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Mothers' Extratextual Comments During Storybook Reading: Stylistic Differences over Time and Across Texts

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Abstract

This study examines longitudinally how mothers structure shared book reading interactions with their children across the preschool period, focusing on possible individual stylistic differences in White, middle‐class mothers' extratextual comments. Analyses addressed consistency of individual maternal styles over time and comparability of storybook reading styles across familiar and unfamiliar stories. At each of two time points, when the children were 40 and 58 months old, mothers read an unfamiliar and a familiar storybook with their children. For readings of each book type, three distinct maternal stylistic groups were found: Describers, Comprehenders, and Collaborators. Most importantly, maternal storybook reading styles are reasonably consistent over the 18‐month time course of study, but are considerably less consistent across types of books. Further, results suggest that these storybook reading styles related differentially to children's print and story skills assessed at 70 months of age. Implications of these individual differences among mothers for emergent literacy are discussed.
... Las investigaciones realizadas en esta línea mostraron que, con frecuencia, las situaciones de lectura de cuentos en el hogar se caracterizan por ser altamente dialogadas. Los adultos -mayormente la madre en los estudios realizados-no se limitan a realizar una lectura literal del texto, sino que introducen diversas modificaciones a través de las cuales crean un contexto cognitivo que favorece la comprensión (Haden et al., 1996;Ninio & Bruner, 1978;Stein & Rosemberg, 2012). ...
... Además, los participantes se involucraban en intercambios acerca de las características de los objetos y personajes, introducían sinónimos de las palabras presentes en el texto y establecían relaciones entre la historia y experiencias personales. En esta misma línea, Haden et al. (1996) analizaron longitudinalmente la interacción en situaciones de lectura de cuentos en las que participaron díadas madre-niño de sectores medios hablantes de inglés de Estados Unidos cuando los niños tenían 40 y 58 meses de edad. El análisis Revista de Psicología. ...
... El presente estudio se propuso contribuir al conocimiento del habla explicativa durante situaciones de lectura de cuentos en el hogar. De manera coincidente con hallazgos previos (Haden et al., 1996;Heath, 1983;Ninio & Bruner, 1978;Stein & Rosemberg, 2012;Sulzby & Teale, 1987), se observó que las situaciones analizadas no consisten en una lectura literal del texto. Por el contrario, las madres y los niños producen verbalizaciones en torno al cuento que dan lugar a diferentes tipos de explicaciones. ...
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Se propone contribuir al conocimiento de las características del habla explicativa producida en 39 situaciones de lectura de cuentos en hogares de 13 niños (30-42 meses) de sectores medios de Argentina. Las unidades explicativas en los intercambios en torno al cuento fueron analizadas según el tipo de explicación, quién las inicia y produce, y su nivel de distanciamiento respecto del entorno inmediato de la situación. Los resultados evidencian el potencial de las lecturas de cuentos para la producción de habla explicativa compleja de manera compartida entre el niño y el adulto. Se identificaron diferencias longitudinales y según la familiaridad con el cuento leído. Se destacan las implicancias pedagógicas para el diseño de intervenciones educativas orientadas a promover el dominio de discurso extendido.
... That is, stories learned from fathers may reflect different themes than stories learned from mothers (Fivush, 1989;Fivush et al., 2011). While the most common themes in intergenerational narratives, specifically in adolescence, tend to be relationships, leisure, and medical issues or accidents (Chen et al., 2021), research on gender in narratives about parents provides evidence to show that maternal stories are more elaborative and include more details on emotion, affect, and relationships, whereas paternal ones are more achievement-and self-oriented (Gilligan, 1982;Basow, 1992;Haden et al., 1996;Fivush and Buckner, 2000;Fivush, 2008;Fivush et al., 2011;Grysman et al., 2016). This is not surprising, considering past research demonstrating that females generally express more emotion than males do (Bischoping, 1993;Basow and Rubenfeld, 2003;Leaper and Ayres, 2007;Newman et al., 2008). ...
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Patterns of memory sharing begin early in one’s life, informing relationships, one’s history, and one’s sense of cultural belonging. Memory sharing among families has been the focus of research investigating the relationship between mental health and intergenerational memory. A burgeoning body of research is showing that intergenerational knowledge of one’s family history is associated with positive mental health and wellbeing. However, research on the specific mechanisms and potential applications of such findings are just beginning to emerge. In particular, studies examining intergenerational storytelling point to the importance of culture and gender as critical factors underlying how stories are told and the extent to which these stories are associated with wellbeing. Such findings hold important promise for the pentation and treatment of mental health issues. As research in this area continues to evolve, the identification and characterization of factors and mechanisms underlying intergenerational family stories and wellbeing may help to guide the integration of family stories into mental health interventions.
... Múltiples investigaciones dan cuenta de la incidencia de la intervención del adulto, especialmente a través de la lectura de cuentos, en el desarrollo de estrategias de comprensión de textos escritos y de producción de textos del género ficcional (Dickinson y De Temple, 1992;Haden et al., 1996), como la incorporación de la fórmula de inicio, la presentación de personajes como información nueva (Kail et al., 1992) y la atención a la estructura episódica canónica (Stein y Glenn, 1979). ...
... Drawing upon 50 years of research, it is now abundantly clear that shared picturebook reading between parents and children can boost children's oral language skills (for meta-analyses, see Dowdall et al., 2020;Flack et al., 2018; for reviews see Reese, 2019;Wasik et al., 2016). In particular, a challenging, high-level interactive style with older preschoolers in which parents focus on inferences about the storyline is positively associated with children's oral language skills, both concurrently and over time (e.g., Haden et al., 1996;Hindman et al., 2008;Robertson & Reese, 2017;van Kleeck et al., 1997). This style appears to help children understand causal connections in the storyline. ...
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Tender Shoots is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) for parents aimed at improving preschool children's oral language skills relevant for later reading. Parents of 72 preschool children (M = 50 months) were randomly assigned to either a Rich Reading and Reminiscing (RRR) condition, a Strengthening Sound Sensitivity (SSS) condition, or an Activity-Based Control (ABC) condition. RRR and SSS conditions involved dyads conversing about the same 12 books over 6 weeks, with RRR focused on the meaning of the story in relation to children's own experiences, and SSS focused on soundplay. Children's oral narrative skills were assessed with a story listening comprehension and retelling task before and one-year post-intervention. At the 1-year follow-up, children in RRR retold stories with greater accuracy (g = 0.61) and quality (g = 0.68) than did children in the control condition. Tender Shoots RRR is a promising tool for parents to help their children's narrative production (retelling) skills.
... Parents differ in the ways they provide such verbal and nonverbal input for their children and how they encourage children's involvement in their conversations. While some parents encourage more participation on children's part by asking them questions, urging them to be a part of the story construction process, other parents expect their children to be listeners (e.g., Haden, Reese, and Fivush, 1996;Leyva, von Suchodoletz, Shroff, Hinojo, and Kärtner, 2021;Reese and Cox, 1999;Wei, Ronfard, Leyva, and Rowe, 2019). These specific characteristics of parental input, such as parents' questions or elaborative talk can influence children's language skills differently (e.g., Cristofaro and Tamis-LeMonda, 2012;Fivush, Haden, and Reese, 2006;Huttenlocher, Haight, Bryk, Seltzer, and Lyons, 1991;Melzi, Schick, and Kennedy, 2011). ...
Article
This study examined the relation between characteristics of parental input, particularly focusing on questions and pointing gestures directed to toddlers during book reading, and toddlers' elicited and spontaneous communicative interactions. A total of 30 Turkish speaking parents and their toddlers (18 girls, Mage = 18.79 SDage = 1.55) were observed during shared book reading. The communicative interactions were coded for parents' questions and pointing, and toddlers' elicited and spontaneous speech and pointing. The results showed that parents' label questions with pointing were positively associated with toddlers' elicited speech. Similarly, parents' label questions without pointing, and parents' description questions with pointing were positively associated with toddlers' elicited pointing. These findings highlight the importance of parental questions accompanied by pointing when eliciting toddler communicative interactions both in the form of speech and pointing, and provides insight for how to best communicate with toddlers during such interactions.
... Although our results were generally aligned with our hypotheses, it is unclear why the level of abstraction (and indeed the amount of extratextual talk) did not relate to child skill. This finding conflicts with previous research (e.g., DeTemple, 2001;Hindman et al., 2008;Tompkins et al., 2017;Zucker et al., 2013 also see Haden, Reese & Fivush, 1996 who found that styles characterized by higher level talk and confirmations on children's contributions predicted children's later literacy skills). It may be the case that children in our somewhat linguistically advanced sample were just as likely to benefit from mothers simply reading the text as from extratextual talk. ...
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Caregiver abstract talk during shared reading predicts preschool-age children’s vocabulary development. However, previous research has focused on level of abstraction with less consideration of the style of extratextual talk. Here, we investigated the relation between these two dimensions of extratextual talk, and their contributions to variance in children’s vocabulary skills. Caregiver level of abstraction was associated with an interactive reading style. Controlling for socioeconomic status and child age, high interactivity predicted children’s concurrent vocabulary skills whereas abstraction did not. Controlling for earlier vocabulary skills, neither dimension of the extratextual talk predicted later vocabulary. Theoretical and practical relevance are discussed.
... The relationship between storybook reading and the emotional benefits of shared reading for the child (and possibly also the adult reader) can be attributed to the triangular nature of shared reading (e.g., Read, 2014), such that children can benefit from both the book and the adult reader, while also being affected by how the reader interacts with the book. Given that, it is also important to consider how different book types provoke different levels of interactivity between the child and the reader (Haden et al., 1996;Nyhout and O'Neill, 2013;Muhinyi et al., 2020). Research involving shared reading interventions has found that distinct book types can be more engaging and provoke more dialogue (Muhinyi et al., 2020). ...
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This study examined the potential benefits of shared reading with a child on adult readers’ mood. In two experiments, young adults were randomly assigned to either read storybooks with a child or to read the same books aloud alone. In both experiments, readers experienced more positive emotions than those who read the story aloud alone. In Experiment 1, the level of interactivity between the reader and child also positively correlated with readers’ experience of positive emotions. In Experiment 2, participants who read with a child aligned their own book preferences with those of the child. Overall, participants preferred the longer and more complex storybook as it gave more opportunities for the reader and child to interact. These findings support the hypothesis that simple read-aloud experiences are not only positive for children, but have the potential to also positively impact the mood of adult readers who share books with a child.
... Compte tenu de l'importance que revêtent les compétences précoces en lecture dans la réussite scolaire ultérieure et étant donné l'impact des pratiques parentales sur leur développement, nous supposons que, bien que la lecture conjointe ne vise pas à apprendre aux jeunes enfants à décoder, « elle joue toujours un rôle clé dans le processus d'alphabétisation » (Teale & Sulzby, 1999, p. 147 Heath (1982) avaient déjà montré que les manières de lire étaient fortement associées au milieu social d'origine. 21 Nous sommes toutefois bien consciente que ces diverses modalités de lecture participent toutes au développement du langage et de la littératie (Haden, Reese, & Fivush, 1996). ...
Thesis
Pour que l’école maternelle française puisse jouer un rôle compensatoire des inégalités sociales, elle doit permettre aux jeunes élèves d’exercer, en contexte scolaire, les habiletés que les plus favorisés d’entre eux construisent également en famille et qui constituent le meilleur viatique pour leur scolarité future : comprendre les récits écrits, savoir les raconter et acquérir du lexique. C’est dans ce but que l’outil didactique Narramus a été conçu. Dans notre recherche doctorale, nous avons voulu savoir si cet outil produisait les effets escomptés sur le développement des compétences langagières des élèves et sur les pratiques des enseignants. Pour cela nous nous sommes posé trois questions : - une première d’ordre socio-pédagogique : l’utilisation d’un outil didactique innovant peut-elle favoriser les apprentissages langagiers de tous les élèves et contribuer à réduire les inégalités de réussite à l’école ? - une seconde d’ordre méthodologique : comment construire et mettre en œuvre un dispositif expérimental d’évaluation présentant des critères rigoureux pour tester l’efficacité d’un outil didactique ? - une troisième relative au rôle de l’outillage et de l’accompagnement dans l’amélioration des pratiques d’enseignement : quels liens existe-t-il entre l’utilisation de l’outil, l’accompagnement assuré par des équipes de circonscription et le développement professionnel des enseignants ? Pour répondre à ces questions, nous avons mené deux études quasi-expérimentales (impliquant 250 classes et 1500 élèves de petite, moyenne et grande section) et élaboré deux protocoles expérimentaux qui respectent les critères méthodologiques exigeants définis par les promoteurs de l’Evidence Based Education. La première étude visait à identifier un éventuel effet Narramus sur les apprentissages enfantins et à mesurer l’influence de l’accompagnement de cette innovation sur le développement professionnel des enseignants. Nos données montrent que les élèves qui ont bénéficié de Narramus obtiennent de meilleurs résultats que leurs camarades du groupe contrôle sur l’ensemble des dimensions évaluées. De plus, les différences entre les deux groupes outillés (avec ou sans accompagnement) ne sont pas significatives : l’accompagnement n’est pas indispensable pour qu’un outil, s’il est bien conçu, provoque les effets positifs attendus. Nous avons cependant montré que l’accompagnement, s’il n’affecte pas directement les performances des élèves, peut agir comme une aide à l’identification de gestes professionnels nouveaux, mobilisables dans d’autres domaines d’apprentissage et semble, à ce titre, être un vecteur de développement professionnel. La deuxième étude a mis en évidence une réduction des inégalités sociales et un transfert des compétences construites avec Narramus vers d’autres textes que ceux étudiés en classe : les élèves qui en ont bénéficié comprennent et racontent mieux que leurs camarades de même condition sociale et leurs performances s’approchent de celles d’enfants favorisés. Leur vocabulaire est lui-aussi enrichi. Ces conclusions valident la pertinence de l’outil et concourent à valoriser un enseignement explicite et intégré de la compréhension et du vocabulaire auprès de jeunes élèves.
... On one hand, Haden, Reese, and Fivush (1996) analyzed shared book reading interaction between mothers and children aged from 40 to 58 months. They found three distinct maternal stylistic groups: a describer style (i.e., the highest proportion of the mother's comments are devoted to describing the pictures or naming the characters of the book), a comprehender style (i.e., the print concepts and the process of reading are emphasized), and a collaborator style (i.e., the mother's comments confirm the child's contribution, and the mother elicits the child's commentary about the story). ...
Article
Many authors agree on the importance of training parents in early literacy strategies. This study analyses the effects of an intervention to improve parent–child interactions during reading sessions, using interactive reading techniques. The design is exploratory and includes a treatment group (n = 22), which benefited from four interactive reading workshops, and a control group (n = 18), which did not benefit from specific training. Both groups read the same books, three times a week, for 10 weeks. The children come from middle socioeconomic backgrounds and attend preschool or kindergarten (grades 1–3). The analyses were conducted on the basis of pre- and post-intervention video observations, coded using the Adult–Child Interactive Reading Inventory (ACIRI). Results from an ANCOVA show that parental behavior, and in turn child behavior, improves in post-intervention: parents improve their children's attention to the text and implement literacy strategies, while the children become more involved in the interactions. Interactive reading workshops for parents improve the quantity and quality of parent–child interactions when reading books in a natural and playful context.
... On one hand, Haden, Reese, and Fivush (1996) analyzed shared book reading interaction between mothers and children aged from 40 to 58 months. They found three distinct maternal stylistic groups: a describer style (i.e., the highest proportion of the mother's comments are devoted to describing the pictures or naming the characters of the book), a comprehender style (i.e., the print concepts and the process of reading are emphasized), and a collaborator style (i.e., the mother's comments confirm the child's contribution, and the mother elicits the child's commentary about the story). ...
Article
Introduction Many authors agree on the importance of training parents in early literacy strategies. Objective This study analyses the effects of an intervention to improve parent–child interactions during reading sessions, using interactive reading techniques. Method The design is exploratory and includes a treatment group (n = 22), which benefited from four interactive reading workshops, and a control group (n = 18), which did not benefit from specific training. Both groups read the same books, three times a week, for 10 weeks. The children come from middle socioeconomic backgrounds and attend preschool or kindergarten (grades 1–3). Results The analyses were conducted on the basis of pre- and post-intervention video observations, coded using the Adult–Child Interactive Reading Inventory (ACIRI). Results from an ANCOVA show that parental behavior, and in turn child behavior, improves in post-intervention: parents improve their children's attention to the text and implement literacy strategies, while the children become more involved in the interactions. Conclusion Interactive reading workshops for parents improve the quantity and quality of parent–child interactions when reading books in a natural and playful context.
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The consistency of individual maternal conversational styles was assessed across two different contexts: free-play and conversations about past events. Twenty-two White, middle-class mother-child pairs participated when the children were 40 months old. During separate sessions, mothers played with their children using a provided toy and elicited their children's memories of shared past experiences. Cluster analyses revealed two distinct maternal styles in free-play and two comparable maternal styles of talking about the past. Most important, individual mothers' styles were found to vary across the different contexts. The findings suggest that mother-child dyads must be observed in multiple contexts to adequately characterize relations between maternal styles and children's language and narrative development. Further implications of maternal styles as reflecting context-sensitive strategies are discussed.
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Cambridge Core - Sociolinguistics - Ways with Words - by Shirley Brice Heath
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The authors investigated the social practice of book reading in 10 mainstream New Zealand families where parents read regularly to their 3- and 4-year-old children in their homes. In Study 1, the researchers collected data for one month on the frequency of book reading, the time of day, the participants, and the types of books selected. They found that reading stories was a frequent child-centered event in the homes studied. In Study 2, unfamiliar but similar storybooks were given to the families to read, and the parent-child interactions were recorded and analyzed. Both adult- and child-initiated insertions most often focused on the meaning of the immediate text, particularly on the events and goals of the narrative. Few interactions focused on concepts about print or illustrations. Some changes occurred across successive readings: At first, parents concentrated on making the meaning of the story clear to the children, but later they frequently fostered anticipation and prompted the children to make inferences. The results suggest that children from such mainstream families in New Zealand will already have some knowledge of constructing meaning from stories when they begin to attend school. /// [French] Les auteurs ont observé, dans leur maison, des parents de 10 familles de la culture principale de Nouvelle-Zélande au cours de séances de lecture de livres d'histoires à des enfants âgés entre 3 et 4 ans. Durant la première phase de la recherche qui dura un mois, des données ont été recueillies sur les fréquences de lecture, les périodes de la journée où se déroulaient les séances de lecture, les caractéristiques des participants aux séances, et les types de livres choisis. Les résultats montrèrent que ce type d'activité était fréquente dans les familles observées. Durant la deuxième phase de la recherche, les parents ont reçudes livres nouveaux similaires à ceux qu'ils lisaient antérieurement et les séances de lecture ont été enregistrées et analysées. Il ressortit des analyses qu'en cours de lecture, aussi bien l'enfant que le parent interrompait le récit en réaction à ce qui venait juste d'être dit et que ces interruptions portaient surtout sur les évènements qui se déroulaient dans l'histoire et sur les buts des protagonistes. Peu d'interactions mettaient l'accent sur des concepts de l'écrit ou sur les illustrations. Les séances évoluaient d'une fois à l'autre; au début, les parents s'efforçaient de faire comprendre l'histoire aux enfants mais par la suite, ils incitaient fréquemment les enfants à faire des inférences. Ces résultats indiquent que ces enfants auront déjà développé des connaissances relatives à la construction de la signification dans un récit, lorsqu'ils commenceront à fréquenter l'école. /// [Spanish] Los autores investigaron la actividad de lectura entre los padres de 10 familias de la cultura mayor en Nueva Zelandia, mientras estos les leían a sus hijos de 3 y 4 años, en la casa. En la primera fase de estudio, los investigadores recolectaron datos durante un mes en cuanto a la frecuencia de la lectura, la hora del día en el que leían los participantes en el evento, y el tipo de libro seleccionado. Encontraron que leer cuentos era un evento frecuente, en las casas seleccionadas, que giraba alrededor del niño. En la segunda fase, se les dieron libros de cuentos similares a los que habían leído, pero que eran nuevos para los niños -- y se codificó y analizó la interacción padre-hijo. Se encontró que tanto los niños como los adultos iniciaban interrupciones generalmente enfocadas en el texto y en el significado del texto inmediato (que se estaba leyendo en ese momento); particularmente en los eventos y metas de la narrativa. Se encontró que pocas interacciones estaban enfocadas en conceptos sobre la letra impresa o las ilustraciones. Algunos cambios ocurrieron después de varias lecturas sucesivas: Al principio, los padres se concentraban en aclarar el significado de la historia, pero más tarde incitaban frecuentemente a los niños para que hicieran inferencias. Los resultados sugieren que los niños de esas familias típicas neocelandesas tendrán ya algun conocimiento de construcción de signifacdo de historias cuando empiecen a asistir a la escuela. /// [German] In diesem Beitrag untersuchten die Verfasser zehn Familien des neuseeländischen Mittelstands, in denen die Eltern den 3- bis 4-jährigen Kindern Geschichten vorlasen. Im ersten Teil der Studie sammelten die Forscher einen Monat lang Daten über die Häufigkeit des Vorlesens aus Büchern, die Tageszeit, die Teilnehmer und die Arten der ausgewählten Bücher. Sie stellten dabei fest, daß das Lesen von Geschichten in den untersuchten Haushalten eine häufig vorkommende kinderbezogene Beschäftigung ist. Im zweiten Teil der Studie wurden den Familien unbekannte, wenn auch ähnliche, Geschichtenbücher zum Lesen gegeben und die Interaktionen von Eltern und Kindern aufgezeichnet und analysiert. Sowohl die von Kindern als auch von Erwachsenen eingeleiteten Unterbrechungen bezogen sich in den meisten Fällen auf die Bedeutung des derzeitig gelesenen Textteils -- und hierbei besonders auf die Ereignisse und Ziele der Erzählung. Nur sehr wenige Interaktionen bezogen sich auf Konzepte, die mit dem Gedruckten oder den Illustrationen zu tun hatten. Über mehrere aufeinanderfolgende Lesebeschäftigungen hinweg konnten einige Änderungen beobachtet werden: Anfangs konzentrierten sich die Eltern darauf, den Kindern die Bedeutung der Geschichte verständlich zu machen, doch später forderten sie die Kinder des öfteren dazu auf, selber Schlüsse zu ziehen. Die Ergebnisse deuten an, daß Kinder aus Familien des neuseeländischen Mittelstands bereits einige Kenntnisse darüber besitzen, wie man aus Geschichten Verständnis aufbaut, bevor diese Kinder das erste Mal die Schule besuchen.
Article
Three day‐care teachers were audiotaped as they read books to their group of 3‐ and 4‐year‐olds. The books included some read spontaneously and six that we provided. Book‐reading sessions were transcribed and analyzed to discover patterns of teacher‐child exchange and to describe the content of book discussions. While the familiarity and complexity of books affected how books were read, the teachers assumed two distinct styles. Two teachers used an interactive style, engaging children in discussion of text as they read. A third teacher used a performance style, presenting stories in a skillful storytelling fashion with few breaks in the text. Analysis of children's participation and teacher style suggests that different reading styles resulted in the construction of different speech events.