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Reflection in example- and problem-based learning: Effects of reflection prompts, feedback and cooperative learning

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Abstract

To examine the effects of reflection prompts, elaborated feedback and cooperation on learning and reflection, two experimental studies were conducted. For both studies, an example- and problem-based e-learning environment on correlation was used. In Study 1, 57 university students were randomly assigned to two conditions: with reflection prompts that asked students to give reasons for their decisions and without reflection prompts. The intervention promoted learning, and the students' reasons indicated substantial reflective processes. In Study 2, 137 university students were randomly assigned to four conditions: individual learning with or without feedback intervention and dyadic learning with or without feedback intervention. The feedback intervention clearly enhanced learning outcomes, whereas cooperative learning had no significant effect on learning. Perceived reflection was high in all groups, differences were nonsignificant.

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... Self-evaluation, a retrospective form of reflection (Krause & Stark, 2010), is defined as a self-regulated learning procedure that involves having an individual compare his/her performance against a standard or norm and making changes in his/her learning experience based on his/her informed perceptions of the quality of expected performance (Clearly & Zimmerman, EXPLORING A STAFF TRAINING MODEL 22" 2001;Kitsantas, Reiser & Doster, 2004;and Kitsantas & Zimmerman, 2006). Self-evaluative remarks are related to achievement outcomes as well as to one's self-efficacy (Kitsantas et al., 2004;Zimmerman, 2000) and can enhance awareness of error patterns (Alvero & Austin, 2004). ...
... Feedback is thought to support reflective thinking and enhance learning (Krause et al., 2010). ...
... 47" Krause et al. (2010) found that the provision of elaborate feedback, reflection prompts, and cooperative learning and reflection with complex tasks promoted reflective activities. The author's first study investigated the effectiveness of reflective prompts as a learning tool. ...
Thesis
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The increased prevalence of Autism has generated higher special needs enrollment and requires teachers to acquire the skills to address Autistic children’s unique needs. At the same time, however, budget cuts have generated a shortage of qualified professionals with expertise in autism interventions. More effective staff training may provide an avenue for addressing this shortage. This study investigated the impact that a Staff Training Procedure (STP), consisting of Video Self-Monitoring (VSM), Performance Feedback (PF) and Reflection (R) with and without Mentoring has on sustained and generalized teacher performance on two DVs – application of the Learn Unit (LU) and Rate of Effective Instruction (ROI). Practical and theoretical implications are discussed. The study design consisted of an exploratory quasi-experimental approach. The setting consisted of two private schools utilizing principles of Applied Behavior Analysis. Participants included 10 female teachers instructing 3-5 year old autistic children. Outcome Measures consisted of teacher performance outcomes on LU and ROI after: Phase 1 – a 2-hour workshop; Phase 2 – the addition of fixed period of Mentoring while engaging in the STP; and Phase 3 – after the formal STP and Mentoring period has ended. Results revealed that the STP appeared to enhance teacher performance and sustainability of Procedural Integrity. The greatest improvement and most consistent performance was observed among teachers who received STP plus Mentoring as opposed to STP alone. Conclusion Adding Mentoring to an existing STP appears to enhance teacher performance and Procedural Integrity with sustainable outcomes. The possibility of using VSM as a skill acquisition procedure is highlighted.
... A guided debriefing conference is hosted by the Simcon moderator to elicit ideas and thoughts about how the game mirrors real-world interactions and how the skills and knowledge that students learned may be used within their classroom work or everyday lives. This reflection is a critical part of problem-based learning (PBL) principles to establish connections between experiences and knowledge and to increase the rate of transfer between one learning experience to another future experience (Kirkley et al., 2011;Krause & Stark, 2010). ...
... Because play within vESGs take place in simulated worlds that mirror the authentic work that professionals perform, knowledge transfers from the game to authentic situations may come easier than if the content is simply memorized from a book or assignment. However, reflective activities further solidify this knowledge and help make the connections visible to students after they have finished playing (Krause & Stark, 2010;Lehitnen, 2002). Reflective activities can be conducted as the game is ongoing or after the game is completed. ...
Chapter
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Virtual educational simulation games (vESGs) promote unique combinations of learning interactions and affordances to create environments with which students can engage to effectively learn about complex phenomena and processes in multiple domains. Using the GlobalEd vESG as an example case throughout the chapter, the authors discuss (1) the key functions and experiences that vESGs provide to learners; (2) the types of valuable student interactions that can be expected when playing a vESG and strategies for maximizing these interactions for learning; (3) strategies for teacher implementation and adaptation of vESGs, as well as professional development programs to support their use of vESGs in classrooms; and (4) observed benefits of using vESGs as evidenced from over a decade of implementation of the GlobalEd vESG in authentic classroom settings.
... All the above is the operational term of personal in terms of feedback. Krause and Stark (2010) found that feedback is most useful to students when it is perceived to be personal. Students responding to Ferguson's (2011) study want feedback to be both positive and personal. ...
... It is important for instructors to be mindful when providing feedback on students' assignments in terms of what, why, how, and when. Since feedback offering has been recognized by literature to have significant effect on student learning (Case, 2007;Chang, 2011;Ferguson, 2011;Krause & Stark, 2010) and fundamental in supporting and regulating the learning process (Ifenthaler, 2010). It is time for all faculty concerned with effective student learning to understand more about the provision of feedback via the assessment process. ...
Article
Some instructors, besides awarding grades, provide comments/feedback on students' assignments. Views of students on feedback help frame effective and efficient teaching and learning. It is important to delve into this topic. In the 2013 academic year, all undergraduate students at a Midwestern university were invited to complete a survey to share perceptions of which feedback form they preferred: handwritten or e-feedback and related rationale behind their preferences. Their rationales were given in the categories of the following five themes: accessibility, timeliness, legibility, quality and personal. The data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively, and show that the majority of the respondents preferred e-feedback. With respect to the rationale, more respondents and higher ratings overall were given to e-feedback for timeliness, accessibility, and legibility. Although more respondents overall favored e-feedback, the ratings were higher in handwritten feedback for its quality and personal themes. Age and class standing are positively associated with students' desire for feedback in general and for e-feedback. However, there was a negative association between students' GPA and feedback in general and e-feedback. In this article, addressed are also limitations, educational implications, and future research suggestions.
... This important source for competence development is particularly interesting for dual vocational education and training (VET) systems, such as the Swiss one (Bonoli et al. 2018;Strahm et al. 2016), which offers learners (apprentices) the opportunity to train at school while concurrently working in a company. However, reflecting on one's experiences is usually not spontaneous in vocational education (Stavenga de Jong et al. 2006;Taylor and Freeman 2011); it needs scaffolding provided by educators (De Bruijn and Leeman 2011;Schaap et al. 2012), who could appropriately utilise critical questions and prompts to support the reflective process (Raizen 1994;Krause and Stark 2010). ...
... Journal writing, which is writing about one's experiences, allows the subject to "step-back" from the practice, "to reflect upon it and to return to it with understanding" (Lukinsky 1990, p. 213). The effectiveness of a learning journal increases with the use of various types of stimuli and prompts (Berthold et al. 2007;Kember 2001;Krause and Stark 2010) aimed at fostering reflection. ...
Article
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Reflection is essential for professional competence development in every profession. Reflection-on-action (taking place a posteriori, when the task is already accomplished) and reflection-in-action (occurring while performing the task) are equally important to increasing one’s professionalism. Some evidence supports the effectiveness of promoting the former by using metacognitive prompts that encourage vocational education apprentices to reflect. However, it is unclear to what extent this approach is effective to promote their reflection-in-action, to increase the quality of their professional performance, and to establish a long-term attitude to reflect on-action. Using a thinking aloud technique, we asked 15 apprentice chefs to cook a recipe and video-recorded them. When finished, we asked them to complete a report that self-assessed their performance. Nine of them were accustomed to metacognitive prompts to reflect on their practice, the others not. The former group outperformed the latter in the quality of their reflection-in-action. Also, the quality of their performance, according to two experts’ assessment, was significantly better. Finally, their reflection-on-action was higher. Despite its limitations due to the small sample, the study represents a good premise to confirm the effectiveness of our pedagogical approach and transfer it to other initial vocational education professions.
... Generally, the literature speaks to individual teacher/educator training procedures which embed experiential learning opportunities and have found positive improvements in teacher performance and procedural integrity (PI) (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007;Gresham, 1989;& Hagermoser Sanetti & Kratochwill, 2009). Namely, (1) video self-monitoring (VSM), whereby an individual creates a video tape of him/herself performing a target behavior or function then reviews it to analyze and rate performance and procedural integrity (Ahearn, 2010;& Pelletier, McNamara, Braga-Kenyon, & Ahearn, 2010); (2) self-evaluation/selfmonitoring (Krause, & Stark, 2010), defined as a self-regulated learning procedure that involves having an individual compare his/her performance against a standard or norm and making changes in his/her learning experience based on his/her informed perceptions of the quality of expected performance (Kitsantas & Zimmerman, 2006); (3) performance feedback (PF) defined as the process of monitoring and evaluating target behaviors against objective benchmarks and having a mentor provide frequent and immediate corrective feedback to the individual regarding these behaviors (Codding, Feinberg, Dunn, & Pace, 2005;Coding, Livanis, Pace, & Vaca, 2008;Kitsantas, et al., 2006;Krause & Stark, 2010;Noell, G. H., Slider, Connell, Gatti, Williams, Koenig, & Resetar, 2005;Reid et al., 2006;& Wilkinson, 2007); and (4) reflection (R) which involves problem solving and self-analysis of one's behavior (Dewey, 1933;Gartmeier et al., 2008;Hetzner et al., 2010;Janssen, de Hullu, & Tigelaar, 2008;Pedro, 2005;& Stoddard, 2002). Building upon Reid et al. (2006) statements supporting the need for effective teacher training, the authors suggest that a teacher/educator training package that incorporates experiential learning opportunities can provide teachers with self-directed active learning opportunities that will ultimately assist them to foster and promote knowledge building, critical thinking skills, and the functional application of learned skills in children with ASD. ...
... Generally, the literature speaks to individual teacher/educator training procedures which embed experiential learning opportunities and have found positive improvements in teacher performance and procedural integrity (PI) (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007;Gresham, 1989;& Hagermoser Sanetti & Kratochwill, 2009). Namely, (1) video self-monitoring (VSM), whereby an individual creates a video tape of him/herself performing a target behavior or function then reviews it to analyze and rate performance and procedural integrity (Ahearn, 2010;& Pelletier, McNamara, Braga-Kenyon, & Ahearn, 2010); (2) self-evaluation/selfmonitoring (Krause, & Stark, 2010), defined as a self-regulated learning procedure that involves having an individual compare his/her performance against a standard or norm and making changes in his/her learning experience based on his/her informed perceptions of the quality of expected performance (Kitsantas & Zimmerman, 2006); (3) performance feedback (PF) defined as the process of monitoring and evaluating target behaviors against objective benchmarks and having a mentor provide frequent and immediate corrective feedback to the individual regarding these behaviors (Codding, Feinberg, Dunn, & Pace, 2005;Coding, Livanis, Pace, & Vaca, 2008;Kitsantas, et al., 2006;Krause & Stark, 2010;Noell, G. H., Slider, Connell, Gatti, Williams, Koenig, & Resetar, 2005;Reid et al., 2006;& Wilkinson, 2007); and (4) reflection (R) which involves problem solving and self-analysis of one's behavior (Dewey, 1933;Gartmeier et al., 2008;Hetzner et al., 2010;Janssen, de Hullu, & Tigelaar, 2008;Pedro, 2005;& Stoddard, 2002). Building upon Reid et al. (2006) statements supporting the need for effective teacher training, the authors suggest that a teacher/educator training package that incorporates experiential learning opportunities can provide teachers with self-directed active learning opportunities that will ultimately assist them to foster and promote knowledge building, critical thinking skills, and the functional application of learned skills in children with ASD. ...
Article
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The increased prevalence of autism has created an increased challenge for teachers to incorporate specialized teaching strategies to address the unique educational and behavioral challenges facing children diagnosed with autism. Providing teachers with educational training opportunities will promote such learning. In the academic world, experiential learning opportunities are used to provide a bridge between didactic coursework and on-the-job practice that fosters skill acquisition and critical thinking. Video self-monitoring (VSM) is one type of learning strategy used in experiential learning environments to develop critical thinking by building on direct experiences, performance feedback (PF), and reflection (R). This study investigated the impact of an experiential teacher training package, consisting of VSM, PF, and R with and without mentoring on sustained and generalized teacher performance of two dependent variables – Learn Unit (LU); Rate of Effective Instruction (ROI). In this exploratory study 6 female teachers instructed seven 3-5 year-old autistic children. Teacher performance on LU and ROI was evaluated three times: Phase 1, after a 2-hour workshop; Phase 2, after training- using the VSM. PF, R with and without mentoring; Phase 3 – follow-up with VSM. PF, R and mentoring removed. Findings revealed that while VSM, PF, R appeared to enhance teacher performance and sustainability of procedural integrity, the greatest and most consistent improvement was observed among teachers who received mentoring as opposed to those who did not. Practical applications of this experiential learning teacher/educator training package for the advanced education of teachers and health science professionals working with this population are highlighted.
... Personal touch of the feedback was the final theme which emerged from the literature (Chang et al., 2012) and only becomes useful when it is perceived as providing a personal touch (Krause & Stark, 2010). Students preferring handwritten feedback to electronic feedback identified the personal touch theme as being the main reason for their preference (Chang et el., 2012). ...
... Assignments were found to be disengaging when students viewed their professors' feedback when the personal touch was missing (Mann, 2001;Price et al., 2010). Krause and Stark (2010) reported that students perceived their professor feedback as useful only when it was perceived as having a personal touch. Surprisingly, personal touch was ranked low (fourth of the five themes) by participants in the current study who preferred electronic feedback while personal touch ranked as the highest of the five themes by those participants in the current study who preferred handwritten feedback. ...
... The learning unit is grounded in a problem-based learning approach (Dochy et al. 2003;Krause and Stark 2010), in which students have to deal actively with real-life problems in a multi-perspective and cooperative manner. Problem-based learning is increasingly used as an alternative or supplement to traditional teaching methods (e.g. ...
... Wagner et al. 2013). Studies suggest that problem-based learning can promote competencies in different domains (Dochy et al. 2003;Krause and Stark 2010;Stark et al. 2009Stark et al. , 2010Wagner et al. 2013). ...
Article
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This article explores to what extent a problem-based learning unit in combination with cooperative learning and affectively oriented teaching methods facilitates intercultural learning. As part of the study, students reflected on critical incidents, which display misunderstandings or conflicts that arise as a result of cultural differences. In dealing with these cases, students were encouraged to reflect on their own cognitive and affective processes (such as categorisation and judgement) in order to become aware that thoughts, emotions and actions are socially and culturally influenced. Students devised strategies to handle the situations depicted. Participants were young adult learners (N = 40). Students in the experimental group were compared with a control group, which received regular intercultural learning classes. Results indicated that the intervention supported learning and the cooperative learning situations in combination with the affectively oriented teaching methods stimulated intercultural learning processes. However, the analysis also revealed the limitations of short-term interventions in tackling the motivational and attitudinal dimension of student learning, therefore hinting at the need for long-term projects in order to sustain a lasting positive approach to cultural diversity. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10984-015-9193-2?wt_mc=email.event.1.SEM.ArticleAuthorOnlineFirst
... Finally, the learning unit aims at augmenting students' behavioural repertoire by promoting their knowledge of different ways of behaving and communicating in particular intercultural situations. The learning unit is grounded in a problem-based learning approach (Dochy et al. 2003; Krause and Stark 2010), in which students have to deal actively with real-life problems in a multi-perspective and cooperative manner. Problem-based learning is increasingly used as ...
... Krause et al. 2011; Wagner et al. 2013). Studies suggest that problem-based learning can promote competencies in different domains (Dochy et al. 2003; Krause and Stark 2010; Stark et al. 2009, 2010; Wagner et al. 2013). ...
Article
Ausgehend von einem Inklusionsbegriff, der den pädagogischen Umgang mit kultureller Diversität als Aufgabenfeld einschließt, wurde eine problemorientierte Unterrichtseinheit zum interkulturellen Lernen konzipiert und in einer quasiexperimentellen Interventionsstudie mit Prä-Post-Design erprobt. Im Rahmen der Unterrichtseinheit werden anhand von Fallbeispielen in Form kritischer Ereignisse (Critical Incidents) Missverständnisse oder Konflikte präsentiert, die als Folge kultureller Unterschiede entstehen können. In der Auseinandersetzung mit diesen Fällen werden die Schüler/innen aufgefordert, ihre eigenen kognitiven und affektiven Prozesse (wie Kategorisierung und Beurteilung) zu reflektieren, wodurch u.a. verdeutlicht wird, wie das eigene Denken und Handeln durch (kulturell geprägte) Sozialisationsprozesse beeinflusst wird. Im Rahmen der Unterrichtseinheit entwickeln die Schüler/innen außerdem Strategien zum Umgang mit den dargestellten Situationen. Die Ergebnisse der Interventionsstudie legen nahe, dass die Unterrichtseinheit relevante Lernprozesse förderte. Die Experimentalgruppe (zwei Schulklassen, n = 28) erzielte einen signifikanten Lernfortschritt sowie signifikant bessere Ergebnisse im Nachtest als die Kontrollgruppe (eine Schulklasse, n = 12). Insgesamt ergaben sich Bodeneffekte, die darauf hinweisen, dass im Bereich des interkulturellen Lernens ein deutlicher Interventionsbedarf besteht. Downloadable from http://www.schulpaedagogik-heute.de/index.php/sh-zeitschrift-10-14/empirische-forschungsbeitraege#download-des-artikels
... The learning unit is grounded in a problem-based learning approach (Dochy et al. 2003;Krause and Stark 2010), in which students have to deal actively with real-life problems in a multi-perspective and cooperative manner. Problem-based learning is increasingly used as an alternative or supplement to traditional teaching methods (e.g. ...
... Wagner et al. 2013). Studies suggest that problem-based learning can promote competencies in different domains (Dochy et al. 2003;Krause and Stark 2010;Stark et al. 2009Stark et al. , 2010Wagner et al. 2013). ...
Article
This article explores to what extent a problem-based learning unit in combination with cooperative learning and affectively oriented teaching methods facilitates intercultural learning. As part of the study, students reflected on critical incidents, which display misunderstandings or conflicts that arise as a result of cultural differences. In dealing with these cases, students were encouraged to reflect on their own cognitive and affective processes (such as categorisation and judgment) in order to become aware that thoughts, emotions and actions are socially and culturally influenced. Besides, students devised strategies to handle the situations depicted. Participants were young adult learners (N = 40). Students in the experimental group were compared to a control group, which received regular intercultural learning classes. Results indicate that the intervention supported learning and tha the cooperative learning situations in combination with the affectively oriented teaching methods stimulated intercultural learning processes. However, the analysis also revealed the limitations of short-term interventions in tackling the motivational and attitudinal dimension of student learning and hints at the need for long-term projects in order to sustain a lasting positive approach to cultural diversity. (Article in press)
... The student would post the writing to the discussion board in Blackboard and provide prompts for the other students in the clinical group to give feedback. Positive outcomes have been found with the use of prompts in both writing-based and e-learning arenas (Krause & Stark, 2010). The use of prompts has also been proven effective in developing metacognition (Krause et al., 2010). ...
... Positive outcomes have been found with the use of prompts in both writing-based and e-learning arenas (Krause & Stark, 2010). The use of prompts has also been proven effective in developing metacognition (Krause et al., 2010). ...
Article
Nursing students can learn more from the clinical setting with the incorporation of metacognitive practice. This article shows the benefits of metacognition in educating nursing students and uses examples of student work to offer a pedagogical technique for developing metacognition through social technology. The use of Twitter, ePortfolio, and Blackboard are assessed in this article.
... They can ask critical and reflective questions to evoke students' reflection and ultimately transfer of knowledge, skills and attitudes, also known as prompting via specific reflective prompts. Prompts are verbal or written stimuli that foster students to justify their decisions in the learning process, in analogy to thinking-aloud protocols, for example when students were asked to type short reasons for each decision (Krause and Stark 2010). Krause and Stark (2010) show that when such prompts are combined with elaborated feedback, deeper levels of reflection facilitate learning, which is "especially promising for students with little prior knowledge, low confidence or low motivation concerning the respective field" (p. ...
... Prompts are verbal or written stimuli that foster students to justify their decisions in the learning process, in analogy to thinking-aloud protocols, for example when students were asked to type short reasons for each decision (Krause and Stark 2010). Krause and Stark (2010) show that when such prompts are combined with elaborated feedback, deeper levels of reflection facilitate learning, which is "especially promising for students with little prior knowledge, low confidence or low motivation concerning the respective field" (p. 269). ...
Article
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Learning in vocational schools and workplaces are the two main components of vocational education. Students have to develop professional competences by building meaningful relations between knowledge, skills and attitudes. There are, however, some major concerns about the combination of learning in these two learning environments, since vocational schools are primarily based on the rationales of learning and theory, while workplaces are based on the rationales of working and practice. This study therefore aims to structure empirical insights into students’ learning processes during the combination of school-based learning and workplace learning in vocational education. A review-study has been conducted in which ultimately 24 articles were analyzed thoroughly. The review shows that students’ learning processes in vocational schools and workplaces are related to six main themes: students’ expertise development, students’ learning styles, students’ integration of knowledge acquired in school and workplace, processes of knowledge development, students’ motivations for learning and students’ professional identity development. Our results show that students are novices who use specific and different learning styles and learning activities in vocational schools and workplaces. It is concluded that the enhancement of students’ learning processes needs to be adaptive and differentiated in nature. Recommendations for further research are elaborated and suggestions for the enhancement of students’ learning processes are discussed using insights from hybrid learning environments and boundary crossing via boundary objects.
... Öz geri bildirim ile yansıtıcı düşünme becerisi ve akran geri bildirimi ile eleştirel düşünme becerisi geliştirilebilir (Hattie & Timperly, 2007). Ayrıca geri bildirim ölçme-değerlendirmenin özellikle biçimlendirici değerlendirmenin de önemli bir parçasıdır (Chase & Houmanfar, 2009;Krause & Stark, 2010;Nelson & Schunn, 2007). Biçimlendirici değerlendirmede öğrencinin mevcut durumunun belirlenmesi ile eksik ya da yanlış öğrenmelerinin tespit edilerek bunların giderilmesi esas alınır (Black & Wiliam, 1998). ...
Article
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Feedback is the information given to define the difference between the student’s performance and the targeted performance in the education process and to increase the student’s performance to the desired level. It can be used effectively both in the learning-teaching process and in the measurement and evaluation process. In the relevant literature, there are experimental and descriptive studies on the use of feedback in different fields. However, there seems to be no study on the panorama and status of research on feedback. In this context, the study aims to examine the Turkish educational sciences literature on feedback. In accordance with the purpose of the research, the document analysis technique was used in line with the qualitative methodology. In the research, a total of 83 postgraduate theses on the website of the Higher Education Institution were examined. Content analysis method was used in the analysis of the collected data. As a result of the research, it was determined that the theses prepared on feedback were mostly prepared at the graduate level and mostly in 2019. It was determined that the interview technique was mostly used as a data collection tool in the prepared theses. In addition, according to the results obtained in the research, it was determined that the effects of feedback on writing skills and academic success/learning were mostly investigated in thesis studies prepared on feedback.
... For example, simulation training provides prolonged opportunities for deliberate practice which includes extensive repetition over time and is considered the cornerstone of developing expertise (Ericsson, 1993Feldon, 2007. Simulation training can also easily embed reflection to enhance deep processing, comprehension of complex subject matter, and domain knowledge (Entwistle & Peterson, 2004;Krause & Stark, 2010). In addition, simulation training can integrate automated performance feedback, which is a core component of effective professional development, particularly when feedback is immediate, positive, and specific (Bain & Swan, 2011;Brinko, 1993;Scheeler et al., 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
Simulation technology provides opportunities for teachers to engage in extended practice using positive behavioral supports to promote student engagement and behavior. These training models are rapidly emerging and if effective, create an infrastructure for scaling up positive behavioral supports in classrooms and schools. However, there is limited research examining teacher skill transfer or student outcomes. This study examined the incremental benefits of Interactive Virtual Training for Teachers (IVT-T) in combination with professional learning communities (PLCs) in one high poverty school district. Using a quasi-experimental design, teachers (N = 90; n = 52 IVT-T + PLC condition; n = 38 PLC condition) and students (N = 100; n = 60 IVT-T + PLC condition; n = 40 PLC only) participated across six K–8 schools. Both training conditions were rated as moderately acceptable. One and two-level generalized linear models indicated teachers who used IVT-T increased their use of praise (b = 0.75, p = .03) and decreased their use of behavioral corrective feedback (b = −0.32, p = .02). Their students were also more passively engaged (b = 0.42, p = .05) and showed fewer inappropriate physical behaviors (b = −0.87, p = .002). IVT-T hours predicted increases in praise statements (b = 0.07, p < .001) and decreases in vague directives (b = −0.07, p = .006) whereas PLC hours predicted increases in teachers' use of vague directives (b = 0.07, p = .05). There was a significant positive effect of IVT-T hours on student passive engagement (b = 0.04, p = .01) and a negative effect of PLC hours on rates of inappropriate physical behaviors (b = 0.1, p = .04). Study limitations and future directions for research and practice are discussed.
... This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. of the entire studies (i.e., Hooshyar et al., 2016;Krause & Stark, 2010; Figure 1 "other") based on the criterion that the standardized residual was greater than three (Viechtbauer & Cheung, 2010). ...
Article
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Feedback is one of the most important factors for successful learning. Contemporary computer-based learning and testing environments allow the implementation of automated feedback in a simple and efficient manner. Previous meta-analyses suggest that different types of feedback are not equally effective. This heterogeneity might depend on learner and test characteristics as well as the assessed outcome measure. Here, we present a novel network meta-analysis approach that allowed us to compare (i.e., rank) different types of feedback regarding their effects on (lower-and higher-order) performance measures. Following an extensive literature search, we were able to use 163 effect sizes from 77 experimental studies to compare classical feedback variations such as Knowledge of Results (KR), Knowledge of Correct Response (KCR), Elaborated Feedback (EF), and Answer-Until-Correct (AUC) feedback, with each other and with a No Feedback (NoFB) control group. Our findings indicate that EF is most likely to be the most effective for lower-order (i.e., recall/recognition) and higher-order (i.e., transfer) learning outcomes compared with the other feedback variants. For KCR and AUC, we typically found small to large effect sizes on learning outcomes. KR was found to be less effective than the other feedback types on improving lower-order and higher-order learning outcomes. Several subgroup analyses are reported to identify moderating factors for the effectiveness of different feedback interventions for different learner characteristics (i.e., sample source, and prior knowledge level) and test characteristics (i.e., learning domain, and test format).
... For example, simulation training provides prolonged opportunities for deliberate practice which includes extensive repetition over time and is considered the cornerstone of developing expertise (Ericsson, 1993Feldon, 2007. Simulation training can also easily embed reflection to enhance deep processing, comprehension of complex subject matter, and domain knowledge (Entwistle & Peterson, 2004;Krause & Stark, 2010). In addition, simulation training can integrate automated performance feedback, which is a core component of effective professional development, particularly when feedback is immediate, positive, and specific (Bain & Swan, 2011;Brinko, 1993;Scheeler et al., 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
School psychologists are uniquely positioned to support the delivery of evidence-based mental health practices (EBMHPs) to address the overwhelming mental health needs of children and youth. Graduate training programs can promote EBMHPs in schools by ensuring school psychologists enter the workplace prepared to deliver and support high-quality, effective services. Despite the remarkable growth of effective interventions to address a range of mental health problems, more work is needed to develop and adapt existing graduate training curricula to address this pressing issue. Using a problem-solving framework, we sequentially identify and analyze current challenges in training the next generation of school psychologists in EBMHPs. These challenges include how EBMHPs are packaged and structured, researchers’ limited understanding of how culture affects efficacy, and continual shifts in evidence-based practice designations. These challenges provide a basis for the adaptation and future direction of training in EBMHPs. System-level changes and adaptations to professional practice standards are also discussed.
... The meta-analysis by Theobald (2021) showed that peer feedback involved students in reflection and strategy regulation. Regardless of teacher feedback, tutor feedback or system-generated feedback, the common function is to stimulate reflective thinking so that students can recalibrate goals and adjust actions (for a review, see Krause & Stark, 2010). Explicit, actionable feedback is also a motivation booster to intensify effort and promote learning (e.g., Erhel & Jamet, 2013;Van den Boom et al., 2004). ...
Article
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Background It has been assumed that prompting students to plan, monitor and evaluate their learning process could stimulate strategy use and thereby improve learning outcomes. Objectives This study aimed to examine the effects of metacognitive prompts on students' self‐regulated learning (SRL) and learning outcomes in the context of computer‐based learning environments (CBLEs). Methods To achieve this, the current study took a meta‐analytic approach to critically evaluate evidence for the effectiveness of metacognitive prompts and identify potential moderators of the effects. Results and conclusions With random‐effects models, the results showed that metacognitive prompts significantly enhanced SRL activities (g = 0.50, 95% confidence interval [0.37, 0.63]) and learning outcomes (g = 0.40, 95% confidence interval [0.31, 0.49]) relative to the control conditions. Furthermore, moderator analyses revealed that the effects varied as a function of three prompts features: feedback, specificity and adaptability. Implications Developing task‐specific, individual‐adaptive prompts and feedback should be a design principle in CBLEs, such that the prompt effect could be retained, sustainably enhanced and transferred to novel situations.
... It is important for instructors to be mindful when providing feedback on students' assignments in terms of what, why, how, and when. Since feedback offering has been recognized by literature to have significant effect on student learning [2,8,11,15,17] and fundamental in supporting and regulating the learning process [23]. It is time for all faculty concerned with effective student learning to understand more about the provision of feedback via the assessment process. ...
... P15 commented that 'teachers should be aware of students' weak points and should provide highquality feedback to improve them'. The previous studies also point out that feedback can benefit learners in numerous ways including teacher-student interactions (Skipper & Douglas, 2015;Lee & Schallert, 2008) and improved learning outcomes (Krause & Stark, 2010). The participants also suggested that teachers should benefit from technological facilities while providing foreign language education. ...
... They interpreted non-significant results as an indicator that the prompts were effective across all groups where they were employed (rather than ineffective). Krause and Stark [49] also observed no significant prompt difference in performance when they asked students to engage in active problem-solving with or without reflection prompts. In their case, the descriptive statistics showed that purely numerically, performance was indeed higher for the prompted group, but not at p < 0.05 (they reported a difference p = 0.11). ...
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You can access the paper for free here (it's open access): http://www.mdpi.com/2073-431X/6/1/7 This paper is part of a special CfP on “Advances in Affect- and Personality-based Personalized Systems” in Computers (http://www.mdpi.com/journal/computers). Personalized prompting research has shown significant learning benefit of prompting. The current paper outlines and examines a personalized prompting approach aimed at eliminating performance differences on the basis of a number of learner characteristics (capturing learning strategies and traits). The learner characteristics of interest were need for cognition, work effort, computer self-efficacy, the use of surface learning and the learner’s confidence in their learning. The approach was tested in two e-modules, using similar assessment forms (experimental n = 413; control group n = 243). Several prompts which corresponded to the learner characteristics were implemented, including an explanation prompt, a motivation prompt, a strategy and an assessment prompt. All learning characteristics were significant correlates of at least one of the outcome measures (test performance, errors, and omissions). However, only the assessment prompt increased test performance. On this basis, and drawing upon the testing effect, this prompt may be a particularly promising option to increase performance in e-learning and similar personalized systems.
... Strategically, innovative and quality teaching is the key to approach and maintain a high course satisfaction rate. Guided by existing and emerging teaching and learning theories, a number of tactical measures, for example, adjusting the difficulty of course contents to an proper level acceptable by majority of the students enrolled, boosting student' confidence in succeeding their study through inspirational and engaging teaching, promptly providing feedback on assignments to students [28], keeping class to a reasonable size, are worth of consideration in course design and delivery for achieving this goal. ...
... Researchers also revealed that cooperative learning has two fold benefits for student i.e. immediate academic context and students' long term careers development. On the other hand, Krause and Stark (2010) found that students studying as individuals showed greater progress than those engaged in cooperative learning. These diverse findings could be caused by the nature of cooperative learning that may not provide automatic positive results unless students know how to help each other (Chan, 2010). ...
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This study aims to identify the antecedents of environmental reporting (ER) disclosure of mining companies in Indonesia. The population of this study was all mining companies listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX). Using purposive sampling, the study collected 120 data from 30 companies. Correlation and path analyses identified four antecedents of ER i.e. length of listing in stock exchange (AGE), Company Size, Leverage, and Profitability. There were significant impacts of SIZE, AGE, Leverage, and Profitability on ER. SIZE significantly influences Leverage while AGE impacts on profitability. The practice of ER among mining companies is very much related to business strategies. ER would be widely reported by the companies when they have high leverage and unsatisfactory financial performance. Without tight supervision and hard enforcement from concerned parties, the implementation of appropriate ER disclosure in mining companies would have a long way to go.
... They further argue that such groups may create a sense of frustration amongst high achievement individuals who may believe that they are doing the job of the instructor, while seemingly not gaining much benefit from the group. Furthermore, research conducted by Krause and Stark (2010) found that cooperative learning did not necessarily facilitate learning when comparing students who worked individually and students working in groups. ...
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The purpose of this study was to explore how learning amongst South African MBA students could be enhanced through collaborative learning. Collaborative learning groups are established in MBA programmes to build team-working skills, which will enhance the employability of MBA graduates and foster good performance in workplace settings. However, it had been observed that not all students agreed that this outcome materialized, although schools advised that the syndicate groups created by the school were the ideal vehicle for learning, where interaction and debate could flourish. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were used to gather qualitative data from a purposively selected sample of 13 current MBA students from accredited business schools in the Gauteng province of South Africa. Data were analyzed through coding, classifying and mapping of transcripts. The key insight was that " learning " (i.e. " conent ") did not emerge as an objective, either overtly or covertly. Students were adamant that their goal was to submit an assignment and learn something about teams in the process. Business schools should re-evaluate their assumptions about effective group learning, and modify the assessments to maximize both team effectiveness and learning. Students need to embrace opportunities to facilitate their own group processes (including diversity management and dealing effectively with conflict) to achieve their goals.
... Reflective practice on experience (possibly referring to participation in multiple communities of practices) and boundary crossing are essential elements of our model. Vocational educators (both teachers and supervisors) have a key role to play in fostering students' reflection by asking critical and reflective questions and using specific reflective prompts (Raizen, 1994;Krause & Stark, 2010;de Bruijn & Leeman, 2011;Schaap, Baartman, & de Bruijn, 2012). Strategies to develop reflective behavior can be more suitable for school than for the workplace (Van Woerkom, 2004;Van Woerkom & Poell, 2010). ...
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Vocational education taking place in the dual contexts of workplace and school often lacks integration of concrete experiences with theoretical knowledge. The interplay between workplace and school contexts and their often antagonistic priorities call for a specific model that transforms these divergences into learning opportunities and connects different forms of knowledge into an integrated body of knowledge that contributes to developing vocational competence. This paper presents a multi-dimensional pedagogical model, called the ‘Erfahrraum’, for the design and implementation of educational technologies as a way to foster this integration in initial dual vocational education and training (VET). The ‘Erfahrraum’ model informs the design of shared spaces for capturing and reflecting on experiences made in different contexts in which VET takes place. The model particularly emphasizes the importance of shared reflection processes to turn concrete experiences into relevant integrated knowledge. Examples of implementations in different professions using a range of different technologies illustrate the power of the ‘Erfahrraum’ model.
... Learning is greatly facilitated when a problem-based approach is utilized within a construct of reflection and constructive feedback (Krause and Stark 2010 ). Reflection, being an amalgamation of past experiences, personal beliefs and actions (Soloman 1987 ), can act as a strong force in the construction of future knowledge and meaning. ...
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Reflection has recently been emphasized as a constructive pedagogical activity. However, little attention has been given to the quality of reflections that students write. In this study, we explored the reflections that students make about their knowledge organization as part of a formative learning activity. More specifically, we assessed the knowledge structures of Grade 11 physics students and their instructors using pathfinder networks (PFnets). Each student’s knowledge structure was compared with the instructors’ averaged knowledge structure in order to identify student misconceptions. As an intervention, students were asked to write reflections on the discrepancies between their knowledge structure and their instructors’ averaged knowledge structure. The students’ reflections were divided into the following three categories depending on the type of knowledge constructed in those reflections: (1) conceptual, (2) procedural, or (3) declarative. Evidence was provided by the study that reflection was an effective means of improving students’ knowledge structure. However, conceptual reflections were the most effective, followed by procedural and declarative reflection. Implications for formative classroom assessment are discussed.
... The task for each team was to identify a real-life managerial problem and solve it by using appropriate statistical data analysis tools. Earlier research indicates mostly positive but also some negative results about the effects of collaboration on learning performance (Orlitzky & Benjamin 2003, Griffin et al. 2004, Krause & Stark 2010. It seems that the effects of competition on students' learning performance can be negative (Wang & Yang 2003, Lam et al. 2004. ...
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This study investigates the effects of collaboration and competition on students’ learning performance in a course of business statistics. The collaboration involved a simultaneously organised group competition project with analysis of real-life business problems among students. Students from the following schools participated: JAMK University of Applied Sciences in Finland, Universidad Complutense de Madrid in Spain, and Sabanci University in Turkey. The results support earlier literature on positive impacts of group collaboration on learning performance but deny any negative impacts of competition. It is also found out that learning performance may be influenced to a certain degree by cultural differences in perceptions towards collaboration and competition. Overall the international competition and the touch to real-life business problems stimulate students’ engagement and result in enhanced learning towards becoming ‘intelligent consumers of business statistics’.
... Average scores of the participants were about half of the maximum score for this task as well. In accordance with the results of Krause et al. (2009), Krause (2007) as well as Krause and Stark (2010), the performance on this task was supported by the elaboration intervention. Our results demonstrate once more an issue previously discussed in several studies on problem-oriented (Kirschner, Sweller, & Clark, 2006;Schmidt, Loyens, Van Gog, & Paas, 2007) and example-based learning (Renkl & Atkinson, 2007;Atkinson et al., 2000;Stark, 1999;2000;2001). ...
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An experimental field study at a German university was conducted in order to test the effectiveness of an integrated learning environment to improve the acquisition of knowledge about empirical research methods. The integrated learning environment was based on the combination of instruction-oriented and problem-oriented design principles and consisted of twelve worked examples. An elaboration intervention was administered as instructional support. The effectiveness of the learning environment both with and without the elaboration intervention was assessed using knowledge application tasks (near and far transfer), which were applied after the training phase. In addition, student’s self-reports on mindfulness (Salomon & Globerson, 1987) were collected. The training was implemented into the regular curriculum. The participants were advanced students in educational science. Both experimental groups (with elaboration intervention: n = 26; without elaboration intervention n = 27) clearly outperformed the control group (n = 17) in the knowledge application tasks. In order to (successfully) foster transferable applicable knowledge, instructional support provided via the elaboration intervention was in fact necessary. Furthermore, the self-reports of students in the experimental group with elaboration intervention showed higher mindfulness scores than those without it. Our results indicate that the integrated learning environment developed in this study can be implemented to improve the acquisition of knowledge about empirical research methods both effectively and efficiently.
... Increasingly students are demanding feedback from their instructors (Siew, 2003). Yet, students' perceptions of different forms of feedback are some times inconsistent and contradictory (Krause & Stark, 2010). The main objective of this study, therefore, was to examine which undergraduate students preferred; handwritten or electronic feedback and to understand the underlying reasons for these preferences. ...
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Giving feedback on students' assignment is, by no means, new to faculty. Yet, when it comes to handwritten feedback delivered in person and typed feedback delivered electronically to students, faculty may not know what undergraduate students prefer and reasons behind their preferences. The present study explored which form of feedback, i.e., electronic or handwritten feedback, undergraduate students preferred and rationale behind their preferences. Two hundred fifty respondents completed an online survey, which consisted of three closed-ended questions and two open-ended questions. Nonparametric tests were used to analyze the quantitative data. Qualitative responses were read and analyzed by four researchers and six themes were identified. The qualitative data were rechecked against the six themes independently first and then collectively. Discrepancies were discussed before complete consensus was made. The study found that nearly 70% of the participants preferred e-feedback for its accessibility, timeliness, and legibility. Yet, with respect to the quality of feedback, the majority of handwritten supporters chose handwritten feedback, as they perceived this type of feedback as more personal. The article discusses the marked discrepancies between the two groups and ends with educational implications and suggestions for future research. Feedback is important to student learning (Case, 2007; Ferguson, 2011; Krause & Stark, 2010) and a basis for supporting and regulating the learning process (Ifenthaler, 2010) regardless of who students are and where they are from and regardless of what form instructors choose to provide feedback on students' assignments, be it electronic feedback or handwritten. Quality feedback should work as a guiding light, promoting student learning (Chang, 2011). Krause and
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Receiving and giving oneself formative feedback is essential to professionals’ development of reflective attitudes towards their practices. In the healthcare professions, debriefing sessions are often used to provide feedback. Such sessions often incorporate videos to support the debriefing process. However, this usually occurs with reference to simulations and not to actual practice; furthermore, the potential of using video-annotation software to analyse practice has not been fully exploited in nursing education. To explore this still under-investigated potential, the current pilot study was conducted in the domain of operation room technicians to investigate whether the use of videos of actual practice and video-annotation software affected the quality of feedback given during the debriefing sessions. The pilot experience seems to confirm that this approach is feasible in actual practice. More particularly, the results suggest that video support enables more supportive feedback about work processes and more evidence- and situation-based feedback than regular debriefing without video. The use of video annotation also tends to support more student-driven and dialogical feedback as well as tending to increase student acceptance of feedback. Additional research is needed to further investigate the feasibility of this approach within hospitals.
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Social team building typically consists of a one-day extra-mural excursion involving some non-work related tasks performed by teams to improve interpersonal relationships. MBA study groups are pre-allocated at the start of the academic programme and team development interventions are often employed to facilitate group formation. This study aims to evaluate the influence of such interventions for promoting study group formation through the use of Input-Process-Output models of team performance.
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Hızla gelişen ve değişen dünya ile birlikte toplumun ihtiyaç duyduğu birey profili de değişmektedir. İhtiyaç duyulan birey profiline ulaşılabilmek için, öğretim programlarının da gerekli değişimlere ayak uydurabilmesi gerekir. Matematik öğretim programlarını da kapsayan bu gelişim; karşılaştığı problemlerin üstesinden gelebilen bireyler yetiştirmeyi amaçlar. Bu aşamada matematik öğretim programlarının önemli bir bölümünü oluşturan ölçme ve değerlendirme, öğrencilere not vermekten ziyade onların gelişiminden haberdar ederek, hedefleri doğrultusunda ilerlemesini sağlamalıdır. Bunun olabilmesi için de öğrencilerin tercih ettiği dönütlerin bilinmesi ve onların gelişimini artıracak yönde geribildirimler verilmesi gerekmektedir. Bu çalışmayla matematik öğretmeni adaylarının matematik dersi kapsamında tercih ettiği ve matematik dersi kapsamında aldığı geribildirim çeşitlerinin ortaya çıkarılması amaçlanmıştır. Çalışma, Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi İlköğretim Matematik Öğretmenliği Bölümü, 2010–2011 öğretim yılları arasında öğrenim gören 128 öğretmen adayı ile yürütülmüştür. Bu amaç doğrultusunda öğretmen adaylarına geribildirimin özellikleri ölçeği uygulanarak onların tercih ettiği geribildirim özellikleri belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Bu öğretmen adayları arasından, ölçeğe verilen cevaplara göre seçilen 5 kişi ile yarı yapılandırılmış mülakat yapılmıştır. Çalışmanın sonunda, öğretmen adaylarının not, övgü, yanlışları düzeltme, ipucu ve performans niteliğinde geribildirim aldığı gözlenmiştir. Öğretmen adaylarının matematik dersi kapsamında tercih ettiği geribildirim türü en çok düzeltici geribildirim olup, olumlu davranışa yönelik, birebir, motive edici, yönlendirici, öğretici ve not şeklinde geribildirim şeklindedir. Öğretmenler tarafından verilen geribildirimlerin hem motive edici hem de yanlışları düzeltici yönde olması, öğretmen adaylarının gelişimlerini olumlu etkileyeceği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.Anahtar Kelimeler: Geribildirim, ilköğretim matematik, geribildirim çeşitleri
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This article investigates the reform needs of mechanical engineering higher education in Africa toward increasing its relevance and responsiveness to the demands of industry and industrialisation in the African continent. It does this by following the Tuning philosophy, which considers input from all stakeholders in curriculum development. Factors such as critical mass of enrolment numbers, quality assurance and accreditation, content relevance, stakeholder linkage infrastructure, and feedback from economic indices, that could provide input into mechanical engineering higher education, are explored. Stakeholder groups are surveyed through a questionnaire to investigate their impressions on the competences desired in graduates. In addition eight country case studies are carried out involving data gathering by each country’s representative, complemented by general literature and online sources such as journals, conference proceedings, books, and certain websites. Key findings are that pressure of numbers, stemming from sharp increases in enrolments across Africa are not being matched by quality, rasing questions of graduate employability and relevance of higher education; but continental initiatives are underway to strengthen quality assurance structures in Africa. In terms of modernity, mechanical engineering programmes have been slow in responding to new areas such as mechatronics and nano-systems, and regarding supporting linkages, only a handful of countries have a society dedicated to mechanical engineering, while licensure procedures need more rigour. A strong correlation is found to exist between numbers of mechanical engineers trained yearly and industry’s share of GDP. Other economic indices point to the quality of training as needing strengthening to impact industry and increase the industrialisation potential of the continent. Keywords—Mechanical Engineering, Reform, Quality, Industry;
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Research into powerful learning environments has concentrated mainly on general influences on students' engagement and learning. This paper considers a series of inter-related concepts that have been shown to be associated with student learning in higher education including, conceptions of knowledge and learning, learning orientations, and students' perceptions of, and preferences for, different kinds of learning environments. At a more specific level, differences in study behaviour have been described in terms of approaches to learning, and regulation and processing strategies. The paper clarifies the meaning of the various concepts, highlights the interrelationships between them, and considers the ways in which they may affect students' reactions to the learning environments they experience, whether powerful or not.
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The analysis of the process of collaboration is a central topic in current CSCL research. However, defining process characteristics relevant for collaboration quality and developing instruments capable of assessing these characteristics are no trivial tasks. In the assessment method presented in this paper, nine qualitatively defined dimensions of collaboration are rated quantitatively: sustaining mutual understanding, dialogue manage- ment, information pooling, reaching consensus, task division, time management, technical coordination, reciprocal interaction, and individual task orientation. The data basis for the development of these dimensions was taken from a study in which students of psychology and medicine collaborated on a complex patient case via a desktop-videoconferencing system. A qualitative content analysis was performed on a sample of transcribed collaboration dialogue. The insights from this analysis were then integrated with theoretical considerations about the roles of communication, joint information processing, coordina- tion, interpersonal relationship, and motivation in the collaboration process. The resulting rating scheme was applied to process data from a new sample of 40 collaborating dyads. Based on positive findings on inter-rater reliability, consistency, and validity from this evaluation, we argue that the new method can be recommended for use in different areas of CSCL.
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This paper reviews the corpus of research on feedback, with a particular focus on formative feedback—defined as information communicated to the learner that is intended to modify the learner's thinking or behavior for the purpose of improving learning. According to researchers in the area, formative feedback should be multidimensional, nonevaluative, supportive, timely, specific, credible, infrequent, and genuine (e.g., Brophy, 1981; Schwartz & White, 2000). Formative feedback is usually presented as information to a learner in response to some action on the learner's part. It comes in a variety of types (e.g., verification of response accuracy, explanation of the correct answer, hints, worked examples) and can be administered at various times during the learning process (e.g., immediately following an answer, after some period of time has elapsed). Finally, there are a number of variables that have been shown to interact with formative feedback's success at promoting learning (e.g., individual characteristics of the learner and aspects of the task). All of these issues will be discussed in this paper. This review concludes with a set of guidelines for generating formative feedback.
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The study compared basic and elaborated corrections within the context of otherwise identical computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs that taught reasoning skills. Twelve learning disabled and 16 remedial high school students were randomly assigned to either the basic-corrections or elaborated-corrections treatment. Criterion-referenced test scores were significantly higher for the elaborated-corrections treatment on both the post and maintenance tests and on the transfer test. Time to complete the program did not differ significantly for the two groups.
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A selective review of research highlights the emerging view of groups as information processors. In this review, the authors include research on processing objectives, attention, encoding, storage, retrieval, processing, response, feedback, and learning in small interacting task groups. The groups as information processors perspective underscores several characteristic dimensions of variability in group performance of cognitive tasks, namely, commonality-uniqueness of information, convergence-diversity of ideas, accentuation-attenuation of cognitive processes, and belongingness-distinctiveness of members. A combination of contributions framework provides an additional conceptualization of information processing in groups. The authors also address implications, caveats, and questions for future research and theory regarding groups as information processors.
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In this study, the effects of a school improvement program on cooperative learning (CL) with respect to the elaborations of 6th-grade students working in mixed-ability and mixed-sex dyads on 2 cooperative tasks were examined. A posttest-only design with a control group was used to investigate the provision and receipt of elaborations within the dyads and the performance of the dyads working on cooperative mathematics and language tasks. Treatment dyads were found to exchange significantly more high-level elaborations during the language task than the control dyads. The treatment dyads also tended to produce higher performance scores on the 2 tasks.
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Moving beyond the general question of effectiveness of small group learning, this conceptual review proposes conditions under which the use of small groups in classrooms can be productive. Included in the review is recent research that manipulates various features of cooperative learning as well as studies of the relationship of interaction in small groups to outcomes. The analysis develops propositions concerning the kinds of discourse that are productive of different types of learning as well as propositions concerning how desirable kinds of interaction may be fostered. Whereas limited exchange of information and explanation are adequate for routine learning in collaborative seatwork, more open exchange and elaborated discussion are necessary for conceptual learning with group tasks and ill-structured problems. Moreover, task instructions, student preparation, and the nature of the teacher role that are eminently suitable for supporting interaction in more routine learning tasks may result in unduly constraining the discussion in less structured tasks where the objective is conceptual learning. The research reviewed also suggests that it is necessary to treat problems of status within small groups engaged in group tasks with ill-structured problems. With a focus on task and interaction, the analysis attempts to move away from the debates about intrinsic and extrinsic rewards and goal and resource interdependence that have characterized research in cooperative learning.
Article
Feedback is an essential construct for many theories of learning and instruction, and an understanding of the conditions for effective feedback should facilitate both theoretical development and instructional practice. In an early review of feedback effects in written instruction, Kulhavy (1977) proposed that feedback’s chief instructional significance is to correct errors. This error-correcting action was thought to be a function of presentation timing, response certainty, and whether students could merely copy answers from feedback without having to generate their own. The present meta-analysis reviewed 58 effect sizes from 40 reports. Feedback effects were found to vary with control for presearch availability, type of feedback, use of pretests, and type of instruction and could be quite large under optimal conditions. Mediated intentional feedback for retrieval and application of specific knowledge appears to stimulate the correction of erroneous responses in situations where its mindful (Salomon & Globerson, 1987) reception is encouraged.
Chapter
'I shall reconsider human knowledge by starting from the fact that we can know more than we can tell', writes Michael Polanyi, whose work paved the way for the likes of Thomas Kuhn and Karl Popper. "The Tacit Dimension", originally published in 1967, argues that such tacit knowledge - tradition, inherited practices, implied values, and prejudgments - is a crucial part of scientific knowledge. Back in print for a new generation of students and scholars, this volume challenges the assumption that skepticism, rather than established belief, lies at the heart of scientific discovery.
Article
In this study we investigated how a natural status characteristic (grade level) and an experimentally induced status characteristic (ability) combine to affect group interaction and interpersonal perception in homogeneous and heterogeneous groups. Eighty male fifth and sixth graders were randomly assigned to groups of four that were made into homogeneous or heterogeneous "ability" groups on the basis of a bogus aptitude test. Their social interaction was videotaped as groups worked on a group consensus task. The data indicated that the two status characteristics (actual and induced) had a similar and significant effect on the social interaction in the groups. High-status students dominated group interaction, were more influential, and were more likely to be perceived as leaders. The data also indicated that differences in helping behavior may be due, in part, to the perceived status of the student and not only to the student's ability to give help.
Article
This study quantitatively synthesized the empirical research on the effects of social context (i.e., small group versus individual learning) when students learn using computer technology. In total, 486 independent findings were extracted from 122 studies involving 11,317 learners. The results indicate that, on average, small group learning had significantly more positive effects than individual learning on student individual achievement (mean ES = +0.15), group task performance (mean ES = +0.31), and several process and affective outcomes. However, findings on both individual achievement and group task performance were significantly heterogeneous. Through weighted least squares univariate and multiple regression analyses, we found that variability in each of the two cognitive outcomes could be accounted for by a few technology, task, grouping, and learner characteristics in the studies.
Article
Most mathematical problems can be solved using different methods. We tested the effectiveness of presenting more than one solution method by means of worked-out examples. In Experiment 1, a 2×3-factorial design was implemented (“multiple solutions”: multiple/uniform; “instructional support”: none/self-explanations/instructional explanations). Multiple solutions fostered learning. However, no positive effect was found for instructional support. In Experiment 2, effects of varying the representational code of solutions were studied, using three conditions (multiple solutions with multiple representations; multiple solutions sharing one representation; uniform solution). No effect of multiple solutions on learning was found. They even reduced some important spontaneous learning activities. Further research should focus on the context conditions under which multiple solutions are effective.
Article
When two people study cooperatively, their expectations, roles, and prior exposure to the information to be discussed can potentially affect retention. In addition, a cooperative experience has the potential to facilitate subsequent individual study. Four cooperativestudy scripts were employed to test their effects on initial recall and on transfer to an individual task. As partners, students read and studied two passages. In Group 1, partners each read one passage only and then taught the material to each other. They did not expect to be able to read their partner's passage, although they were later given time to do so. Group 2 was identical to Group 1, except that partners in Group 2 expected the extra reading time. In Group 3, partners cooperated in reading both passages by alternating summarizer and listener roles four times within each passage. In Group 4, partners played summarizer and listener roles only once, at the end of each passage. All participants later studied a third passage individually (the trbsfer task). Recall tests revealed that those using a teaching script (Groups 1 and 2) outperformed those using a cooperative learning script (Groups 3 and 4) on the initial task but not on the transfer task. Furthermore, playing a teacher role significantly improved recall. Frequency of summarization and expectancy manipulations were not found to be significant factors.
Article
Starting from difficulties that students of education display when they interpret empirical findings and generate scientific arguments, a problem-based e-learning environment was developed. Based on first evaluation data, an elaboration tool was integrated into the learning environment. The tool consisted of a modelling and an explanation part. In order to investigate the effectiveness of this elaboration support, a quasi-experimental field study was carried out in two seminars on scientific methods for advanced students of education. Students in seminar 1 (n = 32) worked within the learning environment without the elaboration tool, students in seminar 2 (n = 20) worked with a version that contained the elaboration support. The seminars did not differ with respect to various student characteristics. The students' absolute performance on a posttest that included argumentation and statistics tasks was rather poor. However, the elaboration tool significantly enhanced performance and motivational aspects (acceptance of the learning environment and subjective learning outcomes). By cluster analytical methods three student profiles were identified that substantially differed concerning posttest performance. (Contains 1 note, 4 tables, and 1 figure.)
Article
The knowledge required to solve algebra manipulation problems and procedures designed to hasten knowledge acquisition were studied in a series of five experiments. It was hypothesized that, as occurs in other domains, algebra problem-solving skill requires a large number of schemas and that schema acquisition is retarded by conventional problem-solving search techniques. Experiment 1, using Year 9, Year 11, and university mathematics students, found that the more experienced students had a better cognitive representation of algebraic equations than less experienced students as measured by their ability to (a) recall equations, and (b) distinguish between perceptually similar equations on the basis of solution mode. Experiments 2 through 5 studied the use of worked examples as a means of facilitating the acquisition of knowledge needed for effective problem solving. It was found that not only did worked examples, as expected, require considerably less time to process than conventional problems, but that subsequent problems similar to the initial ones also were solved more rapidly. Furthermore, decreased solution time was accompanied by a decrease in the number of mathematical errors. Both of these findings were specific to problems identical in structure to the initial ones. It was concluded that for novice problem solvers, general algebra rules are reflected in only a limited number of schemas. Abstraction of general rules from schemas may occur only with considerable practice and exposure to a wider range of schemas.
Article
Extends the concept of feedback seeking proposed by S. Ashford and L. L. Cummings (see record 1984-10912-001) by considering the process of feedback seeking when people work in groups. Three motives are considered: (1) identification of motives that underlie feedback seeking in groups; (2) the impact of each motive on the level of feedback sought (individual or group), the decision to seek feedback from other group members, people outside the group, or from a nonhuman source, and the decision to seek information publicly or privately; and (3) implications of feedback seeking for group effectiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated in 4 experiments, each conducted with 8–24 undergraduates, the relationship among massive practice, speed-up of memory retrieval, and the reduction of long-term memory interference. The present experiments employed a multiday fact recognition procedure. Interference was varied by a fan manipulation: Concepts could appear in more than 1 fact (fan) or only 1 fact (no fan). Results show that fact retrieval speeded up as a power function of days of practice, but the number of daily repetitions beyond 4 produced little or no impact on RT. Interference decreased in proportion to the degree of practice but did not disappear even with 25 days of practice. Practice on specific facts and practice on the general task had multiplicative effects in reducing recognition time. General task practice decreased interference, suggesting that general central processes speeded up. It is noted that most but not all of these practice effects and their interaction with interference are predicted by the model of fact retrieval developed by the present 2nd author (see record 1982-27252-001). (40 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The relation between the justification of a choice of solution method and the correctness of that choice in statistical problem solving was investigated. In the first of two studies 16 subjects were asked to think aloud while solving two statistical problems. The results showed that an incorrect choice of solution method was more common when subjects did not justify their choice of solution as compared to when they justified their choice with domain-specific knowledge. Study 2 employed an experimental design. A group of 20 subjects were instructed to provide a justification for each choice of solution method, while another group of 20 subjects received no such instructions. The results showed no difference between the groups with respect to number of correct choices of solution method. A qualitative analysis of the justifications in the instructed group showed that the justifications for incorrect solution methods were more often incorrect than subjects’ justifications for correct solution methods. The results in Study 2 suggested that the association found between incorrect choice of solution method and lack of justification in Study 1 was not in the first place due to a strategical deficiency on the part of the subjects but due to a lack of domain-specific knowledge.
Article
Starting from difficulties that students display when they deal with correlation analysis, an e-learning environment (‘Koralle’) was developed. The design was inspired by principles of situated and example-based learning. In order to facilitate reflective processes and thus enhance learning outcomes, reflection prompts were integrated into the learning environment. A total of 57 university students were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions: 28 students were prompted to give reasons for their decisions while working within the learning environment (EG 1); and 29 students dealt with Koralle without being prompted (EG 2). The control group consisted of 67 students who had already attended regular statistics lectures but had no access to the e-learning environment. EG 1 scored significantly higher in the posttest than EG 2, and the effect was practically relevant and sustainable. Reflection prompts did not influence time on task, task choices and motivational outcomes. Both experimental groups clearly outperformed the control group.
Article
This paper reviews written feedback from an information-processing perspective. The first section discusses the question of feedback as a reinforcer, and describes the feedback paradigm used as a conceptual guide for the following sections. In the second section we evaluate research on the form and content of feedback. In the last section, a model is developed that applies concepts from servocontrol theory to the feedback sequence. Finally, we report three experiments which support the major predictions of the control model.
Article
This study has resulted in an elementary science methods course that facilitates the identification and description of the changes in students’ conceptions and understanding of inquiry teaching, and the cultural influences, reflections, and situational factors influencing these changes. Written responses to open-ended questions, reflective journals, teaching plans, and videotapes of lessons were used as data sources. Results of the written responses and the lesson plans indicated that an elementary science methods course with social-constructivist and reflective assessment strategies appears to enhance methods students’ conceptual changes regarding inquiry teaching. The significance of this study lies in the provision of insights into three apparent explanations: impacts of cultural myths, conditions for critical reflection, and unit design as performance of understanding. By identifying the elementary methods students’ reflections and situations, the elementary science methods course provides knowledge for teacher educators about how such students expressed their conceptions and understanding of inquiry teaching and, therefore, potentially provides indications about appropriate teaching strategies for science methods courses.
Article
This paper examines one of the potentialroles that software agents may have inhelping students reduce working memoryload while learning from discovery-basedmultimedia environments: providingexplanatory feedback. Two studiesexamined the guided feedbackhypothesis according to which, discoverylearning environments that use explanatoryfeedback (EF) to guide novice students inthe process of meaning making promotedeeper learning than those that presentidentical materials using correctivefeedback (CF) alone. In both experiments,the EF group produced higher transferscores, rated the computer game as morehelpful, and gave comparable interest andmotivation ratings than the CF group. Mental load rating scales providedevidence in both experiments that EF waseffective due to reductions in cognitiveload. Results support the use of agentguidance in the form of EF for novicestudents who learn with discovery-basedmultimedia games.
Article
An important aspect of learning to read is understanding how to use strategies to aid comprehension. Many actions such as skimming, using context to discern unfamiliar words, and taking notes to aid remembering can promote reading comprehension and learning. In this paper we examine aspects of knowledge and motivation that are critical to becoming a strategic reader. We emphasize that agents are strategic, not actions removed from contexts, and that self-guided learning depends on the intentions, perceptions, and attributions of learners. Learning to read strategically is related to children's cognitive development as well as to the social contexts of instruction. Some suggestions are offered for classroom instruction that can promote children's awareness and use of strategic reading.
Article
Although writing learning protocols is an effective follow-up course work activity, many learners tend to do it in a rather suboptimal way. Hence, we analyzed the effects of instructional support in the form of prompts. The effects of different types of prompts were investigated in an experiment with four conditions: cognitive prompts, metacognitive prompts, a combination of cognitive and metacognitive prompts, or no prompts (N = 84 undergraduate psychology students). We found that the prompts stimulated the elicitation of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies. The provision of purely metacognitive prompts did not, however, improve learning outcomes. Only the groups who had received cognitive, or a combination of cognitive and metacognitive, prompts learned more than the control group. This effect was mediated by cognitive learning strategies. The learners in the successful groups did not perceive the prompted learning strategies as more helpful than the learners of the group without prompts. It can be concluded that cognitive prompts—alone or in combination with metacognitive prompts—are an effective means to foster learning. However, additional means should be employed in order to convince the learner of the usefulness of such prompts.
Article
This study examined whether cooperative learning and feedback facilitate situated, example-based e-learning in the field of statistics. The factors “social context” (individual vs. cooperative) and “feedback intervention” (available vs. not available) were varied; participants were 137 university students. Results showed that the feedback intervention clearly supported learning. Feedback proved especially beneficial for students with little prior knowledge. Cooperation did not promote learning outcomes; however, group performance in the learning phase was superior to individual performance. Also, cooperative learning enhanced perceived performance and perceived competence. Probably, collective efficacy had a halo effect on self-efficacy.
Article
This meta-analysis has two aims: (a) to address the main effects of problem based learning on two categories of outcomes: knowledge and skills; and (b) to address potential moderators of the effect of problem based learning. We selected 43 articles that met the criteria for inclusion: empirical studies on problem based learning in tertiary education conducted in real-life classrooms. The review reveals that there is a robust positive effect from PBL on the skills of students. This is shown by the vote count, as well as by the combined effect size. Also no single study reported negative effects. A tendency to negative results is discerned when considering the effect of PBL on the knowledge of students. The combined effect size is significantly negative. However, this result is strongly influenced by two studies and the vote count does not reach a significant level. It is concluded that the combined effect size for the effect on knowledge is non-robust. As possible moderators of PBL effects, methodological factors, expertise-level of students, retention period and type of assessment method were investigated. This moderator analysis shows that both for knowledge- and skills-related outcomes the expertise-level of the student is associated with the variation in effect sizes. Nevertheless, the results for skills give a consistent positive picture. For knowledge-related outcomes the results suggest that the differences encountered in the first and the second year disappear later on. A last remarkable finding related to the retention period is that students in PBL gained slightly less knowledge, but remember more of the acquired knowledge.
Article
It can be assumed that academic learning is an active, generative and effortful process, that is — a mindful activity. Cooperative student teams are expected to increase participants' mindful engagement in learning and thus to improve its outcomes. Although this is sometimes the case, there are social-psychological effects that debilitate team performance. Two illustrations from recent studies are provided. It is argued that the study of team work cannot be limited to intrapersonal cognitions and to simple interactional processes. Teams are social systems in which cognitive, motivational and behavioral processes become increasingly interdependent and these processes need to be studied. Such interdependencies give rise to negative effects some of which are discussed in this article: the “free rider”, the “sucker”, the “status differential”, and the “ganging up” effects. The article concludes with a few speculations about possible mechanisms to overcome such effects when complex and exploratory tasks are given to student teams.
Experimental research on the cueing and motivational effects of feedback on behavior in task groups is reviewed. The impact of feedback is seen as contingent on several factors including the nature of the feedback information (including level of aggregation, task/process focus, and evaluative content), the process of using feedback, individual differences among group members, and group task structure. Feedback is seen as contingently leading to affective and cognitive outcomes, including level of attraction to the group, pride in the group, motivation, defensive feelings, and acceptance of group problems. Feedback is also seen as potentially leading to behavioral outcomes such as task performance, membership behavior, and coping behavior. A preliminary model of the impact of feedback is constructed.
Article
Self-determination theory (SDT) maintains that an understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. We discuss the SDT concept of needs as it relates to previous need theories, emphasizing that needs specify the necessary conditions for psychological growth, integrity, and well-being. This concept of needs leads to the hypotheses that different regulatory processes underlying goal pursuits are differentially associated with effective functioning and well-being and also that different goal contents have different relations to the quality of behavior and mental health, specifically because different regulatory processes and different goal contents are associated with differing degrees of need satisfaction. Social contexts and individual differences that support satisfaction of the basic needs facilitate natural growth processes including intrinsically motivated behavior and integration of extrinsic motivations, whereas those that forestall autonomy, competence, or relatedness are associated with poorer motivation, performance, and well-being. We also discuss the relation of the psychological needs to cultural values, evolutionary processes, and other contemporary motivation theories.
Article
Worked examples are instructional devices that provide an expert's problem solution for a learner to study. Worked-examples research is a cognitive-experimental program that has relevance to classroom instruction and the broader educational research community. A frame- work for organizing the findings of this research is proposed, leading to instructional design principles. For instance, one instructional design principle suggests that effective examples have highly integrated components. They employ multiple modalities in presentation and emphasize conceptual structure by labeling or segmenting. At the lesson level, effective instruction employs multiple examples for each conceptual problem type, varies example formats within problem type, and employs surface features to signal deep structure. Also, examples should be presented in close proximity to matched practice problems. More- over, learners can be encouraged through direct training or by the structure of the worked example to actively self:explain examples. Worked examples are associated with early stages of skill development, but the design principles are relevant to constructivist research and teaching.
Article
Research in learning and instruction claims a central role for the concept of knowledge. The knowledge base of a person, it is now generally assumed, is made up of different types of knowledge. The most well-known examples are declarative and procedural knowledge, but more elaborate distinctions exist. Furthermore, the knowledge base is characterized by different qualities, such as level (deep or surface) of knowledge, generality of knowledge, level of automization of knowledge, modality of knowledge, and structure of knowledge. The present article examines the concept of knowledge by presenting a matrix that takes types and qualities of knowledge as its dimensions. This matrix can be used to classify research on knowledge by linking aspects such as knowledge assessment techniques, expert-beginner differences, instructional measures, and learning goals to the cells of the matrix.
Article
• Our schools are troubled with a multiplication of studies, each in turn having its own multiplication of materials and principles. Our teachers find their tasks made heavier in that they have come to deal with pupils individually and not merely in mass. Unless these steps in advance are to end in distraction, some clew of unity, some principle that makes for simplification, must be found. This book represents the conviction that the needed steadying and centralizing factor is found in adopting as the end of endeavor that attitude of mind, that habit of thought, which we call scientific. This scientific attitude of mind might, conceivably, be quite irrelevant to teaching children and youth. But this book also represents the conviction that such is not the case; that the native and unspoiled attitude of childhood, marked by ardent curiosity, fertile imagination, and love of experimental inquiry, is near, very near, to the attitude of the scientific mind. This book examines the problem of training thought and the logical considerations for training thought. If these pages assist any to appreciate this kinship and to consider seriously how its recognition in educational practice would make for individual happiness and the reduction of social waste, the book will amply have served its purpose. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) • Our schools are troubled with a multiplication of studies, each in turn having its own multiplication of materials and principles. Our teachers find their tasks made heavier in that they have come to deal with pupils individually and not merely in mass. Unless these steps in advance are to end in distraction, some clew of unity, some principle that makes for simplification, must be found. This book represents the conviction that the needed steadying and centralizing factor is found in adopting as the end of endeavor that attitude of mind, that habit of thought, which we call scientific. This scientific attitude of mind might, conceivably, be quite irrelevant to teaching children and youth. But this book also represents the conviction that such is not the case; that the native and unspoiled attitude of childhood, marked by ardent curiosity, fertile imagination, and love of experimental inquiry, is near, very near, to the attitude of the scientific mind. This book examines the problem of training thought and the logical considerations for training thought. If these pages assist any to appreciate this kinship and to consider seriously how its recognition in educational practice would make for individual happiness and the reduction of social waste, the book will amply have served its purpose. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Students in a physical sciences course were introduced to cooperative learning at the University of Queensland, Gatton Campus. Groups of four to five students worked together in tutorial and practical sessions. Mid-term and practical examinations were abolished and 40% of total marks were allocated to the cooperative learning activities. A peer- and self-assessment system was successfully adapted to account for individual performance in cooperative learning group assignments. The results suggest that cooperative learning was very well received by students, and they expressed willingness to join cooperative learning groups in other courses. In addition, cooperative learning offered many benefits to students in terms of graduate attributes such as teamwork, communication, lifelong learning and problem-solving.
Article
Examines several factors pertinent to deciding whether a within- or between-Ss design should be employed for a research application. A general principle favoring within-Ss designs is the statistical efficiency afforded by removing S variance from error terms used to test treatment effects. Within-Ss designs, however, are often faulted for being subject to context effects of practice, sensitization, and carry-over that may limit interpretation of results. At the same time, between-Ss designs are not devoid of context effects, but rather have the context that a single treatment affords itself. Since ecological validity of results depends on the correspondence of the research context to the generalization context, within-Ss designs may be preferred when the generalization context includes the equivalent of several concurrent treatments. Procedures to minimize practice, sensitization and carry-over effects in within-Ss designs when they are not desired, and means of using these effects to advantage in research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).