ArticlePDF Available

Olympic values education: Evolution of a pedagogy


Abstract and Figures

Guided by the twentieth century hermeneutic idea that application co-determines understanding, this paper explores the conversations between theory and application that evolved during the implementation of three Olympic-related curriculum projects. Each of these projects was informed by specific fields of then-current educational theory, and offered understandings and insights that were applied in the next project. These understandings guided the development of the toolkit for the Olympic Values Education Program (OVEP) of the International Olympic Committee. The author suggests that the collective insights from this ongoing curriculum development process have the potential to provide a theoretical foundation for a pedagogy of Olympic values education. Roland Naul, another Olympic scholar, describes the approach to Olympic education that evolved from this process as a “lifeworld” orientation, in which the Olympic ideals act as a motivation for learning activities in all aspects of life, integrated with active participation in sport and physical activity. Questions that are addressed during the discussions of the various projects include: What current educational theory will best support the flexible delivery of Olympic-related activities in support of school-based learning outcomes? How do children and youth learn positive behaviours and values, and what teaching methodologies support this learning? Do the Olympic values have relevance in cultural contexts other than the ones based on Euro-American traditions? Are they, as the Olympic Movement professes, universal? Are the methodologies proposed for teaching values in Euro-American contexts appropriate in other cultural contexts? How can international Olympic education and fair play initiatives represent global cultural perspectives?
Content may be subject to copyright.
This article was downloaded by: [Deanna Binder]
On: 25 June 2012, At: 14:26
Publisher: Routledge
Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered
office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK
Educational Review
Publication details, including instructions for authors and
subscription information:
Olympic values education: evolution of
a pedagogy
Deanna L. Binder a
a Institute for Olympic Education, University of Alberta,
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Available online: 25 Jun 2012
To cite this article: Deanna L. Binder (2012): Olympic values education: evolution of a pedagogy,
Educational Review, 64:3, 275-302
To link to this article:
Full terms and conditions of use:
This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any
substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing,
systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden.
The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation
that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any
instructions, formulae, and drug doses should be independently verified with primary
sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings,
demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or
indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.
Olympic values education: evolution of a pedagogy
Deanna L. Binder*
Institute for Olympic Education, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Guided by the twentieth century hermeneutic idea that application co-determines
understanding, this paper explores the conversations between theory and
application that evolved during the implementation of three Olympic-related
curriculum projects. Each of these projects was informed by specicelds of
then-current educational theory, and offered understandings and insights that
were applied in the next project. These understandings guided the development
of the toolkit for the Olympic Values Education Program (OVEP) of the Interna-
tional Olympic Committee. The author suggests that the collective insights from
this ongoing curriculum development process have the potential to provide a
theoretical foundation for a pedagogy of Olympic values education. Roland
Naul, another Olympic scholar, describes the approach to Olympic education
that evolved from this process as a lifeworldorientation, in which the Olym-
pic ideals act as a motivation for learning activities in all aspects of life, inte-
grated with active participation in sport and physical activity. Questions that are
addressed during the discussions of the various projects include: What current
educational theory will best support the exible delivery of Olympic-related
activities in support of school-based learning outcomes? How do children and
youth learn positive behaviours and values, and what teaching methodologies
support this learning? Do the Olympic values have relevance in cultural contexts
other than the ones based on Euro-American traditions? Are they, as the Olym-
pic Movement professes, universal? Are the methodologies proposed for teach-
ing values in Euro-American contexts appropriate in other cultural contexts?
How can international Olympic education and fair play initiatives represent glo-
bal cultural perspectives?
Keywords: Olympism; curriculum development; pedagogy; values
Through an exploration of the curriculum development processes of four Olympic
education initiatives for schools, this paper will explore ways that reection on the
development and implementation (practical application) of a curriculum project
offered understandings that guided curriculum development in a subsequent project.
At the beginning of the rst project, Come Together: The Olympics and You (Binder
1986), produced by the Calgary 1988 Olympic Winter Games Organizing Commit-
tee, the only supports for the development of a theoretical orientation for an Olym-
pic education project were 15 years of classroom teaching experience and a room
full of information on the Olympic Games. By the end of the fourth project, Teach-
*Present address: EDI, Educational Design International, #3, 520 Marsett Place, Victoria,
British Columbia, V8Z 7J1, Canada. Email:
Educational Review
Vol. 64, No. 3, August 2012, 275302
ISSN 0013-1911 print/ISSN 1465-3397 online
!2012 Educational Review
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
ing Values: An Olympic Education Toolkit (Binder 2007), produced by the Interna-
tional Olympic Committee (IOC), an approach to Olympic education had evolved
that Naul (2008), in his description of approaches to Olympic education, catego-
rized as a lifeworldorientation. (This concept is discussed further on in the
paper.) The insights and understandings that emerged during these four curriculum
development experiences now seem to offer support for the evolution of a pedagog-
ical model for teaching the Olympic values.
Historically, at the time of the Calgary project the academic literature in curricu-
lum theory focused on cognitive objectives (Bloom 1956), technical aspects of
developing curriculum (Tyler 1949), and featured the writing of curriculum theorists
such as Schwab (1969, 1971), who stressed the role of the curriculum specialist.
The literature on curriculum planning for gifted students in the early 1980s intro-
duced the term curriculum differentiation(Taylor 1984; Walters and Gardner
1984; Tomlinson 1999). Curriculum differentiation then became the organizing prin-
ciple for the Calgary Winter Games educational resources, and is discussed further
on in the paper.
The theoretical orientation for the second project, Fair Play for Kids (Binder
1990) produced by the Government of Canada, was the then-current writings on
moral education by scholars like Kohlberg (1981) and Haan, Aerts, and Cooper
(1985). The third project, Be a Champion in Life (Binder 2000), produced by the
Athens Foundation of Olympic and Sport Education, was an international project,
requiring the curriculum team to address the colonial-era problematics of exporting
Western curriculum traditions, and to question the applicability of the Olympic val-
ues as universal values in multicultural contexts (Smith 1997; Freire 1997; Hober-
man 1995; MacAloon 1978, 1996). Also, at the time of the Athens project,
emerging theory in the eld of moral/ethical education suggested a radical rethink-
ing of the theoretical orientation for a values-based educational resource (Nussbaum
1986; Noddings 1984; Noddings 1988; Greene 1995).
Reconceptualizing Curriculum Studies
In a reconceptualization of what it means to be engaged in curriculum development
and curriculum theory, Madeleine Grumet (1975) notes that an educational experi-
ence transcends the immediate encounter. It is a dialogue between the person, with
all of his/her understandings, prejudices and biases, and the world of his/her experi-
Just as art requires the imposition of subjectivity upon the objective stuff of the world,
and is embodied in that stuff, in its materials, forms and limitations, so education
requires a blending of objectivity with the unique subjectivity of the person, its infu-
sion into the structures and shapes of his psyche. (Grumet 1975, 4)
Reection on the development of a curriculum project, and its application in real
world situations, is then, according to Pinar and Grumet (1976) a necessary part of
the process of understanding curriculum,as compared with the traditionally tech-
nical focus on developing curriculum(Pinar et al. 1995, 6). Understanding curric-
ulum involves an individual in interpretation and reection on education/curriculum
276 D.L. Binder
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
The concepts of understanding, interpretation and reection are informed in this
paper by the work of Hans Georg Gadamer (1989). In Truth and Method Gadamer
explores the philosophical concept of how people come to understand things. Gad-
amer emphasizes that understanding, interpretation and application are all part of
the same process, and suggests that application co-determinesunderstanding
(p. 324). Building on the hermeneutical focus of Gadamers work, Smits (1997,
291) describes application as a moment in the process of understanding where we
can show through practice that we understand better,and goes on to suggest that
there is a responsibility inherent in interpreting words and situations and in creating
meaning, and therefore that understanding, interpretation and application involve
ethical choice and action.
Aoki (1991, 14) also notes that curriculum development essentially belongs to
the world of the practical,and talks about teaching being a process of in-dwelling
between curriculum as plan and curriculum as lived experience. Like Grumet,
Gallagher (1992, 39) suggests educational experience is a conversation between past
understandings and new experiences. It is also a conversation among cultures, edu-
cational traditions and languages taking place at several levels: at the level of con-
ceptualization, at the level of writing and design, and at the level of review and
classroom implementation. Thus curriculum development can be considered a pro-
cess of in-dwelling between curriculum as concept in the minds of its stakeholders
(one of whom is usually a ministry of education), and curriculum as the lived expe-
riences of collaboration, informed at all times by the particulars of practicalappli-
cation by teachers in classrooms. Questions of what and how to teach arise in
concrete situations loaded with concrete particulars of time, place, person, and cir-
cumstance(Schwab 1971, 493). The curriculum specialist, Schwab notes, sits in
the middle of the curriculum development process a process that usually involves
multiple stakeholders. He/she has the responsibility of readying theoryfor practi-
cal use (p. 494). Curriculum development is deliberative; the end or outcome is not
theory but a decision, a selection, a guide to possible action(Schwab 1969, 20).
After an application,the curriculum specialist is in a position to use both objec-
tive (assessment and evaluation) and subjective (reection and interpretation) strate-
gies to modify and extend theoretical concepts. In the discussions in this paper, the
author will reect on how theory related to the concept of Olympic values and the
pedagogy of teaching values was readiedfor use, and how from each project
cycle new theoretical insights evolved.
The curriculum reection for each of the Olympic-related projects discussed in
this paper follows an outline with the following headings: Scenario, Rationale,
Questions, Theoretical background, Application, Understandings, Critique. Since,
as David Smith (1997, 2) suggests, genuine theory always has a geography, that
is, that it always arises out of specic concrete situations formulated by living per-
sons who are attempting to answer or clarify real problems at the heart of their liv-
ing, the discussion of each project will begin with a Scenario and a Rationale.
Scenarios and rationales present the concrete situationsthat are at the heart of
each project.
Hans Georg Gadamers (1989, 299) suggests that understanding begins when
we have a question, that is when something addresses us. Therefore, the
Questions which guided theoretical inquiry prior to curriculum development are
then presented. Questions are a necessary prelude to interpretation and under-
standing says Gadamer (1989, 363) because the path of all knowledgeleads
Educational Review 277
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
through a question. He describes questioning as more a passion than an
action.”“A question,he says, presses itself on us; we can no longer avoid it
and persist in our accustomed opinion(p. 366). For example, the Ben Johnson
scandal during the Seoul Olympic Games pressedon all Canadians questions
about substance abuse in Canadian sport. Since the rationale and stakeholders
for each project were different, a different set of questions guided the theoretical
explorations for each project.
Theoretical background information that addresses the questions and informed
the curriculum development process is then discussed, followed by a summary of
the Application or implementation process. Understandings (meanings, interpreta-
tions, insights) which evolved from the application process are then explored. A
brief Critique concludes the discussion of each project. In the concluding section of
the paper the collective insights from theory and practice in the four Olympic-
related projects are presented as basic understandings for a potential pedagogical
modelfor Olympic values education for schools and youth groups in the global
environment of the Olympic Movement.
This paper explores the evolution of an orientation to Olympic education
described by Naul (2008, 119) as a lifeworld orientation. According to Naul, a
lifeworld orientation is one of four distinct worldwide approaches to Olympic edu-
cation projects for schools:
the knowledge-oriented approach seeks to explain the Olympic idea by
means of its historical and educational legacy(Naul 2008, 118). This
approach, which according to Naul is the most widespread in the world,
focuses on presenting information about the ancient and modern Games, may
include excursions to Olympic sites, and emphasizes names, dates and facts.
the experiential approach employs encounters both inside and outside the
school at games, sports, art and music festivals(Naul 2008, 118). This
approach emphasizes participation by children and youth in school Olympic
festivals and competitions, international school cooperation and communica-
tion, and special emphasis on teaching fair play and cultural understanding.
the physical achievement through effort approach focuses on the idea that
individual and social development occurs through intense efforts to
improve oneself in physical endeavours and through competition with oth-
ers (Gessman 2002; Gessman 2010). Concentrated and systematic physical
practising and training offers a platform for the holistic development of
mind, body and spirit. This approach situates Olympic education in the
physical education curriculum and in extracurricular and interschool sports.
the lifeworld-oriented approach links the Olympic principles to childrens
and young peoples own social experience in sport with their experiences in
other areas of their lives(Naul 2008, 119). This approach interprets the
Olympic ideals as a motivation for learning activities in all aspects of life,
integrated with active participation in sport and physical activity.
An integrated (lifeworld) approach requires curriculum development that applies
Olympic values in different cultural and educational situations and integrates
Olympic concepts and values in a variety of different subject areas. Therefore
the orientation in this paper is on general curriculum theory and ethical/moral
educational research, rather than on sport or physical education-based curriculum
278 D.L. Binder
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
theory. Until recently neither sport pedagogy (in the European context) nor
physical education had well-developed curriculum theory related to learning out-
comes in the affective domain. Recently, Haerens et al. (2011, 330) identied a
number of studies evaluating health-based [physical education] curricula that
have emphasized the need to more explicitly focus on affective learning out-
comes(e.g. McKenzie, Sallis, and Rosengard 2009; Verstraete et al. 2007;
Whitehead and Fox 1983). Furthermore, as Tinning (2008, 419) notes, there has
been virtually no systematic study of pedagogy as a process of coming to
know used within the sub-disciplines of kinesiology such as biomechanics, exer-
cise physiology, sport history and sport sociology, and accordingly, we actually
know very little about the pedagogical work done in those contexts. There still
seems to be a great deal of discussion in the eld of sport about whatneeds
to be taught to help students develop good characters through sport participation,
and very little about howto teach it.
The Projects
Come Together: The Olympics and You Calgary 1988 Olympic Winter Games
Description of the project
The Calgary 1988 Olympic Winter Games educational resources integrated sport
and Olympic information and concepts with learning outcomes in the different sub-
ject areas. Funded by OCO88 (the organizing committee for the Calgary Games),
and supported by a teacher workshop and school outreach program, the resources
were distributed to all elementary schools in the nation in 1987.
Four years before the Games the telephone rang in the ofces of the special pro-
gramme for gifted learners of the Calgary Board of Education. The organizing com-
mittee for the Calgary 1988 Olympic Winter was looking for a curriculum specialist
to develop materials to educate school children about the Winter Games.
The Canadian/Calgary public was uninformed about the history, traditions, and
many of the sports, other than hockey, of the Winter Games. Providing information
and activities through the schools would provide an Olympic experience for chil-
dren and help to increase understanding of the Games.
Target audience
School children in the province of Alberta and Canada
What is the best way to present ancient and modern Olympic Games philoso-
phy, history and traditions to school children?
Educational Review 279
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
What current educational theory is consistent with Alberta Ministry of Educa-
tion policy and will best support the exible delivery of Olympic-related
activities in support of school-based learning outcomes?
Theoretical background
To answer the rst question a review of the literature with respect to the Olympic
Movement revealed that the creation of the IOC and the modern Olympic Games
was intended to further the educational reform ideas of Pierre de Coubertin; these
educational ideas provided a rationale for a school-based programme. De Couber-
tins interest in education was clearly evident in the Aimsthat were drafted for
the original Olympic Charter (1908).
To promote the development of those physical and moral qualities which are
the basis of sport
To educate young people through sport in a spirit of better understanding
between each other and of friendship, thereby helping to build a better and
more peaceful world
To spread the Olympic principles throughout the world, thereby creating inter-
national goodwill
To bring together the athletes of the world in a great four-yearly sports festi-
val, the Olympic Games
These aims, two of which focus on the development of positive values within
the context of participation in sport and physical endeavour, echoed objectives
familiar to educators and the Ministry of Education. However, there were few
Olympic education models to follow. Three manuals distributed in the Los Ange-
les area prior to the Los Angeles 1984 Olympic Games offered examples of the
ways that Olympic Games history, geography, ceremonies, pageantry, torch relays,
cultural and artistic events, venue construction projects, controversies and sport
activities could provide context for inspiring learning activities. This understand-
ing motivated the curriculum specialist to create a curriculum framework that
integrated Olympic and sport-related topics into existing Ministry of Education
curricula. Volunteer teacher committees at all three levels of the Alberta school
system were formed, and invited to use Olympic and sport information as context
for learning activities.
Curriculum differentiation, an approach to pedagogy that in the early 1980s
was being encouraged in special programmes for gifted children, provided a
pedagogical and organizational focus (Taylor 1984; Walters and Gardner 1984;
Tomlinson 1999). Under the heading How to Differentiate the Curriculumin
Fair Play for Kids, Appendix A teachers are advised to: differentiate the con-
tent by offering students choices in terms of topics and resources; differentiate
the process by including cognitive, affective and creative tasks; differentiate for
learning style preferences by taking into consideration learning modalities, per-
sonality and cognitive styles, environmental preferences and preferred instruc-
tional strategies; differentiate the grouping structures; differentiate the products
that demonstrate learning (e.g. reports, posters, mobiles, dramas, essays); and
differentiate the evaluation process (objective, self-assessment, teachers, peer,
process or product).
280 D.L. Binder
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
Curriculum differentiation became a dominant inuence on curriculum theory
after the publication of Howard Gardners work on Multiple Intelligences (Gardner
1993). Tomlinson (1999, 2) explains the concept:
Teachers in differentiated classrooms begin with a clear and solid sense of what con-
stitutes powerful curriculum and engaging instruction. Then they ask what it will
take to modify that instruction so that each learner comes away with understandings
and skills that offer guidance to the next phase of learning.
Since elementary school teachers often organize lessons from different subject areas
into one theme, an elementary school manual was produced that integrated Olympic
and sport-related information with learning activities in ve themes:
The Olympic Spirit: Olympic history, symbols and traditions
Winter and the Olympic World: winter fun in polar nations, studying winter
Olympic nations
The Olympic Winter Sports: How the sports are played and judged
The Olympics Are for People: Being an athlete, a spectator, a coach
Calgary Hosts the Olympics: the city, bidding for an Olympics, organizing the
Games, the Olympic venues
It was also understood that the manual would only be used if it was user-friendly
and provided off-the-shelfmaterials for busy teachers. Therefore each theme
included three kinds of pages: background information pages which presented infor-
mation at an adult reading level (for the teacher and better readers), reading cards
which presented information at the reading level of elementary school students, and
activity pages tagged for relevance to a specic subject area, e.g. mostly reading,
mostly writing, mostly science, mostly physical education. The manual was
intended as a resource rather than a textbook. Teachers were encouraged to pick
and choose and adapt learning activities according to the objectives and needs of
their own programmes.
The curriculum framework for the junior high and senior high school manuals
was based on the understanding that secondary level curriculum is much more sub-
ject-area focused and less inclined to thematic organization. Volunteer committees
in each subject area, e.g. language arts, social studies, science, biology, physics,
mathematics, home economics, created learning activities to teach basic skills from
within their subject area. For example, a grade 12 physics module used the bob-
sleigh run as a context for exploring the concept of centrifugal force.
Materials were in the schools in advance of the Games, which provided lead-time
for workshops and promotion, and allowed teachers to build Olympic themes and
projects into their yearly curriculum planning. The narrative which follows high-
lights an example of how schools applied the curriculum materials.
Silver Springs School, Alberta The school is celebrating the opening ceremonies of
their school-wide Olympic Festival. The walls of every hallway are covered in Olym-
pic-related projects. One wall displays mathematics and science projects related to
Educational Review 281
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
sport, sport medicine and sport technology. Another highlights studies of life in
ancient Greece.
The auditorium is packed with parents and invited guests. The ceremonies begin with
a parade of nations into the stadium.Each class represents a country that they have
been studying and they march behind the ag of their adopted country in outts that
feature aspects of the national dress.
While the Olympic anthem is played, the Olympic ag is hoisted on a agpole. Then
in an emotional moment, a young athlete enters the gym with an Olympic torch a
silver cone lled with red and yellow paper jogs proudly around the auditorium and
lights the Olympic ame. The Olympic spirit is now alive and well in the auditorium
of Silver Springs School!!
These are some of the insights that evolved from reections on this project.
Firstly, in an evaluation carried out by the Canadian Olympic Committee two
years after the Games, 97% of the teacher respondents said that they would use
the materials again, conrming that the materials seemed to be useful in their ex-
ible, off-the-shelf formats. Secondly, the inclusion of the Ministry of Education
and teacher specialists in the development process, thus engaging those who will
ultimately be livingthe curriculum, seemed to establish commitment and credi-
bility. Thirdly, the Ministry of Education approvals process required an assessment
through the lters of the Tolerance and Understanding Committee. These lters
included gender equity, representation of the multiple cultural heritages of the
Canadian people, particularly aboriginal people, and respect and representation of
people with disabilities, assuring a balanced approach in all textual and graphic
components. Finally, workshops, presentations and promotional materials helped
teachers understand the materials, an example of the back and forth conversation,
described by Gadamer, that takes place as people interpret and understand new
information or experiences.
With Ministry of Education involvement, the Calgary project became one of
the rst curriculum endeavours in the nation to be approved for distribution and
support by all 10 provincial and two territorial ministries of education.
educational programmes were developed by Olympic organizing committees in
Lillehammer (Helland 1994) and Sydney (2000). Since the success of these ini-
tiatives by Games organizing committees, every city that is bidding for an
Olympic Games is required to outline its plans for an educational initiative. For
example, the 2016 Gamesbidding cities had to answer the following questions
in the IOCs Candidature Procedures and Questionnaire handbook
about their
plans for an educational initiative:
Describe your concept for the educational programmes for the promotion of
sport and the Olympic values to be set up during the years leading up to and
during the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games.
Describe your plans to promote the practice of sport and a healthy lifestyle
(for example in schools).
282 D.L. Binder
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
It is not an obligation to organize a Youth Camp. However, if you plan a
Youth Camp as part of your educational programme, briey describe your
plans (location, number of participants, etc.) and how the Youth Camp will
be funded.
The rationale for the Calgary 1988 Olympic education program was to inform chil-
dren about the Olympic Games. Feedback from teachers suggested that the learning
activities were relevant. However as a rst effortin school-based Olympic educa-
tion curriculum development the programme had a number of shortcomings. It
lacked a strong orientation to sport and physical activity, which, according to the
aims of the Olympic Charter is the underlying rationale for the Olympic Games
and for the Olympic Movement. Learning activities were mostly classroom-based.
As previously noted, curriculum theory in sport pedagogy and physical education,
particularly with respect to learning outcomes in the affective domain, was underde-
veloped in the 1980s and continues to challenge curriculum specialists in the
Olympic education eld
As an Olympic-related project, Come Together: The Olympics and You drew
criticism from some in the academic community. Critics of the Olympic Move-
ment often argue that the modern Olympic Games, corrupted by corporate agendas
and personal greed, are an unsuitable context for activities in schools. Wamsley
and Heine (1996) go so far as to describe the promotion of the Olympic idea as
ideological inscripting(p. 88). They conclude in a critique of the Calgary
Games that citizens [including children] were educated for a pre-arranged
future, where participation in various aspects of Olympic consumption could be
directly linked to personal experiences and memories of 1988(p. 88). The ideals
of Olympism are also often criticized because they are mostly a composition of
narratives on an Olympic ethos created and celebrated by its adherents(DaCosta
2002, 28) a vaguely worded collection of ideas from nineteenth century human-
ism. Another critique, primarily from European-based sport educators, was that too
little attention was paid in the Calgary educational materials to the theories and
methodologies of Olympism as articulated by Pierre de Coubertin and the inter-
preters of Pierre de Coubertin who followed him (Spanenberger 1994). These
same authors, however, note that the programme had a high implementation quo-
tient, and was well-received by teachers.
Fair Play for Kids: A Handbook of Activities for Teaching Fair Play (1990/1995)
Canadian Commission for Fair Play (Fair Play Canada/Esprit Sportif Canada)
Project description
Fair Play for Kids: A Handbook of Activities for Teaching Fair Play was
distributed by the Government of Canada to every elementary school in the country.
It is a handbook
... to help your students develop and reinforce their ability to become fair players in
life as well as in sport and physical activity. With the activities in this handbook, you
can integrate fair play concepts not only with physical education, life skills classes
Educational Review 283
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
and intramural programs; but also in art, social studies, science, drama and language
arts. (Binder 1992, 1)
Seoul Korea, 24 September 1988 Ben Johnson tests positive for a performance-
enhancing drug and his gold medal for the 100 m Olympic event is revoked.
Following the revelations of the Dubin Inquiry into the drug scandal of 1988 the
Canadian government established an independent, non-prot Canadian Anti-doping
Agency, and invited a group of sport leaders to participate in a Commission for Fair
Play. The Commission agreed to oversee the development of a programme to
encourage the development of fair play values in sport.
Target Audience
Canadian school children 89 to 1112 years old
How do children and youth learn fair play behaviours and values?
What teaching methodologies support this learning?
Theoretical background
The orientation for this review shifted from the traditional scholarly interest in the
whatsand whysof fair play to a pedagogical interest in the hows,that is, to
a focus on how children learn values like fair play, and how teachers can best
enhance this learning. For example, what connections exist between fair play as a
sport concept and fair play as an educational priority? How does fair play relate to
other educational objectives and priorities? What teaching situations and environ-
ments best facilitate the processes of learning fair play? What kinds of activities
seem to be most helpful? What kinds of supplementary reinforcements and rewards
are helpful? Within the context of a multicultural nation, how is fair play interpreted
as a concept within and among different cultural communities? How do children in
these various cultural communities learn fair play? These were some of the supple-
mentary pedagogical questions that raised themselves up(Gadamer 1989) as the
literature was reviewed.
Fair play evolved as a sporting concept from the playing elds of the gentle-
mens schools of England, and was subsequently enshrined by Pierre de Coubertin
in the aims of the Olympic Charter. As previously noted, the concept received
national attention in Canada at the time of the Ben Johnson doping scandal, and
with the growing public concerns about violence in sport, particularly hockey.
Research seemed to support the concern. Bredemeier and Shields (1984, 1986,
1995) and Bredemeier et al. (1988) observed that, rather than helping to build good
character, as many sport enthusiasts maintained, some competitive sports activities
without specic strategies to encourage and promote fair play, seemed to contribute
to an enhanced disposition for cheating and illegal or hurtful, aggressive behaviour.
284 D.L. Binder
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
The dominant theory in values education in North America at the time was
moral development theory an orientation most closely associated with Kohlberg
(1981) and Haan, Aerts, and Cooper (1985). Kohlberg, a psychologist inuenced
by the cognitive development model of Jean Piaget (1975), outlined a hierarchical
development of certain abilities with respect to abstract moral reasoning. The model
emphasizes the cognitive processes involved in moral reasoning, an approach that
has its roots in the principled ethics of Kant (1977) and the ideals of Plato. Moral
development theory postulates stages in the development of ethical/moral judgment
as part of a maturation process. Fair Play for Kids was grounded in this theory,
and includes the following quotes from Hersch, Paolito, and Reimer (1979).
Figuring out what is fair and learning how to cooperate and share are what
interests elementary school youngsters, because they are developing the
capacity to understand that other people see the world differently e.g. coop-
erative problem-solving activities (Hersch, Paolito, and Reimer 1979, 135).
Teachers can help students develop their moral reasoning abilities by providing
experiences which create moral conict exposing children to other higher
modes of thinking than their own. Stimulation of moral development occurs
when children are presented with genuine and difcult moral conicts (Hersch,
Paolito, and Reimer 1979, 138).
Two learning processes that are recommended to help young people riseto
the next level of moral development were highlighted throughout in Fair Play for
Kids. One was identifying and resolving moral conicts. Talk/dialogue seemed to
be a foundational strategy in this process. Therefore, most of the activities in this
programme are accompanied by a Lets Talksection (p. 4). Changing roles and
perspectives was the other favoured teaching strategy. Children at this age tend to
see their world from an egocentric point of view. Games, simulations, role plays
etc. provide them with opportunities to put themselves in someone elses shoes
(p. 4). Table 1, which appeared at the beginning of each theme, summarizes the the-
oretical orientation of the manual.
Table 1. Theoretical orientation of Fair Play for Kids
Principles of fair play
Important fair
play values and
Processes for teaching fair
play values and behaviours
1. Respect the rules. Teamwork and
Recognizing and resolving
ethical dilemmas
2. Respect the ofcials and their
3. Respect your opponent. Playing by the
4. Give everybody an equal chance
to participate. Changing roles and perspectives
5. Maintain your self-control at all
Educational Review 285
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
The fair play handbook was developed with four themes that linked fair
play-oriented learning activities with various curriculum areas:
Fair Play Talk Creative activities that engage learners in discussion and role
plays about fair play and fair play dilemmas.
Fair Play in Action Lots of games and game ideas that reinforce fair play.
Fair Play: Past, Present and Future Focus on fair play issues. Have fun with
a fair play theme.
Fair Play for our World: Health and Environment Focus on fair play
applications in the real world. Create a fair play cross-curriculum with
activities in science, life skills, global studies and multiculturalism.
Teacher committees participated in all stages. The steering committee included
members of the Commission for Fair Play and the Canadian Ministry of Sport. As
for the Calgary programme a national workshop and promotion programme created
awareness and motivated implementation.
Understandings that evolved from research, development and implementation of
Fair Play for Kids included a clear message from the literature that fair play is a
learned behaviour; it does not happen automatically because someone participates
in a sport (Bredemeier and Shields 1995). Several studies support the assumption in
Fair Play for Kids that interventions improve fair play behaviours (Gibbons,
Ebbeck, and Weiss 1995; Vidoni and Ward 2009), and that dialogue is a founda-
tional methodology for teaching values (Noddings 1988).
During the writing and eld-testing phases of the project, two other curriculum
insights evolved. One addressed the concept of cooperation versus competition in
the teaching of physical and sport skills to young people. This seemed to be a con-
tested issue in the sport and physical education literature of the 1980s. A Grade 4
teacher resolved the issue when she noted during a development committee meeting
that, My kids have to learn to cooperate before they can compete effectively.She
went on to suggest that even on the same team young people between the target
ages of eight to 12 needed to learn to cooperate as members of a team. The other
insight was that teachers were impatient with the 10 or 12 pages of moral develop-
ment theory that introduced the handbook. Put the theory at the end of the pro-
gramme,they said. This was an insight that, perhaps, would not please academics,
but which seemed to make the handbook more user-friendly and less intimidating
for the classroom teacher.
Two aspects of application that are frequently absent with respect to interpreting the
success of a programme or understanding its lived incurriculum experiences, are
evaluation and research. With respect to Fair Play for Kids a research study
(Gibbons, Ebbeck, and Weiss 1995) was applied to explore the effects on the
moral development of children in physical education using educational activities
286 D.L. Binder
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
selected from Fair Play for Kids(Gibbons, Ebbeck, and Weiss 1995, 248). The
following results were reported:
Results supported the main hypothesis that implementation of a specially designed
educational programme can effect changes in several facets of moral development
These results support theory and empirical research that enhancing moral growth is
not an automatic consequence of participation in physical activity, but rather that
systematic and organized delivery of theoretically grounded curricula is necessary to
make a difference. (p. 253)
Gibbons, Ebbeck, and Weiss(1995) study used empirical measures to test before
and after responses in the areas of moral judgment, moral reason, moral intention,
and prosocial behaviour. These measures were either based on or correlated closely
with the stages of moral development model developed by Rest (1986). The
researchers note that, although the products of this study (i.e., changes in quantita-
tive scores) were highly visible, the processes by which these changes occurred
were less discernible(Gibbons, Ebbeck, and Weiss 1995, 254).
Within the connes of this research design, teachers were empowered to make the
pedagogical decisions as to where and when to use teaching strategies. This allowed
teachers to judge whether the activities were usable in the realclassroom with real
children. Field research acknowledges and accepts a less controlled experiemental
environment in order to provide this information to practitioners. Thus, as the activi-
ties within Fair Play for Kids were designed for use by teachers in the schools, it was
important to examine their effectiveness within this context. The results of this study
provide social and empirical validity for the utility of the Fair Play for Kids teaching
strategies in real-world situations.
Fair Play for Kids is now dated on theoretical grounds. As the programme was
being released for distribution, the academic eld of values education was in major
transition. Lawrence Walker (1995, 1) writes:
... it has become apparent that this pervasive inuence [Kohlbergs] has imparted a
rather constricted view of moral functioning, which we must now strive to overcome.
This constricted view of moral functioning arose from Kohlbergs a priori and conse-
quently restricted notion of morality (following in the Platonic and Kantian traditions
in moral philosophy which emphasize justice and individualism) and from his impov-
erished description of the moral agent (following in the cognitive-developmental tradi-
tion in developmental psychology and exemplied by his emphasis on the cognitive
abilities used in resolving hypothetical moral dilemmas).
The new orientation to values education that is alluded to by Walker provided the
theoretical orientation for the next Olympic education curriculum project to be ana-
lysed in this paper.
Be a Champion in Life: An International Teachers Resource Manual (2000)
Athens Foundation of Olympic and Sport Education
Description of the project
The development process for Be a Champion in Life involved an international
conference to discuss the creation of a global resource based on the Olympic
values followed by a three-year collaboration among the members of an Interna-
Educational Review 287
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
tional Steering Committee, and the staff of the Athens Foundation for Olympic
and Sport Education (FOSE), a private foundation funded by its president. The
manual featured ve themes; four of them are focused on specic Olympic val-
ues (physical activity, fair play, multiculturalism, and pursuit of excellence); the
fth theme provided the Olympic context (history, traditions, symbols, ceremo-
nies). It was launched at a seminar for 70 global educators symbolically at
the foot of Mount Olympus.
The following journal was a written entry following a meeting of the FOSE Interna-
tional Steering Committee to discuss the FOSE project. It provides an example of
curriculum as the lived experienceof a curriculum specialist (Binder 2002).
A December rain cascades off the roof of the Hotel Grand Chalet in the northern
Athenian suburb of Kifsia. As we conclude the rst International Steering Com-
mittee Meeting, it is decision-making time. I have been asked privately by the Founda-
tion and by the other three members of the International Steering Committee whether I
would consider leading the development of the FOSE teaching resource package. The
President makes a proposal that I come to Athens as a guest of the Foundation for three
months. I have concerns. For our Greek hosts, the ideals of Olympism represent a phi-
losophy of life in which they take great pride of ownership. I have very ambiguous
feelings about the cross-cultural relevance of these ideals. I wonder about their applica-
tion for children in schools and particularly in non-Euro-American cultural contexts.
The difculties experienced in moving forward during the various preliminary con-
ferences and meetings have also highlighted differences in the ways the ofcials of
the Foundation and those from Euro-American traditions organize and work. There
are also different expectations for the contents of the teaching resource package,
based on very different approaches to teaching and curriculum development in our
various educational systems.
Let us then dedicate the second centennial [of the Olympic Movement] to the children,
to the Olympic and Sporting Education Let the Olympic and Sporting messages be
codied and taught since Nursery school, if possible, and let the children of the whole
world receive them.
The President of FOSE has a vision (in Greek, an orama) that an educational
programme focused on the positive values of Olympism, and distributed to all the
schools in the world, would eventually change the behaviours of human society.
It is an unrealistic vision, but he has the resources and the inuence within the
sport system of Greece to bring together people from around the world to try and
make some progress towards his vision.
Target audience
Children 812 year old in the schools of the world
288 D.L. Binder
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
Do the Olympic values have relevance in cultural contexts other than the ones
based on Euro-American traditions? Are they, as the Olympic Movement pro-
fesses, universal?
Are the methodologies proposed for teaching values in Euro-American con-
texts appropriate in other cultural contexts?
How can international Olympic education and fair play initiatives represent
global cultural perspectives?
Theoretical background
A. With respect to the question of universal values and the educational philosophy
of Olympism
In the 1980s the IOC produced a revised version of The Olympic Charter.
Fundamental Principlesreplaced the Aimsof the original charter. The two
Fundamental Principles in the Olympic Charter (IOC 2011) which speak strongly to
an educational mandate are:
Olympism is a philosophy of life, exalting and combining in a balanced
whole the qualities of body, will and mind. Blending sport with culture and
education, Olympism seeks to create a way of life based on the joy of effort,
the educational value of good example and respect for universal fundamental
ethical principles (Fundamental Principle #1).
The goal of Olympism is to place sport at the service of the harmonious
development of man, with a view to promoting a peaceful society concerned
with the preservation of human dignity (Fundamental Principle #2).
The modern Charter also notes that the goal of the Olympic Movement is to
contribute to building a peaceful and better world by educating youth through sport
practised in accordance with Olympism and its values(IOC 2011, 13),and that
the role of the IOC is to encourage and support the promotion of ethics in sport as
well as education of youth through sport and to dedicate its efforts to ensuring that,
in sport, the spirit of fair play prevails and violence is banned(p. 14).Some of the
other values referred to in the Fundamental Principles and in other statements
within the Olympic Charter include:
respect for balance in the human character between aspects of mind and body
an understanding of the joy found in effort
an emphasis on peaceful behaviour
respect for others (here described as preservation of human dignity)
fair play
The Fundamental Principles and subsequent statements also include suggestions for
methodology: educating through sport, blending sport with culture and education,
and setting good examples.
Educational Review 289
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
B. With respect to the question of methodologies for teaching values
The 1980s brought a different orientation to ethical/values education from that of
moral development theory. For the FOSE project the work of four educators exempli-
es this emerging curriculum theory. Carol Gilligan (1982, 14), a psychologist and a
former student of Lawrence Kohlberg, questioned the conclusions that Kohlberg
reached about the moral reasoning of women and girls based on his model of the
hierarchical stages of moral reasoning.She points out that Kohlbergs studies, car-
ried out to develop the levels of moral reasoning model, were based on sample popu-
lations of boys and men. She also notes that Kohlberg, like Freud and Piaget before
him, all observe that somehow girls do not t their models. When women do not con-
form to the standards of psychological expectation, she says, the conclusion has gen-
erally been that something is wrong with the women. She argues that ...
Sensitivity to the needs of others and the assumption of responsibility for taking care
lead women to attend to voices other than their own and to include in their judgment
other points of view. Womens moral weakness, manifest in an apparent diffusion and
confusion of judgment, is thus inseparable from womens moral strength, an overrid-
ing concern with relationships and responsibilities. (Gilligan 1982, 1617)
In Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education, Nel Noddings
(1984), an educational philosopher, proposed an educational philosophy based on
Gilligans ideas of an ethics of care. She suggested that schools should be deliber-
ately redesigned to support caring and caring individuals(p. 182). She describes
four fundamental strategies for nurturing the ethical ideal: dialogue, practice, conr-
mation and modelling.
Philosopher Martha Nussbaum (1986) refers to the drama of ancient Greece to
explore value conicts in human lives. She is clearly uncomfortable with abstract
discussions of moral dilemmas, and emphasizes the importance of emotion.
Our Anglo-American philosophical tradition has tended to assume that the ethical text
should, in the process of inquiry, converse with the intellect alone; it should not make
its appeal to the emotions, feelings, and sensory responses We discover what we
think about events partly by noticing how we feel; our investigation of our emotional
geography is a major part of our search for self-knowledge. (Nussbaum 1986, 1516)
There are two aspects of Nussbaums work that have implications for teaching
Olympic values. She argues in support of an approach to ethics that focuses on the
lived experiences and moral conicts of real people in real situations, as opposed to
intellectual discussions of abstract moral dilemmas. She also emphasizes narrative
drama, poetry, story as important tools for ethical education.
In Releasing the Imagination, Maxine Greene (1995), a curriculum theorist,
picks up the curriculum threads suggested by the theories of scholars such as Gilli-
gan, Noddings and Nussbaum, and stresses the role that imagination plays in learn-
ing strategies that help young people develop positive values and behaviours. It is
imagination,she says, that opens our eyes to worlds beyond our experienceen-
abling us to create, care for others, and envision social change(book jacket). Stim-
ulating the imagination involves active learning and an appeal to the emotions of
students. Greene points out that simply lecturing about basketball will not develop
a basketball player. Somehow teachers and coaches communicate ways of doing
things that allow learners to put into practice in their own way what they are see-
290 D.L. Binder
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
ing, hearing and experiencing. To teach, at least in one dimension, is to provide
persons with the knacks and know-hows they need in order to teach themselves
(Greene 1995, 14). This is a form of inventiveness, a use of imagination.
With its capacity to both make order out of chaos and open experience to the mysteri-
ous and the strange ... [imagination] moves teachers and coaches, students and athletes
to journey where they have never been. (Greene 1995, 23)
Greene celebrates the ne arts as the curriculum place where it is most possible for
children to see themselves and the possibilities of their world in a different way.
Encounters with the arts have a unique power to release imagination. Stories, poems,
dance performances, concerts, paintings, lms, plays all have the potential to provide
remarkable pleasure for those willing to move out toward them and engage with them.
(Greene 1995, 27)
The ideas of Gilligan, Noddings, Nussbaum, Greene and others pointed the Interna-
tional Steering Committee for Be a Champion in Life towards an orientation that
would help young people to explore their emotional as well as their intellectual
responses to ethical issues through narratives, art, music and drama, and that
emphasize care and compassion for others.
C. With respect to the question of cultural difference and complexity
De Coubertins Olympic project was grounded in Euro-Western philosophy, val-
ues and sport traditions, and specically in the idealistic, optimistic ideas of nine-
teenth century humanism. For 300 years these ideas, traditions and values,
including the Euro-American systems of organized sport, were exported to non-
Western cultural lifeworlds. Post-modern educational and sport theorists critique
the educational and sport legacies of colonialism, including their negative impacts
on traditional and indigenous sport. One scholar, for example, refers to Olympism
as an essentialist cultural tradition rooted in Judeo-Christian religion, Roman
law, Greek ideas on politics, philosophy, art and science, and all refracted
through the Renaissance and the Enlightenment(Petrie 1992, 11).
Others suggest, however, that Olympism may be attractive globally to the
over 200 countries that sign the Olympic Charter because it offers a general
framework from within which the nations and regions that organize and partici-
pate in the Olympic Movement can represent their own cultural and ethical tradi-
tions. There are not one Olympic Games, but thousands,says MacAloon
(1996, 76) “… The Games act as an interpretive frame.For example, although
the rituals for an Olympic Games are prescribed by the Olympic Charter, the
opening ceremony in China (2008), with its synchronized thousands of perform-
ers, represented Olympism in a different way from the opening ceremonies in
Athens (2004), with its emphasis on ancient Greek heritage, an example of how
interpretation and understanding are co-determined by application in concrete situ-
ations (Gadamer, 1989).
Educational Review 291
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
The curriculum framework for Be a Champion in Life,
developed during an inter-
national conference, evolved into ve themes:
Body, Mind and Spirit: Inspiring Children to Participate in Physical Activity
Fair Play: The Spirit of Sport in Life and Community
Multiculturalism: Learning to Live With Diversity
In Pursuit of Excellence: Identity, Self-condence and Self-respect
The Olympics Present and Past: Celebrating the Olympic Spirit
The understandings from previous projects were applied in a number of ways. The
project was based on North American principles of learning
which had to be
worded succinctly for international users, many of whom would be in educational
systems that emphasized didactic teaching methodologies. The reader will recognize
the echo of curriculum differentiation, as described earlier, in these principles of
Learning is an active and not a passive activity. Learning processes include
writing activities, discussion or debate, creative activities, e.g. art, drama or
music, and physical movement through activities like sport, dance and physi-
cal education.
People learn in different ways. Some people learn best by reading; some learn
best by listening; some learn best by creating things or moving around.
Learning is both an individual and a cooperative activity. Some people work
best independently. In order to learn and practice cooperation, however, peo-
ple need to work together.
In response to the understanding from the Calgary project that an Olympic
education project should highlight sport and physical activity, the manual opens
with Body, Mind and Spirit: Inspiring Children to Participate in Physical Activity.
Addressing this theme rst conceptually highlighted the foundational idea of
Olympism that young people develop physical, intellectual and moral capabilities
when they challenge themselves in physical endeavour. Moreoever, in response to
the insight that inactivity and obesity are global concerns, the theme highlights
strategies to inspire participation.
In the foreground of concern for the curriculum development of the FOSE man-
ual was the Olympic concept of universal values. Curriculum theorists and critical
pedagogues were not at all sure that there was such a thing as universal values.
In spite of the recognition of these values by all of the countries that participate in
the Olympic Games the Olympic values were still a Eurocentric construction. The
curriculum specialist was also aware that she brought to the project a North Ameri-
can curriculum perspective, a horizon, as Gadamer (1989) refers to it, that was
bounded by North American, Eurocentric prejudices, experiences and convictions.
Gadamer suggests we are continually having to test all our prejudices [and particu-
larly so in cross-cultural collaboration]. Understanding is always the fusion of these
horizons [past and present] …” (1989, 306). Narratives and learning activities in
the manual featured content from other cultural contexts, and learner tasks fre-
quently required learners to explore the traditions and teachings of their own cul-
292 D.L. Binder
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
tures. Would these efforts be enough to fuse some horizonsin this manual, and
make it relevant for other cultural and educational situations?
In order to bring to the project the maximum possible exposure to other hori-
zons, the curriculum specialist arranged for two preliminary reviews of drafts of the
manual. In one a group of reviewers from multiple cultural backgrounds (e.g. Zim-
babwe, China, Tanzania, South Korea, native Canadian) gave the draft a surface
reviewand engaged in discussions on the content and format. The second review
took place in ve classrooms on ve continents (25 classrooms in total): in China,
in Brazil, in Australia, in South Africa and in England. Each classroom teacher
completed a detailed curriculum and classroom practice questionnaire; question-
naires were collected and compiled by the classroom trial coordinator in each coun-
try. These classroom trials provided the understandings with respect to shared
values and cultural difference that were later applied in Teaching Values: An Olym-
pic Education Toolkit, the global Olympic values education manual of the IOC.
In addressing the concerns about the colonialistpractice of exporting educational
and cultural programmes based on Western values and Western cultural practices to
cultures with different worldviews, the concept of transnational spaces,explored
by Noel Gough (2000) was helpful. Gough argues for a conception of transnational
spaceswhere universals could be performed,that is worked out, worked through,
adapted and re-invented within the context of local knowledge traditions. In the class-
room trials of Be a Champion in Life teachers appeared to create transnational
spaces as they selected and re-worked learning activities from within the various
themes, integrating these with local curriculum expectations and community tradi-
tions. Teachers who led the classroom trials in the different regions seemed to con-
nect Olympic values such as fair play and respect for others with ethical concepts
from their own cultural traditions. For example, the South African group, working in
the Xhosa culture of the Western Cape connected the project to their curriculum
strand called Life Orientationand reported that Olympism captures the essence of
the sub-Saharan concept of UBUNTU. The essence of UBUNTU is contained in
aspects of respect, recognition, concern, compassion, forgiveness, empathy, under-
standing, cordiality, sincerity and generosity. It reects a deep-rooted African maxim
that a person can be a person only through other persons(from the comments of the
South African classroom trial coordinator). Olympic educators in China connected
the Chinese concept of (hé) (hé) with the Olympic values. The rst character
represents harmoniousness, peacefulness, gentleness, kindness; the second character
represents wholeness, integration, harmonization, reconciliation.
However, some activities based on Western concepts of the self,and Western
pedagogy related to individual development, goal-setting and self-development in
the theme titled In Pursuit of Excellenceseemed to conict with cultural tradi-
tions in Asia and Africa which emphasize community, unity and solidarity. It was
an insight to come to an understanding that for people from a Buddhist or Hindu
tradition, the selfis an illusion, a concept to be suppressed rather than stimulated.
In Chinese traditional pedagogy, humility is valued above self-condence. Similarly,
in South Africa, teachers were more interested in promoting the individuals respon-
sibility to the community than in exploring an individual students goals and
dreams. Although pursuit of personal excellence in a sporting endeavour seemed to
Educational Review 293
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
be an accepted goal for most educators in the classroom trials, there was tension
between the conicting worldviews with respect to the concept of the self.Non-
Euro-American teachers seemed to be uncomfortable with activities that focused
students on self-awareness and self-development. This tension is most evident in
faith-based traditions, and is a topic that requires further exploration. The following
understandings evolved based on these classroom trials.
Learning activities based on the Olympic values seemed to have relevance in
classrooms in different cultural contexts.
Learning activities based on the principles of active learning seemed to con-
tribute to improved attitudes and behaviour on the playgrounds and in school
Activities that explored emotions and attitudes, stimulated the imagination,
and emphasized caring and compassionate behaviours were highlighted as
favourites by teachers.
The most used activities seemed to be in the fair playand respect for oth-
Sport, physical activity and physical education concepts and learning activities
need expansion and appropriate articulation in Olympic education materials.
Perhaps the concept of physical literacy(Whitehead 2001) and its focus on
developmentally appropriate skills and games offers an improved theoretical
orientation for the physical activity themes of an Olympic education
Be a Champion in Life was symbolically launched at the foot of Mount Olympus.
The president of FOSE, a Greek patriarch of the old school, did not want to publish
the books for sale. Instead, his orama was that the United Nations would require
every teacher in the world to use them. So, although the International Steering
Committee, including a representative from UNESCO and the Greek Ministry of
Education, had formulated a workable plan for distribution and promotion, the plan
was never implemented and the remainder of the one thousand books that were
printed languish in their boxes somewhere in Athens. The project unfortunately
conrmed the reality that without a distribution and promotion plan, the develop-
ment of any supplementary educational resource is probably a waste of time and
money. Unfortunately, neither the International Steering Committee nor the
curriculum specialist was able to convince the president of FOSE of some of these
The Australian and UK classroom trial coordinators highlighted another concern.
The manual lacks learning activities that present issues in sport and the Olympic
Movement, and that encourage young people to be critical thinkers, problem solvers
and reformers. These are important learning outcomes in most Western nations.
However, neither the Greek collaborators on the International Steering Committee,
nor the classroom trial coordinators in some countries, e.g. China, were comfortable
encouraging young people to question the perceived authority of their Olympic and
sport heritage, or the activities (past or present) of those in the Olympic Movement.
This leaves a project such as Be a Champion in Life open to the criticism of schol-
ars in critical pedagogy who suggest that Olympic education initiatives, like other
294 D.L. Binder
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
aspects of the Olympic Movement, are characterized by rationalization and ideali-
zation,and are therefore unable to acknowledge that reality is constantly chang-
ing, knowledge is a social construct and knowledge has social consequences
(Cazoria, Minguet, and Fernandez 2011, 355). The challenge for international cur-
riculum developers, similar to the challenges of international diplomacy, is to be
aware that creating a fusion of horizonssometimes requires a conversation
between ideals and realities, and that curriculum development and its applications
are always carried out within political contexts.
Teaching Values: An Olympic Education Toolkit, 2007, IOC
Description of the project
Teaching Values: An Olympic Education Toolkit is the resource manual of the
Olympic Values Education Programme (OVEP) of the IOC. Its original purpose
was to provide an Olympic education resource for developing nations who do not
have the funding or human resources to develop their own Olympic education mate-
rials. It is based on the same theoretical foundation and organizational strategy as
Be a Champion in Life, but features many of the IOC trade-marked and copyrighted
Olympic materials in its activities that were not available for use in previous
projects. It also makes extensive use of photographs from the archives of the IOC.
It is made available at no charge for OVEP workshops upon request to the IOC,
and is also available online.
Since every discussion of an Olympic education initiative begins with an exploration
of Olympic values, this was also the main topic of discussion among invited special-
ists and IOC department representatives during a 2005 meeting in Lausanne to discuss
the concept of a new Olympic education project. Participants agreed on ve values of
Olympism to be highlighted in the proposed new resource: joy of effort, fair play,
respect for others, pursuit of excellence and balance between body, will and mind. In
the OVEP toolkit these values are referred to as the educational values of Olympism
highlighting their focus on learning processes rather than on nal outcomes.
The IOC website includes the following rationale for the OVEP programme.
As one element of the IOCs global youth strategy, OVEP was intended to be a tool
to maintain young peoples interest in sport, encourage them to participate in sport,
and to practise the Olympic values.
Target audience
Originally the target audience for the OVEP was children aged eight to 12. However,
stakeholders seemed to want older as well as younger children involved in the OVEP,
and specied ages eight to 18 years as the target audience for the manual. For the cur-
riculum specialist this change created major curriculum development challenges. Ele-
mentary school students usually have one teacher for all subject areas; these teachers
often have exibility to use supplementary materials, and are usually skilled at inte-
grating motivational learning activities with their various subject area curricula. Fur-
Educational Review 295
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
thermore, elementary school curricula and culture often puts an emphasis on develop-
ing positive values. Secondary school teachers, however, usually have a focus on sub-
ject-area content, and an eye on examinations; students move from one teacher to
another, and supplementary materials do not easily cross subject area boundaries.
Teaching positive values is rarely acknowledged as a teaching priority within a subject
area. Furthermore, few models were available to offer suggestions for developing val-
ues education material for integration into secondary level curricula.
What shared valuesshould be the focus of the programme?
What curriculum framework would best focus on teaching values while
integrating content and visuals from the rich collection of the IOC?
How can one manual meet the needs of all of the proposed and different tar-
get audiences school students eight to18 years of age and youth in sport
Theoretical background
When the IOC stakeholders of the OVEP agreed to the title Teaching Values: An
Olympic Education Toolkit, the focus of the new IOC Olympic education initiative
was rmly placed on the theory and practice of howto teach the Olympic values.
Theoretically, therefore, the toolkit is also grounded in a lifeworld orientation to
Olympic values education. It links the Olympic principles to childrens and young
peoples own social experience in sport to their experiences in other areas of their
lives(Naul 2008, 119), and interprets the Olympic ideals as a motivation for indi-
vidual learning activities for all students in all aspects of their life, integrated with
personal participation in sport and physical activity. This approach is supported by
the understandings that evolved from the projects that have been discussed previ-
ously, and from current values education theory (Borba 2001; Denison and Avner
2011; Fox 1997; Kirk 2006; Lovat 2006). The Teaching Values toolkit includes the
following sections:
Section 1 Introduction to Olympic Values Education
Section 2 Celebrating the Values through Symbol and Ceremony
Section 3 Sharing the Values through Sport and the Olympic Games
Section 4 The Five Educational Values: Joy of Effort; Fair Play; Respect for Others;
Pursuit of Excellence; Balance between Body, Will and Mind
Section 5 Implementation Tools
The toolkit was launched in 2007 at a workshop in Tanzania. The IOC is currently
offering educational workshops around the world in the pedagogy and practice of
teaching the Olympic values. An understanding of how these various nations repro-
duce Olympic values education for application in their own education and sport sys-
tems is beginning to emerge and could be a relevant topic for further research.
Already it is apparent that implementation of OVEP is most effective when oppor-
tunities are offered for teachers, sport ofcials and youth group leaders to engage
with the toolkit materials and understand their pedagogical orientations. This
296 D.L. Binder
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
observation reinforces similar insights regarding application that emerged from the
other projects discussed in this paper.
The OVEP toolkit has its problems. Since the teaching methodologies are implicit
within the structure and learning activities of the toolkit, individuals without train-
ing in current teaching methods, or who are only familiar with the explicit instruc-
tions of training manuals and curriculum guides nd its complexity difcult. A
comprehensive curriculum revision with greater emphasis on activities for use in
community-based sport situations, and perhaps the provision of a users manual
would address these issues.
The lifeworld orientation of the OVEP toolkit is problematic for Olympic educa-
tion scholars who argue that Olympic education programmes should be centred on
sport and physical activity (Gessman 2002). In this regard, Naul (2008) notes that
the lifeworld orientation draws its inspiration from the more holistic focus of the
Olympic Charter rather than from the effort and eurythmy focus of de Coubertin
(Naul 2008, 123). He suggests that the lifeworld orientation needs thematic and
contextual supplementation from the other three orientations [knowledge-oriented,
experiential and physical achievement through effort](p. 121). Countries such as
Germany and New Zealand (Culpan 2005), have physical education curricula which
comprehensively contextualize curriculum outcomes and activities related to devel-
oping values through sport and physical activity, integrate values ascribed to Olym-
pism, and could provide guidance in this regard. In other countries, however,
physical education is a marginal or non-existent component of school-based curric-
ula, or is focused on the development of skills in a limited number of mainly male-
dominated sports. A lifeworld curriculum orientation provides a more exible and
integrated context for implementation of an Olympic values education initiative,
drawing attention to the positive aspects of joy of effort in sport and physical
activityfrom the perspective of other subject areas or community projects. (See de
Coubertin (1918) on this topic in Muller 2000, p. 549.)
Some anecdotal evaluations from participants in OVEP workshops have been
extremely positive about the active-learning methodologies that have been demon-
strated. Stimulating the imagination can be a powerful motivator in OVEP teacher
and coaching workshops. In Singapore a man became very emotional about his role
as a torch bearer during a simulation of an opening ceremony. A school principal in
Trinidad and Tobago made the following remarks in a nal personal journal entry:
I can honestly tell you that I came here as probably your BIGGEST SKEPTIC (sic). I
am leaving here all eager to read the manual. I cant imagine how excited and proud
pupils will be in a role play situation like this [referring to a simulation of an opening
ceremony] and I make a promise that I will do my best to encourage my fellow teach-
ers to change pupils perceptions about learning in the classroom.
Developing a pedagogical model for Olympic values education
In his discussion of pedagogy, sport pedagogy and kinesiology,Tinning (2008)
refers to the overlap in the academic literature between the use of the words curric-
ulumand pedagogy.He also notes that the term pedagogyis not frequently
used in the educational discourses of the UK, North America, Australia or New
Educational Review 297
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
Zealand. Throughout this paper the terms curriculum theory and curriculum develop-
ment have been consistently used to refer to the processes of developing the theoreti-
cal orientation, conceptual design, content, and implementation/application strategies
for educational resources and programmes. Nevertheless, the concept of pedagogy
has an attraction; it could potentially weave together the threads of the many under-
standings that evolved during the 20 years of curriculum development in the eld of
Olympic education and provide a conceptual model for Olympic values education.
Naul (2008) made an initial effort at creating such a model using the four
approaches to Olympic education described in the introduction to this paper: the
knowledge-oriented approach, that seeks to explain the Olympic idea by means of
its historical and educational legacy(p. 118); the experience-oriented approach
that employs encounters both inside and outside school and games, sport, art and
music (e.g., youth camps) to promote mutual respect(p. 118); the physical
achievement-oriented approach that emphasizes physical achievement, fairness and
mutual respect developed during intensive striving for sporting excellence (p. 119);
and the lifeworld-oriented approach that links the Olympic principles to childrens
and young peoples experiences in sport and in lifeand focuses on values educa-
tion (p. 119). He suggests that the lifeworld orientation, supplemented with knowl-
edge, cultural and sporting experience and the sustained striving for physical
achievement offers a foundation for an integrated didactic approach for Olympic
education(p. 122).
The evolution of the insights described in this paper would support basic under-
standings leading to the development of a pedagogical model for Olympic values
education. Firstly, this writer agrees with Naul that a lifeworld approach, highlight-
ing values education (based on the Olympic Charter) integrated throughout the
school curricula, and supplemented with an emphasis on active and ongoing partici-
pation in sport and physical endeavours, cultural and sport-related experiences, and
knowledge of the Olympic Movement (including its history, traditions and contro-
versies), offers an initial grounding for a pedagogical model of Olympic values edu-
cation. Other basic understandings that could be featured in this model include:
curriculum differentiation as an organizing principle with the needs of the child at
the centre of the process; values education methodologies that highlight dialogue,
role modelling, conrmation, practice, stimulating the imagination through creative
activities, paying attention to emotional responses and the ethic of care; and foreg-
rounding diversity (cultural, gender, ability) in as many ways as possible.
Curriculum development decisions within the context of Olympic values education
are complex. They are based on the assumption of a global set of shared values,
the so-called Olympic values. They involve ethical as well as cognitive content
choices that need to be responsive to cultural differences, religious traditions and
educational systems. These curriculum challenges highlight the need for curriculum
specialists and comprehensive eld-testing. Other applicationsof Olympic values
education that could be investigated for their insights with respect to curriculum
development include the Culture and Education Programme of the rst Youth
Olympic Games in Singapore in 2010, and the various initiatives of national Olym-
pic academies afliated with the International Olympic Academy. The London 2012
Olympic Games Organizing Committee is featuring a comprehensive web-based
298 D.L. Binder
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
educational programme titled Get Set.
A curriculum investigation of the way
that web-based curriculum resources are developed, applied and contribute to under-
standings of pedagogy, curriculum implementation and Olympic values education
would be another valuable research initiative.
Today, every city that is bidding for an Olympic Games is required to outline its
plans for an Olympic education initiative. Theoretically these initiatives should be
based on the shared values of the Olympic Movement. The challenge for all who
believe that sport and physical activity provide a context for learning about life is
to evaluate the results, another topic for future research. De Coubertin seemed to
understand the importance of emotion and imagination as pedagogical tools. He
authorized and encouraged the development of many of the symbols, ceremonies,
music, pageantry and cultural aspects of the Games and of the Olympic Movement.
As MacAloon (1978) notes, these are the places where the values of the Olympic
Movement are enacted. And ever since the rst of the modern Olympic Games, the
world has been inspired every four years with emotional stories of athletic triumph
and disappointment. These stories act as models and as conrmation for future gen-
erations of high achievers. Olympic values education has the potential to help edu-
cators and coaches help their students and their athletes to see the world in a
different way, see each other in a different way, change behaviours so that they act
in a different way, and come to understand and experience the joys of achievement
in physical endeavour (Figure 1). The legacy of Olympic education, particularly at
the elementary and middle school age level could serve as a bridgebetween the
striving for excellence by elite athletes and the reaching for dreams by a young
child jumping over a school bench. What greater legacy could there be?
Figure 1. Do you know how I dream? If your answer is yes, congratulations. You are
playing the most fun sport in the world. In your dreams you can do everything. You can be
the stronger, the faster, and the higher, and even win an Olympic game. If your answer is
no, try it! It is great to dream.(This picture was drawn by a child in Brazil and submitted
to the VISA Olympics of the Imaginationchildrens Olympic art exhibition. It was on
display during the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games.)
Educational Review 299
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
1. Some of this material has appeared previously in unpublished conference proceedings
and presentations.
2. In Canada, education is a provincial responsibility; curriculum for schools is developed
through ministries of education in each province and territory.
3. International Olympic Committee, 2016 Candidature Procedure and Questionnaire, Part
2, Questionnaire, Theme 1: C, Education Q 2.7, p. 67. Online at http://www.olympic.
4. The President of the Foundation of Olympic and Sport Education. 1996. Excerpt from a
speech celebrating the centennial of the Olympic Games. Athens: Unpublished speech, 6
April 1996.
5. The evolution of this project was explored in Binder (2001).
6. British Columbia Ministry of Education. Integrated Resource Packages.
7. A detailed description of the understandings that unfolded after an analysis of the results
of the classroom trials is available in two sources: Binder (2001), Binder (2002).
8. In 2007, the IOC created a new values brand,for the Olympic Movement, after the
completion of the OVEP toolkit. Three values were identied: Excellence, Respect,
Friendship. These values seem to resonate for the elite sport of the Olympic Movement.
They do not work as well for school-based educational materials for children. This is a
topic for further discussion.
9. International Olympic Committee. Education through sport: OVEPsport as a
school of life.Online at
a-school-of-life. Accessed 5 January 2012.
10. London 2012. Get ready to celebrate. Online at
involved/. Accessed 5 January 2012/
Aoki, T. 1991. Inspiriting curriculum and pedagogy. Edmonton, AB: Department of Second-
ary Education, University of Alberta.
Binder, D. 1986. Come together: The Olympics and you (Elementary, Junior High School
and Senior High School Resource Manuals). Calgary: OCO88.
Binder, D. 1992. Fair play for kids: A handbook of activities for teaching fair play (revised
1995). Ottawa: Fair Play Canada.
Binder, D. 2000. Be a champion in life: An international teachers resource manual. Athens:
Foundation for Olympic and Sport Education.
Binder, D. 2007. Teaching values: An Olympic education toolkit. Lausanne: International
Olympic Committee.
Binder, D. 2001. Olympismrevisited as context for global education: Implications for
physical education. Quest 53: 1434.
Binder, D. 2002. Curriculum odyssey: Facilitating an international Olympic education
project. PhD diss., University of Alberta.
Bloom, B., D. Krathwohl, and B. Masia. 1956. Taxonomy of educational objectives: Hand-
book I: Cognitive domain. New York, NY: McKay.
Borba, M. 2001. Building moral intelligence. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Bredemeier, B.J., and D. Shields. 1995. Character development and physical activity.
Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Bredemeier, B.J., B. Cooper, D.L. Shields, and M.R. Weiss. 1988. The relationship of sport
involvement with childrens moral reasoning and aggression tendencies. Journal of Sport
Psychology 8: 30418.
Bredemeier, B.J., and D.L. Shields. 1986. Athletic aggression: An issue of contextual
morality. Sociology of Sport 3: 1528.
Bredemeier, B.J., and D.L. Shields. 1984. Divergence in moral reasoning about sport and
everyday life. Sociology of Sport 1: 34857.
Cazoria, L., J. Minguet, and I. Fernndez. 2011. Rhetoric and power: The idealism and
philosophy of lifeof the Olympic Movement. Quest 63: 35265.
300 D.L. Binder
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
Coubertin, P. 1918. Olympic Letter III. La Gazette de Lausanne, no. 294, October 26, p. 1. In
Müller, N., ed. 2000. Olympism: Selected writings of Pierre de Coubertin, 1863-1937.
Lausanne: International Olympic Committee.
Culpan, I. 2005. Physical education: What is it all about? The muddled puzzle. Unpublished
paper. New Zealand Ministry of Education.
DaCosta, L., ed. 2002. Olympic studies: Current intellectual crossroads. Rio de Janeiro:
University Gama Filho.
Denison, J., and Z. Avner. 2011. Positive coaching: Ethical practices for athlete
development. Quest 6, no. 3: 20927.
Fox, K., ed. 1997. The physical self: From motivation to well-being. Champaign, IL: Human
Freire, P. 1997. Pedagogy of the oppressed. In The curriculum studies reader, ed.
D. Flinders and S. Thornton, 1508. New York: Routledge.
Gadamer, H.G. 1989. Truth and method, second revised edition. New York: The Crossroad
Publishing Corporation.
Gallagher, S. 1992. Hermeneutics and education. Albany, NY: State University of New York
Gardner, H. 1993. Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice. New York: Basic Books.
Gessman, R. 2002. Olympische Erziehung in der Schule. Zentrales und Peripheres.
Sportunterricht 51: 1620.
Gessman, R. 2010. Olympic education, fair play and their practice in schools. Play Fair: The
Ofcial Publication of the European Fair Play Movement Academic Supplement 8: 24.
Gibbons, S., L. Ebbeck, and M. Weiss. 1995. Fair play for kids: Effects on the moral devel-
opment of children in physical education. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 66,
no. 3: 24755.
Gilligan, C. 1982. In a different voice. Psychological theory and womens development.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gough, N. 2000. Locating curriculum studies in the global village. Journal of Curriculum
Studies 32, no. 2: 32942.
Greene, M. 1995. Releasing the imagination: Essays on education, the arts, and social
change. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc.
Grumet, M. 1975. Existential and phenomenological foundations of currere: Self-report in
curriculum inquiry. Unpublished paper presented to the American Association of Educa-
tion Research.
Haan, N., E. Aerts, and B. Cooper. 1985. On moral grounds: The search for a practical
morality. New York: New York University Press.
Haerens, L., D. Kirk, G. Cardon, and I. De Bourdeaudhuij. 2011. Toward the development
of a pedagogical model for health-based physical education. Quest 63: 32138.
Helland, K. 1994. The educational program of the Olympics in Lillehammer: Intentions and
experiences before, during and after the Olympics. Paper presented at the International
Olympic Academy 2nd Joint International Session for Directors of NOAs and Members
and Staff of NOCs and IFs, in Olympia, Greece.
Hersch, R.H., D.P. Paolito, and J. Reimer. 1979. Promoting moral growth: From Piaget to
Kohlberg. New York: Longman.
Hoberman, J. 1995. Toward a theory of Olympic internationalism. Journal of Sport History
22, no. 1: 137.
International Olympic Committee (IOC). 2011. Olympic Charter. Lausanne: IOC.
Kant, I. 1977. Critique of practical reason. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill.
Kirk, D. 2006. Sport education, critical pedagogy, and learning theory: Toward an intrinsic
justication for physical education and youth sport. Quest 58: 25564.
Kohlberg, L. 1981. The philosophy of moral development. San Francisco, CA: Harper &
Lovat, T. 2006. Values education: The missing link in quality teaching. Keynote address at
the National Values Education Forum, May, in Canberra, Australia.
MacAloon, J. 1978. Religious themes and structures in the Olympic Movement and the
Olympic Games. In Philosophy, theology and history of sport and of physical activity,
ed. F. Landry and W. Orban, 1619. Miami, FL: Symposia Specialists.
Educational Review 301
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
MacAloon, J. 1996. Humanism as a political necessity? Reections on the pathos of
anthropological science in Olympic contexts. Quest 48, no. 1: 6781.
McKenzie, T., J. Sallis, and P. Rosengard. 2009. Beyond the stucco tower: Design, develop-
ment, and dissemination of the SPARK physical education programs. Quest 61: 11427.
Müller, N., ed. 2000. Olympism: Selected writings of Pierre de Coubertin, 18631937.
Lausanne: International Olympic Committee.
Naul, R. 2008. Olympic education. Aachen: Meyer & Meyer Verlag.
Noddings, N. 1984. Caring: A feminine approach to ethics and moral education. Berkeley,
CA: University of California Press.
Noddings, N. 1988. An ethic of caring and its implications for instructional arrangement.
American Journal of Education 96, no. 2: 21530.
Nussbaum, M.C. 1986. The fragility of goodness: Luck and ethics in Greek tragedy and
philosophy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Petrie, D. 1992. Screening Europe: Image and identity in contemporary European cinema.
London: British Film Institute.
Piaget, J. 1975. The childs conception of the world. New York, NY: Littleeld.
Pinar, W., and M. Gumet. 1976. Toward a poor curriculum. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
Pinar, W., W. Reynolds, P. Slattery, and P. Taubman. 1995. Understanding curriculum. New
York: Peter Lang.
Rest, J. 1986. Moral development: Advances in research and theory. New York: Praeger.
Schwab, J. 1969. The practical: A language for curriculum. School Review 78, no. 1: 123.
Schwab, J. 1971. The practical: Arts of eclectic. School Review 79: 493542.
Smith, D. 1997. The geography of theory and the pedagogy of place. Journal of Curriculum
Theorizing 13, no. 3: 24.
Smits, H. 1997. Living within the space of practice. Action research inspired by hermeneu-
tics. In Action research as a living practice, ed. T. Carson and D. Sumara, 28197. New
York: Peter Lang.
Spanenberger, M. 1994. Olympische Erziehungsprogramme fuer die Schulen. Ein internatio-
naler Vergleich unter Beruecksichtigung der Lehrziele, didaktischen Konzepte und peadag-
ogischen Wirkung.Unpublished Diplomarbeit (draft), Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet,
Tinning, R. 2008. Pedagogy, sport pedagogy, and the eld of kinesiology. Quest 60: 40524.
Tomlinson, C. 1999. The differentiated classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners.
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Tyler, R. 1949. Basic principles of curriculum and instruction. Chicago, IL: University of
Chicago Press.
Verstraete, S., G. Cardon, D. De Clercq, and I. De Bourdeaudhuij. 2007. Effectiveness of a
2 year health-related physical education intervention in elementary schools. Journal of
Teaching in Physical Education 26: 2034.
Vidoni, C., and P. Ward. 2009. Effects of fair play instruction on student social skills during
a middle school sport education unit. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy 14, no. 3:
Walker, L. 1995. Whither moral psychology? Moral Education Forum 20, no. 1: 18.
Walters, J., and H. Gardner. 1984. The crystallizing experience. Discovering an intellectual
gift. Personal communication.
Wamsley, K., and M. Heine. 1996. Tradition, modernity, and the construction of civic iden-
tity: The Calgary Olympics. Olympika The International Journal of Olympic Studies V:
Whitehead, J., and C. Corbin. 1997. Self-esteem in children and youth: The role of sport
and physical education. In The physical self: From motivation to well-being, ed. K. Fox,
175203. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Whitehead, J., and K. Fox. 1983. Student-centred physical education. Bulletin of Physical
Education 19: 2130.
Whitehead, M. 2001. The concept of physical literacy. European Journal of Physical
Education 6, no. 2: 12738.
302 D.L. Binder
Downloaded by [Deanna Binder] at 14:26 25 June 2012
... The research reviewed four recent studies of renowned Olympic education scholars; whose researches have contributed towards shaping the Olympic Values Education Programmes. To this end, the works of Chatziefstathiou (2012), Binder (2012), Dervent and Yoruç Çotuk (2013) and Šukys and Motiejunaite . ...
... Chatziefstathiou emphasises that Olympic education values reflect on everyday life of young people in schools and communities. • Binder (2012) implementing Olympic values programmes than students in schools without the Olympic values programmes. The above summarised literatures give credence to the importance of Olympic values education in varied context and to both athletes and non-athletes. ...
... programmes and has the aim of promoting Olympic values among young people (IOC, 2020a). Additionally, since 2004, every city bidding to host the Games should plan an Olympic Education Programme as part of the application package (Binder, 2012). In 2005, the IOC created the Olympic Values Education Programme to guide and provide material for individual Education Programmes, which are conducted by National Olympic Committees or Olympic Academies (Binder, 2012). ...
... Additionally, since 2004, every city bidding to host the Games should plan an Olympic Education Programme as part of the application package (Binder, 2012). In 2005, the IOC created the Olympic Values Education Programme to guide and provide material for individual Education Programmes, which are conducted by National Olympic Committees or Olympic Academies (Binder, 2012). Despite the importance of these programmes, they have some limitations. ...
Full-text available
This investigation aims (1) to describe how people associate sport with human values and (2) to analyse the relationship between media involvement with the Olympic Games and those values. Drawing upon the theory of human values [Rokeach, M. (1968). The role of values in public opinion research. Public Opinion Quarterly, 32(4), 547–559.], we tested whether involvement with Rio 2016 and PyeongChang 2018 Olympic Games could affect perceptions of the association between sport and human values. Involvement with Olympic Games was compared to involvement with Paralympic Games. Results indicated the existence of three values of sport (human values associated with sport): (a) equality, (b) social recognition, and (c) friendship. Involvement with Olympic and Paralympic Games have different effects on perceptions of values of sport. Involvement with Paralympic Games positively affected values of equality and social recognition. But involvement with Olympic Games did not affect such values. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
... Gerek yukarıda anlatılan olimpik değerlerin kazandırılmasına yönelik yapılan projelerde gerekse alan yazında yer alan çalışmalarda (Binder, 2012;Šukys ve Majauskienė, 2014) eğitimlerin öncesi ve/veya sonrasında katılımcıların Olimpik Değerler ve Olimpizm ile ilgili bilgilerindeki değişimin işlenmediği ve buna yönelik bir ölçüm aracının kullanılmadığı görülmektedir. Olimpik Değerlerin yaygınlaştırılması için bu alanda yapılan proje ve eğitimlerin artması kadar önemli diğer bir nokta da projelere katılan bireylerin bu konuda ne kadar bilgi sahibi olduklarının belirlenmesidir. ...
Bu araştırmada, ortaokul beşinci sınıf öğrencilerinin olimpik değerler ile ilgili bilgi düzeylerini belirlemeye yönelik test geliştirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmaya İstanbul’da bulunan beş farklı ortaokulda öğrenim gören 176 kız (Xyaş= 11,72, S= 0,83), 144 erkek (Xyaş= 11,50, S= 0,7) olmak üzere 320 öğrenci katılmıştır. Olimpik Değerler Bilgi Testi geliştirme kapsamında 12 kazanıma ilişkin 6 konu bilgisinin ölçülmesi hedeflenmiştir. Bu yönde bir belirtke tablosu ve belirtke tablosunda yer alan kazanım ve konuları ölçmek amacıyla 80 soruluk çoktan seçmeli denemelik test hazırlanmış ve yedi uzmanın görüşüne sunulmuştur. Uzman görüşlerinin uyumluluğu Miles ve Huberman’ın görüş birliği-görüş ayrılığı formülü ile hesaplanmış ve uzmanlar arası uyum % 83,4 olarak bulunmuştur. Hazırlanan 80 soruluk denemelik test formu beden eğitimi ve spor derslerinde öğrencilere uygulanmıştır. Elde edilen verilere dayalı olarak madde analizleri yapılmıştır. Testin güvenirliği Kuder- Richard 20 formülü ile hesaplanmıştır. Analizler sonucunda belirtke tablosunda yer alan her bir kazanımı yoklayan en yüksek madde ayırt edicilik gücüne (> 0,39) ve orta güçlüğe (0,40-0,60) sahip 26 madde nihai test için belirlenmiştir. Olimpik değerler hakkında bilgi düzeyini ölçmek için oluşturulan 26 maddelik bilgi testinin aritmetik ortalaması 15,81, ortalama güçlüğü 0,61 ve testin standart sapması 6,02 olarak hesaplanmıştır. Bilgi testi için hesaplanan KR-20 güvenirlik katsayısı ise 0,87 olarak bulunmuştur. Sonuç olarak, geliştirilen bilgi testinin beşinci sınıf öğrencilerinin olimpik değerler ile ilgili bilgi düzeyini belirlemede geçerli ve güvenilir olduğu bulunmuştur.
... On many occasions (Binder, 2010;2012) we find that it is used as a synonym of good behaviour, playing by the rules. IOC (2017) emphasizes that today, Fair play has a meaning beyond sport and beyond just following the rules. ...
Full-text available
Sport, when practiced fairly, in a social and cultural context, enriches society, and on an individual level, offers the opportunity for self-awareness, expression and fulfilment, personal achievement, social interaction, enjoyment, and good health. However, sport is also facing fresh dangers and challenges from all corners of the globe. This article analyses the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of 5th–6th-grade Lithuanian pupils regarding the Olympic value of Fair play.
... Diferentes investigaciones atestiguan la existencia del deporte como una filosofía de vida, llegando incluso a afirmar que el deporte es el mayor movimiento educativo internacional, siempre que en su contenido se especifiquen tareas concretas dirigidas al desarrollo moral de los estudiantes (Barker, Barker-Ruchti, Rynne & Lee, 2012;Mountakis, 2000;Peneva, 2009;Rey & Rubio, 2012). Otros autores hacen énfasis en la transferencia de los valores que se aprenden en el marco deportivo a la familia o al ámbito docente (Binder, 2012;Gasparini, 2012;Sánchez & Bada, 2012, Sánchez, Marcos, Alonso, González & Chamorro, 2012. Para que todo esto pueda ser efectivo, se necesitan conocer cuáles son las metodologías pedagógicas facilitadoras de transferencias de valores educativos, que benefician este tipo de aprendizaje desde la educación física y el deporte Gómez, 2005;Ruiz & Cabrera, 2004;Whitehead, Telfer & Lambert, 2013). ...
Full-text available
Son muchas las teorías planteadas sobre la educación en valores y la transmisión de estos a través del deporte. No obstante, estas teorías han sido cuestionadas por la falta de evidencia en la metodología y en la identificación de variables que influyen en el desarrollo de los valores. Este estudio tiene como objetivo plantear el protocolo de intervención educativa del Programa Delfos para la educación en valores a través de actividades físico-deportivas en jóvenes escolares, y la evaluación del autocontrol a través del cuestionario de autocontrol infantil y adolescente (CACIA). Los resultados ayudarán a evaluar, si el programa de intervención Delfos es apropiado para el desarrollo de valores en el alumnado allá donde se aplique la investigación. Esta investigación pretende dotar al docente de herramientas para el desarrollo real de su alumnado en materia de valores a través de actividades físico-deportivas. Así mismo, el presente trabajo busca crear una metodología que permita transferir los valores educativos que se obtienen en las clases de educación física a la familia y la sociedad. Abstract. There are many theories raised about education in values and the transmission of these through sport. However, these theories have been questioned by the lack of evidence in the methodology and in the identification of variables that influence the development of values. This study aims to propose the educational intervention protocol of the Delphi Program for education in values through physical-sports activities in young schoolchildren, and the evaluation of self-control through the child and adolescent self-control questionnaire (CACIA). The results will help to evaluate whether the Delphi intervention program is appropriate for the development of values in students wherever the research is applied. This research aims to provide the teacher with tools for the real development of their students in terms of values through physical-sports activities. Likewise, the present work seeks to create a methodology that allows to transfer the educational values obtained in physical education classes to the family and society.
... Olympic Education is thought to help educators and coaches to ensure that children and athletes see the world and each other differently, understand and put in effort for success. (Binder, 2012). It is an interdisciplinary field aiming towards the multi-faceted development of human beings and it also provides the values we need by using sports and Olympics as a symbol. ...
... These efforts confirm that physical activity and sport are a field for the transference of values and attitudes through participation to other areas of education and academics. Conflict resolution in many cases, far from being a difficulty, serves as a tool for mediation in the benefit of student learning for later life (Binder, 2012;Sánchez & Bada, 2012) -Ferrando, 1990). To counter these attitudes, authors such as Nicholl (1984), Dweck (1986), Duda (1992) or Roberts (1992) propose the cognitive-social "Goal Perspectives Theory". ...
Full-text available
Cambios físicos, psicológicos y sociales se experimenta en la etapa adolescente, algunos de estos cambios se muestran en la búsqueda de la identidad personal y la autonomía, mayor intimidad con los pares, alejamiento del vínculo parental-familiar, y desarrollo tanto de la sexualidad como el desarrollo cognitivo. A todo lo anterior, hay que considerar que, el adolescente se encuentra en una etapa psicoevolutiva donde urge propiciar espacios para la Integración Social. Con el fin de dar respuesta a estos cambios, se crea la Sesión Dialógica de Educación Física (SDEF) que es una metodología didáctica que tiene como objetivo modificar comportamientos y actitudes en adolescentes en riesgo de exclusión social. Esta sesión se divide en cinco partes: (1.) Planteamiento de los objetivos de la sesión; (2.) Activación; (3.) Confrontación; (4.) Reflexión y Debate; (5.) Transferencia a otros ámbitos de la vida y la sociedad. Existe muy poca evidencia científica que aborde el tema de la Integración Social y la Educación Física, menos aún, si realizamos una búsqueda de la utilización de Sesiones Dialógica de Educación Física para la inclusión de menores en riesgo. Por tanto, se coloca este ámbito como un elemento de investigación de referencia, para facilitar la formación de la integración social en sectores vulnerables como son los adolescentes.
... This means that the teachers increased their awareness regarding Olympic Games as a way to contribute to their human development (Coleman 1988). As noted by Binder (2012) and Griffiths and Armour (2013), the Olympic Games are a reference for creating social capital among teachers and youngsters who attend Olympic education programs. At that point, the social connections experienced via working groups, videos, and e-learning courses may have leveraged the bonding and social capital formation among teachers. ...
Full-text available
Hosting the Olympics is subject to socio-educational outcomes, which can represent intangible and peripheral assets for host communities. The current study explores the Games’ intangible legacy on teachers’ attitudes at different points in time. Data were collected among teachers who attended the Rio 2016 Education Program at three different stages: 2016 (n = 611), 2017 (n = 451), and 2020 (n = 286). A longitudinal trend study was designed using multivariate analysis of variance MANOVA tests and latent growth modelling. Results show that the teachers’ perceptions of Olympic knowledge had a significant growth rate, while skills development and network/social exchange do not show significant changes over the time periods. Longitudinal findings suggest the continuity of the Olympic education programs as the basis for strengthening the Olympic intellect and social capital formation.
Full-text available
O Programa Transforma foi o Programa Oficial de Educação Olímpica e Paralímpica Rio 2016 com o objetivo de ensinar valores, promover ideais e contribuir para o desenvolvimento humano. O presente estudo examina seu legado educacional explorando o desenvolvimento de habilidades pessoais, a formação olímpica e a partilha de experiência entre os professores em diferentes momentos. Um estudo de tendência longitudinal foi desenhado e as relações entre as variáveis foram estimadas usando análise multivariada de testes de variância e modelos de crescimento latente. Os dados foram recolhidos entre professores que frequentaram o Programa Transforma em 3 fases distintas: 2016 (n = 611), 2017 (n = 451) e 2020 (n = 286). Os resultados mostram que as percepções dos professores sobre a formação olímpica tiveram uma taxa de crescimento significativa, enquanto o desenvolvimento de habilidades e as experiências não apresentam mudanças significativas ao longo dos períodos. Os resultados longitudinais sugerem a continuidade dos programas de educação olímpica como base para o fortalecimento do intelecto olímpico e da formação de capital social. Quando esses programas estão inseridos em práticas pedagógicas contínuas, a formação Olímpica pode ocorrer ao longo do tempo, levando a um legado educacional positivo.
The 2020 Tokyo Olympics and Paralympics Games referred to as “Recovery Olympics” are supposed to encourage in recovery of the Tohoku regions affected by the 3.11 Great East Japan Earthquake. Tsukuba International Academy for Sport Studies established in 2015 as part of SPORT FOR TOMORROW initiative under Japan Sports Agency has since been holding Olympic education program every year at Rikuzentakata City, one of the disaster-affected areas. However, few studies have examined the contents of Olympic (or Paralympic) education in these areas. Therefore, this study shares knowledge through practice of Olympic education in a high school with an aim to suggest better practice in the area for its continuation post-2020. In 2019, an Olympic education class for 120 high school students was conducted followed by an open-ended questionnaire survey to the students. Questions consisted of: i) impressions of the class, ii) image of Tokyo 2020 Games, iii) current self-challenges and regional issues, and iv) how to use the Olympics. Text mining the obtained data revealed that respondents had a positive image of the Tokyo 2020 Games. Self-challenges and regional issues associated with reconstruction were clarified in answers to the survey, where some respondents revealed their future designs to contribute towards the development of local community. Some respondents also connected the class learning contents to providing solutions for local issues. Overall, the findings as discussed in this study were considered as useful knowledge for future practical Olympic education.
Full-text available
Back in 1967, Dr. Wildor Hollmann, one of Germany's most prominent sports physicians and longtime president of the International Federation for Sports Medicine (FIMS), was visiting the International Olympic Academy at Olympia on the day of its annual inauguration, with King Constantine him-self in attendance. Naively assuming that the Academy was an open forum for thinking about the past, present, and future of the Olympic movement, Dr. Hollmann expressed the view that, in the not-too-distant future. the "Olympic idea" itself would inevitably fall victim to the logic of development inherent in the professionalization and commercialization of elite sport. The words were hardly out of his mouth before Dr. Hollmann was engulfed in a storm of indignation, during which an Italian member of the IOC declared that merely expressing such thoughts was in his view nothing less than a desecration of this holy site. 1 Olympic historiography has long been inseparable from the Movement's status as a redemptive and inspirational internationalism. Like so many read-ings of its founder, Pierre de Coubertin (1863-1937), historical interpreta-tions of the Olympic movement have generally taken the form of "either hagiographies or hagiolatries," and not least because the founder himself "proclaimed Olympism beyond ideology." 2 Historical treatments of the Movement since the launching of that provocative claim have thus had no 1. W[ildor] Hollmann, "Risikofaktoren in der Entwicklung des Hochleistungssports.
The relationships between sport involvement variables (participation and interest) and facets of children's morality (reasoning maturity and aggression tendencies) were investigated for 106 girls and boys in grades 4 through 7. Children responded to a sport involvement questionnaire, participated in a moral interview, and completed two self-report instruments designed to assess aggression tendencies in sport-specific and daily life contexts. Analyses revealed that boys' participation and interest in high contact sports and girls' participation in medium contact sports (the highest level of contact sport experience they reported) were positively correlated with less mature moral reasoning and greater tendencies to aggress. Regression analyses demonstrated that sport interest predicted reasoning maturity and aggression tendencies better than sport participation. Results and implications are discussed from a structural developmental perspective.
The study aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 2-year health-related physical education intervention in a pretest-posttest design. Sixteen elementary schools (764 pupils, mean age: 11.2 ± 0.7) participated in the study. Schools were randomly assigned to the intervention condition (n = 8) and the control condition (n = 8). Making use of direct observation data gathered according to SOFIT (System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time), the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity engagement during physical education classes was significantly higher in the intervention condition than in the control condition. Children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity engagement during physical education lessons increased with 14% in the intervention condition (from 42 to 56%). No significant effects were found on the accelerometer data. The health-related physical education intervention was found to be promising in promoting physical activity during physical education classes.
The observation that sport represents a unique context has been widely discussed, but social scientists have done little to empirically examine the moral adaptations of sport participants. In the present study, the divergence between levels of moral reasoning used to discuss hypothetical dilemmas set in sport and in everyday life contexts was investigated among 120 high school and collegiate basketball players, swimmers, and nonathletes. Protocols were scored according to Haan’s interactional model of moral development. It was found that levels of moral reasoning used to discuss sport dilemmas were lower than levels characterizing reasoning about issues within an everyday life context. Findings were discussed in terms of the specific social and moral context of sport experience.
The designation of an act as aggressive involves an implicit or explicit moral judgment. Consequently, research on aggression must address the value issues involved. The present article suggests that Haan’s theory of interactional morality can be used to provide a framework for social scientific research into moral issues. Haan’s model, however, must be adapted to the unique context of sport. This study applies the concept of frame analysis as a procedure for clarifying the moral reasoning associated with athletic aggression. In contrast to similar acts in everyday life, moral ambiguity characterizes some sport acts intended to deliver minor noxious stimuli. The label of aggression must be used with caution when designating such acts.