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Folklore of teaching aids

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Summary The WKAR-TV Program Analyzer,an electric rating summaration device,was used to test a inescope of a composite television program for farm men and homemakers entitledTown and Country. Additional phases of the experiment involved interviews with each group tested on the Analyzer and completion of a questionaire by each subject. The subjects consisted of 20 farm men, 20 rural homemakers and 20 urban homemakers. The WKAR-TV Program Analyzer tests included 10 subjects in each group.
Article
This experiment was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of eight types of visual illustrations used to complement programmed instruction. The various types of visual illustrations were evaluated in terms of their ability to improve student achievement on five criterion measures. 175 freshmen students at the Pennsylvania State University were randomly assigned to one of the nine treatment groups. Each student received a pre‐test, participated in his respective programmed presentation and received four individual criterion measures. The results indicate that some types of visuals are more effective than others in facilitating student achievement of specific educational objectives. The analyses also indicated that the addition of colour in specific types of illustrations is an important instructional variable to be used in increasing student achievement of specific educational objectives.* This research was supported by the Central Fund for Research, The Pennsylvania State University.
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Psychological and physiological concepts about information transmission are reviewed with a view toward uncovering principles useful to the design of audiovisual teaching materials. Audiovisual materials which transmit information via the visual or auditory channels are considered, including sound motion pictures, film strips, and audio recordings. Since the focus is limited to teaching and learning situations involving information transmission, audiovisual devices used to provide aesthetic and affective experiences are excluded. Nine chapters deal with: 1) current conceptions of the role of audiovisual devices in learning; 2) the implications of research on audiovisual devices for the design of learning situations; 3) the relative efficiency of auditory and visual transmissions of information and studies of multi-modality transmission; 4) the mechanics of the transmission of information in the central nervous system; 5) the perceptual system as a single channel system; 6) channel switching; 7) concept learning; 8) attention; and 9) a model for information transmission by means of audiovisual materials. An appendix reviews some major concepts of information theory. (PB)
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An experiment is described which was designed to obtain evidence of the effectiveness of television broadcasts in Engineering Science for students taking G courses in Technical Colleges and Colleges of Further Education. Tests were devised to measure the attainments and attitudes of two matched groups of students, one of which had seen the series of television broadcasts while the other group was having conventional teaching.
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From this study, these conclusions are warranted: 1. The majority of scales used in this study changed meaning according to the medium of presentation and/or the instrument of measurement. 2. Through comparison of factor analyses, scales can be selected which are relatively stable in their meaning across media being judged and measuring instruments. 3. The verbal media generally score higher than the pictorial media on scales measuring structure. The spoken media generally score higher than the written. 4. A picture generally scores higher in aesthetic evaluation than a verbal description of a picture. A spoken description scores higher than a written one. 5. Media relate to one another differently on different dimensions of judgment. In the two dimensions found here, the written was most like the pictorial in the structure factor; the spoken was most like the pictorial in the aesthetic evaluation factor. 6. Messages which evoke a given response when presented through a given medium will not necessarily evoke that response when presented through a different medium. 7. Latency scores for subsequent responses concerning a spoken presentation will be lower than for responses concerning a written presentation.
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First published in 1958, this book has become recognized as a classic in its field. It marked a transition between behaviourist learning theory and the modern 'information processing' or 'cognitive' approach to perception and communication skills. It continues to provide a principal starting point for theoretical and experimental work on selective attention. As Professor Posner writes in his Foreword to the reissue: 'it remains of great interest to view the work in its original form and to ponder those creative moments when the mind first grasps a new insight and then struggles to work out its consequences.
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This is an attempt to apply the concepts and techniques of information theory to the problems of visual perception. The informational concept of redundancy comes in for a good deal of attention with regard to the understanding of phenomena of visual perception, and a demonstration of its nature in this area is presented. The analysis employed by the author also permits him to present informational and statistical descriptions of a good many classical concepts from the area of vision, including the historically most important Gestalt perceptual principles.
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Ss were given a series of learning trials with stimulus materials of differing degrees of meaningfulness and redundancy using three modes of presentation. All Ss received one list of the stimulus materials through an auditory presentation, one list visually and one list audio-visually. Forty-eight Ss learned lists of nonsense syllables, 48 learned lists of common words, and 48 learned lists of words with constraint. One-fourth of each group received the stimuli at the rate of one each 4 sec., one-fourth at the rate of one each 2 sec., one-fourth at a 1-sec. rate, and one-fourth at one stimulus each .6 sec. There were no significant differences between the visual and audio-visual modes of presentation across all three types of stimulus material, although at the shorter stimulus exposure times a slight trend was observed for the audio-visual mode to be inferior to the visual. When the stimulus material was nonsense syllables, the auditory mode of presentation produced learning inferior to the other two ( p < .001), but the visual and audio-visual modes were similar.
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