Royal' by order of King George III in 1802. Thomas, Garth, Records of the Royal Marines. London: Public Record Office Publications 1994, p. 3 [back to reference 12 in text]
[back to reference 13 in text] 14. Chatham Division Description Book
  • Garth Thomas
  • Op
Thomas, Garth. op. cit., p. 36. [back to reference 13 in text] 14. Chatham Division Description Book. ADM 158/2. Public Record Office, Kew, London. [back to reference 14 in text]
Bligh's Bad Language. Passion, Power and Theatre on the Bounty. Cambridge: CUP 1992, p. 66. I am grateful to Harry Liebersohn for drawing my attention to this reference in Dening's work
  • Greg Dening
Dening, Greg, Mr. Bligh's Bad Language. Passion, Power and Theatre on the Bounty. Cambridge: CUP 1992, p. 66. I am grateful to Harry Liebersohn for drawing my attention to this reference in Dening's work. [back to reference 18 in text]
The same objects may have been seen in different points of view, and that the same fact may often have given rise to different ideas
  • Georg Op Forster
Forster, Georg. op. cit., p. 517. [back to reference 82 in text] 83. 'The same objects may have been seen in different points of view, and that the same fact may often have given rise to different ideas.' 'It was necessary for every reader to know the colour of the glass through which I looked.' Forster, Georg. op. cit., pp. 12, 14. [back to reference 83 in text]
cit., p. 126. [back to reference 100 in text
  • Petra Dietsche
  • Op
Dietsche, Petra. op. cit., p. 126. [back to reference 100 in text] 101.
Vier literaturwissenschaftliche Studien zum Problem des Verstehens und der Darstellung fremder Kulturen. Frankfurt a.M.: Peter Lang 1984, p. 34. I am grateful to Sabine Boomers for drawing my attention to this source
  • Dietsche
  • Das Petra
  • Über
  • Fremde
Dietsche, Petra, Das Erstaunen über das Fremde. Vier literaturwissenschaftliche Studien zum Problem des Verstehens und der Darstellung fremder Kulturen. Frankfurt a.M.: Peter Lang 1984, p. 34. I am grateful to Sabine Boomers for drawing my attention to this source. [back to reference 96 in text]
For other late eighteenth and early nineteenth-century commentaries on music, see also, Chamisso, Adelbert von. A Voyage Around the World With the Romanzov Exploring Expedition in the Years 1815-1818 in the Brig Rurik, Captain Otto von
  • Beverley Ed
  • Hooper
  • Canberra
Ed. Beverley Hooper. Canberra: National Library of Australia 1975, p. 56. For other late eighteenth and early nineteenth-century commentaries on music, see also, Chamisso, Adelbert von. A Voyage Around the World With the Romanzov Exploring Expedition in the Years 1815-1818 in the Brig Rurik, Captain Otto von Kotzebue. Trans. and ed. Henry Kratz. Honolulu: Hawaii UP 1986, pp. 143-44, 153, 314-15, and Dumont D'Urville, Jules S. C. Voyage de découvertes autour du monde et la recherche de La Pérouse...pendant les années 1826, 1827, 1828 et 1829. Paris: Roret 1832. [back to reference 9 in text]
Records of the Royal Marines
  • Garth Thomas
Thomas, Garth, Records of the Royal Marines. London: Public Record Office Publications 1994, p. 3 [back to reference 12 in text]
Voyage in Search of La Pérouse
  • M Labillardiére
Labillardiére, M. Voyage in Search of La Pérouse, Performed by Order of the Constituent Assembly, During the Years 1791, 1792, 1793, and 1794...
Australian Broadcasting Commission Radio Programme. I am grateful to Patricia Agnew for drawing my attention to this source
  • Jim Chapman
Chapman, Jim et al. 'They Came With Trumpets and Left With Guns.' Episode I of When the West Met the South. 3 April 1999. Australian Broadcasting Commission Radio Programme. I am grateful to Patricia Agnew for drawing my attention to this source. [back to reference 7 in text]
Published for the Hakluyt Society
  • Ed J C Beaglehole
Ed. J. C. Beaglehole. Published for the Hakluyt Society. Cambridge UP 1961, pp. 116-18.
[back to reference 23 in text] 24. A recurrent theme in Shakespeare's oeuvre is the idea that music could turn 'savage eyes to a modest gaze The Merchant of Venice
  • James Cook
  • Op
Cook, James. op. cit., p. 208. [back to reference 23 in text] 24. A recurrent theme in Shakespeare's oeuvre is the idea that music could turn 'savage eyes to a modest gaze.' Shakespeare, William, The Merchant of Venice, v. 1 [back to reference 24 in text]
White Paper: Strategies of Colonial Appropriation in Georg Forster's Voyage round the World
  • See Agnew
See Agnew, Vanessa. 'White Paper: Strategies of Colonial Appropriation in Georg Forster's Voyage round the World, 1772-1775.' Conference Paper, ASECS Conference, Austin, Texas, March 1996. See also Scherpe, Klaus. 'Die First-Contact-Szene. Kulturelle Praktiken bei der Begegnungen mit dem Fremden.' In Weimarer Beiträge 44 (1998) 1, pp. 54-73. [back to reference 3 in text]
European Vision and the South Pacific New Haven: Yale UP 1960; Gell, Alfred. Wrapping in Images. Tattoos in Polynesia
  • See For Example
  • Smith
  • Bernard
See for example, Smith, Bernard. European Vision and the South Pacific. New Haven: Yale UP 1960; Gell, Alfred. Wrapping in Images. Tattoos in Polynesia. Oxford: Clarendon 1993; Thomas, Nicholas. Oceanic Art. Thames and Hudson 1995, and Eisenman, Stephen. Gaugin's Skirt. Thames and Hudson 1997 [back to reference 5 in text]
History of a journey made into the land of Brazil, otherwise called America... The whole collected on the spot by Jean de Léry, native of Lamargelle, district of Saint-Seyne, in the Duchy of Burgundy
  • Léry
  • Jean
Léry, Jean de. History of a journey made into the land of Brazil, otherwise called America... The whole collected on the spot by Jean de Léry, native of Lamargelle, district of Saint-Seyne, in the Duchy of Burgundy. La Rochelle: Antoine Chuppin 1585, p. 109. [back to reference 8 in text]
Hints offered to the consideration of Captain Cooke, Mr. Bankes, Doctor Solander, and the other Gentlemen who go upon the attention to this reference in the account (p. 228)
  • Douglas
  • John
Douglas, John. 'Hints offered to the consideration of Captain Cooke, Mr. Bankes, Doctor Solander, and the other Gentlemen who go upon the attention to this reference in the account (p. 228). [back to reference 34 in text]
Robertson and various seamen comment on Polynesian musical cultures. The able seaman Francis Wilkinson's reference in his logbook to the existence in Tahiti of a 'Musical Instrument not unlike a German Flute, another not unlike a Drum' is representative
  • See
See, for example, the voyage of the Dolphin. Wallis, Robertson and various seamen comment on Polynesian musical cultures. The able seaman Francis Wilkinson's reference in his logbook to the existence in Tahiti of a 'Musical Instrument not unlike a German Flute, another not unlike a Drum' is representative. ADM 51/4541. Public Record Office, Kew, London. [back to reference 62 in text]
Instructions and standing Orders for the General Government and Discipline of His Majesty's Ship Amazon
  • Edward Riou
Riou, Edward. 'Instructions and standing Orders for the General Government and Discipline of His Majesty's Ship Amazon.' October 1799. Shipboard Life and Organisation, 1771-1815. Ed. Brian Lavery. Publication of the Navy Records Society. Vol. 138. Aldershot: Ashgate 1998, p. 124. [back to reference 4 in text]
The Wonder of the New World
  • Stephen Greenblatt
  • Marvelous Possessions
Greenblatt, Stephen, Marvelous Possessions. The Wonder of the New World. Chicago: Chicago UP 1991, pp. 16-18. [back to reference 95 in text]
[back to reference 99 in text] 100. Dietsche, Petra. op. cit
  • Stephen Greenblatt
  • Op
Greenblatt, Stephen. op. cit., p. 25. [back to reference 99 in text] 100. Dietsche, Petra. op. cit., p. 126.
bei der die Europäer am wenigsten umhin konnten, zu sehen, dass sie es bei den vermeintlichen 'Wilden' mit vollkommen eigenständigen Gesellschaften zu tun hatten. Die Musik war eine Ausdrucksform der gegenüber die gedanklichen Erklärungsmodelle der Europäer fast völlig versagten
  • Die Musik War Vielleicht Jene Ausdrucksform
Die Musik war vielleicht jene Ausdrucksform, bei der die Europäer am wenigsten umhin konnten, zu sehen, dass sie es bei den vermeintlichen 'Wilden' mit vollkommen eigenständigen Gesellschaften zu tun hatten. Die Musik war eine Ausdrucksform der gegenüber die gedanklichen Erklärungsmodelle der Europäer fast völlig versagten.' Dietsche Petra. op. cit., p. 34. [back to reference 98 in text]
The whole collected on the spot by Jean de Léry, native of Lamargelle, district of Saint-Seyne, in the Duchy of Burgundy
  • Jean Léry
  • De
Léry, Jean de. History of a journey made into the land of Brazil, otherwise called America... The whole collected on the spot by Jean de Léry, native of Lamargelle, district of Saint-Seyne, in the Duchy of Burgundy. La Rochelle: Antoine Chuppin 1585, p. 109. [back to reference 8 in text]
Vier literaturwissenschaftliche Studien zum Problem des Verstehens und der Darstellung fremder Kulturen
  • Petra Dietsche
  • Das Erstaunen
  • Das Fremde
Dietsche, Petra, Das Erstaunen über das Fremde. Vier literaturwissenschaftliche Studien zum Problem des Verstehens und der Darstellung fremder Kulturen. Frankfurt a.M.: Peter Lang 1984, p. 34. I am grateful to Sabine Boomers for drawing my attention to this source. [back to reference 96 in text]
Observations Made During a Voyage Round the World
  • Johann Forster
  • Reinhold
Forster, Johann Reinhold. Observations Made During a Voyage Round the World... London: G. Robinson 1778. pp. 467-8. [back to reference 78 in text]
Introduction, Observations Made During a Voyage Round the World
  • See Forster
  • Johann Reinhold
See Forster, Johann Reinhold, Introduction, Observations Made During a Voyage Round the World. Ed. Nicholas Thomas, et al. Honolulu: U of Hawaii P 1996, p. xxxii. [back to reference 41 in text]
On the douceur-effect of commerce, see Hirschman, Albert O. The Passions and the Interests
  • Anne M Cohler
  • Basia C Miller
  • Harold Stone
Anne M. Cohler, Basia C. Miller and Harold Stone. Cambridge: Cambridge UP 1989, p. 38. On the douceur-effect of commerce, see Hirschman, Albert O. The Passions and the Interests. Princeton: Princeton UP 1977, p. 59. [back to reference 86 in text]