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Neoliberalism and the demise of public education: The corporatization of schools of education

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Abstract

Neoliberalism has brought fundamental changes to the way schools of education prepare professional educators; among them is the pressure for schools of education to produce fast-track teacher preparation programs that bypass traditional requirements. Due to the privatization of public education, a new market has emerged to train educators and administrators for charter schools. The No Child Left Behind Act has made the old multipurpose PhD in education obsolete and has led to fast-track EdDs to train school administrators to raise test scores. In this era of corporate schooling, colleges of education are competing with online and for-profit colleges to increase student enrollment. Academic capitalism has entered into the classroom and it has redefined the academic premises upon which the entire higher education system was instituted. This article asks, what are the implications of this new educational arrangement for the purpose of education and the development of a critically informed mass of democratic citizens? This article proposes a critical dialog among educators, parents, labor groups, and grassroots organizations and an action plan to stop the dismantling of public education.

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... The marketization of education refers to the spread of market forces in education, which happened with neoliberalism's rise to dominance in the 1970s (Baltodano 2012;Harvey 2005;Molnar 1996). Under the market logic, education serves the market. ...
... Education is centered on the development of students as entrepreneurial actors who learn the skills that can propel their careers. However, education is not equally accessible to all: it is based on competition, meritocracy, economic rationality, and self-responsibility (Baltodano 2012) and can be restricted on the basis of achievements or tuition. Table 1 summarizes the characteristics of each institutional logic. ...
... Organizations started to invest heavily in advertising to attract students. To improve organizational performance, they borrowed from business practices, methodologies, and approaches and concentrated on certifications and accreditations and national and international rankings (see Baltodano 2012;Harvey 2005;Molnar 1996). Next, we explain how these three logics interacted during the evolution of the Brazilian education market. ...
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Marketization—the entry of the market logic into a field originally insulated from it—is a transformative force that has reshaped many fields, including education, healthcare, the arts, and religion. Marketization brings a unique set of challenges for established organizations: it opens a field to market-style mechanisms of consumer choice and competition, which undermines the legitimacy of established organizations, and it creates contradictory demands for organizational actions. How can established organizations adapt to marketization? To answer this question, we study the adaptation of five established religious schools to the marketization of education in Brazil. We develop the novel hybridization strategy of nested coupling and explain that established organizations respond to marketization by balancing competing demands for differentiation and conformity. We show how religious schools nest the market logic within the religious logic by reconfiguring their resources to conform to market demands while differentiating themselves through their religious orientation. Nested coupling provides a novel strategic approach for established organizations in marketized or marketizing fields, such as hospitals, museums, and schools, to capitalize on a logic that pre-exists marketization and to create a unique competitive positioning in the market.
... Since the 1980s, problem-centered policy logics (such as special education policy) have converged with neoliberal logics (discussed in greater detail shortly) to shape how policymakers frame and ameliorate problems (Baltodano, 2012). We argue that these logics, embedded in policies and their related language, produce and naturalize institution-identities such that they become common sense tools for narrating-and making sense of-the self and others (Sfard 2019). ...
... This chapter examines how neoliberal policies develop new common sense discourses (Gramsci, 2006) that shape the opportunities and resources available for children's narratives of themselves as mathematics learners. Borrowing from Baltodano's (2012) framework for examining the impact of neoliberal policies on public education, the analysis identifies three central tenets of neoliberal logics: ...
... Others have analyzed policy language as a tool for narrating the self (e.g., Stein, 2004), neoliberal policies' role in shaping educational opportunities (Baltodano, 2012), and how such policies contribute to and maintain racial and economic disparities (Kohli et al., 2017); however, scholars have not yet made visible the connection between policy and mathematical identities. This is a fruitful connection because mathematics is a frequent target for U.S. education policy reform. ...
Chapter
Preface Schools exert powerful forces on people's lives. As society's formal setting for learning, schools-or, more precisely, the people in authority there-certify the learning of the next generation. Contradictions between learning and the bureaucratized systems of schooling are particularly keen in mathematics classrooms, where students are constantly subjected to tools that measure, rank, sort, and label them and their learning. The use of technical instruments as the tools of measurement gives results a veneer of scientific truth such that shifting life trajectories get both rationalized and made invisible. We refer to the mathematical identities that come from such processes as institution-identities (Gee, 2000), exploring how policy language makes available and naturalizes certain positions for students within schools. In other words, we examine how policy language and practices shape and constrain possibilities for young people's mathematical identities in school-based interactions. All four authors of this chapter taught in U.S. schools. As such, we all have been actors in processes that took full, complex human beings and sorted, labeled, and set them on different paths. In doing so, we co-constructed students' mathematical institution-identities, giving credence to (or shedding doubt on) stories about their capabilities and future possibilities. In this chapter, we use thickly described examples from four research projects to examine and illuminate how policy language and practices shape and constrain possibilities for young people's mathematical identities in school-based interactions. On the basis of this analysis, we develop a theory of how policies and neoliberal logics operate together to provide institution-identities that become consequential in children's mathematical identities and learning. We argue that mathematics educators concerned with issues of access, equity, and inclusion should attend to institution-identities rooted in neoliberal policies that naturalize processes contributing to social stratification. We furthermore demonstrate that policy and its enactment can serve as a site for research into the discursive nature of mathematical identities.
... Broadly speaking, educational policy reforms in a globalised education market seem to reflect a shift in the purpose of education towards a greater alignment with neoliberal and capitalist values (see e.g. Amsler, 2013;Ball, 2016Ball, , 2018aBall, , 2018bBaltodano, 2012;Hirtt, 2004;Jessop, 2018;Mok & Tan, 2004;Raduntz, 2005;Slaughter & Leslie, 2001). Many educational institutions are tasked with developing 'human capital' (Burgess, 2016;Jessop, 2018) to adapt to the needs of the 'knowledge economy' and to implement measures that help strengthen the country's competitiveness (see e.g. ...
... But, within the scholarly literature, there is a growing body of researchers striving to explore and examine the contradictions between the surface appearance of education as a 'public good' and its underlying processes that reproduce existing, and contribute to new, problems in society (e.g. Amsler, 2013;Ball, 2018b;Baltodano, 2012;Blum & Ullman, 2012;Castrellón, Reyna Rivarola, & López, 2017;Davies & Bansel, 2007;Hirtt, 2004;Nieto, 2005). This seems to be reflected in the dissonance between teacher training content, personal values and the contemporary educational realities where the formation of teachers' identity occurs in the space of contradictions (Anspal, Leijen, & Löfström, 2018). ...
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Teachers’ authenticity is a topic of emerging interest in the field of education. This paper systematically reviews existing qualitative research on the subject of teachers’ authenticity from the perspective of teachers and students. The findings from 12 studies are subject to a metasynthesis. Results show that the authentic teacher is conceptualised as congruent, caring, open to encounters and critically conscious. The conditions that foster teacher authenticity are social belonging, self-organising school systems, intentional critical consciousnesses and intrinsic (caring) motivation. These are contrasted with the perceived inhibitors of authenticity: alienation; systemic control; and a Kafkaesque approach. Implications and recommendations for further research are proposed.
... More broadly, teacherpreneurs may pose a challenge to the neoliberal agenda in education. Under the neoliberal value system, a school's capital is directed to educational corporations (for the purchase of canned curricula), and consequently, teacher labor is underpaid and undervalued (Apple, 2013;Baltodano, 2012;Pittard, 2017). If schools allocate funds for their teachers to purchase teacherpreneurs' content instead of paying publishing companies, they push back against an educational system that has come to distrust teacher agency (Apple, 2013). ...
... Providing a profile of highly successful online teacherpreneurs may be useful to P-12 school leaders and teacher educators seeking ways to identify, understand, and engage with online teacherpreneurs and the teachers who use their materials. The study may also shed light on the value of teachers as influencers in online spaces, particularly as women challenging the status quo of educational publishing companies' dominance in U.S. schools (Apple, 2013;Baltodano, 2012;Pittard, 2017). ...
Article
Background Today's teachers are turning to online educational marketplaces, such as TeachersPayTeachers.com (TpT), where they purchase teacher-created classroom materials for a small fee. Meanwhile, teachers who sell resources in these spaces, online teacherpreneurs, stand to benefit financially and may experience other affordances as well as challenges associated with the practice. Purpose of Study This study is one of the first empirical investigations of online teacherpre-neurship. We interviewed highly experienced and successful online teacherpreneurs to understand who they are, what they do, and the impacts they encounter. Research Design Ten one-hour semistructured interviews were conducted with online teacherpreneurs who were ranked in the top 1% of sellers on TpT and had sold materials on TpT for at least four years. Interviews addressed the areas of online teacherpreneur experiences, personal characteristics, work environments, and opinions regarding online teacherpreneur controversies. Responses were analyzed to identify salient and/or repeated themes across the interviews, using the constant comparative method. Findings Online teacherpreneurs described themselves as helpful, hardworking, organized, creative, and risk-taking. Whereas some worked in supportive school environments, others worked in ambivalent schools, where they kept their teacherpreneur work separate and/or secret. They indicated that the practice of online teacherpreneurship involved creating resources, collaborating with teachers and online teacherpreneurs, and engaging in entrepreneurship. Online teacherpreneurs experienced positive impacts relating to teaching practice, teacher leadership, and their careers. They also experienced some professional stressors. Conclusions Online teacherpreneurs are emerging as virtual teacher leaders and educational influencers. They carry the responsibility to share high-quality resources, and they need the support of their schools and connections with colleagues to thrive.
... This accountability movement has also created a culture of fear, where educators must produce results at the threat of losing their jobs or their schools losing federal funding (Smolin & Clayton, 2009). Failure to do so could result in schools being labeled as failing (Baltodano, 2012;May & Sanders, 2013) or removal from leadership positions. This fear has resulted in district leadership in cities such as Washington, DC and Atlanta coming under fire for changing individual students' answer sheets (Straus, 2015). ...
... As an extension of human capital approaches, the neoliberalism of education also is not a new phenomenon, and much research has examined how this agenda moved into educational spheres (McKenzie, 2012). Neoliberalism has been viewed as a tool that has compromised public education (Baltodano, 2012). Similar use of standards has also impacted educational leaders who have been fearful of reprisal for failing to meet state imposed standards, another product of neoliberalism (Pinto, 2015). ...
... Common in developing nations is that neoliberalism is critical of the state and politics being dominant in the market (Barry, Osborne and Rose (1996) cited in Olssen and Peters, 2005, 316). Drawing from the Marxist ideology, which puts emphasis on the government as a key player in the economic system, it is true that neoliberalism and its policy cannot be understood as a doctrine of government (Baltodano 2012) Neoliberalism must be understood as a philosophical ideology, which aims to replace the national government in every aspect of society such as the economic, political and cultural. The orthodox and conventional praxis of both neoliberalism and the state are different. ...
... This reality is reverberated by Kabir (2010, 620), who argues that the market forces and principles determine the higher education system and, thus, incremental increase in fees is part of the agenda. Baltodano (2012) also argues that it is obvious that the neoliberal policies have surpassed the education institutions. Olssen and Peters (2005: 340) are concerned that "in this age of market domination the next great struggle after the 'culture wars' of the 1990s will be the 'education wars', a struggle not only over the meaning and value of knowledge both internationally and locally, but also over the public means of knowledge production". ...
Article
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Despite the announcement made by the South African government to decommercialise the Institution of Higher Learning (IHL), the fiscal crisis in higher education remains a stumbling block in the functionality of higher education. The fiscal crisis is caused by the Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) adopted at the national level, which advocate for government cutback in financing public sector. The crisis has led the IHL to adopt a market approach, which places the corporate segment in the IHL and treats education as a commodity that can be bought and sold. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to analyse the extent to which neoliberal policies contribute to the fiscal crisis in higher education. The neoliberal policies adopted at the national level challenges the conventional nature of higher education as a public good. Using extant literature, this paper argues that neoliberal policies are responsible for the funding crisis in higher education. It also argues that it is only when neoliberal policies are challenged at the national level, then, will the crisis disappear and if not, higher education will continue to be at the receiving end of these hostile policies. Keywords: Institution of Higher Learning (IHL), Neoliberal Policies and Structural Adjustment Policies (SAPs), Statelessness, Privatisation
... The ways in which the subjectivities of beginning teachers may be influenced by documents and policies (that are produced by and help reproduce neoliberal priorities) need to be illuminated in order to expand possibility for choice and the potential for social change (Weedon, 1997). Baltodano's (2012) analysis of how neoliberalism has taken root in various educational structures in the US explains the key goals, including: reducing the individual to principles of production and efficiency; manipulating discourses, social institutions and the state; protecting capital; and reducing citizenship to passivity and subservience. Neoliberalism circulates through policy in different ways. ...
... Neoliberalism circulates through policy in different ways. According to Baltodano (2012) and relevant to our work is the positioning of 'No Child Left Behind' (NCLB) legislation as 'one of the most important achievements of neoliberalism' (495) due to its de-professionalization of teachers, obliteration of local control for schools, and shift towards defining high-stakes testing as accountability, and students as data. Scholars have noted the impact of neoliberal discourses on education policies and practices around the world, including in NZ's EC sector (Duhn, 2012;Sims, 2017;Smith et al., 2016). ...
The early phases of teachers’ professional careers are multi-layered and informed by many factors, including teachers’ values, their own experiences in schools, and the nested contexts of their professional employment. While in teachers’ everyday lives government policies sometimes operate beneath the surface rather than overtly, these policies influence many teachers’ experiences, contributing significantly to what critical discourse analysis scholars call the ‘issue’ of teachers’ available subjectivities being influenced by prevailing ideologies as they are newly entering the profession. In this analysis, we activate critical discourse analysis in order to offer new understandings about policies and contexts associated with new teachers entering the profession. Our analysis is significant in its co-consideration of policies from contexts that we see as experiencing the influence of neoliberal ideologies in different ways. As critical discourse analysis is transdisciplinary, it also offers chances to transcend boundaries of politics and culture to inquire into social wrongs as we actually experience them in a world that is globally connected and globally influenced. The significance of this analysis, then, lies with the continued questioning we hope that it, and others like it, make possible.
... Поэтому существенен вопрос о том, каковы последствия этого нового образовательного фундамента, усиленного электронным обучением, для целей образования и профессионального и личностного развития граждан? (Baltodano 2012). ...
Article
Ensuring the accessibility of education based on the development of online learning as one of the tasks of the global educational policy is acquiring key importance today. This task is complicated by different levels of economic development of countries and digital divide, problems of modernization of national education systems in the context of the spread of IT technologies. The development of education is closely related to technological advances (artificial intelligence, augmented and virtual reality, robotics), but such changes are not actively manifested in education due to its conservatism, and are also associated with the level of development of countries and access to new technologies for citizens. An analysis of investment activity in the education sector shows that investors are wary of financing the development of education and, in particular, online education, but trends over the past five years show a fourfold increase in total investment. The article concludes that: 1) despite the emergence of both universal and specialized educational online platforms, they cannot create an individual trajectory for acquiring knowledge and mastering competencies, as this can still be done on the basis of classical university education; 2) online platforms broadens the choice among the many offered educational programs and courses, however objectivity of this choice tends to be decreasing.
... Learning, it is claimed, is most effective when it is dis-located. These disruptive reform efforts have earned a great deal of criticism, particularly in regard to their relationship to corporate profit (e.g., Baltodano, 2012), their gutting of public education (e.g., Attick, & Boyles, 2016), and their over-reliance on contingent faculty (e.g., Gallagher, 2014). Although these critiques are well-deserved, they are insufficient. ...
Article
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The school shutdowns necessitated by the 2020 COVID pandemic have highlighted the importance of “located” education. A located education is not determined by medium or physical proximity. Instead, a located education acknowledges the limits of human understanding and sustains mutually beneficial relationships. Recent neoliberal reform efforts have sought to dis-locate education – to strip it of both spatial limitation and the obligations of interdependent care. However, the COVID-related shutdowns have highlight the brokenness of a dis-located education. Drawing from the work of activist Wendell Berry and philosopher Nel Noddings, this article makes the case for located education – an education that recognizes the importance of both place and people.
... Finally, our definition of holiday hunger references schools as institutions that perpetuate social inequality by reducing the role of the welfare state (Angus, 2015;Baltodano, 2012). That is, while schools aid in feeding poor children who are able to meet the threshold for free school meals, 1 which is often heralded as a good thing, they do so only for school-age children and usually only when they attend school. ...
... A plausible and potential pedagogical and epistemological alternative is assembling and reorganizing higher education around 'learning practices' instead of focusing on teachers or students. 97 Swedish higher education system was not immune to the organizational transformation that happened among public institutions in the last decades (Berg et al., 2003), which involved redistribution and replacement of public resources within nation states, sometimes through privatization, sometimes institutional effectivization and organizational dismantling (Baltodano, 2012;Giroux, 2002;Shore, 2010). 98 According to large-scale student survey at Lund University, around half of the students in Faculties of Social Sciences and Humanities claim they have less than six contact-hours a week (Holmström, 2018: 35). ...
... As such, the ethnographic engagement with young people helped us to understand that young men narrativized schools through everyday institutional practices that drew upon Muslim as a racialized category; there was not a displacement of categories of racialisation and their attendant exclusionary effects but rather a re-racialization through performativity. Their experience of exclusion was articulated across multiple discourses, which have been facilitated through a reconstitution of notions of the 'good teacher' and 'good parent' (Baltodano 2012); and the schooling processes underpinned by an ideology of performativity continued to use cultural differences as a mechanism for segregation and marginalisation that was made manifest in the toxic projection of the self-segregating 'Muslim school'. ...
Article
Within British schools over the last few decades, we have witnessed a policy move from multi-culturalism to counter-radicalization. In response, this article examines an ethnographic project that illustrates both the relative autonomy of methodology from broader theoretical and substantive questions, as well as the internal creative logic of methodology grounded in the research process. Importantly, the research participants claimed, in contrast to the securitised regime that circumscribed their lives as a ‘suspect community’ closing down critical discussion in the public sphere, their (ethnographic) engagement in the field enabled them to inhabit alternative representational spaces to the dominant public framing of young Muslims as dangerous men. Ethnography, with its attendant immersion research methods, created the time and space to open up complex explorations of the research participants’ emerging understandings, meanings and performances of school life for their generation.
... Since the first appearance of a reflective academic discourse on what the turn of the millennium means for humanity, the logic of educating for the 21 st century explicitly has called for attention to both (a) orienting programming and credentialing to advance a global economy while (b) adopting perspectives of becoming valuable world citizens of a global society. Critiques of this approach range from skepticism of the efficacy to succeed with such aims (UNESCO, 2015) to outright rejection of the underpinning neoliberal ideology (Baltodano, 2012). Among the optimistic proponents of the need for both work and citizenship goals to be adopted within 21 st century education, Dede (2007) calls for the transformation of "objectives, curricula, pedagogies, and assessments to help all students attain the sophisticated outcomes requisite for a prosperous, attractive lifestyle based on effective contributions in work and citizenship." ...
Article
Emerging youth movements to promote issues reflected in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are celebrated as critical for the future attainment of societal aims. We explore the possibility for institutions of higher education to serve as an intentional third space to engender the creation and mobilization of hybrid movements that intentionally engage youth internationally. This case study interrogates the YouthMappers digital humanitarian mapping model of student-led, faculty-mentored, globally-networked chapters through a global survey of 205 participating students from 32 countries. Results indicate the extent to which youth reflect on skill-development versus global citizenship, and how they understand the meanings of their actions for SDGs, locally and globally. Detected differences by gender, world region, and duration of participation are interpreted and validated with additional qualitative data. We conclude with observations about how universities can open enabling spaces for youth action on SDGs.
... This situation introduces a new field of educational exploration, discovery, and contestation. We must rise to the challenge and learn to resist the hardening coarticulation of current approaches to online education with neoliberal educational reforms (Baltodano 2012;Burns 2020). ...
... LIHE enrols approximately 1,000 undergraduates, most of whom are UOL students. Approximately 80% of the UOL degrees conferred at LIHE are in business or British law, reflecting the desocialisation of academic disciplines in the neoliberal university described by Baltodano (2012). A three-year UOL degree at LIHE costs 25,000,000 Sri Lankan Rupees (15,000 Euros), over 18 years of income at the country's median per capita income (Department of Census and Statistics 2016), with roughly half that amount comprising UOL tuition. ...
Article
This study examines colonial governmentality in a Sri Lankan partner institution of University of London (UOL) through semi-structured interviews with students and faculty. UOL began administrating colonised educational spaces in the 19th century, and now governs approximately 80 partner institutions throughout the global South. Its governmentality structures an arterial topology of power that grants limited inclusion to students while excluding their lecturers from formal recognition. Faculty at partner institutions do not assess students. Instead, assessment consists of annual British examinations, effectuating rote pedagogies that centre European knowledge. This extraction of faculty authority shapes delegitimated and disempowered subjectivities. The same process augments UOL’s expertise on Southern educational spaces, contributing to a broader project of universalising Western epistemology. The findings suggest a need for further research that examines colonial governmentality in international education, and particularly its mechanisms of epistemic extraction
... (pp. 186-187) Moreover, educational institutions and classroom courses are increasingly packaged and presented as economic products (e.g., "academic capitalism"; Baltodano, 2012), the purpose of which is to develop shared "mental models … [such as] a good citizen is a good consumer and GDP growth equals increased national wellbeing" (Laininen, 2019, p. 166). This neoliberal economic package can also be seen in English being promoted as a lingua franca or global language and the upsurge in ESL/EFL schools worldwide. ...
Chapter
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The mainstream English as a second/foreign language (ESL/EFL) classroom can silence a rich tapestry of voices and identities through an imposition, either forced or covert, of a monolingual and monocultural learning environment. This pedagogy-oriented chapter will conceptualize how the “past”, “present”, and “future” aspects of a learner can be more fully validated and embraced in order to foster a more global, holistic, and sustainable worldview in the ESL and EFL classroom. Heritage languages and cultures (the “past” of the learner) possess a wealth of knowledge and ways of knowing and being which should be incorporated and acknowledged in our “present”-day English language classroom for a more equitable, culturally, and environmentally responsive “future”. The Worldviewer interactive video blog is introduced to exemplify how heritage language pedagogy could be implemented in the ESL/EFL classroom in a way that (1) addresses the cognitive and linguistic imperialism of the colonial monolingual English classroom, (2) validates heritage, non-dominant knowledge systems and languages worldwide (such as those which are Indigenous), (3) fosters discussions and decolonial orientations for a more environmentally and culturally responsive sustainable future, and (4) promotes positive identity formation for all multilingual and multicultural learners.
... The recruitment of tuition-based international students is gradually reshaping public schools into education enterprises, yet the market freedoms promoted by this neoliberal discourse go against the democratic freedoms public education seeks to promote (Baltodano, 2012;Blakely, 2017). In Ontario, there are a total of 72 school boards organized either as English Public, English Catholic, French Public, or French Catholic (People for Education, n.d.). ...
Article
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While Canadian public schools do not charge students tuition the same way post-secondary institutions do, we are increasingly seeing neoliberal pressures contribute to a lucrative market for tuition-based international students in K-12 education similar to higher education. This study focuses on how neoliberalization is shaping and contributing to the international recruitment policyscape in Ontario’s K-12 education system. Theoretically informed by neoliberalism and anti-colonialism, this paper examines the case study of international student programming in Ontario (and Canada’s) largest school board, the Toronto District School Board. Using “What’s the Problem Represented to Be?” as a methodological approach, we conducted a policy analysis of various documents published by the board with respect to their international student program. Our analysis shows how overarching neoliberal pressures imposed by provincial governments contribute to the creation and maintenance of this particular policyscape, along with a discussion of how this impacts public education in Ontario.
... (Moss, 2014, p. 65) As such, neoliberalism has altered what it means to be human and, therefore, what it means to be a child (or teacher, for that matter) experiencing education (Davies & Bansel, 2007;Sims, 2017). As a result of these neoliberal fantasies, many K-5 school environments currently hold very little space for daily playful practice (Baltodano, 2012;Sahlberg & Doyle, 2019). Rather, in public schools, learning is parsed out into 45-to 50-minute blocks of time dedicated to discrete and decontextualized knowledges from curriculums that are labeled "high-quality" and promise returns on investments. ...
Article
Neoliberalism has both feet firmly planted in educational contexts around the globe (United States, Australia, United Kingdom). Due to the precarious nature of unstructured play and its unwillingness to fit neatly into a neoliberal framework of quality and high returns on investments, play for play's sake has taken a backseat to standards, “evidence-based” curriculums, and high-stakes testing. These changes are often justified as a way to “mind the gap” or as a way to build a quality workforce in years to come, however, there is a large body of research (including a call from the Pediatrics Association) that suggests play for play's sake is necessary for wellbeing, humanization, and learning itself.
... While there were critical discussions in the program about assessments in schools, we needed to make a clearer link between these assessment issues and their own experiences with the edTPA. As a consequence of these findings, we are committed in the future to a more direct intervention to develop candidates' critical thinking about the corporatization of this assessment and the neoliberal influences on assessment in general (Au, 2016;Baltodano, 2012). Ball (1990) summarized Foucault's position on management and schooling. ...
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Background/Context This article is a policy discussion of the edTPA preservice portfolio assessment; it uses Foucault's work and our data to suggest a more critical and activist approach to the assessment. Currently 764 teacher education programs in 40 states have included the edTPA as part of their requirements. In Illinois, it is a newly required high-stakes portfolio assessment required for teacher licensure. Purpose/Objective We studied our teacher candidates’ experiences with edTPA portfolio. We wanted to know how they experienced this new assessment and how that might inform our program. As instructors, we had heard many complaints from our candidates, and we wanted to examine their experiences from their perspectives. Participants In this study, we collected narrative accounts from two different cohorts of teacher candidates in Year 1 (2015–16) and Year 3 (2017–18) to better understand their perspectives (total N = 37). The participants were interviewed at the end of their student teaching semester after they had completed their portfolio. Research Design We collected narrative accounts from two different cohorts of teacher candidates in Year 1 (2015–16) and Year 3 (2017–18) to better understand their experiences with the edTPA (total N = 37). We gave participants a choice of whether to do individual or focus group narratives. Participants were interviewed at the end of their student teaching semester after they had completed their portfolio. Findings As teacher educators, we aimed to support our candidates’ development into critically engaged educators. However, we found that the regulatory powers in the policies and procedures of the edTPA had a negative effect on our candidates’ experiences with it. We also did not give them the tools they needed to sufficiently analyze this particular assessment, despite having discussed testing policies in the schools and their negative implications for teachers and students. Further, we found a normalization of the edTPA between Year 1 and Year 3 of implementing this assessment that suggested a trend toward normalization over time—from energetic critique in Year 1 to acceptance and a just-get-it-done attitude in Year 3. Conclusions We conclude with implications for teacher educators, including a call for more critical engagement with this and other disciplinary technologies that our candidates may be subject to. As teacher educators, we advocate for a more explicit critical analysis with candidates to help them more deeply understand the history, context, and implications of corporatized, standardized assessments in teacher education, in particular the edTPA, and testing in the schools.
... Neoliberalism, as an ideology, has been described as centring on marketization, efficiency, increased accountability and globalization (Baltodano, 2012) privileging the power of the market over issues of citizenship, equity and social justice. A growing corpus of international research critiques the ways in which early childhood educators have been positioned by and in relation to the dominance of this neoliberal paradigm (Dahlberg and Moss, 2005;Moss, 2014;Roberts-Holmes, 2019;Sims, 2017;Sims and Waniganayake, 2015;Wood, 2017). ...
Article
Neoliberal thinking has increasingly shaped global and national policy incursions in early childhood education. Research has highlighted the power effects of such policies with consequences for pedagogy, provision and the professional identities of educators. Less well understood are educator responses to these policies. Whilst literature offers some exploration of resistance movements, little is known from empirical studies about how acts of resistance are enacted individually (and collectively) in the professional lives of early years educators. This article explores how English early childhood educators resist policy constructions of ideal professional identities. Using reconceptualized critical theory, this paper considers both neoliberal shaped demands on early educators and their resistance to these. Employing data from professional life story interviews (n = 16) by early educators in a range of contexts, narratives were constructed which document their responses to ECE policies. This paper draws on three of these narratives. A Critical Narrative Analysis reveals that educator resistances are not always large scale, collective or mobilized but are often expressed in atomized contexts through a dispersed network of actors. Individual responses included ‘micro resistances’ which were often local, quiet and invisible but multiple. The paper offers novel insights into c/overt resistances revealing educators’ complex, nuanced and subversive responses to discursive policy manoeuvres.
... In the last decades, educational institutions and state educational agendas have been tied to regional economic development strategies, becoming increasingly integrated (Baltodano, 2012;Beder et al., 2009;Lakes and Carter, 2009). According to the VOC literature, one key aspect of the uneven power relations among actors in local forms of labor market governance is to shape which skills should be provided in RTSs (see Busemeyer and Trampusch, 2012;Emmenegger and Seitzl, 2018). ...
Article
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This article argues that the global value chains framework has a problematic approach to examining the impact of value chains on workforce development systems (WDSs), given how it is based on market relations and a firm-centric view. The paper develops an alternative approach to examine value chains’ impact on WDSs as territorially and institutionally regulated, and as part of broader dynamics of accumulation and uneven development. A research agenda is suggested, which emphasizes the “dark side” of value chains’ impact on WDSs. This article contributes to the economic geography literature concerned with value chains, including the Global Production Networks approach.
... In this context, in 2013 a constitutional reform that undermined their labour stability was approved. ii Regarding the broad context of the 2013 Mexican reform, experts have pointed out the consequences of the 'regulated autonomy' condition that currently affects the elementary education teachers' work all around the world (Baltodano, 2012). State reforms applied in Mexico in the last decades have generated individual control mechanisms, an internal management of the school staff, as well as have promoted parental involvement in issues of collegial financing, all of which have generated indirect control mechanisms that impact on the classroom. ...
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... Существенную роль для понимания принципов совершенствования программ российской педагогической аспирантуры играют труды Дж. Виргина [4] и М. Балтодано [5], которые анализируют программу обучения EdD с позиций её демократизации и эмансипации, а также обоснования того, что это оптимальная программа обучения, в рамках которой полученные в высшей школе знания превращаются в практические навыки и активную социальную и гражданскую позицию профессионала. Важное место в методологии исследования также занимают работы Б. Бойса [6], Д. Кираноски и соавторов [7], А. Маккук [8], М. Тэйлора [9]. ...
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... These policies are justified by discourses that frame markets as the most efficient, effective, and just solution to social problems, and the public sector as inherently inefficient, bureaucratic, and stained by special interests. In addition to being a set of political-economic policies and practices, neoliberalism is understood as an ideological project that produces new subjectivities, behaviors, desires, and moralities (Baltodano, 2012). In the U.S., neoliberalism as a governing philosophy and worldview moved from the political fringes to the political mainstream in the period between the 1970s through the 1990s. ...
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... Though anecdotal in nature, these two examples demonstrate two significant facets of the dominant, curriculum-centered power in education. First, school administration has inordinate amounts of control, as granted by state and federal mandates, to dictate individual teacher's practice in an effort to conform classroom teaching to the likeness of neoliberalism and behaviorism (Baltodano, 2012;Hursh, 2000). School administrators have a "desire for administrative control, a narrow view of teacher expertise, and an emphasis on standardized approaches and outcomes" (Sandholtz & Scribner, 2006). ...
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... Beyond political imbalances, faculty reconfigurations coincide with increased performance pressures and an emphasis on efficiency and cost over other academic metrics (Giroux, 2002;Schrecker, 2010). Research examining corporatized culture in higher education, for example, indicated the willingness to sacrifice quality for efficiency (Baltodano, 2012). Neoliberal influences have reshaped higher education values and ethics of public service into an ideology of "venture and risk" (Barnett, 2003, p. 65). ...
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Public universities have assumed business-minded practices and norms that more closely align with goals and values of corporations than social institutions charged with creating and disseminating knowledge. One pervasive cost-savings strategy is the outsourcing of instruction to a contingent workforce. This case study explores the experiences of part-time and full-time non-tenure track faculty from undergraduate colleges across a striving, public, four-year research institution midway through its ten-year plan to attain Tier I Carnegie classification status and rebrand itself as a “very high” research institution. Findings describe contingent faculty experiences of the double-edged sword of autonomy. Their contingent status freed them from many responsibilities and oversight of tenure-line faculty but also alienated them from other meaningful faculty roles and activities. Drawing from academic capitalism, we theorize their work lives—grounded in now-antiquated notions of non-tenure-track faculty as casual labor, regardless of appointment type—provide descriptive insights into faculty culture and infer potential consequences of economic-minded faculty labor policies.
... These feelings did not derive from thin air. Rather, policy actors have strategically promoted these kinds of neoliberal ideals by framing economic problems as essentially education problems-or, in other words, the result of poor-quality schools (Baltodano, 2012;Slater, 2015). One example of this is the unfettered proliferation of choice systems in many large school systems in the United States. ...
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The term “equity” is widely used by educational policy makers to describe myriad programs and practices aimed at closing the supposed racial achievement gap. Research about the way equity has been used in these policies typically explores how policy actors with low will and capacity frame and implement their reforms. Few studies, however, explore equity-oriented reforms initiated and supported by policy makers who claim to fervently support educational equity. The purpose of this critical policy analysis was to examine how the rhetoric used by equity-supportive policy actors may have reinforced neoliberal ideas and inadvertently maintained white innocence and color-blind racism. Examining the Community Schools policy in New York City schools, this study found that some equity initiatives are circumscribed by their focus on “all lives”, which can unwittingly reinforce the status quo in schools.
... Instead, racial discrimination occurs through assigning these colorblind individual predispositions (Bonilla-Silva, 2018;Leonardo, 2007). Additionally, because individuals under neoliberalism are judged principally by their profit-making capacity and contributions to the market economy (Baltodano, 2012), individuals or communities that are perceived as financial 'liabilities' are also seen as "less deserving" (Rodriguez, 2018, p. 11). This is critically important in a political landscape that blames migrants for "stealing jobs," while paradoxically being a drain on the economy (Rodriguez, 2018). ...
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Chapter
Well into the 1930s, the Italian Maria Montessori stated at the European Congress for Peace in Brussels that ‘preventing conflicts is the work of politics; establishing peace is the work of education’. She explicitly linked peace to education and promoted a kind of learning that deviates from mainstream traditional education. Learning for peace was a way of showing that education is not simply about the teaching of literacy and numeracy skills but that it serves a larger purpose, a ‘public common good’. As we gradually approach the twenty-first century, there is a need to rethink about ways in which our educational system can respond to the global challenges. This chapter shows that there are possibilities to build on age-old legacies and theories to improve the quality of education and contribute to a more sustainable future. The focus is on Maria Montessori who somehow appears to be a rare name in the philosophy of education and peace literature.
Thesis
The growth of neoliberal ideologies since the 1970s has (re)structured many organizations in the U.S., including education. University administrators in a neoliberal climate are pressured to expand facilities and matriculation while minimizing labor costs. One way they accomplish this is by privatizing services, including cleaning. Private commercial cleaning companies often provide staffing, training, workloading, and performance evaluation. Administrators contracting these companies are able to save money by displacing responsibility for human resources functions. Although neoliberal practices (e.g., privatization) appear to offer benefits for organizations’ bottom-lines and senior leaders, less is known about the impact on frontline personnel. Addressing this gap, my dissertation addresses two questions: How does neoliberal discourse shape organizational practices? And how does such discourse affect the lived experience of cleaning work? To answer these questions, I conducted a content analysis of a commercial cleaning company to examine the discursive strategies used to legitimize the regulation of cleaners and cleaning work. I then conducted a case study of four cleaners, and the ways their work has changed over time (as a function of working within or outside of the commercial cleaning system). The content analysis reflects the intention of the cleaning management system, whereas the case study reflects the implementation of the system from cleaners’ perspectives. In the content analysis, language around cleaning was couched in seemingly positive neoliberal language: progress, professionalization, profit maximization, and prescription as a means of efficiency. In particular, communication from the commercial cleaning management system reflected three primary ‘discursive regimes’ to justify its organizational strategy: the need for a science of cleaning, professionalization, and environmental responsibility. Yet, these discursive regimes often were referenced in service of greater regulation over cleaners and their work. The language of neoliberalism casts many service workers (including cleaners) as unskilled, unprofessional, incompetent, and unmotivated, thus justifying greater control over workers and their labor. To examine how such discourse shapes the experience of work, I then conducted a case study of four cleaners: two of whom work under the cleaning management system content-analyzed in the first study, and two of whom were exempt from the system. Three themes emerged from participants’ narratives: how the cleaning system shapes the experience and organization of work, how cleaners protect themselves, and the discursive resources used to narrate these experiences. I found that the approach to managing and organizing cleaning work prescribed by the commercial cleaning system contributes to dignity injuries for cleaners through four mechanisms: deskilling, objectifying, surveilling, and infantilizing. Cleaners responded to these injuries via four practices to restore dignity: distancing from work, idealizing the past, reversing infantilization, and narratively constructing a moral(ized) self. I found that narratives are an important resource for sharing stories of organizational suffering, as well as discursively constructing dignity. This project demonstrates how power flows through ideologies, institutions, and individuals; and how neoliberalism shapes the experience of work. These results carry important theoretical and practical implications for dignity, occupational health, and the (re)organization of service work in a neoliberal climate. Greater standardization of work may save money for institutions—but at the expense of service workers who enable these savings. Neoliberalism enables the expansion of ivory towers by exploiting the people who construct, clean, and maintain them. I conclude with a discussion about the production of suffering and (in)dignity in organizations, and possibilities for institutional transformation.
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A growing body of research has demonstrated that neoliberal discourses have negatively impacted dual language bilingual education (DLBE) for students designated as English learners. This study uses the concept of expropriation to refer to the co-opting and dispossessing of educational resources, opportunities, and rights from language-minoritized communities, and a shift to the reframing and reuse of these resources by white English-privileged populations for their benefit. Using Utah’s DLBE model (fiftyfication, exclusion of oneteacher model, exclusion of one-way developmental bilingual education, and strict language separation policy) as a foundational expropriation reference, we evaluated which states followed this model, how they implemented it, what discourses were used, and who the beneficiaries were. Employing critical discourse analysis, we examined DLBE policy documents gathered from states’ websites across the U.S. and found that Delaware, Georgia, and Wyoming emulated Utah’s model. Findings showed discursive gentrification propelled by English-hegemonic and neoliberal forces, which benefited white Englishprivileged students. We posit further analyses should consider the intersection of other policies in the context of expropriation conditions.
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine whether Australian Islamic schools, by dint of their unique status within Australian private schooling, may be construed as elitist or exclusivist premised on markers such as religious affiliation, school age, history, location, reputation and non-curricular excellences such as affluence and alumni. This issue has not been examined empirically hitherto. This study addresses this absence, as these markers, when used selectively, may make student entry restrictive by virtue of enrolment criteria that is either hyper selective or exclusivist that is often administered through costly tuition fees. Design/methodology/approach Quantitative analysis is used to examine four distinct elitist markers associated with Islamic schools, as they appeal to a market prescribed by faith, preference and demand. Data is sourced from selected government and independent school databases including the index of community socio-educational advantage (ICSEA) database. Findings The findings indicate that Islamic schools do not fit any of these markers partly because these schools are positioned predominantly in middle to lower socio-economic communities and areas where the measure of educationally advantaged backgrounds is only marginally above the ICSEA threshold of 1,000. Further, their enrolment criteria are not premised on high fee-based structures nor on exclusivist selection and enrolment practices that would tag them as elitist. Research limitations/implications It is quite possible that parental and community perceptions of Islamic schools using qualitative measures may identify some schools as elitist. This, however, has yet to be tested empirically in further studies relying on surveys, interviews and focus group sessions. Practical implications Islamic schools should not market nor portray themselves as elitist or exclusivist for that may undermine the very purpose of their function as faith-based institutions. Social implications Perceptions of elitism levelled against some Islamic schools must be weighed against a number of distinct social markers. The examination of four markers in this study does not support such perceptions. Elitist perceptions may abound within communities and amongst parents when vying for student placements in these schools. The basis for such observations, however, is at best anecdotal or outright conjectural in the absence of empirical evidence. Originality/value This is the first and only study that examines the issue of elitism amongst Islamic schools in Australia and elsewhere.
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Higher education has been commodified as neoliberal ideology is reflected in and perpetuated through social discourses, such as memorable messages. These discourses socialize young adults to college and shape their understanding about the purpose of higher education. Through in-depth interviews with 20 first-year college students, we found that the memorable messages students received from their family, peers, and high school teachers reinforce the dominant neoliberal, job-centered understanding of college’s purpose. In turn, we suggest critical communication pedagogy as a form of resistance instructors and institutions can use to promote a more expansive view of higher education and teaching/learning.
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This study investigated the benefits of music education while providing a teacher educator and teacher candidate the opportunity to conduct collaborative research using comparative ethnographic narrative (CEN), a blend of narrative inquiry and reflexive ethnography. CEN relies on two researchers reflecting together and co-constructing knowledge with participants. Qualitative data from surveys (N = 116), and interview data from 12 participants, were combined with teacher candidate observations to synthesise a composite narrative story of lived experience. Through iterative coding and constant comparison, codes were collapsed and synthesised into major themes. A composite character, Jamie was created using representative constructions to capture, collate, and summarise all data. Jamie’s story provides insights into lived experiences of individuals, while highlighting significant findings. Narrative inquiry of participants’ lived experiences in a unique summer music programme, revealed many life-long benefits of music education including significant personal, social, and life skills such as creativity, leadership, teamwork, cooperation, responsibility, discipline and communication.
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Adequate staffing of university studies with qualified academics was completed thanks to the reimplementation of three-stage university education during the post-socialist restoration of higher education in the Czech Republic. Thus, the doctoral degree of education has been attained by more than four-fifths of academic staff, with over two-fifths of them being aged 50+. The current course of university studies, including doctoral study programs, is influenced by their focus on educational and research strategy. With regards to the regulations for graduating in doctoral studies, doctoral candidates act as homo oeconomicus following neo-liberal educational policy. The conditions for doctoral studies, namely, those in educational sciences, thus lead to paradoxes caused by the current higher educational policy. The objective of the paper is to analyze the neoliberal set-up of the higher education policy of the Czech Republic in the field of doctoral studies in educational sciences in particular and its possible impacts in the area of labor-market integration of graduates and university training of academics.
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The paper discusses the challenges and difficulties of emergency distance education on medical education programs because of the covid-19. The article is supplemented by a short sociological study conducted among medical and dental students of different Georgian universities. Analysis of the scientific literature and legislative documents are also provided.
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20. Yüzyılın başlarından itibaren “kitleselleşme” ve daha sonra “küreselleşme” trendleri üniversite kavramını önemli ölçüde değiştirdi. Kitleselleşme, halk yığınlarının eğitim hizmetine kolay erişim olanaklarına sahip olmasını savunurken; küreselleşme yükseköğretimin uluslararasılaşmasına hizmet etti. Aynı zamanda “trans-nasyonel yüksek öğretim” olarak adlandırılan bu uluslararasılaşma trendi zaman içerisinde “ticarileşme” ve “piyasalaşma” gibi isimlerle anılan bir başka sürece doğru evrildi. Daha ileri bir aşama olarak tıpkı çok-uluslu şirketler gibi üniversiteler de birden çok ülkede özel işletmeler mantığı çerçevesinde faaliyet göstermeye başladılar. “Girişimci üniversiteler” (entrepreneurial universities), “çok-uluslu üniversiteler”, (multi-national universities), “uluslararası şube üniversiteleri”,(international branch campus:IBC), “açık erişim online kurslar (massive open online course: MOOC), “açık-kapı akademik politika” (open door academic policy) gibi adlar altında gelişmesini sürdüren yükseköğretim kurumları sonuçta akademik kapitalizmin doğuşunu hazırlamış oldular. Uluslararası akademik kapitalizmin yükselişi ile bugün devasa bir yükseköğretim pazarı oluşmuştur. Ve bu pazarda eğitim, öğretim, öğrenci, bilim, araştırma, yayın, materyal vs. tamamen parasallaşmış, metalaşmış ve ticari bir ürün olarak alınır-satılır hale gelmiştir. Amaç artık “bilgi sevgisi” (felsefe) olmaktan tamamen uzaklaşmış, etiket, diploma, derece vs. elde etmeye dönüşmüştür. Biz bu çalışmamızda modern sofizm olarak yorumlayabileceğimiz uluslararası akademik kapitalizmin ve dünyadaki yükseköğretim pazarının amaçlarını, çalışma usullerini, boyutlarını ve rakamsal büyüklüğünü ortaya koymaya ve eleştirel gözle değerlendirmeler yapmaya çalışacağız.
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Equity-oriented school improvement driven by neoliberal policies focuses attention on a narrow range of inequities. Such policies fail to achieve substantive transformations that address educational constraints experienced by multiply-marginalized youth of color. We engage a critical race and intersectional feminist examination of our pedagogy in a youth voice initiative designed to facilitate multiply-marginalized youth of color participation in district policy partnership. Our analysis presents practices that were consequential for supporting youth intellectual activism in policy conversations. We propose a model for critical race intersectional pedagogy that relates these practices and underlying ideological principles to supporting expansive transformative policy partnerships.
Chapter
Community-engaged research describes an approach towards research and a stance towards scholarship that arose in response to the criticism that institutions of higher education functioned only as ivory towers, disconnected from real-world problems. This chapter is intended to serve as an introduction to the concept of community-engaged research. Topics covered will include the definition of community-engaged research, the criteria for the evaluation of community-engaged research, inherent challenges associated with community-engaged research, and strategies that institutions of higher education can employ as a means of cultivating and sustaining community-engaged research among faculty.
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Policymakers’ neoliberal education reforms have altered teaching and teacher education. These neoliberal policies reframe teaching and teacher education through conceptions of standards, academic achievement, data, and accountability. By doing so, many new and experienced teachers have left the field, and this has caused many who remain to question their ability to attain policymakers’ objectives and what it means to be a teacher. Yet, little is known about the impact of these neoliberal reforms on preservice teachers. In this article, we begin to attend to this issue by examining how a sample of preservice teachers made sense of their role as teachers and the profession they are entering. We then analyze whether such sensemaking reflects policymakers’ neoliberal framing of these constructs. Based on these findings, we outline opportunities for teacher educators to work with their preservice teachers to interpret, critique, and respond to policymakers’ neoliberal reforms.
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This dissertation explores the conceptualization, teaching, and challenges of engaging in communication activism pedagogy
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The edTPA, a recent example of a teacher candidate assessment, has influenced how teacher education classes are taught and how teacher candidates are learning. We describe three tensions present in candidate narratives during two separate years of edTPA implementation: attention to the edTPA rubrics vs. the student teachers’ real teaching, a focus on Pearson vs. the teacher education program, and candidates’ feelings of being monitored during the process rather than mentored.
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Education in both England and the United States has undergone a profound change over the last two decades as part of neo-liberal and neoconservative political reforms. The reforms have been characterized by efforts to standardize the curriculum, to implement standardized tests in order to hold students, teachers, and schools accountable, to increase school choice, and to privatize education provision. While the reforms in both countries have similarities, differences in the structures of schooling and in the relative political strength of neoconservatives and neo-liberals help to account for policy divergence.
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In the USA, many of the recent education reforms have been implemented in response to calls from neo-liberal and conservative policy makers to improve education efficiency and reduce public expenditures within an increasingly globalized economy. Consequently, local, state, and federal education policies increasingly employ curricular standards and high-stakes testing as a means of introducing competition and markets into education. Moreover, for some policy makers such reforms are the first step towards privatizing education through charter schools and vouchers programs. In this article the author analyzes the consequences such policies have had on the education system on three scales: the city of Chicago, the state of New York, and the US federal government. In particular, the reforms have shifted the control over education from the local to the state and federal levels. Further, the reforms have increased inequality between the advantaged middle-class and White students and the disadvantaged working-class students and students of color.
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Drawing on his nearly 30 years as a university teacher educator, the author reflects about the future of college- and university-based teacher education in the United States in light of recent attacks on education schools. The author argues that university and college teacher educators should do four things: (a) work to redefine the debate about the relative merits of alternative and traditional certification programs, (b) work to broaden the goals of teacher education beyond raising scores on standardized achievement tests, (c) change the center of gravity in teacher education to provide a stronger role for schools and communities in the education of teachers, and (d) take teacher education seriously as an institutional responsibility or do not do it.
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Dramatic changes are being made to teacher education internationally and in the United States. Some of the alterations have been recognized as threatening university-based teacher preparation, for instance, the growth of alternate route programs. Many other phenomena that have an impact on teacher education have not been analyzed as such, including for-profit corporations' development of professional development services linked to raising students' standardized test scores and the entry of private, for-profit institutions into the market for higher education. The challenge to teacher education's commitment to social justice has been debated, but its relationship to the other alterations being made to public education has not been explored. Moreover, the common origins of these phenomena and their synergistic impact have been inadequately studied, as have the implications of this synergy for university-based teacher education in the near future.
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This article explores the changing context of school leadership in our nation, a context that requires education leaders who are skilled and knowledgeable with a new set of dispositions to lead complex, diverse, and innovative institutions. The article also discusses recent critiques of existing leadership preparation programs, with emphasis on what has been said about the Ed.D. and Ph.D. degrees in educational leadership. Data are provided about trends in advanced degree offerings in higher education institutions, and the mission statements of top-ranked graduate programs in education leadership are assessed. Finally, the article discusses the consequences that these trends, critiques, and the changing context of school leadership might have upon the design and delivery of leadership preparation programs for current and aspiring school leaders.
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The authors respond to Dan Goldhaber and Dominic Brewer’s article in the Summer 2000 issue of Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis that claimed from an analysis of NELS teacher and student data that teacher certification has little bearing on student achievement. Goldhaber and Brewer found strong and consistent evidence that, as compared with students whose teachers are uncertified, students achieve at higher levels in mathematics when they have teachers who hold standard certification in mathematics. (The same was true to a somewhat lesser extent in science.) However, they emphasized their finding that, "Contrary to conventional wisdom, mathematics and science [students] who have teachers with emergency credentials do no worse than students whose teachers have standard teaching credentials " and suggested that certification be abandoned. This article critiques the methodological grounding for this finding and presents additional data on the characteristics of the small sub-sample of teachers in NELS data base who held temporary and emergency credentials. It finds that most of these teachers have qualifications resembling those of teachers with standard certification, and that those who have more education training appear to do better in producing student achievement. It also reviews the literature on teacher education and certification as the basis for evaluating Goldhaber and Brewer’s claim that states should eliminate certification requirements and proposes additional research that would illuminate how teacher education and certification operate-and could better operate-to enable teachers to succeed in their work.
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The authors were asked by the Office of Educational Research and Improvement and the U.S. Department of Education to conduct a review of high-quality research on five questions concerning teacher preparation. As part of that assignment, they were asked to develop a set of defensible criteria for including research in the review. In this article, they summarize what the research says about the five questions posed by their funders, and they discuss the development of the review criteria. The questions included attention to the subject matter and pedagogical preparation of prospective teachers, to the content and character of high-quality field experiences and alternative routes, and to research on the effects of policies on the enhancement of teacher preparation.
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Queensland, somewhat belatedly by comparison with other States (Taylor, 1982), has recently taken up ‘sexism in schooling’ as a problem for official treatment. In the course of so doing, the Education Department has produced a number of widely distributed texts, most notably a Departmental Policy Statement.The purpose of the present paper is to examine textual production and effectivity in this context. In particular, it is argued that the production of such texts is highly constrained, especially by prior and precedential texts. In effect, there can be no ‘fresh starts’ under such intertextual conditions. These constraints on the conditions of textual production of ‘anti‐sexist’ policy, it is argued, generate policy texts fraught with contradictions. Recent work in discourse analysis is used to describe those contradictions. Further, the question is raised as to whether such policy documents are indeed anti‐sexist in their effectivity or whether, by transforming, incorporating and neutralising feminist discourse, they are effectively conservative.* This paper is part of a joint research project undertaken with Dr Sandra Taylor, Brisbane College of Advanced Education (Kelvin Grove Campus). Socio‐historical background on the development of educational policy on sexism in Australia can be found in her paper ‘Ideology, Policy and the Education of Girls’ (1982).
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This article begins with a critique of the traditional technical‐empiricist approach to policy analysis in which official documents issued by agencies of the state are interpreted as expressions of political intention, that is as proposed courses of action to be discussed by the public before being implemented as official policy. It is argued that this traditional approach to policy is based upon idealist assumptions about the nature of language itself which take it to be a transparent vehicle for the transmission of information, thoughts and values. An alternative approach to the analysis of policy documents is outlined based on theories of discourse that have been developed from within a materialist conception of language. It is suggested that some policy documents legitimate the power of the state and contribute fundamentally to the ‘engineering’ of consent. Such texts contain divergent meanings, contradictions and structured omissions, so that different effects are produced on different readers. An important task for policy analysis is to examine those effects and expose the ideological processes which lie behind the production of the text. Thus, it is suggested that the analysis of policy documents could be construed as a form of textual deconstruction.
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Incl. abstract, bibl. During the last two decades, Latin American universities have experienced intense pressure to abandon the main principles established in the 1918 Cordoba Reform (i.e., autonomy and autarchy). While funding for public higher education has declined, they are pressured to relinquish a large portion of institutional autonomy in order to accommodate to market demands and to a new set of control strategies emanating from the state. We argue that current changes in Latin American higher education cannot be examined in isolation from larger political and economic changes in the region, which in turn are related to the dynamics of globalization. After the decline of socialist and welfare-state models, neoliberal regimes have become hegemonic in may parts of the world.In most countries, changes in financial arrangements, coupled with accountability mechanisms, have forced universities to reconsider their social missions,academic priorities and organizational structures. Concerns about equity, accessibility, autonomy or the contribution of higher education to social transformation, which were prevalent during previous decades, have been overshadowed by concerns about excellence, efficiency, expenditures and rates of return. The notion that higher education is primarily a citizen's right and a social investment--which has been taken for granted for many decades--is being seriously challenged by a neoliberal agenda that places extreme faith in the market.Though we focus on the international dimension of university change, it is important to note that global trends are promoted, resisted and negotiated differently in each national context and in each individual institution. In the emerging knowledge-based society, the polarization between North and South is expected to increase even further if the scientific and technological gaps are not narrowed. Latin American universities have a crucial role to play in this regard. The paper is organized in two parts. The first describes the context of university change, focusing on issues of globalization and neoliberalism. The second examines the main features of university restructuring in comparative perspective, with a particular focus on Latin America
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Accelerating global flows of people and information have formed new communities and networks across social and political borders. Higher education is one such globalised knowledge community in which new patterns of knowledge, accreditation, research alliances, and social and professional relationships are emerging. In this paper I outline the push–pull dynamics of globalisation in higher education: the co-constitutive nature of local and global interests and educational formations; disjunctive flows of capital, information, people, and knowledge; and the new politics of knowledge capital as they affect academic research and the public archive of scholarly publishing and university libraries. I close with reflections on the differential consequences of globalisation on: the role of the nation state in higher education provision and reform; the role of education in nation building and national identity politics; and the governability of a global eduscape.
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This edition brings Dewey's educational theory into sharp focus, framing his two classic works by frank assessments, past and present, of the practical applications of Dewey's ideas. In addition to a substantial introduction in which Philip W. Jackson explains why more of Dewey's ideas haven't been put into practice, this edition restores a "lost" chapter, dropped from the book by Dewey in 1915.
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