Article

The Creativity Crisis: The Decrease in Creative Thinking Scores on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

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Abstract

The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) was developed in 1966 and renormed five times: in 1974, 1984, 1990, 1998, and 2008. The total sample for all six normative samples included 272,599 kindergarten through 12th grade students and adults. Analysis of the normative data showed that creative thinking scores remained static or decreased, starting at sixth grade. Results also indicated that since 1990, even as IQ scores have risen, creative thinking scores have significantly decreased. The decrease for kindergartners through third graders was the most significant.

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... Sin embargo, se ha reportado una preocupante disminución en el pensamiento creativo en años pasados (Kim, 2011). Runco, Paek y Garret (2015) argumentan que debe realizarse investigación rigurosa para identificar cuáles son los mejores métodos para apoyar la creatividad, lo que llevaría a la toma de mejores decisiones a la hora de invertir en potencialidades creativas. ...
... Sin duda, el Test de Pensamiento creativo de Torrance (Torrance, Ball, & Safter, 2008) es el más conocido, utilizado y referenciado alrededor del mundo (Kim, 2006b;Kim 2011). El test consiste en subpruebas basadas en palabras, ilustraciones y sonidos. ...
... Los resultados de estudios recientes confirman que la creatividad es distinta a la inteligencia (Kim, 2011), y que la inteligencia, por sí sola, no permite comprobar una causalidad con la creatividad. Es decir, una persona puede poseer un alto CI pero no mostrar logros creativos a lo largo de su vida, o viceversa (Csikzentmilhalyi, 2011;Gardner, 1993;Ordaz, 2013;Robinson & Aronica, 2013). ...
Thesis
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Creativity has become a subject of study of increasing importance, due to its impact on society and culture (Hennessey & Amabile, 2010; Romo, 2012; Vecina, 2006). Studies to identify promising variables that help its development are necessary. Kandler et al. (2016) assure that creativity can be measured through a two-factor structure: perception of creativity and creative performance. The objective was to analyze the influence of intelligence, self-concept, self-esteem and task commitment in the perception of creativity and creative performance in young adults. Independently, these variables have been positively related to creative performance, but how these might be influencing a person's perception of their own creativity is unknown. The final study sample consisted of 200 university students (M = 19.92 years; SD. 1.39). Data collection was carried out in a group manner, with the prior consent of the participants. The results do not support the idea of two factors of creativity (Kandler et al., 2016). Therefore, analyzes were performed for each of these. Intelligence was the only significant predictor of creative performance, while task commitment, individualistic self-concept and ethical-moral self-esteem were significant predictors of creativity perception.
... generational increases on some personality traits (e.g., Gentile, Twenge, & Campbell, 2010;Klerman & Weissman, 1989;Lewinsohn, Rohde, Seeley, & Fischer, 1993;Reynolds, Stewart, MacDonald, & Sischo, 2006;Robins & Regier, 1991;Roberts & Helson, 1997;Stewart & Bernhardt, 2010;Swindle, Heller, Pescosolido, & Kikuzawa, 2000;Woodruff & Birren, 1972) and generational decreases on others (e.g., Kim, 2011;Konrath, O'Brien, & Hsing, 2011;Twenge & Im, 2007;Wells & Twenge, 2005). As for generational increases, younger generations exhibit higher levels of (1) anxiety and neuroticism, (2) extroversion, (3) narcissism, ...
... With regard to generational decreases, more recent generations show lower levels of (1) creativity, (2) self-assuredness, achievement, and impulse control, (3) need for social approval, (4) empathetic concern and perspective taking, and (5) feelings of sexual guilt. First, recent younger children are less capable of creative thinking than their counterparts in previous generations (Kim, 2011 Second, there is evidence that younger generations might feel less self-assuredness and less motivation to achieve and that they are less capable of impulse control (Stewart & Bernhardt, 2010). In Stewart and Bernhardt's (2010) study, the 2004-08 undergraduate students scored significantly lower than pre-1987 undergraduate students on achievement assets (i.e., achievement via conformity, achievement via independence, conceptual fluency, insightfulness) and impulse control (i.e., self-control, good impression, social conformity, responsibility, work orientation) and somewhat lower on ascendancy and self-assuredness (i.e., dominance, social presence, sociability, self-acceptance, capacity for status). ...
... Previous research in psychology has accumulated showing that, compared to their elders, younger generations such as Millennials show higher levels of personality traits and cognitive orientation as follows: anxiety (Twenge, 2000a), neuroticism (Roberts & Helson, 1997;Stewart & Bernhardt, 2010;Twenge, 2000a), narcissism (Robert & Helson, 1997;Stewart & Bernhardt, 2010;Twenge & Foster, 2010;, externality in locus of control (Twenge et al., 2004), positive self-views and agentic self-evaluations (Reynolds et al., 2006;, and depression (Klerman & Weissman, 1989;Lewinsohn et al., 1993;Robins & Regier, 1991;Steward & Bernhardt, 2010;Swindle et al., 2000; but see Twenge & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2002). By contrast, younger generations score lower on creativity (Kim, 2011), self-assuredness, achievement, impulse control (Stewart & Bernhardt, 2010), the need for social approval (Twenge & Im, 2007), empathetic concern and perspective taking (Konrath et al., 2011), and feelings of sexual guilt (Wells & Twenge, 2005). ...
Thesis
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Recently, the concept of “generation” has received considerable commentary in academic and popular circles. Millennials—ages 24 to 39 on Election Day 2020—have gained particular attention due to the generation’s size (more than 75 million), spending power (about $1.3 trillion per year), and growing political influence. Accordingly, a host of studies from disciplines such as business, education, political science, and psychology have investigated the nature and possible distinctiveness of Millennials’ beliefs and behaviors. Only limited research, however, has been undertaken exploring the possible effects of generational membership on crime and criminal justice issues. This dissertation seeks to help close this void in the literature. This omission in the research is consequential considering the impact that Millennials’ public opinion might have on the future of the U.S. criminal justice system. Notably, American corrections is in the midst of a historic policy turning point from offender exclusion to offender inclusion. For four decades, the United States was enmeshed in a punitive era during which offenders were removed and/or ostracized from society through exclusionary policies (e.g., mass incarceration, punitive laws, expansion of debilitating collateral sanctions). Beginning around 2010, however, a paradigmatic shift occurred marked by a halt in the growth of prison populations and the spread of inclusionary policies (e.g., prisoner reentry programs, criminal record expungement). In this context, one way to prognosticate if the current changes are likely to continue into the future is to examine Millennials’ views on corrections. If this large generation is supportive of offender inclusion, then its members are likely to be political force favoring progressive policies and reforms as they proceed across their life course. Based on a 2017 opt-in internet panel survey conducted by YouGov (N = 1,000), this dissertation assesses the nature of Millennials’ correctional policy opinions and compares these to the views of other generations. The levels of support for 13 correctional policies are reported, and generational differences are estimated through multivariate analyses. Three correctional themes are explored: (1) public support for punitiveness (the death penalty, court harshness, and punishment as the goal of prisons); (2) offender rehabilitation, reentry, and reintegration (restoration of civil rights, fair-chance hiring, reducing collateral sanctions, expungement of criminal records, general attitudes toward expungement, having the FBI review criminal records); and (3) offender redemption (formal redemption rituals, redeemability). As a result, this study presents the most comprehensive assessment of what Millennials think about American corrections. The main findings of this dissertation are twofold. First, as a generation in and of themselves, Millennials are only modestly punitive but clearly supportive of progressive policies. Millennials favor a rehabilitative correctional orientation, believe in offender redeemability, and prefer policies that reduce exclusion and increase inclusion. Second, generational differences in public support for correctional policies are limited. Regardless of generation, the respondents tend to embrace inclusionary policies. Thus, in the future, Millennials will likely seek to transform the current correctional turning point into a lengthy era of progressive reform—a project that will be similarly endorsed by Americans of all generations.
... The reasons behind changes in creative potential and the developmental trajectories followed by creative abilities have long been debated in creativity research (Barbot, Lubart, & Besanc ßon, 2016;Charles & Runco, 2001;Claxton, Pannells, & Rhoads, 2005;Gralewski et al., 2016;Kim, 2011;Torrance, 1968). A general consensus is emerging regarding the non-linear nature of the development of creative abilities from early childhood to adulthood (Barbot et al., 2016;Gralewski et al., 2016). ...
... Research showed several "slumps and peaks" during the development of creativity, which are moments of regress (slumps) and progress (peaks) in creative abilities. However, no universal agreement exists on the number, occurrence, and length of these fluctuations (e.g., Barbot et al., 2016;Charles & Runco, 2001;Claxton et al., 2005;Gralewski et al., 2016;Kim, 2011). This lack of consensus may be imputed to the different trajectories characterizing different creative abilities that do not follow identical development patterns (Barbot et al., 2016). ...
... This lack of consensus may be imputed to the different trajectories characterizing different creative abilities that do not follow identical development patterns (Barbot et al., 2016). Kim (2011) showed, for instance, that fluency in producing alternative ideas in divergent thinking (DT) increases from kindergarten to grade 3 (from age 5 to age 8), it stabilizes at grade 3-5 (ages 8-10), and then decreases after grade 5 (age 10) till adulthood. The ability to produce original contents, instead, seems to grow linearly from kindergarten to grade 5 (from age 5 to age 10), then decreases with a slump in the secondary school, and increases again during adulthood (Kim, 2011). ...
Article
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Creative potential is a set of multidimensional resources concerning the latent ability to produce original and adaptive work. Confluent theoretical models, in particular, stated that, in order to express creative potential in an effective way, resources should converge and interact efficiently. Within such a confluent framework, the present study explored whether the increase in specific cognitive resources defining creative potential during childhood, as induced through a newly developed training intervention based on the creation of fairy tales, could be affected by another constitutional dimension, that is, children’s emotional resources and, in particular, their trait emotional intelligence (EI). A total of 410 children from 3rd to 5th grade of primary school was involved in the study, equally divided in a training group and in a control group. Results showed that the fairy tale–based training protocol was effective in increasing children’s creative potential. More importantly, results showed that the training intervention was particularly effective in increasing the ability to generate original contents in children with low‐to‐medium trait EI levels. These findings showed that emotional intelligence is a central factor to be considered when exploring the efficacy of a training intervention aimed at increasing children’s creative potential.
... Research in developmental psychology has shown that children aged 10 to 13 show an increasing degree of conformist thinking that continues through high school (20)(21)(22). Due to this increasing conformist way of thinking, the consequences of extrinsic constraints such as actually constructing an idea into a concrete product could become even more detrimental for children's creativity in a natural school classroom environment. This is because children observe each other's attempts to build ideas into concrete products, and as a result, they may fear building unorthodox ideas that may fail or be ridiculed by their peers. ...
... Despite its strengths, our study inevitably has limitations that future research may address. First, we investigated the effect of expected implementation on idea selection among children aged 10-13, because several studies show that children around this age begin a trend of increasingly conformist thinking that continues through high school (20)(21)(22). Accordingly, it can be expected that our findings may become even stronger among young adolescents. However, it remains unclear how younger children or adults would perform in similar experimental conditions. ...
Preprint
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Many popular pedagogical approaches instruct children to construct their ideas into tangible and physical products. With the prospect of implementation, do children decide to go for the most creative ideas or do they shift towards ideas that are perhaps less creative but easier to construct? We conducted a field experiment to test whether expected construction affects children’s creative idea selection. In this experiment, 403 children were asked to select the most original ideas to make a toy elephant more fun to play with. We randomly assigned them to a treatment condition—in which they were informed they had to construct one of the original ideas that they selected—and a control group—in which children were informed that, after idea selection, they had to perform another task. Children who were instructed to construct the selected idea into a tangible product turned a blind eye to original ideas and preferred the more feasible ideas. Thus, pedagogical approaches that aim to stimulate creativity by instructing children to construct original ideas into tangible and physical products may unintentionally decrease the creativity of the ideas children select. This finding highlights the importance for educators of guiding children’s decision-making process in creative problem solving, and to be aware of children’s bias against original ideas when designing creative assignments for them.
... • Second, OpenStudio was used to encourage students' creativity, and specifically to engage them with multi-sensory learning and assessment to accommodate different learning styles and create richer, deeper learning experiences. Creativity is increasingly a priority amongst employers (Osmani et p.4) and intelligence (Kim, 2011;p.285). As Jackson has argued: "creative learninglearning to be creative -is an orientation and capability that all students could and most importantly should, develop while they are studying in higher education" (2017, p.ix). ...
Conference Paper
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The usage of rubrics is nowadays a developing trend in the world of Higher Education. One can think about two main reasons for this. First, even if there is no definitive proof, rubrics seem to be adequate for supporting the learning of complex skills, in particular for formative assessment. Rubrics are then finding a natural place in HE institutions in the context of the 21st Century where digital education skills become more and more important and need to be well defined and assessed. Secondly, rubrics are based on very easy principles and this simplicity may contribute to the trend noted. However our experience of doing rubrics for defining and assessing the students’ digital education skills revealed us that the design of rubrics needs its basic principles but also additional rules in order to make a rubric that can be used as an efficient assessment tool. In this perspective, we decided to compile and explain in this article the rules that we have applied during our rubric design work. Some rules were found in the literature; other ones were elaborated during our work progression. With this compilation, we want to bring the reader concrete guiding elements and steps for the design of rubrics. A general rule seems to emerge from our work: a rubric maker should always try to distinguish between all the aspects of the competences needed to perform a task and all the aspects of all the different levels that can be seen in the competences of a person who is performing the task.
... Undergraduate students across countries have performed poorly on creativity assessments (Kim, 2011;Niu & Sternberg, 2001;Sebastian & Huang, 2016). Irrespective of college major, students have exhibited low scores on verbal and figural creativity tests (Beck & Davidson, 2001;Kohn, 2000;Milner, 2012;Proctor et al., 2006;Rana & Mahmood, 2010). ...
Article
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While a consensus has emerged on the importance of creativity in graphic design and multimedia field, little systematic research has attempted to understand its facilitators or inhibitors in the graphic and multimedia education across colleges and universities. The current investigation surveys a sample of experts as well as professors teaching across the Arab World concerning their perceptions on the most significant correlates of creative thinking among students. Results point to the importance of: (1) instructors’ engagement; (2) appropriate use of instructional strategies, tools, and resources; (3) institutional support; (4) peer support; and (5) the removal of red-tape regulatory frameworks. Most importantly, this research highlights the need to move away from the rigid higher education creativity model assuming perfection, precision, accuracy, and optimal effectiveness to a more flexible creativity framework. The Multi-Layered Autonomous Phases Model (MLAPM) is proposed as an alternative approach to cultivating creativity at the higher education level. The MLAPM applies to all levels beginning with the students and the instructor in the classroom and all instructional tools applied, moving upward to the institutional administration levels. The model offers cost-effective, flexible, dynamic, and effective practices that improve levels of creativity and creative thinking among students without the need to invest in new costly equipment, tools, curriculum, or instructional programs.
... The COVID-19 pandemic is a socio-ecological phenomenon on a global scale with effects on different time ranges and hierarchical ecological levels (from individuals to populations, communities, ecosystems and landscapes, and related processes): it requires critical investigation by researchers and conservation managers who should try to avoid linear cause-effect relationships and untested optimistic conclusions (see Diffenbaugh et al. 2020). This global crisis has presented a unique opportunity to adopt a systems thinking approach to analyse the situation, develop creative research hypotheses or management solutions (Kim 2011) and define new strategies for action to conserve species and ecosystems in the post-COVID-19 era. ...
... Similarly, there is a widespread opinion (e.g., presented on the cover page of Newsweek in July 2010) that people's creative abilities decline in the last several decades. It was broadly advertised based on Kim's (2011) analysis of re-norming Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking data. Again, such a conviction could lead many people to feel helpless and decide not to try creative behavior. ...
Article
Based on meta-analyses, intervention studies, and investigations outside of the creativity literature, this paper makes seven evidence-informed propositions about the relationships between creativity and school functioning. First, creative abilities are drivers, not brakes of school achievement. Second, the negative attitudes toward creative students sometimes observed in schools usually concern a small and particular group of creative students: those who are most impulsive and nonconforming. Third, creativity-relevant mental processes support learning. Fourth, creative learning occurs when students can co-discover new, meaningful knowledge. Fifth, school education supports – albeit likely to a different degree – both intelligence and creativity. Sixth, both creative and learning processes are most effective when accompanied by agency and value: feeling confident and valuing creativity and learning are instrumental for generating and directing motivation. Seventh, in both creativity and learning processes, self-regulation is vital.
... More specific to the needs of the STEM workforce are concerns about a "creativity crisis" in the United States and around the world (Bronson & Merryman, 2011;Kim, 2011;Lin, 2011). STEM employers are looking for a workforce with not only strong STEM content knowledge and skills, but also an ability to compete in the global economy in a workforce with strong twenty-first century skills (e.g., critical thinking, communication, collaboration, and creativity) (Bronson & Merryman, 2011;Charyton, 2015). ...
Article
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Given the large variation in conceptualizations and enactment of K − 12 integrated STEM, this paper puts forth a detailed conceptual framework for K − 12 integrated STEM education that can be used by researchers, educators, and curriculum developers as a common vision. Our framework builds upon the extant integrated STEM literature to describe seven central characteristics of integrated STEM: (a) centrality of engineering design, (b) driven by authentic problems, (c) context integration, (d) content integration, (e) STEM practices, (f) twenty-first century skills, and (g) informing students about STEM careers. Our integrated STEM framework is intended to provide more specific guidance to educators and support integrated STEM research, which has been impeded by the lack of a deep conceptualization of the characteristics of integrated STEM. The lack of a detailed integrated STEM framework thus far has prevented the field from systematically collecting data in classrooms to understand the nature and quality of integrated STEM instruction; this delays research related to the impact on student outcomes, including academic achievement and affect. With the framework presented here, we lay the groundwork for researchers to explore the impact of specific aspects of integrated STEM or the overall quality of integrated STEM instruction on student outcomes.
... Besides, a relocation of attention could also be caused by the joy of exercise (Schneider et al., 2009;, as satisfaction regarding physical activity and exercise preferences are linked to cortical activation in frontal cortex areas and to an improvement in cognitive functions (Schneider et al., 2009;Shibata et al., 1997). Some authors claimed that there is a fourth-grade slump on cognitive function development, and specifically on creativity (Kim, 2011), but latest evidence showed that there is not a decline in creativity across generations (Barbot & Said-Metwaly, 2020;Said-Metwaly et al., 2021). Even that, cognitive functions can be stimulated to be developed (Iuliano et al., 2015;Pesce et al., 2016), and it is essential to research how to stimulate cognitive functions in school-age children. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two different physical education intervention programmes on cognitive functions (i.e. creativity, attention and impulse control) in primary education students. These dimensions were measured in 168 children (8-12 years) before and after two 8-week intervention programmes with different instructional models [i.e. direct instructional model (DIM) and tactical games model (TGM)]. The results show an improvement in creativity (p < 0.01, ES = 0.6, moderate) and attention (p < 0.01, ES = 1.0, moderate) in all students after the TGM programme. Older students (grade 6) also improved impulse control after TGM (p < 0.01, ES = 1.5, large). No significant differences were observed after the DIM in any of the analysed cognitive functions (p > 0.05). These results lead us to think that TGM could be an effective tool for improving children's cognitive functions.
... In a volatile economic environment, creative thinking is one of the factors that help individuals, companies and consequently countries to be ahead of all others. However, there is a decline in creative thinking that needs to be reversed (Kim, 2011). ...
Chapter
Robotization will eventually transform the nature of doing business and economics in general. Therefore, the aim of this chapter is to provide a broader perspective on economic repercussions of robotization covering both microeconomic and macroeconomic aspects as well as other closely related sociological aspects. This broad perspective is needed for researchers, policy makers, as well as managers while contemplating changes as stirring as robotization. Further, the chapter deals with the issue of education of future economists in the context of robotization. In that sense, it emphasizes the need to make future economists more flexible, observant, and consequently, more efficient, regardless of their position on labor market. In that sense, the chapter serves as an alarm since existent (economic) lag between countries may become even bigger if it is not addresses in a timely manner.
... It is considered one of the best methods to measure creative thinking, and it is suitable for all stages from kindergarten to mature persons. According to (Kim, 2011), it was translated into more than 35 languages, and it has a high predictive ability. (2017). ...
Article
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This study aimed to identify the effect of a STEAM-based learning approach in teaching the educational robot's subject on academic achievement and creative thinking among eighth-grade students in Jordan. A purposive sample was selected and divided into two groups. An experimental group (n=30) implements a STEAM-based learning approach, whereas the control group (n=32) studied in a traditional method. A pre- posttest was administered, and the data were analyzed using statistical methods to validate the study results, such as "t" tests and a one-way ANOVA test. The results showed statistically significant differences between the experimental and control groups in academic achievement and creative thinking. In conclusion, the STEAM-based learning approach significantly improved the students' academic achievement and creative thinking skills. Received: 13 October 2021 / Accepted: 2 December 2021 / Published: 3 January 2022
... Actualmente se dispone de los medios formativos y tecnológicos para proporcionar la base teórica de las asignaturas de ciencias. No obstante, como señala Kim (2011), la mayor parte de los estudiantes presentan reducida capacidad a nivel de razonamiento, es decir, de pensamiento crítico, de creatividad y de la capacidad necesaria para expresarse con fluidez. Estas habilidades humanas son de gran importancia, pero de mayor relevancia en el colectivo de futuros maestros, trasmisores a su vez, de dichas capacidades. ...
Chapter
O estudo apresenta as percepções de alunos do ensino fundamental de uma escola pública brasileira acerca da interdisciplinaridade entre disciplinas de Ciências e Educação Física. Com abordagem qualitativa, foi realizada uma investigação-ação educacional, cujos dados passaram pela análise de conteúdo. Concluímos que os alunos perceberam poucas relações entre as áreas.
... Creativity can be defined as generating new concepts or ideas from the relationships between existing concepts with our observations, knowledge, experience or thoughts (Kılıç & Tezel, 2012). In this context, although creativity is different from intelligence (Kim, 2011), it can be considered both as a process and creating an original product at the end of this process (Aktamış & Ergin, 2007). Creativity means breaking down existing patterns, going out of the ordinary, exploring new ways, looking at life from different perspectives, revealing a new line of thinking, finding different alternative solutions for a specific problem, establishing a new relationship or establishing a relationship between existing thoughts (Özerbaş, 2011). ...
Article
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In parallel with the developing technology and knowledge, it has become very important for individuals to use various skills effectively. In Turkey, some life skills expected to be acquired by students are included in the 2018 Science Course Teaching Program. It is thought that determining included life skills and their levels in the acquisitions of the science-teaching program will be important in terms of literature. In the study, it was aimed to examine the acquisitions in the primary and secondary school science course-teaching program in terms of life skills. Document analysis, one of the qualitative research methods, was used in the study. As a data collection tool, the booklet of the Ministry of National Education 2018 Science Course Teaching Program was used. In the findings obtained from the study, it was determined that the acquisitions in the science program include the most analytical thinking and decision-making skills, the least creative thinking, entrepreneurship and teamwork skills. When the science-teaching program is examined, it can be said that the result is not surprising since it often includes expressions such as experimenting, developing projects, making conclusions, creating models, discussions and these statements require more analytical thinking and decision-making skills.
... Moreover, our study was performed on a sample of elementary school children. Previous research reported discontinuity in the development of creative thinking across elementary school grade levels (Charles & Runco 2001;Kim 2011;Said-Metwaly et al., 2021;Torrance, 1968). Said-Metwaly et al. (2021) proposed several possible causes for this phenomenon, including cognitive factors: the decline may emerge when other facets of cognitive development, such as logical thinking, are at their peak (Lubart & Georgsdottir, 2004) and may play a role in the decline of creative thinking in this age group. ...
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The purpose of the present study was to explore the extent to which students with different levels of creativity also differ in their implementation of metacognitive and meta-creative processes. Participants included 221 students in Grades 4, 5, and 6 (104 girls, 117 boys; mean age = 10.5; SD = 0.84). Creativity was assessed using the Unusual Uses of a Cardboard Box Test (UUT; a segment of the Torrance Test for Creative Thinking; Torrance, 1974). A self-reported student questionnaire assessed metacognition and meta-creativity. Results indicate significant differences between students with high, medium, or low levels of creativity on the meta-creative measure but not on the metacognitive measure. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Childhood, especially during elementary school, is a significant period of physical and mental development, including that of creativity (Alfonso-Benlliure & Santos, 2016;Hui, He, & Wong, 2019;Torrance, 1963) and art appreciation (Housen, 2001;Parsons, 1987). Research concerning the development of creativity has revealed that there is nonlinear growth in creativity test scores throughout elementary school, with slumps and jumps (Alfonso-Benlliure & Santos, 2016;Kim, 2011;Torrance, 1963). Developmental theory of art appreciation has also indicated that children, especially in elementary school, change their interpretation of artworks according to their cognitive development (Housen, 2001;Parsons, 1987). ...
Article
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Viewing art inspires creativity, which can encourage learning in art education. A previous study revealed that the type of artwork and the way art is viewed affects adults' inspiration; however, no study exists concerning the way children are inspired by viewing art. Thus, the current study aimed to examine whether children's age group/grade level, art style (figurative or abstract), and artwork creators (children or adults) influence children's inspiration, and whether the effects of the art style and creators vary by children's age group/grade level. An online questionnaire survey was conducted with the help of 600 pairs of parents and their elementary‐school‐aged children. They were asked to view eight paintings that differed in terms of the artists and their individual style and they then rated their inspiration experience when viewing each artwork. The results revealed that children were more inspired when viewing abstract, rather than figurative, paintings, and the effect of the type of painting differed in the third and sixth grades. Additionally, children gained more inspiration by viewing paintings created by children rather than by adults; a difference observed in all grade levels.
... Some work (e.g., Kim, 2011) has proclaimed a creativity crisis after finding declining scores on divergent-thinking tests. Despite the public attention paid to this study, declining scores were found only on figural tests, and not verbal ones; a subsequent study found that declines-or increases-in creativity were strongly linked to domain (Weinstein, Clark, DiBartolomeo, & Davis, 2014). ...
Article
Background/Context Creativity is an indispensable force in intellectual, social, cultural, and economic development. Yet societal forces conspire to erode it. Educators have despaired for many years over how schools often fail to encourage creativity, but society as a whole is just as guilty. But how do schools and society fail to encourage, or actually even erode, creativity? This essay addresses this question. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study The goal of our research was to specify the specific societal forces that erode creativity. We have labeled these forces ERODE: Education, Resources, Opportunities, Diffusion, and Exaggeration. The bottom line is that, although our society claims to want creativity, it most wants it when no one is negatively affected. Because creativity almost always negatively affects some people and groups, society tends to be much more supportive of creativity in theory than in practice. We show why. Research Design Our research design is an analysis of the forces in society that erode creativity. We used historical analysis, media analysis, and analysis of educational practice to draw our conclusions.
... Specifically in educational contexts, in secondary education students work is suggested through the resolution of problematic situations (Birgili, 2015), whose treatment must be carried out by asking open questions, which make the student question themselves (Borjas & De La Peña, 2009). The school would be an appropriate place to stimulate creativity, especially in primary and secondary education, since later there is a decrease in the manifestation of the components of creative thinking (Kim, 2011). ...
Article
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RESUMEN El presente artículo aborda los conceptos de pensamiento metacognitivo, crítico y creativo, planteando una revisión desde los aportes desde la psicología y desde la neurociencia cognitiva, y su impacto tanto en el aprendizaje como en el rendimiento académico. Como primer objetivo, se plantea una conceptualización de los procesos de pensamiento metacognitivo, crítico y creativo según la literatura clásica y actual. En segundo lugar, se sugieren algunas acciones didácticas a los profesionales de la educación para estimular el desarrollo de cada uno de los tipos de pensamiento. Como resultado de la revisión y la reflexión, se concluye que el desarrollo del pensamiento es clave para hacer más eficientes los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje, puesto que el estudiante adquiere un rol activo y autonomía en la construcción del conocimiento y el desarrollo de habilidades, que trascienden a las diferentes esferas del desarrollo humano.
... Researchers suggest the possibility of augmenting and nourishing creative abilities throughout life [36]. Unfortunately, a creativity crisis occurs as children move from kindergarten to elementary school [25] [15] [40] [39]. Children's creative abilities are known to plunge at that age because of the structure of current educational systems that constraints children's expressivity and encourages them to conform to society norms. ...
... In contrast, originality is associated with the lower grades, so teachers can encourage original ideas by accepting them without judgment. The claim that novel ideas are negatively affected by formal education (Kim, 2011;Torrance, 1977;Urban, 1991) is supported by the results of the current study. ...
Thesis
THE INFLUENCE OF THE LEVELS OF FIDELITY OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE REAPS MODEL ON STUDENTS’ CREATIVITY IN SCIENCE
... As highlighted earlier, there is a great dearth and decrease in the creative thinking abilities of students globally, calling for the need to revamp education with creative pedagogy (Kim, 2011). Kaplan (2019) suggests the need to encourage and evaluate creativity in education by intensifying the training of teachers in integrating creativity in developing learners and their learning environments. ...
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Creative pedagogy in educational institutions has been the mainstay of sustainable development globally as it ensures high standard human capital with a high level of imagination and problem-solving potentials. However, there are several drivers of creative pedagogy. This exploratory study employed the embedded mixed methods design with qualitative and quantitative approaches aimed at exploring the perspectives of teachers in selected pre-tertiary institutions in Ghana on the teaching strategies, school environment, and culture as drivers of creative pedagogy, using Lin's creative pedagogy theory. The findings have shown that teaching strategies, school environment, and culture that promotes flexible and independent thinking, problem-solving and collaborative skills ensure students' creativity development. The study recommends the implementation of learner-centered teaching strategies, a flexible teaching curriculum that encourages creativity development, smaller class sizes, semi-circular seating arrangements, and an introduction of a permissive culture that allows students to think and explore outside the box in Ghanaian schools.
... STEAM education aims to increase students' science-learning efficacy, confidence, and interest in science in order to motivate them to study science better rather teaching them from concepts in the field of science technology (Ching et al., 2019). This is an alternative education that students can improve self-directed learning, solve various problems in a creative and integrative ways, promoting their abilities to hit the highest potential in 21 st century skills, increasing their understanding in convergent knowledge (Kim, 2011;Kim & Keyhani, 2019). ...
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This research employed mixed method for development curriculum for primary Thai language teachers according to STREAM education. The participants were 17 volunteering primary Thai language teachers for curriculum development and 110 primary students from 6 primary schools for curriculum implementation. The findings revealed that teachers were well-versed in the STREAM education curriculum, and that instructional management was at a high level. Thai teachers were capable of developing a STREAM-based integrated curriculum and learning management system. Students can improve their reading, writing, and analytical thinking skills as a result of the implementation. The result is fruitful for teachers and students in self-development, learning skill, and learning competency by employing integrated approach. Indeed, STREAM education should be more continuously improved and invite to school curriculum and instructional practices based on different contexts.
... In a study of 841 American elementary school students, originality, flexibility, and elaboration scores decreased with age between early and middle childhood (Sak and Maker 2006). While others show peaks occur in middle childhood, stark slumps appear by late high school and adulthood (Kim 2011). Yet creativity scores in primary school predict measures of an adult's personal and public achievements as long as 50 years later (Runco et al. 2010), and are vital for meeting the predicted future of work. ...
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... It is aimed to make students able to think creatively in solving various problems and fostering nationalism in students. In achieving that purpose, hardworking is essentially needed to make teachers able to help students in fostering creative thinking skills and the spirit of nationality (Kim, 2012;Meintjes & Grosser, 2010;Weiping & Baojun, 2013). The use of appropriate learning media can bridge the achievement of the goal (Anwar, Rasool, & Haq, 2012;Maccagnano, 2007). ...
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... As students progress through school, too often their creative thinking is stifled and becomes more a matter of producing work that they think the teacher wants (Stohlmann, 2013). Creative thinking has been decreasing since more of a focus on standardized testing (Kim, 2011). This can have negative consequences because when students' creative needs are not met, they often become underachievers (Kim, 2010). ...
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Our research developed out of concerns about whether design students currently have enough creative imagination because of COVID-19, changing design studies to online learning. This paper describes an empirical study testing the effect of Blended Experiential Learning with e-Portfolios Learning on the Creative Imagination of design students to compare the differences in the effectiveness of design students' Creative Imagination scores. It was hypothesized that first-year design students learning through blended experiential learning with e-Portfolios would have higher Creative Imagination scores when compared to those in the control group learning by not following the format. The multistage sampling method was used to select the study population, and the sample consisted of 111 participants. The test was run in two steps, including 1) the try-out, conducted with the sample group of 45 participants using the Dependent T-Test to compare the pre-test and post-test Creative Imagination scores, and 2) the trial run, conducted with the sample group of 33 participants (learning by following the format), and the control group of 33 participants (learning by not following the format) to compare the Creative Imagination scores. MANOVA was then used to test whether at least one component of the creative imagination test scores of the experimental group was higher than the control group. The Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA) assessment was used to collect the data, which was then analysed using the T-test. Doi: 10.28991/ESJ-2022-SIED-03 Full Text: PDF
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The current iteration of writing for performance training at Australia’s National Institute of Dramatic Art (NIDA) – the MFA (Writing for Performance) – is not only a formally accredited tertiary training offering, but also one that is pedagogically well-defined, and, in terms of course leadership and student enrolments, highly stable. However, an examination of the history of writing for performance training in Australia – particularly as this history pertains to its premier performing arts conservatoire, NIDA – tells a very different story. Beginning with the visionary yet slightly blinkered Anglo-European thinking that went into founding NIDA in 1958 – and the subsequent separation of writing for performance training from the training of its creative counterparts: acting, directing and design – this history is one characterised by relative marginalisation within the Institute, as well as identity and existential crises. Utilising, primarily, archival research, this article chronicles that history – from the inception (and ensuing iterations) of the NIDA Playwright’s Studio in 1961; to the eventual commencement of the NIDA Graduate Diploma of Dramatic Art (Playwriting) in 2010; to the NIDA MFA (Writing for Performance), from which I graduated in 2019, that exists today – with a view to reconciling this training history’s somewhat beleaguered past with its burgeoning present.
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Drawing on the componential theory of creativity, we report on the development of a model for understanding students' experiences of creative school environments, based on survey responses from Grade 7 and 9 Australian students (N = 2538) across 13 high schools. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test for construct validity of scales, followed by structural equation modeling to estimate the fit of the hypothesised model to the data, and estimate direct and indirect relations between variables. Consistent with predictions based on the componential model, students' perceptions of the extent to which creativity was supported through classroom work had substantial direct relations with intrinsic motivation and creative self-efficacy. Also consistent with predictions, intrinsic motivation acted as a mediating variable for a number of pathways in the model. Demographic covariates were generally less salient than personality covariates. Implications for educational practice and future research are discussed.
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Книга состоит из пяти частей, приложения и списка литературы. Предлагается в значительно большей степени, чем сегодня, учитывать в учебном процессе эмоциональный интеллект обучаемых. Описывается модель образовательного процесса, ориентированного на "Я" обучаемого. Предлагается использовать эту модель как парадигму образовательного процесса с фокусом на воспитании в обществе знаний. Описывается структура проверенной на практике в течение трех десятилетий образовательной технологии, названной технологией эмоционально-образного обучения с фокусом на воспитании. Значительная часть материалов книги опубликована в более чем 75 научных работах авторов на английском и французском языках в международных научных изданиях, вышедших в 15 странах.
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Online education is no longer a trend; it is slowly but surely becoming a norm. It has become a global phenomenon driven by the onslaught of coronavirus pandemic, emergence of new learning platforms, and wide acceptance of teaching and learning in online synchronous and asynchronous modes by diverse stakeholders. Current online education technologies and platforms emphasize interactions between professors and students. Through the holistic model of online education, we emphasize in this article student-to-student (peer-to-peer) learning in the online mode similar to what exists in the traditional F2F mode. The evolving student-to-student interactional SolveitNow model at present covers tertiary education students. With requisite changes, it can be easily applicable to secondary and primary education students. SolveItNow is currently in beta testing on a large scale at multiple levels of Mathematics education.
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This study presents a comprehensive assessment of what Millennials think about U.S. correctional policy. Using a 2017 national-level sample (N = 1,000), Millennials’ correctional policy opinions across 13 outcomes are assessed and compared to the views of other generations. The main findings are twofold. First, Millennials are only modestly punitive but clearly supportive of progressive policies. Thus, Millennials favor a rehabilitative correctional orientation, believe in offender redeemability, and prefer policies to protect ex-felons’ civil rights and to expunge criminal records for minor offenses. Second, generational differences in public support for correctional policies are mostly limited. Americans of all generations tend to endorse inclusionary policies—a finding indicating that the future of American corrections might see a lengthy era of progressive reform.
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Research about individual learner variables in L2 learning has not yet addressed in depth creativity as potentially relevant in the field. This study seeks to examine whether creativity is related to the L2 lexical production of a group of 35 12th grade Spanish EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners. Four EFL semantic fluency tasks are used to obtain the vocabulary activated in the learner's mental lexicon as a response to four semantic categories: beach, box, countryside and fun. Creativity is measured via the PIC-J Test (Artola et al., 2008), based on Torrance (1990) and Guilford (1967), and validated for the assessment of this construct in Spanish secondary education students. While the findings reveal a significant positive relationship between all measures of creativity and EFL semantic fluency in the four categories, EFL proficiency level and semantic fluency only correlate in some categories. The most creative learners retrieved a wider variety of words and produced more uncommon responses, a result which is consistent with recent neural and cognitive research on creativity. These findings are suggestive of the need for considering creativity and its various dimensions in L2 teaching.
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Emerging research points to the importance of developing the capacities of teachers to help their students to be creative risk takers and to learn from productive failure. Facilitating this creative risk taking in learners has been shown to require expertise and a degree of risk taking on the part of both teachers and educational leaders. This article explores perspectives about leadership for creativity and risk taking, using Kurt Lewin’s theory of change, especially his idea of ‘unfreezing’. It is based on a case study of a school principal and six year 8 teachers at a private school in Melbourne, Australia. Using qualitative interview data, the principal’s perspective about change is explored and compared to how teacher participants enacted change in their practice as reported in a focus group. Examples from classrooms are reported from the perspective of teachers. The findings suggest that enacting creative risk and productive failure as pedagogical principles is a complex area of change, embedded with tensions between the realization and idealization of a leadership vision and critically involves the disposition of students. Meaningful enactment requires support from leadership and a willingness from teachers to be open to such ideas in the multidimensional space of classrooms.
Chapter
Society's serious problems require creative thinkers. Developing an effective workforce relies on cultivating our children's creativity. Unfortunately, we are suffering a creativity crisis, particularly with young children. Since 1990, early elementary students have suffered the largest decrease in creative thinking capacity. Rather than learning through play, young children are taught by rote and tested extensively. Play is indispensable for early learners; without play, students are missing an essential element of early learning that stimulates creative thinking. To promote play, elementary teachers should be trained in maker-centered teaching, a playful approach to learning that embodies the essential elements of STEM education. To truly integrate maker-centered learning, there is a critical need for effective maker-centered professional development. Maker-centered teaching provides playful learning where young children can experience STEM and learn to think more creatively. With maker-centered teaching, we can make the next generation of innovators.
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The sentiment that creativity is the most important skill needed to solve the problems that we face is repeated by different business and industry leaders around the world). Since January 2020, the call for creativity has been amplified in response to the problems and obstacles caused by COVID19. Yet, creativity remains the most neglected 21st century skill addressed in STEM education. This paper develops the strong conceptual connections between creativity and failure within STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) to propose the Intersection of Failure and Creativity Framework (IFCF). The IFCF represents an improved way to engage students in integrated STEM activities that call for the development of solutions to real world problems by engaging in engineering design. The IFCF will better prepare teachers and students to address the changes and uncertainty of a rapidly-evolving world and address the calls of businesses for a workforce capable of innovation.
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The study aimed to determine the effect of active learning strategies in higher-order thinking skills of Grade 10 students of Dr. Panfilo Castro National High School during the School Year 2020-2021. One hundred (100) selected grade 10 students were used as respondents of the study, including pre-test and post-test experimental design. The first group was exposed to case-based learning, and the second group was exposed to visual-organization activity. A validated sixty (60) item test was used in the study to determine significant differences in pre-test and post-test scores of the two groups. The study found out that the pre-test scores of the respondents in the two experimental groups as to their higher-order thinking skills in critical thinking and creative thinking skills were the same, indicating that the students have low-performance levels before subjecting to the treatment. The post-test scores of the students of both groups showed improvement in their scores after the treatment. Likewise, a significant difference was found in both groups' pre-test and post-test scores in terms of their critical thinking and creative thinking skills. Furthermore, it also showed a significant difference in the post-test (critical thinking skills) scores between the case-based learning and visual-organization groups.
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Although creativity and critical thinking are two of the 4C skills for 21st-century students, little is known about their relationship from a developmental perspective. It is also suggested that different creativity measures should be distinguished and compared. Based on cognitive theoretical views, this study predicts and investigates the different developmental trends of open-ended versus closed-ended creative potentials in relation to adolescents’ critical thinking abilities. We recruited 312 junior high and high school students from Grade 7 to Grade 11 for testing on open-ended creativity, closed-ended creativity, and critical thinking. After we controlled for the socioeconomic status variable, the results showed that open-ended creativity indices revealed a mostly steady trajectory across grades, while closed-ended creativity and critical thinking performances both exhibited a prominent ascending trend. The path analysis results further demonstrated a significant 39.2% variance of closed-ended creativity performances for which critical thinking accounted, but only 3% for open-ended creativity. These empirical results support the theoretical predictions, suggest future studies that may arise, and can help design appropriate training projects to enhance adolescents’ different creativities and critical thinking.
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Scratch, a kind of visual programming software, has been widely used in instruction for primary school children. Scratch constructs a digital world for children to design, develop, and create coursework in which their creative thinking is fostered. Different instructional methods have been designed and implemented to stimulate children’s creative thinking skills through their coursework. This study investigated whether scaffolding construction with mind mapping promoted children’s creative thinking in a Scratch course. Two groups of 84 fifth-grade pupils participated in the study. The experimental group of 44 students adopted the scaffolding construction with mind mapping in the Scratch course, while the control group of 40 students did not use the mind mapping method. The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking-Figural (TTCT-F) and Torrance Creative Personality Self-Report Scale were used three times over the 16-week learning period. The results show that learning in the Scratch course promoted the children’s creative thinking. The difference between the two groups indicates that mind mapping was beneficial to improve the children’s creative thinking.
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This article reports research that identified and analyzed assessment for learning strategies employed by six Canadian music educators to support and develop student creativity. Findings include descriptions of creativity-nurturing practices organized into four categories: (a) developing assessment criteria, (b) encouraging creative processes, (c) optimizing the classroom context, and (d) activating self-assessment. Results include detailed descriptions of strategies that educators can employ to leverage formative assessment to nurture student creativity within and beyond music education contexts.
Chapter
Every discipline values creativity and looks for its application to advance ideas, theories, new products, and new solutions. On the other hand, few learners develop creativity in their educational preparation, whether explicitly in dedicated courses or integrated into their regular training in any field. Understanding creativity through its definition and development is valuable in education and instructional design. Digital tools offer the potential for improving creativity skills.
Article
Creativity is a major source of innovation, growth, adaptability, and psychological resilience, making it a top priority of governments, global corporations, educational institutions, and other organizations that collectively invest hundreds of millions of dollars annually into training. The current foundation of creativity training is the technique known as divergent thinking; yet for decades, concerns have been raised about the adequacy of divergent thinking: it is incongruent with the creative processes of children and most adult creatives, and it has failed to yield expected downstream results in creative production. In this article, we present an alternative approach to creativity training, based in neural processes different from those involved in divergent thinking and drawing upon a previously unused resource for creativity research: narrative theory. We outline a narrative theory of creativity training; illustrate with examples of training and assessment from our ongoing work with the U.S. Department of Defense, Fortune 50 companies, and graduate and professional schools; and explain how the theory can help fill prominent lacunae and gaps in existing creativity research, including the creativity of children, the psychological mechanisms of scientific and technological innovation, and the failure of computer artificial intelligence to replicate human creativity.
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This document explores the development of key-competence-based education. It is based on lessons learned from education reforms in Ukraine and Georgia. In the reform scenarios of both these countries, the introduction of a competence-based approach in education plays an important role, and a focus on the entrepreneurship key competence links these two case studies. The proposed case studies offer policy-makers, education leaders and practitioners a picture of the inventory of actions taken to implement change. These actions are being implemented in the context of EU and global trends in education and training system development. The report intends to contribute to the current international discourse, share practical experience of the application of key competence instruments to the national reform process, and provide an overview of trends, lessons and observations on actions that have proved to be effective in Ukraine and Georgia.
Article
While there is a strong consensus on the importance of Critical and Creative Thinking (CCT) skills for the rise of participatory citizens and work-ready professionals, the extent to which university attendance by itself supports their development and acquisition remains controversial. This research presents a cohort, longitudinal follow-up study aimed at investigating the impact of university attendance by itself on the CCT skills development of 41 higher education students from two, 3-year Bachelor’s programmes at a northeastern Portuguese university, namely Pre-Service Teaching and Psychology. Using Lopes et al.’s Critical and Creative Thinking Test, an open-access CCT assessment instrument validated for the Portuguese higher education population, data were collected at the beginning of the first and of the third academic years: 2016–2017 and 2018–2019, respectively. Non statistically significant differences were found for both cohorts, suggesting that the domain-specific training of these study programmes per se are not a sufficient condition to enhance students’ domain-general CCT skills. Therefore, further research is still needed to better identify the moderating variables influencing the development of students’ CCT skills during their attendance in undergraduate higher education.
Chapter
This chapter investigates the constraints impact on the creativity of millennial preservice teachers when captioning a New Yorker Magazine cartoon. According to research, millennials have a decreased capacity for unique ideas, synthesis, articulation, and open-mindedness, which limits their ability to function in a diverse world. The study examined the topic using the constraint-based model of novelty (C-BMN; creativity problem, constraints, variability, and problem spaces) as a framework, as well as the new rubric, which assessed data on the impact of constraints on creativity among 90 millennial PST. Inferential statistics were used to compare differences in creativity, and the results indicated a statistically significant difference in total caption creativity between the experimental and control groups. The study corroborated previous research, concluding that constraints foster creativity. The findings of this study have implications for stakeholders interested in incorporating constraint-based strategies to increase cognitive diversity.
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Prior researchers reported that children's creativity development displays a nonlinear trajectory. This article investigated the association of age, years of schooling, and domain-specific knowledge in the development of children's creativity in mathematics. DISCOVER math assessment was used to measure mathematical knowledge; originality, flexibility, and elaboration (OFE); and fluency as indexes of students' creativity. Participants included 841 first- to fifth-grade students from 4 schools. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that domain knowledge was progressively associated with fluency and OFE from lower to upper grades, whereas age was so associated only in lower grades. Multivariate analysis of variance showed that years of schooling significantly contributed to students' creativity even after domain knowledge was partialed out. Students displayed peaks and slumps as a function of age and domain knowledge, but not as a function of grade. Knowledge at the level of 2 SDs above the mean was found to be the threshold for creativity at the level of 1 SD above the mean.
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Longitudinal studies on the development of creativity tend to focus on assessing the creative abilities of elementary school students. Most studies found variations in the 4th-grade creativity slump based on the type and emphasis of the assessment tool. This longitudinal study explored the developmental trends in creativity from the proposed 4th-grade slump through beginning adolescence in the 9th grade. Data were gathered on 25 students in the 4th, 6th, and 9th grades. A measure of divergent thinking and divergent feeling was used to assess both the cognitive and affective processes related to creative production. The study found indications of significant differences in creativity related to divergent feeling and grade.
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Demonstrates that every Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, WISC, WAIS, WISC-R, WAIS-R, and WPPSI standardization sample from 1932 to 1978 established norms of a higher standard than its predecessor. The obvious interpretation of this pattern is that representative samples of Americans did better and better on IQ tests over a period of 46 yrs, the total gain amounting to a rise in mean IQ of 13.8 points. The implications of this finding are developed: The combination of IQ gains and the decline in Scholastic Aptitude Test scores seems almost inexplicable; obsolete norms have acted as an unrecognized confounding variable in hundreds of studies; and IQ gains of this magnitude pose a serious problem of causal explanation. (114 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
An integrative introduction to the theories and themes in research on creativity, this book is both a reference work and text for courses in this burgeoning area of research. The book begins with a discussion of the theories of creativity (Person, Product, Process, Place), the general question of whether creativity is influenced by nature or nurture, what research has indicated of the personality and style of creative individuals from a personality analysis standpoint, how social context affects creativity, and then coverage of issues like gender differences, whether creativity can be enhanced, if creativity is related to poor mental or physical health, etc. The book contains boxes covering special interest items including one page biographies of famous creative individuals and activities for a group or individual to test and/or encourage creativity, as well as references to internet sites relating to creativity. *Focuses on the theories and research available about creativity, not just speculation *Applicable to biological, cognitive, developmental, educational, organization, clinical, social, and historical disciplines *Dissects and addresses the major debates over creativity (i.e., what is considered creative?).
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate divergent thinking and evaluative skill as importantprocesses in the development of creative thinking in elementary schoolchildren. Children from the 3rd, 4th, and 5th grades (N = 117) received divergent thinking tasks and measures of evaluative accuracy. The latter indicated how well they liked various ideas (i.e., their preferences) and the degree to which the children believed those ideas tobe original. Results indicated that the accuracy of their originality judgments increased significantly with age, as did the preference for appropriate ideas. Unlike previous research, evaluative scores were not related to divergent thinking test scores. Also somewhat surprising, given earlier research, was the lack of a "4th-grade slump." In fact, there was a significant peak, rather than slump, in the divergent thinking of 4th-grade children, at least in the raw fluency scores. When fluency ratio scores were compared, there were still some incidents of a 4th-grade peak, but there was also a significant decline with grade in the proportions of 1 index of highly appropriate ideas. Although a relation was not found between evaluative skill and divergent thinking raw fluency scores, an increasing preference for appropriate square ideas was found to contribute significantly to the prediction of decreases in the proportion of high-quality round ideas given. Possible explanations are given to account for this unexpectedfinding, including differences in interpersonal and intrapersonal evaluative skills, and the distinction between the ability to accurately identify original or appropriate ideas and choosing to selectively express such ideas.
Article
Professor James Flynn is one of the most creative and influential psychologists in the field of intelligence. The ‘Flynn Effect’ refers to the massive increase in IQ test scores over the course of the twentieth century and the term was coined to recognize Professor Flynn’s central role in measuring and analyzing these gains. For over twenty years, psychologists have struggled to understand the implications of IQ gains. Do they mean that each generation is more intelligent than the last? Do they suggest how each of us can enhance our own intelligence? Professor Flynn is finally ready to give his own views. He asks what intelligence really is and gives a surprising and illuminating answer. This book bridges the gulf that separates our minds from those of our ancestors a century ago. It is a fascinating and unique book that makes an important contribution to our understanding of human intelligence.
Article
Prior to the latter half of the nineteenth century, children's drawings were seen primarily as unskilled and primitive attempts at representation and hence received no serious attention. But with the growth of interest in child development at the end of the nineteenth century came a surge of interest in children's drawings. Perhaps because children's drawings look so strikingly different at different ages, drawings were seen as providing a sharply focussed lens through which to view development. Psychologists have typically viewed children's drawings as windows on personality and affect, on the one hand, or as perspectives on cognition and intelligence, on the other. Altschuler and Hattwick (1947) used drawings as indications of personality structure; Goodenough (1926) used drawings as measures of intelligence; Piaget (1963) used drawings as reflections of the child's concepts; and recently Freeman (1980) and Goodnow (1977) have made use of drawings to reveal the child's cognitive strategies such as planning and sequencing. These approaches have often used early drawings as indications of deficiencies of some sort: for instance, "tadpole" drawings of humans have been seen as a reflection of a global rather than differentiated concept of the human body (Piaget, 1963) or as evidence for poor memory for body parts (Freeman, 1980); lack of detail in drawings has been taken as evidence for low intelligence (Goodenough, 1926); transparencies (when the child reveals the insides of objects drawn) have been taken as evidence that the child can only draw what he knows but not what he sees (Piaget & Inhelder, 1967); and the overuse of dark colors has been taken as evidence of psychopathology (Altschuler & Hattwick, 1947). Only rarely have children's drawings been studied on their own terms, for what they can tell us about the child's knowledge of the symbol system of drawing and for what they can tell us about the child's aesthetic goals. Researchers in this tradition have reminded us that children's drawings may look odd not because the child lacks some set of skills possessed
Article
In a provocative discussion of the sources of human creativity, Gardner explores all aspects of the subject, from the young childs ability to learn a new song through Mozarts conceiving a complete symphony.
Article
Many countries are increasing the priority schools assign to creative thinking. This departure from expectations of the past is considered a way to enhance productivity and improve mental health. But, efforts to replace customary education practices are often met with resistance, a loss of harmony, and challenges which are unforeseen. This presentation describes ways schools and families could provide greater support for creative behavior. The rules guiding instruction at all levels of education should be revised. Some recommended changes implicate teacher training, methods for the evaluation of learning, use of technology tools, expectations of students, and adult willingness to take into account student impressions about how to improve schools.
We call any activity of a person that creates anything new, creative activity. This includes the creation of any kind of inner world or construction of the mind that is experienced and observed only in humans. Looking at human behavior, we can distinguish two basic forms of construction. One form of activity can be called reproductive, and is closely connected with memory, its essence consisting in a person's reproducing or retrieving traces of previous impressions. When I remember the house in which I spent my childhood or a remote country I sometimes visit, I reproduce traces of the impressions I obtained in early childhood or at a time of a journey. In general, in all these cases this activity of mine is not creating anything new; basically, it is more or less just a return of what was.
Article
There is disagreement among researchers about whether IQ tests or divergent thinking (DT) tests are better predictors of creative achievement. Resolving this dispute is complicated by the fact that some research has shown a relationship between IQ and DT test scores (e.g., Runco & Albert, 1986; Wallach, 1970). The present study conducted meta-analyses of the relationships between creative achievement and both IQ and DT test scores. The analyses included 17 studies (with 5,544 participants) that established the correlation coefficients between IQ and creative achievement and 27 studies (with 47,197 participants) that established the correlation coefficients between DT test scores and creative achievement. Marginal, but statistically significant, Fisher's Z-transformed correlation coefficients were revealed. The analysis found a significantly higher relationship between DT test scores and creative achievement (r = .216) than between IQ test scores and creative achievement (r = .167). The differences in the correlation coefficients were explained by differences in DT tests, creative achievement types, predicted time periods, and creativity subscales. The significant independent moderator effect for different DT tests indicates that the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) predict creative achievement better than any other DT test included in this study. Among the creative achievement types, music is predicted the best by IQ and all others are predicted best by DT tests. Among the time periods evaluated, the relationship between DT test scores and creative achievement had the highest correlation at the period of 11–15 years.
Article
Creativity is a very complex interaction among a person, a field, and a culture (Csikszentmihalyi, 1988). People vary in their native capacity for creativity; however, an individual's interaction with the macrocosm can foster creative expression. East Asian cultures, which include Korean culture, are based upon the principals of Confucianism. The impact of Confucianism on creativity is reviewed and the relationship between Confucianism and creativity was explored in the present study. The study involved comparing 184 Korean educators' scores on a measure of Confucianism (Eastern-Western Perspective Scale) with their scores on a measure of creativity (Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking-Figural). The results indicate that Confucianism is negatively related to creativity. Specifically, some elements of Confucianism, Unconditional Obedience, Gender Inequality, Gender Role Expectations, and Suppression of Expression, may present cultural blocks to creativity. Further, Confucianism was found to be negatively related to Adaptive creative type and Creative Streangths, but not Innovative creative type, which indicates that Adaptive creative type may be more sensitive to, and thus more influenced by, culture.
Article
Cross-cultural differences in creative thinking were assessed for 51 American and 54 Japanese college students. The American college students showed statistically significantly higher scores on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) figural test than the Japanese college students. No gender differences were found in either culture. Performance on the TTCT did not correlate with the performance on broad academic aptitude/achievement measures for either culture.
Article
Previous empirical research suggests that problem discovery is an important step in the creative process. The present investigation was conducted to examine the role of problem discovery in the divergent thinking and creative performance of adolescents. Three divergent thinking tests were administered to a group of adolescents. Each test contained three presentedproblems and one discoveredproblem. The discovered problem allowed the adolescents to think of a problem and then to provide solutions. Comparisons indicated that the adolescents generated significantly more responses to the discovered problems than the presented problems. Most important was that the unique variance of the discovered problems (controlling the variance shared with scores from the presented problems) was reliable and significantly related to five indices of creative performance. These results support the componential theory of divergent thinking and creativity, and are consistent with the developmental view of problem finding.
Article
The purpose of the study was to follow the development of creativity defined as the inclination to transgress the confines of an established perceptual context in children aged 7 to 11 years, after having studied 4-6-year-olds previously. One group of 55 7-8-year-olds, divided in a younger and/or more cognitively immature subgroup (I) and an older and/or more mature one (II), and one group of 31 10-1 1-year-olds (III), were tested with a special percept-genetic creativity test (PG) which significantly correlated with a creativity-fantasy scale. While creativity decreased in group I as compared with younger children, it increased drastically in group III, as did anxiety signs in a percept-genetic personality test (MCT) applied in all groups. While thus creativity seemed to benefit from a certain amount of anxiety, it was obviously blocked by excessive amounts or by low anxiety tolerance. The low creativity tide in 7-year-olds could perhaps be associated with the beginning of regular school in Sweden, but the high tide at the age of 10-11 years would perhaps point to an autonomous developmental rhythm.
Article
The purpose of the study was to follow the development of creativity defined as the inclination to transgress the confines of an established perceptual context in youngsters aged 12-16 years, after having studied 4-11-year-olds previously. There were altogether 142 subjects, 24-33 in each age group, who were tested with a special percept-genetic creativity test (PG). A creativity-fantasy scale was also applied together with a percept-genetic personality test (MCT). After a creative peak among 10-11-year-olds, 12-year-olds showed a significant decrease of strong creativity signs, a simultaneous increase of compulsive and kindred defense strategies and decrease of signs of anxiety. The recovery of creativity was slow during high puberty (14-15 years) but more marked after (16 years). Using the duality of inwardness and the outside world as a point of departure the paper discusses the fluctuations between high and low creative periods and, among other things, tries to explain why they are more pronounced among subjects with an academic home background.
Article
This study investigated the effects of a special school on the creative abilities of fourth grade gifted children. Sixty-six subjects (31 males and 35 females) enrolled in the fourth grade of the Vanguard Program in Houston, Texas were pretested and posttested (beginning and end of school year) on alternate verbal forms of the Torrance Tests of Creative thinking. Highly significant increases in scores were found for fluency, flexibility, and originality. Between 45 and 57 percent of the subjects showed increases of five or more T-Score points (one-half standard deviation) on the three scales. Only 16 to 18 percent showed decreases by that amount. It was concluded that a school setting giving an emphasis to creative growth can avert a fourth grade slump in the creative thinking abilities of gifted children.
Article
Understanding the role creative potential may play in the underachievement of some students could help schools and parents understand underachievers. This study examined whether there is a relationship between creativity and behavior problems among underachievers. Forty-one elementary and 89 high school students and 4 teachers in Korea participated in this study. The principal study involved comparing all of the students' scores on the 3 measures of creative potential (Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking-Figural [TTCT], Runco Ideational Behavior Scale [RIBS], and Scales for Rating the Behavioral Characteristics of Superior Students-Revised Edition [SRBCSS-R]), with their scores on a measure of behavior problems reported by their teachers. The results indicated that, among underachievers, there is a relationship between behavioral problems and students' scores on the 3 measures of creative potential. An understanding of these students and their behavior will help us promote creative students' academic and lifelong success in classrooms.
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This literature review synthesizes the available literature that suggests that the underachievement of gifted students may be tied to their inherent and unrecognized creativity. Apparently, many gifted students are underachievers and up to 30% of high school dropouts may be highly gifted. Beginning with the belief that these gifted underachievers may be highly creative, this article first reviews the view that creativity can be a gift, much like intelligence. It then reviews the typical characteristics of gifted underachievers and the similar characteristics of creative underachievers. Finally, it reviews the studies and theories that have shown that once underachievers are placed in an environment that fosters their needs, with motivation, mentors, understanding, freedom, and responsibility, they can become highly productive. Classrooms across the nation are facing ever-increasing pressure to educate every child, especially with the No Child Left Behind (2007) Act. There is a demand for those children who might normally “fall through the cracks” to receive closer attention and potentially greater accommodations than were previously required.
Article
This article is neither a study nor a review; rather, it is a thought piece from a contributing editor concerning issues associated with the state of gifted child education, as it exists today in the shadow of the effects of No Child Left Behind (NCLB). The primary purpose of this article is to stimulate thought, discussion, and action concerning the effects of NCLB on gifted child education. Seven effects are highlighted, namely, a remedial, deficit‐based emphasis; teaching what it tested; delivering a standard, one‐size fits all education to diverse students; increased numbers of dropouts; educators afraid to teach; cheating; and unsubstantiated alternatives. A change in focus, questioning, and appropriate educational actions are suggested.
Article
Some research has shown that creativity test scores are independent from IQ scores, whereas other research has shown a relationship between the two. To clarify the cumulative evidence in this field, a quantitative review of the relationship between creativity test scores and IQ scores was conducted. Moderating influences of IQ tests, IQ score levels, creativity tests, creativity subscales, creativity test types, gender, age, and below and above the threshold (IQ 120) were examined. Four hundred forty-seven correlation coefficients from 21 studies and 45,880 participants were retrieved. The mean correlation coefficient was small (r = .174; 95% CI = .165 - .183), but heterogeneous; this correlation coefficient indicates that the relationship between creativity test scores and IQ scores is negligible. Age contributed to the relationship between intelligence and creativity the most; different creativity tests contributed to it secondly. This study does not support threshold theory.
Article
Dr. E. Paul Torrance, "Father of Creativ- ity," is best known for developing the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT). The TTCT was developed by Torrance in 1966. It has been renormed 4 times: in 1974, 1984, 1990, and 1998. There are 2 forms (A and B) of the TTCT-Verbal and 2 forms (A and B) of the TTCT-Figural. However, in the scope of this review, only the TTCT-Figural was examined. The TTCT has been translated into more than 35 languages (Millar, 2002). It has become highly recommended in the edu- cational field and is even used in the corporate world. It is the most widely used test of creativity (Davis, 1997) and is the most referenced of all creativity tests (Lissitz & Willhoft, 1985). Basic information is pre- sented, including purposes, content area, norms, reli- ability, and validity. Strengths and weaknesses of the TTCT, including use of the TTCT in identifying gifted learners and suggestions for further development and improvement, are provided and discussed.
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Summarizes a study comparing effects of three different preschool models on urban public school children's success. Children enrolled in child-initiated programs mastered more basic skills than those in academically directed or middle-of-the-road classrooms. By fourth grade, the negative effects (lower scores and maladaptive behavior) of overly academic early childhood programs were clearly apparent. (10 references) (MLH)
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The author discusses preliminary findings from a 22 year follow-up of adolescent and adult creative behavior of 220 persons from the original elementary student sample. Having a childhood future career image that persisted and having a mentor were consistently related to five criteria of creative achievement. (CL)
Article
Investigated whether the valuative abilities of children can be reliably measured and the degree of overlap between divergent thinking and evaluative ability. 107 4th–6th graders received 3 tests of evaluative ability and 3 divergent thinking tasks. The evaluative measures were administered with either creativity instructions or popularity instructions. In the former, Ss were asked to give high ratings to creative ideas and low ratings to uncreative ideas. In the latter, Ss were asked to give high ratings to popular ideas. The instructional conditions proved to be significantly different. Results showed that (1) the evaluative abilities of school children can be reliably assessed and (2) there was a significant relationship between divergent thinking and evaluative skill. Ss who evaluated the popularity of ideas gave more accurate evaluations than Ss who rated the creativity of ideas. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Discusses the design and results of a preventive mental health project intended to assess the self-concept and school motivation of 4th-grade children. The pretest attitudes and dispositions toward school of 93 2nd graders, 86 3rd graders, and 77 4th graders were assessed by the Self-Concept and Motivation Inventory (SCMI). Results show that both school motivation and school self-concept decreased significantly from 3rd to 4th grade. Pre- and postpersonal self-concept scores for an 8-mo interval were obtained from 89 2nd graders on the Self-Esteem Inventory and 78 3rd and 72 4th graders on the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale. Results show that personal self-concept was stable during 2nd and 4th grades and increased significantly during 3rd grade. Teachers of the Ss who completed the pretest SCMI implemented classroom activities for enhancing school self-concept. Posttest results showed significant increases in the school motivation and school self-concept of the 4th graders and improved feelings about school at the other grade levels. Several implications of the findings for education are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The torrance tests of creative thinking have demonstrated their ability to identify creativity among children from disadvantaged or culturally different groups. The stimulus items used for the tests are objects and designs that are either common or uncommon for all children. Only slight differences have been found between black and white groups and between middle- and low-income groups. Even these differences have disappeared in some experiments where rapport was established and the testing atmosphere relaxed. The results of several studies with the torrance tests demonstrate that minority group children have the ability to create, if they are given the opportunity at school and home. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Administered 2 sets of tasks designed to measure operational thinking and the problem-finding skill of asking general questions to 65 7-, 9-, and 11-yr-old children. Analyses performed on the quality of the children's questions revealed that operational level and question quality are quite related. Results indicate that below the level of formal operations, general questions (transformations and implications) do not appear. These findings support earlier author-conducted studies (1974, 1975) which suggest that operational level relates to the problem-finding skill of posing general questions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
the impetus for creativity research / the research program at the University of Minnesota / the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking [research definition of creativity, purpose and rationale, design and structure, components of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, verbal, figural, scoring and interpretation] / the challenge of establishing predictive validity (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Discusses studies conducted by the 1st author (see PA, Vols 63:8314 and 71:14790) that show that children's scores on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking have risen significantly since 1967. It is contended that while a trend toward lower Scholastic Aptitude Test scores is causing some educators to return to a drill type back-to-basics approach, increased creativity test scores are causing others to feel more positive about the ability of children to function in a highly technical, constantly changing society. Recent changes in teaching methods and in the teacher–student relationship that facilitate the learning of creativity and creative thinking are described. Methods have moved from a predominantly teacher-directed, teacher-controlled approach to a teacher–student interactive system in which discovery learning is considered an integral part of the process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Reviews the relationship between schooling, IQ, and the cognitive processes presumed to underpin IQ. The data suggest that much of the causal pathway between IQ and schooling points in the direction of the importance of the quantity of schooling one attains (highest grade successfully completed). Schooling fosters the development of cognitive processes that underpin performance on most IQ tests. In Western nations, schooling conveys this influence on IQ and cognition through practices that appear unrelated to systematic variation in quality of schools. If correct, this could have implications for the meaning one attaches to IQ screening and prediction as well as for efforts to influence the development of IQ through changes in schooling practices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In this article, I express my appreciation for the Korean teacher who recognized my potential and my American mentors who helped me identify the creative energy in myself. I discuss how living a “wonderful” Korean life smothered the essence of my being. Next, the overview of my research in creativity is discussed in 3 categories: measurement of creativity, causes of creativity, and effects of creativity. One effect of creativity summarizes how creativity can manifest itself as either a gift or a curse. The article ends with affirming that individualism promotes creativity and a discussion of the direction of my future research, which centers on helping students and adults identify the creative energy in themselves. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In this article, the authors examined the evidence for linkages among 3 variables: schooling, intelligence, and income. They concluded that intelligence and schooling have a bidirectional relationship, with each variable influencing variations in the other. Moreover, changes in both schooling and intelligence influence variations in economic outcomes. Although any single study of the interdependency of these 3 variables can be criticized on the grounds that the data are correlational (and consequently are open to alternative interpretations) when viewed together, the evidence for their linked causality is quite convincing: Each increment in school attendance appears to convey significant increases not only in economic and social returns but also in psychometric intelligence. Thus, the value of schooling appears to extend beyond simply schooling's direct effect on income. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes a 3-wk workshop in creative problem solving for 91 disadvantaged boys and girls 6-13 yr. old. Alternate forms of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking were administered at the beginning and end of the workshop. Statistically significant gains in ability to produce original ideas are reported. Group leaders described improvement in attitudes toward learning and in various learning skills. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The present investigation compared the impact of explicit and standard instructions on six tests of divergent thinking. Two of these tests assessed real-world divergent thinking; two tests assessed real-world problem generation; and the last two assessed a combination of problem generation and divergent thinking (i.e. examinees chose one of the problems they had themselves identified, and then generated ideas and solutions). Importantly, all tasks focused on problems occurring in the natural environment. In particular, examinees (80 college students) were asked to give solutions for problems concerning both work and school situations. The results revealed significant differences among the various tests and differences between the explicit and standard instructional groups. Importantly, only the scores elicited by explicit instructions were significantly correlated with—and predictive of—creative activities and accomplishments. Implications for future research are discussed.
Article
Educational systems grow from cultural expectations and ideologies. Eastern and Western educational systems are as vastly different as the cultures they spring from and are reflective of the strengths and weaknesses of those cultures. First, strengths and limitations of East Asian education are discussed. Second, strengths and limitations of American education are discussed. Finally, some suggestions to both educations are posed. All educational systems can improve. A look at the 2 contrasting systems along with the intended and unintended consequences of cultural ideals as expressed through the educational systems can bring greater insight into the successes and limitations of each system and culture.
Article
It is argued that several empirical aspects of the relation between age and productivity can be explained by hypothesizing a simple two-step model of the creative process. Such a hypothesis permits a delayed single-peak function to result from an underlying process of constantly decelerating decay. The derived equation describes creative productivity as a function of individual age. The equation is not only shown to be consistent with empirical data on the relation between age and achievement, but additionally several important empirical predictions and theoretical consequences are inferred from the model. For instance, the model (a) maintains that the age curves may be largely the intrinsic outcome of cognitive processes rather than the extrinsic effect of developmental changes or sociological influences; (b) predicts the explanatory superiority of professional over chronological age; (c) explains the observed positive intercorrelation among creative precociousness, productivity, and longevity in terms of their mutual dependence upon individual differences in creative potential; and (d) provides a substantive basis for interpreting the variation in age peaks across disciplines by introducing the concepts of ideation rate, elaboration rate, and creative half-life. Tests to confirm or disconfirm the theoretical model are also proposed.
Article
Forty infant-mother dyads participated in a short-term longitudinal study relating security of attachment at 12 months of age to exploratory behavior, social behavior, cognitive development, and language at 21 months. Bayley Mental Scale performance favored the securely attached toddlers. Securely-attached toddlers had a larger observed vocabulary than insecurely-attached toddlers, and many more of the securely-attached toddlers issued spontaneous verbal self-directions. Securely-attached toddlers were more playful with both the adult playmate and the Bayley examiner, while insecure toddlers tended to actively avoid the playmate. Secure toddlers took more spontaneous pleasure in their play with objects, and paid more attention to the features of a puzzle toy. During free play securely-attached toddlers were more intensely involved in their bouts of exploration and play than were insecurely-attached toddlers. Insecurely-attached toddlers had shorter attention spans.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate divergent thinking and evaluative skill as important processes in the development of creative thinking in elementary schoolchildren. Children from the 3rd, 4th, and 5th grades (N = 117) received divergent thinking tasks and measures of evaluative accuracy. The latter indicated how well they liked various ideas (i.e., their preferences) and the degree to which the children believed those ideas to be original. Results indicated that the accuracy of their originality judgments increased significantly with age, as did the preference for appropriate ideas. Unlike previous research, evaluative scores were not related to divergent thinking test scores. Also somewhat surprising, given earlier research, was the lack of a "4th-grade slump." In fact, there was a significant peak, rather than slump, in the divergent thinking of 4th-grade children, at least in the raw fluency scores. When fluency ratio scores were compared, there were still some incidents of a 4th-grade peak, but there was also a significant decline with grade in the proportions of 1 index of highly appropriate ideas. Although a relation was not found between evaluative skill and divergent thinking raw fluency scores, an increasing preference for appropriate square ideas was found to contribute significantly to the prediction of decreases in the proportion of high-quality round ideas given. Possible explanations are given to account for this unexpected finding, including differences in interpersonal and intrapersonal evaluative skills, and the distinction between the ability to accurately identify original or appropriate ideas and choosing to selectively express such ideas.
Article
Longitudinal data involving 106 children and their parents were used to test preschool child-rearing implications of Carl Rogers's theory of creativity-fostering environments (Rogers, 1954). Indices were developed for each parent and for each mother-father combination that reflected the degree to which the parents' child-rearing practices and interactions with their preschool children matched the recommendations implicit in Rogers's description of a creativity-fostering environment. The three indices of Rogers-prescribed child-rearing practices each correlated positively (rs = .38 to .46) and significantly (all ps less than .001) with a composite index of creative potential in early adolescence, 7 to 11 years later. Rogers-prescribed preschool child-rearing practices also emerged as significant antecedents of adolescent creative potential in regression/path analyses that held constant the influence of sex, preschool intelligence, and preschool creative potential. Theoretical and methodological aspects of the study are discussed.