Article

Art Therapy and the Brain: An Attempt to Understand the Underlying Processes of Art Expression in Therapy

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Abstract

The application of new techniques in brain imaging has expanded the understanding of the different functions and structures of the brain involved in information processing. This paper presents the main areas and functions activated in emotional states, the formation of memories, and the processing of motor, visual, and somatosensory information. The relationship between the processes of art expressions and brain functions is approached from the viewpoint of the different levels of the Expressive Therapies Continuum (Lusebrink, 1990, 1991) with examples from art therapy interventions. The basic level of interventions with art media is through sensory stimulation. Visual feature recognition and spatial placement are processed by the ventral and dorsal branches of the visual information processing system. Mood-state drawings echo the differences in the activation of different brain areas in emotional states. The cognitive and symbolic aspects of memories can be explored through the activation of their sensory components.

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... In addressing the use of art therapy in the treatment of trauma, several authors recently have referred to information about the neuroscience foundations of brain functions and behavior, differentiating various components involved in nonverbal expressions (Chapman, 2014;Crenshaw, 2006;Gantt & Tinnin, 2009;Hass-Cohen et al., 2014;Klorer, 2005;Lusebrink, 2004Lusebrink, , 2010McNamee, 2005McNamee, , 2006Pifalo, 2009;Sarid & Huss, 2010;Talwar, 2007). In addition, these authors discuss the importance of the sensory-motor aspects involved in expression through art media to access images and emotions resulting from trauma, emphasizing that the experience of trauma is encoded as nonverbal sensation, which may remain unaltered as implicit memory. ...
... K refers to Kinesthetic component, S-Sensory, P-Perceptual, A-Affective, C-Cognitive, Sy-Symbolic, CR-CreativeBased on Fuster's (2003) classification of the different brain areas involved in the processing of sensory information, Lusebrink (2004Lusebrink ( , 2010 proposed that the different levels of the ETC parallel the brain areas and functions involved in the creation and processing of visual expressions. According to Fuster (2003), the processing of sensory information proceeds from the analysis of elementary sensory features in the primary sensory cortices to the analysis of associated features in a given modality, in respective unimodal association cortices (visual, somatosensory, motor, and audio). ...
... Both streams travel to the second level of the visual association cortex, but in different lobes. The lower or ventral stream travels to the inferior temporal lobe that responds to features and shapes and integrates their forms and colors, while the upper or dorsal stream travels to the parietal lobe and the multimodal association cortex that respond to spatial locations (Christian, 2008;Fuster, 2003;Hass-Cohen & Loya, 2008;Kosslyn, Behrmann, & Jeannerod, 1995;Lusebrink, 2004Lusebrink, , 2010 visual streams is important in understanding visual expressions in art therapy because it separates information about form or "what is it?" from information about spatial location or "where is it?" ...
... Art making is used in the treatment of clients who have experienced trauma to support reintegration of body sensations, emotions, and thoughts that become disconnected during traumatic events. Visual art accesses nonverbal material, including fragmented traumatic memory, through kinesthetic and sensory pathways in the brain (Lusebrink, 2004). Activating these areas from the bottom-up (Kahneman, 2011;Lusebrink & Hinz, 2016) and linking visual and tactile sensory systems across the brain's hemispheres (Siegel, 1999;Talwar, 2007) are thought to support organized processing of sensory, emotional, and cognitive information, which is necessary for self-regulation and an integrated sense of self. ...
... Another model for understanding and applying art materials that is highly relevant to this discussion is the Expressive Therapies Continuum, which Lusebrink (1990Lusebrink ( , 2004Lusebrink ( , 2010Lusebrink ( , 2014Kagin & Lusebrink, 1978, Lusebrink & Hinz, 2016 developed over several decades in parallel to emerging neuroscience. Lusebrink considered the interactions between the physical properties of the materials and the emotional and psychological experiences of the artist using them, positioned on three distinct levels between pairs of opposing qualities: kinesthetic/sensory, perceptual/affective, and cognitive/symbolic. ...
... Certain visual art media accesses nonverbal material through kinesthetic and sensory pathways (Lusebrink, 2004). According to Corkhill (2014, p. 30), knitting is one such "bilateral, rhythmic, psychosocial intervention." ...
Thesis
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Traumatic events that happen in the community may profoundly impact people’s lives and work. During such an event, clinicians are not only exposed to their clients’ reactions, but they also share the same external reality on some level, a phenomenon known as shared trauma. This doctoral project resulted in Knitting as Coping: Fiber Arts and Shared Trauma, a training manual for art therapists from heuristic research into the challenges of sharing a traumatic reality. A qualitative study of the experiences of 11 participants who were practicing during the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 identified six qualities of fiber arts that may provide therapeutic benefit both to therapists for self-care and to clients who have experienced trauma: rhythmic, grounding, tactile, structured, social, and practical. Fiber arts were highlighted as strategies for creative coping in a shared trauma that, consistent with trauma research, effectively address the needs of clinicians who must function while coping with trauma, establishing feelings of safety, reestablishing grounding and, eventually, being able to create amidst destruction. The results support findings from trauma-informed therapy, neuroscience, art therapy assessment, and research on the ameliorative experience of flow. The dissertation presents the study results and discusses them in the contexts of the research literature, art therapy discourse, and reflective analysis, and draws implications for future research, policy development, and practice.
... In this regard, art therapy seems uniquely positioned to integrate mind and body. Some have suggested that the sensory and bodily aspects inherent to art-making potentially allow circumvention of neurological barriers to remembering trauma (Chapman, Morabito, Ladakakos, Shreier, & Knudson 2001;Gantt & Tinnin, 2007;Greenberg & van der Kolk, 1987;Lusebrink, 2004). Art therapy may also be helpful in accessing emotions and nonverbal memories (Johnson, 1987;Talwar, 2007), reconnecting implicit and explicit memories of trauma (Malchiodi, 2012a;Talwar, 2007), and reconstructing the client's narrative (Gantt & Tinnin, 2007). ...
... A budding body of research suggests that art therapy may reduce trauma symptoms in children and adults (Cohen, Barnes, & Rankin, 1995;Collie, Backos, Malchiodi, & Spiegel, 2006;Rankin & Taucher, 2003;Raymer & Mcintyre, 1987;Sweig, 2000). Art therapy protocols informed by trauma theory typically attempt to reduce trauma-related symptoms, utilize somatic and sensory approaches to self-regulation, facilitate the creation of a coherent trauma narrative, promote positive attachment, positive emotions, and safety, and build strengths, self-worth and self-esteem (Chapman, 2014;Chapman et al., 2001;Gantt & Tinnin, 2007;Howie, 2016;Johnson, 1987;Lusebrink, 2004;Malchiodi, 2012a,b;Pifalo, 2007;Rankin & Taucher, 2003). ...
... The fiveelement framework of a PTG intervention, as well as the research on constructs of meaning, PTG, hope, and optimism, have the potential to inform the creation of treatments for trauma survivors that promote both healing and flourishing. Designing and implementing this type of trauma-informed protocol may be especially valuable in art therapy practice, due to the connection of sensory and bodily techniques to integration of fragmented memory, as well as the emphasis art therapy places on narrative formation and the promotion of safety, self-esteem, and strengths (Chapman, 2014;Chapman et al., 2001;Gantt & Tinnin, 2007;Howie, 2016;Johnson, 1987;Lusebrink, 2004;Malchiodi, 2012a,b;Pifalo, 2007;Rankin & Taucher, 2003). There is a great deal of potential in this intersection of art therapy and positive psychology, and also a great need for future study and research. ...
Article
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This capstone project analyzes potential opportunities for integration between the fields of positive psychology and art therapy in the treatment of trauma. The experience of trauma is widespread: between 60-89% of people will likely experience at least one traumatic event during their lifetime (Kilpatrick, Resnick, & Acierno, 2009; Mills et al., 2011; Resnick et al., 1993). Extensive research on trauma over the past few decades has been essential to more deeply understand trauma and recovery. Still, traumatized persons deserve the opportunity to not just survive, but flourish. After reviewing valuable historical information on both fields, four related positive psychology constructs of meaning, posttraumatic growth, optimism, and hope are discussed and practical opportunities for integration are considered. Current and well-researched interventions in positive psychology are reviewed, and a call to action is made to develop a growth-based trauma-informed art therapy approach.
... As part of her pre-treatment schedule to establish her therapeutic goals, the Expressive Therapies Continuum (ETC)-based art assessment was administrated to April because material interaction reflects the characteristics of the user and their therapeutic needs [60]. Moreover, the Expressive Therapies Continuum (ETC) attempts to understand the functions and structures of the brain through the process of art expression using art materials [61][62][63]. During the art-based assessment, April was able to choose her own art materials and initiate the process with clay and a house figurine that is usually used in sand tray therapy. ...
... Art and the artistic process can be a strategy to integrate affective and cognitive aspects of the brain for general development in all children [51]. Brain functions and the activation of different areas in emotional states differ in drawings that represent different states or moods [61,62]. A recent study by Lusebrink and Hinz [75,76] argued that the relationship between large-scale brain networks (LSBNs) and the functioning of the cognitive and symbolic components of the Expressive Therapies Continuum (ETC) affect the adaptivity and connectivity of the brain. ...
... A recent study by Lusebrink and Hinz [75,76] argued that the relationship between large-scale brain networks (LSBNs) and the functioning of the cognitive and symbolic components of the Expressive Therapies Continuum (ETC) affect the adaptivity and connectivity of the brain. This finding suggests that working with art promotes the rewiring of the brain [61][62][63]. ...
Article
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This study was conducted on a 6-year-old girl with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Korea. The case was initiated in February 2015, and intensive treatment was provided for one year. Then, the case was monitored over the course of 6 years until December 2021. The intervention plan was an art therapy-based treatment plan (Individual Therapeutic Education Plan: ITEP) with two integral foci: (1) creative arts-based parent counseling and education and (2) didactic art therapy with the child. This was a new type of integral approach that was not a standard of care practice in Korea, acknowledging the importance of including parents in therapy and the notion of creative arts therapy. There was no scientific evidence supporting this qualitive approach; however, the intervention was a notable success, sustaining a positive outcome—the intervention (1) reduced the anxiety levels of both the mother and the child in the short term; (2) enhanced the child–parent relationship as well as the home environment of the child while the art therapy-based counseling and education increased the mother’s competence; and (3) enhanced the communicative and adaptive functioning of the child and the mother, with art becoming the supportive breakthrough for their emotional obstacles. The findings suggest that a parent-focused creative approach impacts parental changes and child development: the evidence indicates that parent-driven interventions are a viable option for parents and children with ASD to build a better home environment that supports the child’s development.
... Sanat terapisiyle danışanların artan duygusal gerilim düzeylerini kontrol ederek olası bir içsel kırılma önlenebilmektedir. Sanat terapisinin duygu düzenleme güçlüğüne etkisine dair literatürde bir araştırmaya rastlanmamakla birlikte, sanat terapisinin nörolojik işleyişteki olumlu etkilerinden bahsedilmiştir (Carr, 2008;Lusebrink, 2004Lusebrink, , 2010. ...
... By controlling the increased emotional tension levels of clients with art therapy, a potential internal breakdown can be prevented. Although there is no study in the literature about the effect of art therapy on emotion regulation difficulties, the positive effects of art therapy on neurological functioning have been mentioned (Carr, 2008;Lusebrink, 2004Lusebrink, , 2010. ...
... Looking at military PTSD specifically, research has shown that the hippocampus, part of the limbic system involved in declarative memory, can shrink by up to 26% (Gurvits et al., 1996). By engaging non-verbal and verbal parts of the brain hippocampal activity may perhaps be restored and integration of declarative and non-declarative memory systems fostered (Avrahami, 2005;Gantt and Tinnin, 2009;Lusebrink, 2004;Talwar, 2007). Smith (2016) used a systematic review to summarise hypothesised mechanisms of change in art therapy for veterans. ...
... The interplay between the use of both verbal and non-verbal parts of the brain was part of the developed theory. Lusebrink (2004) suggests that during the art-making phase non-verbal parts of the brain that communicate in images, emotions, and bodily sensations are stimulated. This might explain the strength and breadth of experience that veterans reported under the category "off it all goes". ...
Article
Background A proportion of veterans experience post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Research has shown reduced effectiveness of commonly offered psychotherapies in military personnel. Some research suggested the usefulness of art therapy for veterans with PTSD, but its mechanism of operation has been unclear. The current project aimed to establish participants’ perceptions of any impact of group art therapy and some of the perceived mechanisms of change. Method In a grounded theory design, single semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine veterans who had received group art therapy, two art therapists, and a veteran's wife. Interviews were transcribed and analysed. Findings Theorised categories included (a) art therapy group as “the family”, (b) “the gentle conductor”, (c) trust, (d) doing the work, (e) art therapy as "a communication tool", (f) "points of recognition", (g) "making things concrete", and (h) "not a cure". Limitations Shortcomings included a homogenous sample who all attended art therapy alongside other interventions, reliance on subjective and unmeasured symptom change, and researcher effects related to qualitative methodology. Conclusion The developed grounded theory is consistent with existing evidence and neuropsychological theory. Group art therapy may enable some veterans to prepare for verbal-only therapy, by offering a safe space in which to approach non-verbal traumatic and trauma-related contextual material in a controlled way. Artworks may provide a bridge to facilitate communication of experiences within subsequent verbal therapy and with loved-ones. It is suggested to replicate the project at different sites. Elements of the developed theory may be investigated further to establish its transferability.
... Understanding how artistic training and expression affects the brain is important especially for those implementing these techniques in therapeutic settings (e.g., Lusebrink, 2004;Malchiodi, 2003; for a review of art therapies see Madden et al., 2010). Chamberlain et al. (2014) compared art students to non-art students and found changes in neural structures (right medial frontal gyrus and left anterior cerebellum) in response to increasing representational drawing skill. ...
... Based on the results from our study into the changes in the brain as a function of art training, the evidence of structural changes Chamberlain et al. (2014) found, and the increased attention on the therapeutic value of art and art training (Lusebrink, 2004;Madden et al., 2010Malchiodi, 2003, the value of art training is apparent. Intervention whereby drawing instruction is used to stimulate changes in individuals with cognitive challenges that affect the brain areas identified by prior research could be targeted. ...
Article
Observational drawing involves acquiring a number of basic drawing techniques and concepts. There is limited knowledge on how observational drawing skills are represented by brain responses. Here, we investigate the behavioral and functional changes behind students learning to draw in a longitudinal study on 45 participants by testing art students (n = 26) at the beginning and end of a 16-week observational drawing course compared to a matched group of non-art students (n = 19). Four novel tasks were used that involve making decisions about light sources, tonal value, line variation and linear perspective using task-based 7T-functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). While exploratory in nature, we expected to find improvement on each task over time and functional changes in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum for the art students. Art students’ performance significantly improved on the light sources, line variation, and linear perspective tasks and functional changes were found for the line variation, linear perspective, and tonal value tasks. Using whole brain analyses diffuse functional changes were discovered including prefrontal cortex areas and cerebellum. Brain areas involved in cognitive processing, including attention, decision making, motor control, top-down control, visual information processing, and working memory all functionally changed with experience. These findings demonstrate some of the first functional changes in the brain due to training in the arts and have implications for pedagogy and mental health.
... The haptic sense helps an individual understand the art material's shape, texture and weight through sensations experienced in the joints and muscles while manipulating the material and moving the skin over it. This sensory information is transferred to the amygdala through the somatosensory primary cortex and thus the sensory experience becomes an emotional one, even before meaning is made (LeDoux, 2000(LeDoux, , 2012Lusebrink, 2004). ...
... The AT provided was tailored to each participant individually in terms of the materials provided, leaning on the bodymind model (Czamanski-Cohen & Weihs, 2016) and the Expressive Therapy Continuum (Lusebrink, 2004). ...
Article
Background The bodymind model of Art Therapy delineates the mechanisms through which artmaking, in a therapeutic setting, with the support of an art therapist, may have salutary effects. The model is designed to serve as a guide to design empirical studies of the mechanisms of art therapy. Context In this paper, we describe how the bodymind model can be implemented to observe clinical work done in art therapy with individuals in problem substance use (PSU) treatment. Approach Using one case example we describe the bodymind model’s mechanisms and how they may manifest in PSU treatment. Outcomes We observed ways in which artmaking may serve multiple purposes at different time points in treatment, such as, getting in touch with bodily pain that was rooted in difficult childhood experiences, thus, paving the way for the transformation of implicit somatic information to explicit emotional content. Later in treatment, artmaking was observed to possibly assist our client to engage in reflective practices, perspective taking and cognitive decision making. Conclusions There are multiple potential mechanisms through which art therapy may have a salutary role. Implications for research This case example can help researchers and clinicians engage with the bodymind model in ways that will deepen their clinical understanding and design future studies that will expand the body of research of art therapy practices. Plain-language summary Art Therapy is a health profession that uses artmaking in the framework of a supportive relationship with a qualified art therapist to help individuals and groups improve their well-being and mental health. There is research that demonstrates the benefit of participating in art therapy to improve wellbeing, however, how this occurs continues to be unclear. The bodymind model of Art therapy was created to describe some of the ways through which art therapy may benefit participants. The model is designed to help art therapists design studies that will examine which parts of art therapy benefit participants. In this paper, through one case example we describe the different mechanisms of the bodymind model as seen in problem substance use treatment. We describe how artmaking possibly served multiple purposes at different times in treatment. Artmaking possibly enabled the client to get in touch with bodily pain that was rooted in difficult and painful emotional childhood experiences, thus, possibly paving the way for emotions that were stored in the body to be transferred to the art and then to words. The experience of touching and moving the art materials possibly helped change these bodily experiences into emotional and cognitive ones. Later in treatment, artmaking potentially helped the client reflect on her past and examine it from a distance and engage in decision making. The sense of accomplishment that accompanied artmaking possibly enabled this client to feel a sense hope in their ability to become and remain sober. We hope that providing this case example will help researchers and clinicians engage with the bodymind model in ways that will promote their clinical work and expand the body of research of art therapy practices.
... The specific model is chosen because it has showed to be useful in art therapy (Misluk-Gervase, 2020;Hinz, 2020;Haeyen et al, 2018;Blomdahl et al., 2017;Graves-Alcorn & Kagin, 2017;Ziff et al, 2012;Kaplan, 1995). It has also been assumed to be helpful in other expressive therapies (Malhotra, 2019;Fernandez, 2014;;Lusebrink, 2014;2010;2004;1991;Lusebrink et al, 2013;Malchiodi, 2003;Kagin & Lusebrink, 1978). Testing similar method as earlier but in a wider context can give rise to new relevant knowledge. ...
Thesis
This thesis aims to explore the use of the Expressive Therapies Continuum (ETC) in a social work context. The ETC is an assessment model sometimes applied in therapies utilizing different art expressions. The research on the ETC model has so far focused on visual art therapy, not on other art expressions. This study is an attempt to extend it´s use to expressive arts therapy, where music, guided imagery and movement are included besides visual art. The study has a qualitative approach. Observations have been made in video-recorded single case therapy. Seven therapy sessions led by an expressive arts therapist were observed. Theory-led thematic analysis has been used. Categories in the analysis have been the same as the components in the ETC model: sensory, kinesthetic, perceptual, affective, cognitive, symbolic and creative. In addition, predominant components and Media Dimensions Variables (MDV) have been observed. The results indicate that the ETC components can be distinguished and that predominant components can be identified. The ETC seem to have the potential to be a helpful tool in treatment and in creating a common language between different expressive therapies. It should, however, be combined with other measures, and the client´s subjective view to provide a more complete picture. Conclusions are that the ETC can be used successfully in expressive arts therapy. More studies, however, are needed to be able to transfer these results onto other populations and modalities. Key words: Expressive Therapies Continuum (ETC), expressive arts therapy, systems theory, assessment, video observation, thematic analysis
... Such integrative utilization of different cognitive functions involves a complex coordination between different cortical regions (Lusebrink, 2004) The CAT model with the ETC framework has been widely applied by the principal investigator (PI) previously in a randomised controlled trial for adults with depression (N=100) (Nan & Ho, 2017). ...
Article
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Background: The drastic socio-political unrest in Hong Kong (HK) due to the different political issues in 2019 and the novel coronavirus epidemic has drawn rising negative emotions in the society, which the demand for psychological support is soaring. As the epidemic has greatly limited the flexibility of rendering conventional face-to-face counselling, alternative therapeutic approaches are vital to combat the accelerating demand of social and psychological support. Methods: This study reports the qualitative research results of investigating the treatment efficacy and the mechanism of art therapy with clay (CAT), on the emotional problems of youth in the context of HK. The intervention composes of six 2-hour sessions led by an art therapist who is also an experienced school social worker. Results: The phenomenographic approach of analysing the post-intervention focus groups triangulated by the in-sessions art-based inquiry worksheet responses have depicted the therapeutic effects of CAT in three different themes as(1) releasing physical tension, soothing and regulating emotion; (2) building persistence in face of adversities and failures, and; (3) art products as representations of new meanings of life and positive self-image. Conclusions:The CAT process and the created ceramic artworks show powerful therapeutic effects in reorganizing and incorporating challenging experiences and failures, regulating feelings, and instilling new meanings to existential struggles and life issues. Traumatic experience and challenging situation have an existential implication that help one to recapture the core values of life and promote psychological positivity. The creation of animal symbols in the youngsters’ ceramic artworks embrace a sophisticated process of charging emotion, revitalize ideas, and connect personal experience to the collective experience.
... While the terms Art Therapy and Art Psychotherapy are referring to the same profession, the latter emphasises the symbolic expression and meaning of the work for the artist while the former emphasises the process of art-making (Malchiodi, 2007;Schaverien, 2000). Artmaking can access non-verbal aspects of experience that are difficult to communicate in words such as visual imagery, bodily sensations, emotions and feelings (Hass-Cohen, 2008;Kravits, 2018;Lusebrink, 2004). Art therapy simultaneously engages the body and mind involving communication between the two brain hemispheres (Chapman, 2014;Lobban, 2018;Tripp, 2016); and non-verbal and verbal processing in art therapy can assist in the integration of trauma memories (Collie et al., 2006;Lobban, 2018). ...
Article
Background The Covid-19 pandemic transformed the practices of many Art Therapists, and online work became commonplace. The World Health Organisation (WHO) predicted elevated rates of stress and anxiety among other mental health issues to develop as a result of the pandemic. It is vital to intervene early to prevent potential long-term psychological effects. Context The article describes an online art therapy group for adult mental health service users in the community in a suburban area of a large city in England. The practice description includes six adult mental health service users who have participated in the online art therapy group and provided feedback. Approach The online art therapy group emerged from our universal experience of the pandemic and the need for social connection through art-making to mitigate the psychological effects. The approach to the work is underpinned by an understanding of Polyvagal and Trauma Theories, mentalisation in groups and mechanisms of group art therapy. Outcomes The service users feedback that they found the online art therapy group helpful for managing a variety of mental health difficulties. Conclusion The paper describes the art therapy approach along with some pros and cons of providing the service online. Implications for research The pandemic highlighted the importance of developing our knowledge of online art therapy practice and research. We need further collaborative work with service users as their input is paramount in the process of practice development. Plain-language summary The Covid-19 pandemic changed how Art Therapists provide their services, many offering online therapy. The pandemic affects people's mental health negatively. The World Health Organisation (WHO) predicts a higher level of stress and anxiety, among other mental health issues, to develop as a result of the pandemic. It is essential to provide services early that help prevent a long-term negative effect on people's mental health. In this article, I describe an online art therapy group for adult mental health service users in the community in a suburban area of a large city in England. The practice description includes six adult mental health service users who have participated in the online art therapy group and provided feedback. The online art therapy group emerged from our common experience of the pandemic and the need for social connection through art-making to lessen the negative effects. I draw on research to understand the impact of Covid-19 and how Polyvagal and Trauma Theories and mentalisation in art therapy group work can inform the approach to therapeutic work. The service users feedback that they found the online art therapy group helpful for managing a variety of mental health difficulties. The paper describes the art therapy approach along with some pros and cons of providing the service online. The pandemic showed how important it is to develop our knowledge of online art therapy practice and research. We need further collaborative research with service users as their input is paramount in the process of practice development.
... The interaction between body and mind required to create art is intrinsic to the art therapy intervention. 15 It is theorized as the basis of a harmonizing effect on the person, 16 something that is particularly helpful in response to the psychological damage of physical trauma, 17 as may occur in cancer, especially in its advanced or terminal stages. ...
Article
Purpose Creative arts therapies aim to expand conventional palliative care interventions by making clinical care more holistic. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the benefits of an art therapy intervention in a tertiary hospital palliative care unit, directly in adult cancer inpatients and indirectly in their relatives. Methods We evaluated the intensity of pain, anxiety, depression and well-being using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) before and after the first, third and fifth art therapy sessions. After the 3rd and 5th sessions, perceived helpfulness was assessed via a questionnaire developed by the palliative care team, combining open-ended questions and a checklist. We categorized the narrative data into three pre-determined types: generally helpful (some positive experience), helpfulness related to a dyadic relationship (patient-art therapist) and helpfulness related to a triadic relationship (patient-image-art therapist). Results We observed a significant reduction in anxiety, depression and pain, and a significant increase in well-being at each of the time points evaluated. Ninety-eight percent of the patients considered the art therapy helpful, which could be categorized as generally helpful in 54.8%, related to a triadic relationship in 32.9%, and to a dyadic relationship in 12.3%. Relatives gave similar opinions regarding the effects on patients and, in addition, reported an indirect helpful effect for themselves. The most frequently selected experiences from the checklist were feeling calm, being entertained, and expressing and communicating emotions. Conclusion This art therapy intervention was beneficial in reducing symptom intensity. Almost all the participants directly or indirectly involved in the creative art process considered it helpful. They reported a wide variety of sensory, emotional, cognitive, and spiritual experiences.
... Creative expression helps to make concepts more concrete, personalize abstractions, and affect attitudes by involving emotional as well as intelligent responses to human rights. Lusebrink (2004) suggest the application of creative expressions in brain imaging has expanded the understanding of the different functions and structures of the brain involved in information processing. The functions activated in emotional states, the formation of memories, and the processing of motor, visual, and somatosensory information. ...
Article
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Monoprint is part of the technique that well established in printmaking. The characteristic and categorization of monoprint is easily recognized as a single output and different with the edition that usually created through other medium such as silkscreen, etching, engraving and others. Based from the current and previous studies that related with characteristic and categorization of monoprint, which created by local visual artists in Malaysia need more further detail information and introduction compared to the other develop countries that were established their monoprint medium. Therefore, the objective of this research is to study characteristic of monoprint artwork that explore by printmaker artists in Malaysia and to categorize the selected artworks, in order to recognize the monoprint artwork through their characteristic. This study will begin by selected artworks that show the specific monoprint characteristic that explore by printmaker artists in Malaysia. This study will be conducted by several of monoprint characteristic and categorization from experts. The results of the assessment there were 11 categorizations from two main monoprint characteristic which is creative expression and innovation technique. This study will deliver a proper instruction, guideline, knowledge, and differentiate in between edition and single expression through monoprint. This study has shown that local artist consists of different background and that local artists tried to come out with new approach and dimension in produced monoprint artworks in Malaysia.
... Šis skirtumas statistiškai reikšmingas (p<0,05). Palyginę gautus rezultatus su kitų autorių darbais, pastebėjome, kad kognityvinių sutrikimų turintiems pacientams papildomai pritaikius kūrybinę veiklą, rezultatai prieš metodo taikymą ir po jo statistiškai reikšmingai skiriasi (p<0,05) [13,14]. Kontrolinėje grupėje po įprastinių ergoterapijos užduočių dėmesio koncentracija pagerėjo 15 proc. ...
Article
Tyrimo tikslas – išsiaiškinti kūrybinės veiklos poveikį pacientų dėmesio koncentracijai po galvos smegenų insulto. Tyrimo metodai. Tyrimas atliktas Vilniaus universiteto ligoninės Santaros klinikų Reabilitacijos, fizinės ir sporto medicinos centro I stacionarinės reabilitacijos skyriuje. Tyrimo laikotarpis 2017 m. spalis – 2018 m. kovas. Tyrime dalyvavo 30 pacientų, po galvos smegenų insulto atvykusių į stacionarinę reabilitaciją ir turinčių dėmesio koncentracijos problemų. Tiriamieji, atitikę įtraukimo į tyrimą kriterijus, atsitiktinės atrankos būdu suskirstyti į dvi grupes: tiriamąją ir kontrolinę po 15 asmenų. Tyrimui taikytas anketinis testavimas: sociodemografinių duomenų anketa, Trumpas protinės būklės vertinimo testas (Mini Mental), Monrealio kognityvinis testas (MOCA) bei Skaičių pakeitimo simboliais testas (Digit-Symbol substitution test, DSST), kurie padėjo įvertinti tiriamųjų dėmesio sutelktumą, apimtį ir perkėlimą. Taikyti įprastinės ergoterapijos užsiėmimai, kūrybinės veiklos ir gautų duomenų statistinė analizė. Rezultatai: kūrybinės veiklos terapija daro teigiamą įtaką pacientų po galvos smegenų insulto dėmesio sutelktumui. Visiems tiriamosios grupės pacientams dėmesio sutelktumas pagerėjo 30 procentų. Apskaičiavus taikyto poveikio reikšmingumą, skirtumas tarp I ir II tyrimo rezultatų laikomas statistiškai patikimu (p<0,05). Dėmesio apimties sutrikimų po taikytos kūrybinės veiklos neturėjo 67 proc. pacientų. Apskaičiavus taikyto poveikio reikšmingumą, skirtumas tarp I ir II tyrimo laikomas statistiškai nepatikimu (p>0,05). Pacientų, kuriems buvo taikoma kūrybinės veiklos terapija, dėmesio perkėlimas pagerėjo vidutiniškai 3,6 balo. Apskaičiavus taikyto poveikio reikšmingumą, skirtumas tarp I ir II tyrimo rezultatų laikomas statistiškai patikimu (p<0,05).
... Some, less successful in naturalism, may turn to abstract expression, often preferring creative activities without the use of graphic media. They become more critical, the aesthetic component is important to them and they try to find a personal style of expression (Lusebrink, 2004). ...
... Some, less successful in naturalism, may turn to abstract expression, often preferring creative activities without the use of graphic media. They become more critical, the aesthetic component is important to them and they try to find a personal style of expression (Lusebrink, 2004). ...
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Preschool period is a period in which children become curious about, interested in, and critical of the events in their immediate surroundings, which they perceive through their dispositions. For this reason, it is very important to know the dispositions of children, about the things they are curious about and interested in, in order to prepare their learning content accordingly. Examining the literature, the concept “disposition” is defined as “frequently, consciously and voluntarily demonstrating a broad-purpose behavioral model.” Scientific disposition on the other hand has been defined as “children early-stage orientation towards science and science-related events, showing intense interest and motivation, and as a result, intentionally displaying a behavior model related to scientific facts". Based on this point, this research was carried out to examine the opinions of teachers and prospective teachers regarding the concept of scientific disposition in the preschool stage. The study group consisted of a total of 100 teachers / prospective teacher; 50 preschool teachers and 50 prospective teachers, who were selected by random sampling method and who volunteered to participate in the research. In the research, an "Interview Form" and an "Personal Information Form" developed by the researchers were used as data collection tools. The data of the research was analyzed according to a descriptive analysis technique. As a result of the research, it can be said that most of the teachers and prospective teachers use similar expressions while explaining the concept of "scientific dispositin"; they explain the scope of the "scientific disposition" with similar expressions, but prospective teachers use more comprehensive expressions. On the other hand, it is noteworthy that the prospective teachers' awareness of scientific disposition is higher and they make more explanatory statements.
... Physiology and psychology are inextricably linked in trauma as the basis of trauma is on the body; to overcome trauma therefore, sensory memory must be considered (Schore, 1994). As AT is a sensory modality, AT has the potential to be advantageous as it accesses the limbic system's sensory properties, in a way that verbal interventions cannot (Lusebrink, 2004). AT can target the body's mitigating response, reducing anxiety, and allowing individuals to feel relaxed with the therapist, stimulating verbal expression, and boosting memory retrieval (Gross & Haynes, 1998). ...
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In a 2015–2016 UK survey of 35, 248 adults, 7% reported experiencing sexual abuse as children. This review considers the value of Art Therapy (AT) in recognizing individual needs and experiences and supporting victims to manage the lasting impact of abuse. Three main bodies of research were identified: the use of AT in childhood sexual abuse (CSA) investigations; the use of art therapy in the treatment of the psychological sequelae of CSA victims in childhood and adulthood; and an assessment of how art therapy compares to other therapeutic approaches for CSA victims. The review highlights that AT particularly benefits rapport building between victim and therapist/investigator, and alleviates some psychological consequences of sexual abuse – particularly anxiety, post-traumatic stress, and dissociation. By engaging the limbic system, AT may also provide a communicative form, building a narrative where verbal communication is hindered. However, the analysis brings attention to several weaknesses in the current AT research: available studies tend to have small sample sizes and few quantitative findings. This review concludes by identifying the need for research which considers the clinical implications of AT in CSA cases for the future.
... From here information is forwarded to or integrated into other brain areas for further processing; (b) perceptual/affective level (P/A): Visual information processing on the P/A level appears to represent functions of the ventral visual stream, with the influence of the affective component of the P/A level representing activity of the anterior insula and the amygdala in the limbic cortex; and (c) cognitive/symbolic level (C/S): The C/S level engages large-scale brain networks (LSBN) involved in processing cognition and adds insights into the cognitive processes operating during art therapy such as the central-executive network, the salience network, and the default-mode network. These levels are integrated through level: (d) creative expression along with the artists' interactions with media and dialogue and with the image itself (Lusebrink, 2004(Lusebrink, , 2010Lusebrink & Hinz, 2020). Similarities between aspects of the ETC and LSBN models along with the fluctuations observed in fMRI and artistic productions might be immature at this time but also inform interventions and research strategies moving forward (Lusebrink & Hinz, 2020). ...
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The uses of mobile brain/body imaging (MoBI) are expanding and allow for more direct study of the neurophysiological signals associated with behavior in psychotherapeutic encounters. Neuroaesthetics is concerned with the cognitive and neural basis of art appreciation and scientific correlations are being made in the field that might help to clarify theories claimed in the creative arts therapies. Yet, most neuroaesthetics studies are confined to the laboratory and do not propose a translation for research methods and clinical applications. The creative arts therapies have a long history of clinical success with various patient populations and will benefit from increased scientific explanation to support intervention strategies. Examining the brain dynamics and motor behaviors that are associated with the higher complex processes involved in artistic expression offers MoBI as a promising instrumentation to move forward in linking ideas from neuroaesthetics to the creative arts therapies. Tracking brain dynamics in association with behavioral change allows for more objective and quantitative physiological monitors to evaluate and together with subjective patient reports provides insight into the psychological mechanisms of change in treatment. We outline a framework that shows how MoBI can be used to study the effectiveness of creative arts therapy interventions motivated by the 4E approach to cognition with a focus on visual art therapy. The article illuminates how a new partnership between the fields of art therapy, neuroscience, and neuroaesthetics might work together within the 4E/MoBI framework in efforts to advance transdisciplinary research for clinical health populations.
... ETC aims to assist clients in creating art with increasing levels of complexity, thereby stimulating diverse brain structures and functions (Lusebrink, 2004(Lusebrink, , 2010. In each protocol you will notice repeating cycles of each level over the course of the ten-week duration to promote flow and facilitate client gains in functioning. ...
... In design, even though there is a significant amount of creativity and creative tools used in their processes, designers often have clear and concrete goals for a user's benefit (Hernández et al., 2018). Instead, artists may be more interested in expressing an idea or communicating a feeling or way of thinking (Lusebrink, 2004). ...
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Creativity can create original solutions, ideas, and new uses for concrete or abstract objects. However, even though professional artists work in the creative industry, they lack the knowledge of how their process works. There is a gap between empirical artistic understanding and scientific research. The artistic community is eager to learn the means of their creative processes. Some studies mention a creative personality concept, but this summarizes artists’ different innovative approaches as only one path. This study aims to find and classify the connection between the creative artistic process’s main paths or way and their personality traits. A "path" is the order of steps visual artists take to create a work of art from scratch to the final output. The main interest of this research is to support artists in analyzing their creative processes. Professional visual artists were contacted by email and were informed about the objectives and steps to follow during the experiment. Participation consisted of 4 sessions over a week. The experiment consisted of two phases. During the first phase, participants answered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Abbreviation. After finishing the first phase, they received topics for developing drawings. The second phase consisted of three iterations of a drawing task and creative process’ analysis using the Creative Flow tool. Participants received the same three randomized word topics and, after a drawing session, explained the steps of their Creative Process using Google Jamboard. After finishing the data analysis, the results showed some trends between personality and the Creative Process. More studies may need to establish this relationship in different contexts or characteristics from the participants’ sample.
... AT is thought to be effective because of its biological and humanistic mechanisms. Biologically, AT can engage participants in several cognitive processes, such as planning, creativity, verbal expression, decision-making, cognitive control, and abstract thinking, which may provoke plasticity in the neural pathways that mediate creative cognition and perceptuomotor integration [18][19][20]. As for the humanistic mechanism, AT is related to person-centered theory [21], and it can offer the opportunity for self-expression, social interaction, and emotional relief in a failure-free environment, which promotes psychosocial wellbeing [22][23][24]. ...
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Background Given the aging population worldwide and the COVID-19 pandemic, which has been found to be associated with a deterioration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) symptoms, investigating methods to prevent or delay cognitive decline in preclinical AD and AD itself is important. The trial described in this protocol aims to evaluate the effects of a staged integral art-based cognitive intervention (SIACI) in older adults with CIs (preclinical AD [SCD or MCI] and mild AD), in order to gather evidence on the effects of SIACI on cognition and psychological/psychosocial health gains and determine the mechanisms. Methods The planned study is a single-center, parallel-arm, randomized controlled trial with allocation concealment and outcome assessor blinding. A total of 88 participants will be randomized to two groups: (i) an intervention group that receives the 16-week, 24-session SIACI program and (ii) a waitlist control group (which will receive the SIACI program after completing the follow-up assessment). Global cognitive function, specific domains of cognition (memory, language, executive function, and visuospatial skills), and other health-related outcomes (quality of life, anxiety, depression, sleep quality, and physical activity level) will be measured at baseline, immediately after the intervention, and at the 6-month follow-up. Blood biomarkers, event-related potential (ERP)-P300, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data will be collected at baseline and immediately after the intervention to explore the mechanisms of SIACI. Discussion The trial will elucidate the immediate and long-term effects of SIACI based on neuropsychological testing and blood biomarkers, and neuroscience involving ERP-P300 and MRI parameters will make it possible to explore the mechanisms of SIACI in older adults with CIs. The results will provide evidence on the effectiveness of an AT-based cognitive intervention, which may delay or even halt cognitive decline in preclinical AD and AD itself. Trial registration ChiCTR, ChiCTR2100044959. Registered 03 April 2021.
... Occasionally reviewing the progression of artwork created in therapy can have an integrative effect through the process of visually and verbally reintegrating images and their previously made connections and /or discovering new connections (Lusebrink, 1990). Throughout her work on the ETC, (Lusebrink, 1991(Lusebrink, , 2004(Lusebrink, , 2010(Lusebrink, , 2016Lusebrink, Mārtinsone, & Dzilna-Šilova, 2013) consistently emphasized the integrative nature of the Creative dimension. Lusebrink (2010) elaborated on the Creative dimension by introducing it as a Creative Transition Area operating between the two components on each level as can be seen in Fig. 1. ...
Article
The Expressive Therapies Continuum (ETC) originally incorporated creativity as the Creative “level.” This denotation as a separate level is a misnomer because creativity can be present at any ETC level. Also, innate distinctive characteristics of the creative process differ from those of the other three levels. The objectives of this article are to help delineate the features of the Creative “level” within the ETC, designate its name as a Creative “dimension” to avoid confusion, and to provide case illustrations to help clarify these concepts. Creative functioning within the ETC model has been described as the integrative and self-actualizing forces within the individual occurring during expressive activities. Creative functioning has been described as comprising moments of self-realization and unique self-expression associated with well-being. These moments share similarities with the concepts of Flow, everyday creativity, small-c creativity, and mini-c creativity; concepts that can further describe creative activity in art therapy.
... In the emotion stimulation step, negative emotions of participants were evoked successfully, which verified the effectiveness of video stimulation to induce target emotions in a short time [2]. In the drawing therapy step, participants' emotions changed from "negative" emotion to "positive" emotion, which meant that art therapy had a positive effect on emotion regulation and recovery [33]. ...
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Self-assessment methods are widely used in art therapy evaluation, but emotional recognition methods using physiological signals’ features are more objectively and accurately. In this study, we proposed an electroencephalogram (EEG)-based art therapy evaluation method that could evaluate the therapeutic effect based on the emotional changes before and after the art therapy. Twelve participants were recruited in a two-step experiment (emotion stimulation step and drawing therapy step), and their EEG signals and self-assessment scores were collected. The self-assessment model (SAM) was used to obtain and label the actual emotional states; the long short-term memory (LSTM) network was used to extract the deep temporal features of EEG to recognize emotions. Further, the classification performances in different sequence lengths, time-window lengths and frequency combinations were compared and analyzed. The results showed that emotion recognition models with LSTM deep temporal features achieved the better classification performances than the state-of-the-art methods with non-temporal features; the classification accuracies in high-frequency bands (α, β, and γ bands) were higher than those in low-frequency bands (δ and θ bands); there was a highest emotion classification accuracy (93.24%) in 10-s sequence length, 2-s time-window length and 5-band frequency combination. Our proposed method could be used for emotion recognition effectively and accurately, and was an objective approach to assist therapists or patients in evaluating the effect of art therapy.
... When we observe the client making a drawing, we understand their state of mind through synthesis; but by conducting art assessments we acquire the same knowledge through analysis in bits and pieces while supporting the validity and reliability of the analysis. On a neurological basis, we can identify that art therapy is recognized as an intervention that facilitates the expression of mind-body connectivity (Achterberg et al., 1994;Hass-Cohen, 2003;Kaplan, 2000;Lusebrink, 2004). Mind-body-based interventions are also characteristic of health psychology, medical arts and sports psychology. ...
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Philosophy, Arts, Therapies: PATh! A path toward a human protective life through Philosophy, Arts and Therapies! An innovative, interdisciplinary and humanistic approach for a life with meaning and freedom. Every paper opens a new path for self-awareness, meaningful communication with significant others, solidarity and creativity as the healthiest approach to human growth. Philosophy as well as the arts contains the potential for humans to exceed the limits of physical existence and transcend self so that man rises above mundane needs to reach elevation. It is when emotional and spiritual transcendence occurs through the innate healing qualities of philosophy and arts that man can become a man. Moreover, the fathers of psychoanalysis, humanistic and existential psychotherapies, i.e. Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Jacques Lacan, to mention a few, supported their theories and practice through philosophical currents and some of them, i.e. Carl Jung, Rollo May etc., derived profound inspiration from the arts.
... visual, auditory, tactile, etc.) [28]. Also, the multi-sensory stimulations created by the colours, shapes, textures, patterns of tone and rhythm, and quality of body movements and gestures, etc. would play an important role in facilitating emotional expression, abstract thinking, and/or personal reflection [29]. Through exploring the relationship between these bodily sensations and one's thoughts and feelings, the person may uncover strengths, gain insight, and reclaim aspects of self-identity and worthiness of life [30]. ...
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Background Stroke causes lasting brain damage that has numerous impacts on the survivor’s physical, psychosocial, and spiritual well-being. Young survivors (< 65 years old) tend to suffer more because of their longer overall survival time. Expressive arts-based intervention is considered a holistic approach for stroke rehabilitation because it allows participants to express their thoughts and emotions through the arts. The group environment also promotes mutual support among participants. The creative art-making process helps expand participants’ creativity and imagination as well as promote a sense of aesthetic appreciation. Previous studies have shown the effectiveness of the arts-based intervention in managing stroke and its psychosocial-spiritual comorbidities. Nevertheless, a systematic study has not been conducted, including in young survivors. This trial plans to investigate the effectiveness of an expressive arts-based intervention on bio-psychosocial-spiritual outcomes in young Chinese stroke survivors. Methods/design A single-blind, two-arm cluster randomised control trial with a waitlist control design will be adopted. One hundred and fifty-four stroke survivors, aged 18–64 years with modified Rankin Scale scores of 1–4, will be screened and randomised to either an expressive arts-based intervention group or a treatment-as-usual waitlist control group. The intervention group will receive a 90-min session once a week for a total of 8 weeks. All participants will be assessed three times: at baseline, 8 weeks, and 8 months after the baseline. Study outcomes include measures of depression and anxiety, perceived stress, perceived social support, hope, spiritual well-being, quality of life, salivary cortisol, blood pressure, and heart rate. Discussion This study is expected to contribute to the current knowledge on the effectiveness of an arts-based intervention on the holistic wellness of young stroke survivors. The findings will help stroke survivors and healthcare professionals make better choices in selecting practices that will yield maximum benefits, satisfaction, adherence, and sustainability. In addition, the examination of the relationships between bio-psychosocial-spiritual variables will help contribute to the development of holistic care for the survivors. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT03729648 . Registered 31 October 2018 - Retrospectively registered, (329 words)
... These AT-associated cognitive gains are likely to be accompanied by experience-dependent neuroplastic changes, especially in the prefrontal cortex (PFC)-a region that was theorized to be heavily involved in AT (Lusebrink, 2004). Although a previous study has identified AT-associated functional changes in the brain, especially in the default mode network (Bolwerk, Mack-Andrick, Lang, Dörfler, & Maihöfner, 2014), the neuroplastic mechanisms of AT remained unstudied thus far. ...
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Objective Previous research on art therapy (AT) in cognitive aging has been lacking. AT can potentially engender significant cognitive gains, due to its rigorous cognitive involvement, making it useful to tackle age-related cognitive decline. Along with these cognitive gains, associated neuroplastic changes are hypothesized to arise from AT as well. The current intervention examined the effects of an AT intervention on cognitive outcomes and cortical thickness (CT) among participants with mild cognitive impairment. Method Participants were assigned to AT ( n = 22) and an active control group ( n = 27). In both, weekly 45-min sessions were carried out across 3 months. Cognitive assessments and structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were carried out at baseline and 3-month follow-up. Whole brain analyses on CT were carried out. Cognitive outcomes were analyzed using hierarchical linear models. Results Significant gains in immediate memory and working memory span were observed in the AT group, relative to the control group. Significantly increased CT in the AT group, relative to controls, was observed in a right middle frontal gyrus (MFG) cluster. Furthermore, CT changes in this cluster were significantly and positively correlated with changes in immediate memory. Conclusion These findings highlighted the role of MFG neuroplasticity in enhancing certain cognitive functions in AT. AT is a neuroplastic intervention capable of engendering significant cognitive gains and associated cortical changes in the context of age-related cognitive decline, even when executed as a low-intensity intervention across 3 months. Given the preliminary nature of these findings, future larger sampled studies are needed.
... Actually, some studies also show that art improves mood of people, decreases stress and anxiety (Petrillo and Winner, 2005;Walsh et al., 2005) and can be relaxing (Argyle and Bolton, 2005). Art also assists communication and collaboration, which in turn declines stress and anxiety (Lusebrink, 2004). The participants' codes and statements can be supported by studies related literature which emphasis that art help to cope with stressful situations (Spanondis, 2003) and those who are engaged in art feel more peaceful and confident about his/her skills during stressful situations (Lazarus, 1999). ...
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Anxiety related to foreign language has been widely held in recent years and associated studies have found a negative correlation between language anxiety and the academic performance of English-speaking students. Whenever foreign language learners express themselves in a second language, there is an anxiety about the image that is communicated through linguistic difficulties. There is a fear that his personal image will be distorted because of grammatical errors and rarefied vocabulary. This study aims to research foreign language anxiety among gifted students who are attending science, math and art classes in Science and Art Centers (BİLSEM). For this purpose, 146 (81 males and 65 female) gifted and talented students aged 12-17 were selected. This study used a mixed (quantitative method and qualitative) thereby applying a Foreign Language Anxiety Scale (for English language) to participants and using semi-structured interview questions with 10 gifted students (5 sciences, 2 arts and 3 from music class). The quantitative data results were compared via SPSS and the qualitative data were examined through descriptive analysis. The study revealed that participants attending art and music classes have far lower foreign language anxiety levels than those attending science classes. This difference between group was statistically meaningful according to SPSS analysis. The qualitative study also supported the results by quantitative studies.
... Brain injuries remain a serious public health concern and leave many individuals with long-lasting disabilities. Attempts to create new, innovative ways of using art therapy to treat and repair disabilities caused by brain injury have been made and show promising results in multiple areas of therapy [15,25,35,46,48] with implications toward using art therapy in neurorehabilitation practices [1,10,[49][50][51]. When using art therapy for motor neurorehabilitation, especially for brain injuries, promoting brain plasticity needs to be considered. ...
Article
Brain injuries can create life-altering challenges and have the potential to leave people with permanent disabilities. Art therapy is a popular method used for treating many of the disabilities that can accompany a brain injury. In a systematic review, an assessment of how art is being used in virtual reality (VR) was conducted, and the feasibility of brain injury patients to participate in virtual art therapy was investigated. Studies included in this review highlight the importance of artistic subject matter, sensory stimulation, and measurable performance outcomes for assessing the effect art therapy has on motor impairment in VR. Although there are limitations to using art therapy in a virtual environment, studies show that it can feasibly be used in virtual reality for neurorehabilitation purposes.
... Similarly, Bolwerk et al. (2014) in a fMRI study with older adults found that engaging in creative visual expression increased the activity in default mode network (DMN). Lusebrink (2004) asserts that art therapy engages multiple brain systems. This sensory and affective activation is essential to therapeutic change such that the PFC involved in conscious cognitive meaning making. ...
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A within-subjects experimental design examined differences in functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) assessment of prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation with two virtual reality (VR) drawing conditions (rote tracing and creative self-expression) with and without a fragrance stimulus. Participants were healthy adults and included 18 women, 6 men: age range = 18–54 years. Findings indicate significant differences such that rote tracing resulted in higher PFC activity than the creative self-expression task. Although there was no significant impact of fragrance on the overall sample, emergent differences in responsiveness to fragrance were seen by age and gender. The study suggests that repetitive tasks like rote tracing can enhance focus and the creative self-expressive tasks can reduce PFC load and induce relaxation and flow.
Article
Individuals who are highly avoidant and/or have dissociative post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) presentations may be less likely to engage in evidence-based trauma treatments, and consequently are more likely to drop out of therapy. These individuals may benefit from approaches that provide alternatives to verbal or cognitive processes to achieve therapeutic outcomes. In recent years, a number of research studies have been undertaken at the UK veterans’ mental health charity Combat Stress to try to understand the role art therapy can take in treating veterans with chronic PTSD. An overview of the findings is presented, along with suggested treatment and ethical guidelines, and recommendations for innovative ways to conduct research on the value of art therapy for veterans. Art therapy is shown to offer promise as a treatment for the overcoming of PTSD-related avoidance symptoms and for increasing self-awareness. Furthermore, the work created in sessions captures snapshots of meaning that veterans can use as a form of communication outside of the art therapy space, as active working documents. In this way, art therapy can assist veterans to understand and communicate their inner experiences, and to engage in trauma therapy.
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Chronic pain is the most common cause of disability worldwide, yet it is not being addressed as an independent public health problem. Whether this is a result of inadequate professional knowledge and tools or lack of awareness among the public, the existing treatment and care models for chronic pain fail to address the problem openly. While not focusing on finding mere answers, this research takes a phenomenological approach to explore the experience of chronic pain as lived by people who are dealing with it on a permanent basis, in order to initially promote an understanding of the condition in its social and personal context as well as investigate the role of expressive arts modalities and collective creation in designing alternative models of integrated therapy.
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Societies rely on first responders to save lives. What happens when the wellbeing of these crisis workers is compromised by daily exposure to crisis and trauma? This chapter describes a developed and tested arts-based intervention aimed at mitigating the trauma response through positive resource reinforcement. Specifically designed to be used in a non-clinical setting, the intervention features the drawing of a mandala capturing images and symbols of safety and was tested to ascertain the efficacy of its ability to increase positive affect, decrease negative affect, and reinforce connections to positive resources in participants.
Article
This pilot study evaluated the feasibility of implementing an attention-training programme for children who have sustained moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in a South African context. We compared the performance on the programme of children with TBI (TBI Intervention Group) to children who had been diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD Intervention Group), a TBI Art group and a TBI No-intervention Group (n=5 in each group) in this preliminary study. Children in the two Intervention Groups participated in the “Pay Attention!” programme for 45 minutes twice a week for 12 weeks. All children were aged 6–8 years and underwent neuropsychological testing pre- and post-intervention. Behavioural data were collected from parents. Children in the ADHD Intervention Group showed individual clinically significant attentional improvements on measures of the Conners’ Continuous Performance Test II using the Reliable Change Index (≥ 2.58 SD). Despite mixed results, the pilot study demonstrates that implementing a cognitive rehabilitation programme in South Africa is feasible and necessary, despite limited infrastructure and access to resources.
Article
Objective Medical students and residents face high rates of burnout. Drawing comics may help trainees process their experiences and feel both valued and connected to those who read their work. In this study, the authors sought to elucidate the predominant emotions and themes conveyed in medical students’ and residents’ comics about stressful situations.Methods In 10 different sessions, medical trainees drew “something stressful in medicine”. Collected comics were analyzed by three coders, who applied emotional adjectives. Differences were resolved through discussion, with one to two final codes per comic. Codes coded based on items objectively seen in the comic and were encouraged not to project what they would feel in that situation.ResultsTwo hundred ninety comics were analyzed by our research group. “Overwhelmed” was the most common final code (101 comics, 34.8%). Other common adjectives used by our coders to describe the comics were “inadequate” (24, 8.2%), “frustrated” (21, 7.2%), and “helpless” (16, 5.5%). Twelve of the comics (4%) were considered non-codable because of difficulty deciphering the theme or print.Conclusions Brief comic exercises allowed medical trainees to convey what it is like to be “stressed out” in medical training—with trainees most often showing that they are/feel “overwhelmed,” “inadequate,” “frustrated,” and “helpless.” This demonstrates that medical students and residents convey these same emotions when reflecting on individual stressful experiences throughout their training. More research on whether graphic medicine for emotional and cognitive processing of stress makes an impact on burnout and satisfaction is warranted.
Article
As individuals age, they face increasing physical and emotional challenges. Older Holocaust survivors may face greater challenges, due to the complex trauma that they experienced throughout their lives. These survivors can at times be resistant to discussing the meaning of their experiences. One type of intervention that can be particularly effective with this population is art therapy. In Israel, in particular, therapists and clients share a unique narrative since the therapists may be second or third generation Holocaust survivors. The present study investigated the art therapy experience for Holocaust survivors in Israel. Five survivors aged 80-90 and their therapists took part in semi-structured interviews examining the different components of art therapy, including the relationship between the therapist and the survivor and the function of the art. The findings suggested that art therapy can have a substantial impact on the survivors’ ability to share and process their stories, often for the first time, thus strengthening the claim that art therapy can assist survivors in finding meaning at the end of life.
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Emotion regulation (ER) is a vital modality for understanding and controlling depression and consists of three major interdependent components: positive and negative affects, the mutuality of emotions and cognition, and the physiological mechanisms of emotions. Studies have noted that art therapy is effective in alleviating depression and stress, promoting emotional openness, and improving general health. Clay art therapy (CAT) has shown significant effects on the reparation and recovery from depression by strengthening ER. Clay as an art medium can induce intense haptic, proprioceptive, and visual sensations that foster ideal cognitive arousal through rhythmic kinesthetic movements to attune inner pleasure and encourage emotional expression. Building upon the expressive therapies continuum (ETC) construct, the CAT model adopts a bottom-up treatment approach by initiating kinesthetic/sensory stimulation and subsequently promoting positive affective and cognitive experiences. The CAT protocol endorses a two-stage intervention design that progressively embeds levels of the ETC model in its activities.
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This chapter will discuss the concerns, diseases, and important psychosocial milestones of later life. It will provide descriptions of diseases commonly encountered in older adult care settings and work with older adults, covering the particular implications for art therapy, including dementia, Parkinson’s, aphasia, stroke, and sensory loss. Beyond specific diagnoses, it introduces the ideas of ageism and ableism, important issues for art therapists to address in clinical work as well as at a systemic level. The aging population has some specific needs with regard to topics that they often explore in therapy, including grief and loss and changes in identity. Art therapy provides a space to delve into these sensitive topics, providing creative enrichment and engagement in later life. Though the diseases of later life are covered, the overall lens takes a strength-based approach, acknowledging the lived reality of struggle while focusing on opportunities for creative growth and exploration.
Article
Background: After a stroke, a person usually experiences physical, psychosocial, and spiritual consequences, causing distortion of holistic well-being. Existing studies using visual art interventions found some benefits to physiological, psychosocial, and/or spiritual well-being of people with stroke, but little is known about holistic well-being. Objectives: This critical review to identify how visual art interventions are delivered to people with stroke on holistic well-being. Methods: Databases were searched up to September 30, 2019, for published studies on "stroke" AND "art*/visual art*," AND "holistic well*being." Results: Ten studies were included. Heterogeneity was found in study characteristics, intervention modalities, outcome measures, and methodology issues or a lack of clarity in theoretical application. Most participants were people with stroke, with only two studies recruited older people with stroke. All studies were conducted in rehabilitation units or communities, and none in residential care settings. One study reported the effects on holistic well-being. The appraised quality of the included studies was variable. Conclusion: Stroke impacts the holistic well-being of a person, but little has been known for older people with stroke. It remains unclear how visual art interventions can be delivered and benefit the holistic well-being of older people with stroke in residential care settings.
Article
Background Few studies have investigated brain responses to different art media. Investigations into brain processes during art making have highlighted important structures. Neuroimaging tools have been used to investigate activation of brain areas whilst artmaking, but not in a therapeutic setting. This review highlights recent advancements in this area and encourages researchers to be the first to apply this in the UK. Aim To understand how the principles of neuroscience are currently informing the literature to explain the effects of art media in art therapy practice. Methods Review of published peer-reviewed research between years 2000 and 2020 on neuroscience and art therapy. Results Findings were summarised into categories discussing psychological/neurobiological issues, art media, neuroimaging technology, and models posited. Forty-six studies were found; majority discussed the structure and function of the brain to explain art therapy processes. The Expressive Therapies Continuum (ETC) model theorised that media properties stimulate different levels of visual and cognitive processing. The novel Mobile Brain/Body Imaging (MoBI) neuroimaging technology may be used as a means of quantifying data. Conclusion Significant progress has been made in attempting to explain brain responses during the art therapy process. However empirical data is needed to prove theoretical models. The use of neuroimaging has started this process to lead research into evidence-based practice. Implications for practice/further research Evidencing the ground-breaking ETC model, using neuroimaging and MoBI technology is needed through close collaboration between transdisciplinary departments. Art therapists should be encouraged to use the ETC to inform art therapy assessment, planning and treatment. Plain-language summary Neuroscience is the study of the brain and its processes, and recently technology has been available to researchers to examine brain processes in detail. This systematic narrative review explores recent literature that uses the principles of neuroscience to investigate the effects of art therapy, with a specific interest in art media. A systematic narrative review is when the findings of the study rely on the use of words to summarise the data. Art media is an important part of art therapy, as it is through artistic expressions that the client communicates their inner troubles. Different art media has been shown to elicit different feelings and behavioural responses in clients. However, research showing brain responses to different art media is limited. This study highlights ways in which further research in this field can take place. Results show that significant advancements have already been made that identify important structures and functions of the brain accessed during art therapy. Important models which incorporate neuroscience principles and theorise the art therapy process are highlighted. A significant model is the Expressive Therapies Continuum. This model explains how the brain processes information when different art media is used. However empirical data is needed to substantiate the theory behind this model. The use of neuroimaging technology is one way to achieve this. Therefore, this paper encourages transdisciplinary research to further investigate the effects different art media has on the brain during the art therapy process.
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic is a global, collective, traumatic experience. Trauma-aware museum educators can play a therapeutic role in helping visitors reengage with life as the world reopens. This article explores the dynamics of what a trauma-aware approach to engaging with art may be, specifically detailing methods that can create new cognitive, emotional, and sensory experiences that contradict the experiences of trauma by replacing them with sensations rooted in agency and connection. Through their experiences working at different museums, the authors outline the main principles of trauma-aware art museum education (T-AAME) as it relates to visitors: orientation (setting a supportive tone); being with one another (regulation, attunement, and responsive pacing); choice and voice; and connection. The article also discusses museum-based art therapy as it compares to art museum education to highlight the overlaps and distinctions between the two and to show that museum experiences can be therapeutic without being therapy.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A phenomenological art therapy approach explores human experience that leashed the clients' physical, sensory, communication, social-emotional and cognitive skills through creative visual art therapy activities. Narrowing down through fieldwork experience, that psychomotor domain, affective domain, and cognitive domain had provided improvement through creative arts. Creative arts applied in visual Art is a particular module that facilitates participant's cognitive, artistic skills and social interaction. Thereby, creativity using imagination and experience creates vibrant visuals through art therapy processes. Also, on the other hand, it has been proven that through data interpretation of coded behaviors, Art therapy activities develop pragmatic visuals that address improvement of behavior modification and cognitive ability. As associated with the previous pilot test conducted through Art therapy sessions, a comprehensive Creative Visual Art therapy module designed using CATATIAN & CATO (Rinashukor, 2015) syllabus catering improvement of the psychomotor domain (behavior), affective domain (Feelings), and cognitive domain (thinking) and particular deficits. CATATIAN & CATO, or the Creative Art Therapy Centre combined with the Creative art Therapy Model, enables the method, approach, and assessment for clients to help develop areas of social-emotional cognitive skills. Therefore, these phenomena study previously conveyed a cooperative improvement in the client's cognitive domain through this creative art therapy model. CATO's (2015) theoretical framework of creative visual art therapy outcome generates the process's aim, assumptions, expectations, and beliefs. However, in line with phenomena influence in the New Normal Education system, this module will be further implemented into a digital environment learning system contributing to groups and surroundings. It occurs to raise their appreciation towards the new value of the medium and materials that projects function. Hence, this module applies technical, practical, and innovative online learning that concentrates on the clients' weekly progress through creative exploration. Cognitive skills development through grand conversion processes will be interpreted further using the Interpretivism, and Post-structural method align with the Digital norm. 2 Therefore, with improved cognitive skills, the client's social-emotional experience will improve their physical and affective domain. On the other hand, this will help develop the understanding of the conversion process through the use of formal elements and principles of design that will contribute to the client's understanding. Meanwhile, this module enables clients to understand creative conversion practice through Art. Nevertheless, this experimental social research provides a revised Epistemic trust assessment approach that has been implemented aligned with the Online learning environment needs. Apart from that, an art therapy workbook and techniques are designed to cater to the client's personals guidelines. This module broadens a combination of Post- Structural method, approach, and assessment development skills to understand the knowledge of Post-modern Creative Art therapy, "Is there a there, there?" which facilitates surrounding and experiences meeting the New Normal education needs. In particular, this research experiments and diverges the quality of idea associations with the New hybrid method of cognitive functioning through Art will promote processual skillful concepts, natural or traditional skills, and self-knowledge experience.
Article
Background: A qualitative systematic review was undertaken to identify the therapeutic impact of arts-based activities as experienced by adults sexually abused in childhood. Methods: Sixteen studies, identified through a systematic search protocol , were included in a thematic synthesis. Quality of studies was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Findings: Arts-based activities were identified as offering a safe space, in which to find a voice, to engage in self-exploration, and to communicate experience and connect with others where a new sense of self and empowerment could emerge. Conclusion: Creative activities can play a significant role in the unique paths to recovery that sexual abuse survivors develop. Limitations to the review derive from the small number of papers, methodological weaknesses of the studies and the variation in focus. More research is needed into impact of specific media, and barriers and enablers to using creative activities as a resource.
Article
Expressive Therapies Continuum (ETC), a model posed by Lusebrink and widely used in arts therapies, stipulates that human being is perceiving the world and processing the information in three modes – motion (kinesthetic-sensory perception), emotion (perceptual-emotional perception) and thought (cognitive-symbolic perception), and that optimally functioning person can freely function in all the modes, can slide between the poles of each of the mode and can integrate the elements from various modes and poles. And vice versa - difficulty or inability to function or being stuck in certain modes, can indicate to malfunction and even psychopathology. If that is the case - purposeful integration of various functions by offering expressive activity promoting utilisation of various functions of the ETC, can promote the optimal functioning. In order to find out the capacity of the three resource-based music therapy activities – 1) receptive music therapy activity, 2) semi-structured musical improvisation, 3) song-writing activity - to stimulate the utilisation of specific levels and polarities of the ETC, participants (n=24 cancer patients participating in the psychosocial rehabilitation programme) were asked to assess the elements of the ETC they applied while executing each of the activities. Results of the study show that during the receptive music therapy activity participants mostly used the affective, symbolic and sensory function, during the song-writing activity the mostly used all ETC functions except for sensory, but musical improvisation provoked application of all the ETC functions, and therefore turned out as ultimate activity, capable of integrating all the modes of perception and information processing.
Book
Full-text available
This book explores whether the mental order corresponds to the order of structures, events, and processes in one part of the neural order, namely, the cerebral cortex. For clarity and simplicity, this means the search for a spatial and temporal order in the cerebral cortex that matches the cognitive order in every respect. A change or difference in the cortical order corresponds to a change or difference in the mental order. The principal aim of this book is to map cognitive networks onto cortical networks. It has implications for cognitive neuroscience, neurophysiology, neurobiology, neuroimaging, neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry, cognitive psychology, and linguistics. The book will also interest students in all the disciplines of neuroscience and can be used as a text or collateral reading in courses on systems neuroscience, behavioral neuroscience, cognitive science, network modeling, physiological psychology, and linguistics.
Article
Full-text available
The Diagnostic Drawing Series (DDS) is unique among art therapy assessments in that it is a standardized evaluation supported by extensive research. The DDS combines art therapy's attention to materials, task, and process with the research methodology of the social sciences. Not predicated on any one model of art therapy or verbal psychotherapy, the DDS has proven to be a versatile resource for clinicians in the decade since its inception. The DDS, its administration, and its usefulness in clinical practice are described in the context of a structural approach which can be taught effectively to students and enhance accountability to clients and colleagues alike.
Article
Full-text available
Visual recognition, navigation, tracking, and imagery are posited to share certain high-level processing subsystems. In the first part of this article, a theory of some of these subsystems is formulated. This theory is developed in light of an analysis of problems that must be solved by the visual system and the constraints on the solutions to these problems; computational, neurological, and behavioral constraints are considered. In the second part, inferences about perceptual subsystems are used to develop a theory of how mental images are generated. Support for this theory is adduced from studies of split-brain patients and a review of relevant neuropsychological findings. In the third part, a computational mechanism is developed to account for how visual function becomes lateralized in the brain; this mechanism is used to predict how the hypothesized processing subsystems become lateralized. In the fourth part, some critical tests of the theory of lateralization of perceptual processing subsystems are reported, and in the fifth part the theory is extended to account for the lateralization of image-transformation subsystems. In the sixth part, the theory is used to account for the almost ubiquitous variability (both between subjects and within subjects) evident in the neuropsychological literature on lateralization. Finally, in the concluding part of the article, the computational-neuropsychological approach is discussed and evaluated.
Article
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Emotion is normally regulated in the human brain by a complex circuit consisting of the orbital frontal cortex, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, and several other interconnected regions. There are both genetic and environmental contributions to the structure and function of this circuitry. We posit that impulsive aggression and violence arise as a consequence of faulty emotion regulation. Indeed, the prefrontal cortex receives a major serotonergic projection, which is dysfunctional in individuals who show impulsive violence. Individuals vulnerable to faulty regulation of negative emotion are at risk for violence and aggression. Research on the neural circuitry of emotion regulation suggests new avenues of intervention for such at-risk populations.
Article
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In humans and many other primates, the visual system plays the major role in object recognition. But objects can also be recognized through haptic exploration, which uses our sense of touch. Nonetheless, it has been argued that the haptic system makes use of 'visual' processing to construct a representation of the object. To investigate possible interactions between the visual and haptic systems, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the effects of cross-modal haptic-to-visual priming on brain activation. Subjects studied three-dimensional novel clay objects either visually or haptically before entering the scanner. During scanning, subjects viewed visually primed, haptically primed, and non-primed objects. They also haptically explored non-primed objects. Visual and haptic exploration of non-primed objects produced significant activation in several brain regions, and produced overlapping activation in the middle occipital area (MO). Viewing visually and haptically primed objects produced more activation than viewing non-primed objects in both area MO and the lateral occipital area (LO). In summary, haptic exploration of novel three-dimensional objects produced activation, not only in somatosensory cortex, but also in areas of the occipital cortex associated with visual processing. Furthermore, previous haptic experience with these objects enhanced activation in visual areas when these same objects were subsequently viewed. Taken together, these results suggest that the object-representation systems of the ventral visual pathway are exploited for haptic object perception.
Article
Images as means of expression have fascinated and spoken to me for a long time. Yet it has been a far-reaching and circuitous journey to syn­ thesize imagery and visual expression in the present form. Early in my life my interest in images expressed itself in art, first as a young child drawing, then responding to works of art and enjoying the life conveyed through colors, forms, and lines that created recognizable images and suggested different moods. The centering, transformative, and spir­ itual aspects of art emerged as I sought out art in times of personal turmoil. I returned to the expressive aspects of art through my training as a painter. Later I discovered in my own art, as well as in others' expressions, as a teacher and an art therapist, that many times we ex­ press more through visual means than we are consciously aware of doing. The writings of art therapy pioneers Naumburg (1950, 1953, 1966) and Ulman (1961, 1965) and Rhyne's (1973) gestalt art therapy provided a framework for my own observations. Workshops and literature on guided imagery opened another door to the inner experience through images. The discovery of Jung's concept of archetypes helped me to integrate images into a mind/body frame bridging from the biological roots of the archetypal images to the spiritual aspects of our existence.
Book
The Wiley Handbook of Art Therapy is a collection of original, internationally diverse essays, that provides unsurpassed breadth and depth of coverage of the subject. The most comprehensive art therapy book in the field, exploring a wide range of themes. A unique collection of the current and innovative clinical, theoretical and research approaches in the field. Cutting-edge in its content, the handbook includes the very latest trends in the subject, and in-depth accounts of the advances in the art therapy arena. Edited by two highly renowned and respected academics in the field, with a stellar list of global contributors, including Judy Rubin, Vija Lusebrink, Selma Ciornai, Maria d' Ella and Jill Westwood. Part of the Wiley Handbooks in Clinical Psychology series.
Chapter
Images are defined as “transient, perceptlike representations that exist in short term memory” (Kosslyn, 1988, p. 319). Visual expression is imagelike representation created in an external medium with its own qualities influencing these representations. Both imagery and visual expression are multileveled and constructed over a period of time, although means of construction differ and so does time required.
Conference Paper
The brain circuitry underlying emotion includes several territories of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate, and related structures. In general, the PFC represents emotion in the absence of immediately present incentives and thus plays a crucial role in the anticipation of the future affective consequences of action, as well as in the persistence of emotion following the offset of an elicitor. The functions of the other structures in this circuit are also considered. Individual differences in this circuitry are reviewed with an emphasis on asymmetry within the PFC and activation of the amygdala as 2 key components of affective style. These individual differences are related to both behavioral and biological variables associated with affective style and emotion regulation. Plasticity in this circuitry and its implications for transforming emotion and cultivating positive affect and resilience are considered.
Article
Art work consisting of fused images and hybrid organisms is representational of the perceptual, conceptual, and psychological confusion resulting from Alzheimer's disease. As this dementing illness progresses to an advanced stage, boundaries become confused and visual symbols merge to form bizarre amalgamations. As the patient regresses in psychological defense against the neuro-perceptual breakdown, unconscious aspects often surface in the drawings. These phenomena are researched in terms of neurological theories of memory and perception, interrelated with Rorschach psychology, Freudian psychology, and the ego psychology of Spitz and Jacobson. The emotional regression as viewed through art productions parallels the physiological regression in the Alzheimer patient.
Article
The Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) is a measurement system for applying numbers to global variables in two-dimensional art (drawing and painting). While it was originally developed for use with the single-picture assessment ("Draw a person picking an apple from a tree" [PPAT]), researchers can also apply many of the 14 scales of the FEATS to other types of drawings. This article discusses how art therapists who are studying other assessments can modify specific FEATS scales for their use.
Article
Before responding to papers in "Special Issue on Art Therapy and Research" (v15 n1), a context, including core principles, was established to generate dialog on research issues in art therapy. Sections are entitled "A Framework,""Inclusive Science,""Consensual Outcomes,""Enlarging the Vision of Research,""Aesthetic Measures," and "Integrating Science and Art." (EMK)
Article
The purpose of this paper is to describe how art therapy can be used with an elderly population experiencing cognitive impairments that range from benign, “mild” confusion to a devastating, progressive dementia such as Alzheimer's disease. The evocative nature of art allows older adults with dementia to become expressive and bypass some of their cognitive deficits. The versatility of artmaking also assists elderly individuals in supporting the level of their cognitive status, and gives the art therapist a flexible method of releasing obscured thinking and feeling processes.
Article
The thesis of this paper is that principles of art and science can be successfully integrated to form a firmer and more socially responsible foundation for art therapy. Recent literature from a variety of research disciplines, the work of a number of art therapists, and the author's training in both art and science aid in developing this thesis. Preliminary guidelines for systematically incorporating a scientific perspective with art therapy are presented, and the important role research plays in constructing a combined knowledge base is emphasized. Finally, some implications for current art therapy practice are discussed, leading to fresh support for the art-as-therapy approach.
Article
The physiology of behavior means, in large part, the role of the nervous system in the control of behavior. Thus, this book begins with the fundamentals of neurophysiology, neurochemistry, neuropharmacology, and neuroanatomy. The second section of the book describes the physiology of perception and movement. The third section of the book deals with species-typical behaviors, which are of special importance to motivation. The fourth section of the book deals with the physiology of learning. The final section of the book describes the anatomy and physiology of human communication and of disorders of thought and mood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Presents a model of anxiety and emotional functioning with a focus on the asymmetrical contributions of the left and right hemispheres to the understanding of the neural implementation of emotions and emotional disorders. Topics discussed include cognition in emotion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
An effective functional architecture facilitates interactions among subsystems that are often used together. Computer simulations showed that differences in receptive field sizes can promote such organization. When input was filtered through relatively small nonoverlapping receptive fields, artificial neural net-works learned to categorize shapes relatively quickly; in contrast, when input was filtered through relatively large overlapping receptive fields, networks learned to encode specific shape exemplars or metric spatial relations relatively quickly. Moreover, when the receptive field sizes were allowed to adapt during learning, networks developed smaller receptive fields when they were trained to categorize shapes or spatial relations, and developed larger receptive fields when they were trained to encode specific exemplars or metric distances. In addition, when pairs of networks were constrained to use input from the same type of receptive fields, networks learned a task faster when they were paired with networks that were trained to perform a compatible type of task. Finally, using a novel modular architecture, networks were not preassigned a task, but rather competed to perform the different tasks. Networks with small nonover-lapping receptive fields tended to win the competition for categorical tasks whereas networks with large overlapping receptive fields tended to win the competition for exemplar/metric tasks.
Article
McGuigan's neuromuscular model of information processing (1978a, 1978b, and 1989) was investigated by electrically recording eye movements (electro-oculograms), covert lip and preferred arm responses (electromyograms), and electroencephalograms. This model predicts that codes are generated as the lips are uniquely activated when processing words beginning with bilabial sounds like "p" or "b," as is the right arm to words like "pencil" that refer to its use. Twelve adult female participants selected for their high imagery ratings were asked to form images to three orally presented linguistic stimuli: the letter "p," the words "pencil" and "pasture," and to a control stimulus, the words "go blank." The following findings were significant beyond the 0.05 level: an increased covert lip response only to the letter "p," increased vertical eye activity to "p" and to the word "pencil," right arm response only to the word "pencil," and a decreased percentage of alpha waves from the right 02 lead only to the word "pasture." Since these covert responses uniquely occurred during specific imagery processes, it is inferred that they are components of neuromuscular circuits that function in accord with the model of information processing tested.
Article
The archetypal test with nine elements (AT9), specifically designed as a tracer of symbolic function, and the psychosomatic questionnaire of Sifneos et al., for assessment of alexithymia, were both proposed within the context of a psychosomatic consultation to 49 hospitalized patients being investigated for physical symptoms representative of psychosomatic problems at large. The AT9 test enables the utilization of G. Durand's theory of the Anthropological Structures of the Imaginary, and was our theoretical support to engage upon an empirical study in the hope of contributing to the debate about the influence of alexithymia on symbolic function. Faced with the AT9 aim of having to create a mythical micro-universe through three tasks: a drawing, a story, and answers to a questionnaire, the patients exhibited different behaviors. 13 of 49 patients were found not to be alexithymic, and their symbolic function was totally comparable to a normal population. The other 36 patients were found to be alexithymic in increasing degrees, and the symbolic function was found to be abnormal in all the protocols studied. The greatest abnormality was seen in patients who scored 7-8 on the alexithymia scale where 12 of the 18 protocols showed no evidence whatsoever of a mythical micro-universe. We suggest that alexithymia does influence the symbolic function and disorganizes it the more one is alexithymic. Also depending on the type of symbolic function put forth, we would like to propose graphic documents to illustrate Freyberger's intuition about a distinction to be made within the alexithymic population between a primary and secondary form.
Article
Reviews research on brain damage, psychiatric disorders, and normal emotion, which has shown the importance of the right hemisphere's holistic and nonverbal conceptualization to emotion. Studies of hemispheric asymmetries in psychiatric patients have suggested the importance of specific and apparently lateralized arousal systems in the brain that support the differential cognitive capacities of the 2 cerebral hemispheres. The operation of these arousal systems seems to vary closely with the individual's affective state. Research on emotional effects of unilateral lesions has suggested that the hemispheres may be specialized not just for the kind of emotion but for its valence, positive or negative. Research issues and methods in this area are still at an early stage of development, yet it seems clear that further research on the lateralization of emotion should reveal how emotional processes are at one level dependent on basic neurophysiological activation processes and at another level intrinsic to the differential forms of conceptualization of the 2 cerebral hemispheres. (3½ p ref)
Article
An intriguing and puzzling consequence of damage to the human brain is selective loss of knowledge about a specific category of objects. One patient may be unable to identify or name living things, whereas another may have selective difficulty identifying man-made objects. To investigate the neural correlates of this remarkable dissociation, we used positron emission tomography to map regions of the normal brain that are associated with naming animals and tools. We found that naming pictures of animals and tools was associated with bilateral activation of the ventral temporal lobes and Broca's area. In addition, naming animals selectively activated the left medial occipital lobe--a region involved in the earliest stages of visual processing. In contrast, naming tools selectively activated a left premotor area also activated by imagined hand movements, and an area in the left middle temporal gyrus also activated by the generation of action words. Thus the brain regions active during object identification are dependent, in part, on the intrinsic properties of the object presented.
Article
The brain circuitry underlying emotion includes several territories of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate, and related structures. In general, the PFC represents emotion in the absence of immediately present incentives and thus plays a crucial role in the anticipation of the future affective consequences of action, as well as in the persistence of emotion following the offset of an elicitor. The functions of the other structures in this circuit are also considered. Individual differences in this circuitry are reviewed, with an emphasis on asymmetries within the PFC and activation of the amygdala as 2 key components of affective style. These individual differences are related to both behavioral and biological variables associated with affective style and emotion regulation. Plasticity in this circuitry and its implications for transforming emotion and cultivating positive affect and resilience are considered.
Frontal and parietotemporal asymmetries in depressive disorders: Behavioral, electrophysiologic, and neuroimaging findings
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The asymmetrical brain
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The adult brain: To think by feeling
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Art, science and art therapy: Repainting the picture
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Encoding shape and spa-tial relations: A simple mechanism for coordinating comple-mentary representations
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The Diagnostic Drawing Series
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Drawings as personal constructs: A study in visual dynamics Personal dramas of transition The fine art of therapy
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Symbolic images in art as therapy
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